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A Seminar Report On

Guided By : Mrs. Ketki Joshi Electronics

Prepared By :
Brijal B. Shah

B.E. IV Roll No. : 54


DEPARTMENT OF E E!TRON"!S ENG"NEER"NG# SAR$A%AN"& !O EGE OF ENG"NEER"NG ' TE!(NO OG)# S*RAT

corDECT

A Seminar Report on !orDE!T Te+hnolo,y


Prepared -y : Shah Bri al B. Roll No. !la.. )ear Guided -y : 54 : B.E.IV !Electronics En"ineerin"# $th Se%ester : &''4-&''5 : Mrs. Ketki Joshi

Department o/ Ele+troni+. En,ineerin,. Sar(a anik Colle"e o) En"ineerin" * Technolo"+ Dr R.K. Desai Roa,& .re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

0th1alines- S2rat - 345''5In,ia.


A!&NO0 EDGEMENT
I 1o2l, like to take this o//ort2nit+ to thank %+ "2i,e Mrs. Ketki Joshi )or her (al2a6le a,(ice an, "reat s2//ort 1itho2t 1hich it 1o2l, not ha(e 6een /ossi6le )or %e to co%/lete this re/ort. I 1o2l, also like to thank Mr. Meh2l Ra1al an, Ms. Nehal Shah )or "i(in" this o//ort2nit+ o) se%inar /resentation. I 1o2l, also like to thank Mr. Di"(i a+ Ratho, )or "i(in" "2i,eline relate, to o2r se%inar. I 1o2l, also like to thank the entire Electronics De/art%ent- )ac2lt+ an, sta)) )or hel/in" %e in e(er+ /ossi6le %anner. 7ast 62t not the least8 I 1o2l, like to e9/ress %+ ,ee/ "ratit2,e to all %+ )rien,s an, collea"2es 1ho ,irectl+ or in,irectl+ hel/e, %e in /re/arin" this re/ort.

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

A-.tra+t
Internet to,a+ is not 2st another %eans o) co%%2nication. Those 1ho 2se internet kno1 that internet is /o1er. It "i(es a 2ser not onl+ all kin,s o) in)or%ation- 62t also ena6les hi%:her to ,o thin"s one co2l, not e(en ,rea% o) till recentl+. B2t at the sa%e ti%e- lack o) internet access 1o2l, /2t a /erson at a tre%en,o2s ,isa,(anta"e. There)ore- 2nless ste/s are taken to /ro(i,e teleco% an, internet access 1i,el+ an, cost e))ecti(el+ one 1o2l, )ace accent2ation. So intro,2cin" a ,i"ital enhance, cor,less teleco%%2nication 6ase, !DECT# 1ireless local loo/ !;77# s+ste% calle, CorDECT. CorDECT is In,ia<s (er+ o1n 1ireless local loo/ technolo"+. It /ro(i,es cost e))ecti(e- si%2ltaneo2s hi"h =2alit+ (oice an, ,ata connecti(it+. The CorDECT technolo"+ can /ro(i,e internet access to the s26scri6er thro2"h the sa%e tele/hone line 1ith >' k6/s s/ee, 1itho2t the ai, o) a %o,e% an, the s26scri6er can 2se the tele/hone an, s2r) on the net si%2ltaneo2sl+.

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

"NDE1
5. Intro,2ction???????????????????????..5 &. ;ireless 0ccess Net1ork??????????????????& 3. corDECT ;ireless 0ccess S+ste%???????????????@ 4. S26-s+ste%s o) corDECT ;ireless 0ccess S+ste%????????..4 5. AB; corDECT ;BRKS?????????????????...54 @. S2/eriorit+ o) corDECT ;77 o(er other ;77 s+ste%??????5@ >. Merits 0n, De%erits B) Cor,ect ;ll S+ste%??????????5$ $. DECT: So%e Salient Ceat2res????????????????.54 4. 0//lication o) CorDECT ;77 ???????????????..&5 Concl2sion???????????????????????...&& Bi6lio"ra/h+???????????????????????&3

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

"NDE1 FOR F"G*RE AND TAB E


Fi,ure &.5 &.& &.3 3.5 3.& 3.3 4.5 4.& 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.@ 4.> 5.5 $.5 Ta-le @.5 @.& @.3 >.5 CorDECT 1ith %acro cell2lar?????????????5@ CorDECT 1ith CDM0???????????????...5> CorDECT 1ith .AS????????????????...5> ;orkin" ran"e???????????????????5$ 0ccess net1ork in 4'<s????????????????.& Internet access 2sin" tele/hone net1ork?????????..3 0C se/arates (oice an, internet ,ata??????????....4 Conce/t2al access s+ste%???????????????.@ CorDECT ;77???????????????????> CBS re%ote, to DID thro2"h BSD???????????..$ ;allset-I.?????????????????????.4 M2lti1allset????????????????????..4 Co%/act 6ase station????????????????..5' DID 1ith in 62ilt R0S????????????????55 IKBN R0S????????????????????.5& Base station ,istri62tor???????????????...5& Rela+ 6ase station?????????????????...53 CorDECT inter)ace 2nit???????????????.54 Cra%e str2ct2re??????????????????...54

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

!hapter 2: "ntrodu+tion
CorDECT is a state-o)-the-art 1ireless access s+ste% that 2ses the ETSI DECT air inter)ace 1ith e9tensions )or 1ireless in local loo/ ser(ice to ,eli(er toll-=2alit+ (oice an, ,ata si%2ltaneo2sl+ on a /er 2ser 6asis. CorDECT ;77 is a state o) art 1ireless access s+ste% ,e(elo/e, in,i"eno2sl+ 6+ the oint e))orts o) IIT- Ma,ras an, Mi,as Co%%2nication Technolo"ies .(t. 7t,.Ma,ras 1ith s2//ort o) De/t- o) Teleco%%2nication- Eo(t. o) In,ia. ECI7 is one a%on" the )o2r teleco% %an2)act2rers in In,ia to license the /ro,2ct. CorDECT is a si%/le- cost-e))ecti(e 1ireless access s+ste% that has %a,e a ,i))erence to %illions o) li(es The CorDECT s+ste% is in,ee, 6ase, on the DECT stan,ar, 1hich initiall+ 1as ,esi"ne, )or 2se 1ith cor,less tele/hones. This is not a s/rea, s/ectr2% a//roach- an, instea, is 6ase, on a /rotocol calle, MC-TDM0 1hich /er)or%s 6oth ti%e an, )re=2enc+ ,i(ision in or,er to acco%%o,ate %2lti/le channels. iF44G The ,istances /ossi6le 6et1een a s26scri6er 2nit an, a 6ase station are rate, at 5'k%. Rela+ 6ase stations can 6e 2se, to e9ten, this ,istance a )2rther 5'k%. These ,istances %a+ 6e conser(ati(e as"i(en )a(ora6le 7ine o) Site an, terrain8 4'k% has 6een achie(e, in the )iel,. It is tr2e that the CorDECT s+ste% ,e-%2lti/le9es (oice )ro% ,ata at the inter)ace 2nit an, this is one o) its stron" /ro/erties. The "reatest a,(anta"e o) CorDECT is the eli%ination o) the nee, to r2n a /air o) 1ires all the 1a+ 2/to the s26scri6erHs /re%ises. The ;ireless 7ocal 7oo/ is )ree )ro% (ario2s /ro6le%s associate, 1ith ca6les s2ch as ,i""in" o) trenchers- lar"e re=2ire%ent o) ti%e an, %one+ an, %ore i%/ortantl+- the (ario2s line )a2lts 1hich are "enerall+ attri62te, to 1ire, connections. Ne1 s26scri6er connections can 6e a,,e, al%ost instantl+ as it in(ol(es onl+ a2thentication o) the han, set thro2"h the console.

>

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

!hapter 3: 0irele.. A++e.. Net4or5


3.2 "ntrodu+tion Till aro2n, the %i,-ei"hties- a local loo/ or an 0ccess Net1ork !0N# 2se, to consist o) a /air o) co//er 1ires connectin" the s26scri6er at ho%e or o))ice to the nearest e9chan"e. The local loo/ len"th in 2r6an areas 1o2l, 6e t+/icall+ as lon" as @ to $ k% an, the ,ia%eter o) the co//er 2se, 1as '.5 %% to '.@ %%. The loo/ 1as ,esi"ne, to carr+ ' - 4 kAI (oice an, 1as ,i))ic2lt to %aintain- 1ith al%ost $5J o) all )a2lts )o2n, in the local loo/. 06o(e all it 1as e9/ensi(e- as 1ell as ,i))ic2lt an, ti%econs2%in"- to ,e/lo+.;ith co//er an, ,i""in" costs increasin" e(er+ +ear- i) one 1ere to contin2e 1ith s2ch an a//roach- the /er-line local loo/ cost itsel) 1o2l, to,a+ a%o2nt to o(er $'J o) the total cost o) /2ttin" 2/ a teleco% net1ork. 3.3 A++e.. Net4or5 Cort2natel+- an 2ncele6rate, 62t %a or technolo"ical inno(ation chan"e, the 0ccess Net1ork )ro% the %i,-ei"hties on1ar,s. 0s sho1n in Ci"2re &.5- the 0N no1 consists o) an o/tical )i6re )ro% an e9chan"e to a Re%ote 7ine Dnit !R7D# an, t+/icall+ a 3 - 4 k% co//er loo/ )ro% the R7D to the s26scri6er /re%ises. The si"nals carrie, on the )i6re are ti%e-%2lti/le9e, ,i"ital (oice an, si"nalin" in)or%ation. 0 R7D t+/icall+ ser(es 5''' to 4''' s26scri6ers an, the links )ro% R7D to e9chan"e consist o) 4 - 5@ E5<s. Since the loo/ len"th is re,2ce, to 3 - 4 k%- a 1ire "a2"e o) '.4 %% is s2))icient an, this 6rin"s ,o1n the cost consi,era6l+. The risin" cost o) co//er- ho1e(ercontin2es to /2sh 2/ the cost o) e(en this sol2tion e(er+ +ear. To,a+ the /er-line co//er cost !3 - 4 k% lon"- incl2,in" la+in" char"es# an, the share, cost o) )i6re an, R7Da"ain a%o2nts to al%ost t1o-thir,s o) the total /er-line cost

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

Fi,ure 3.2 A++e.. Net4or5 in the 678. The si"nalin" /rotocol on the 0N !in the si"nalin" slots on the E5 links 6et1een the R7D<s an, e9chan"e# initiall+ re%aine, /ro/rietar+. Ao1e(er-access si"nalin" 1as stan,ar,iIe, internationall+ in the earl+ nineties- in the )or% o) the V5.5 an, V5.& /rotocols. The V5.& inter)ace %akes the E(en as the iss2e in(ol(in" inter)ace to the teleco% net1ork 1as resol(e,- another i%/ortant iss2e cro//e, 2/ a6o2t three +ears "o. To,a+ a teleco% net1ork can no lon"er 2st )oc2s on /ro(i,in" tele/hone ser(ice at ho%es an, o))ices- 62t %2st /ro(i,e Internet ser(ice too. ;e no1 e9a%ine so%e o) the )actors in(ol(e, in /ro(i,in" Internet connections 2sin" the e9istin" tele/hone net1ork. 3.9 The "nternet Tan,le The Internet e%er"e, secon, to the

has as onl+

tele/hone in connectin" /eo/le an, %a+ to%orro1 s26s2%e the tele/hone net1ork. B2t to,a+- Internet access at ho%es an, o))ices lar"el+ ri,es on the tele/hone net1ork. Internet access a//ears to 6e si%/le: 4 .re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

Fi,ure 3.3 "nternet a++e.. u.in, the telephone net4or5 2st "et a tele/hone line- connect a %o,e% an, co%/2ter an, ,ial an Internet Ser(ice .ro(i,er !IS.#. The IS. has a 62nch o) tele/hone lines an, an e=2al n2%6er o) %o,e%s connectin" the 2sers to a ro2ter as sho1n in Ci"2re &.&. This ro2ter is connecte, to other ro2ters on the Internet. 0 ,ial-2/ connection to an IS.<s ro2ter "i(es a 2ser access to e(er+one an, e(er+thin" on the Internet. This strai"ht)or1ar,-lookin" a//roach to accessin" the Internet- is ho1e(er6eset 1ith /ro6le%s. The tele/hone net1ork is t+/icall+ ,esi"ne, to han,le '.5 E tra))ic /er s26scri6er on the a(era"e. This is "enerall+ a,e=2ate )or (oice tele/hon+. Ao1e(erInternet sessions are 2s2all+ o) lon"er ,2ration- o)ten e(en e9cee,in" an ho2r. 0s a si"ni)icant /ercenta"e o) tele/hone 2sers start accessin" the Internet- the loa, on the teleco% net1ork 1ill )ar e9cee, '.5 E /er s26scri6er- res2ltin" in se(ere con"estion an, e(ent2al net1ork colla/se. I) this has not ha//ene, +et- it is 6eca2se onl+ a s%all /ercenta"e o) tele/hone 2sers are also accessin" the Internet. The secon, /ro6le% is associate, 1ith the local call char"es )or accessin" the Internet in this %anner. In %an+ co2ntries the tele/hone call %a,e )or accessin" the Internet is 2s2all+ char"e, 6ase, on the call ,2ration. In a,,ition- a s26scri6er %a+ also ha(e to /a+ the IS. )or connection to the Internet. Thir,l+- the analo" %o,e%-to-%o,e% link 6et1een the s26scri6er an, the IS. is o)ten 2nrelia6le. Bne ,oes not al1a+s "et connecte, at 33.@ k6/s an, the s/ee, can "o ,o1n to 4.@ k6/s an, e(en 4.$ k6/s at ti%es- es/eciall+ in r2ral areas. C2rther- the connection o)ten ,ro/s. Cinall+- an IS. 1ith N tele/hone lines- N %o,e%s an, a N-/ort ro2ter co2l, ser(e at %ost N s26scri6ers at a ti%e. I) the connection ,ro/s- one %a+ not "et an i%%e,iate reconnection ,2rin" 62s+ ho2rs.

5'

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT This Internet tan"le re=2ires a ne1 a//roach in or,er to s2//ort )2t2re "ro1th. Tho2"h an Internet connection is ke/t on )or lon" ho2rs- a /ec2liarit+ o) co%/2ter-toco%/2ter co%%2nications is that the connection is not in contin2o2s 2se- 62t in 62rsts. .ackets are trans%itte, to an, )ro% the Internet in 62rsts- 1ith the link re%ainin" /racticall+ i,le %ost o) the ti%e. 0 circ2it-s1itche, connection on a tele/hone net1orkho1e(er- is 2na6le to take a,(anta"e o) this an, ,e,icates net1ork reso2rces thro2"ho2t the ,2ration o) the connection there6+ con"estin" the net1ork.

Fi,ure 3.9 A++e.. !entre :A!; .eparate. <oi+e and "nternet data= S*2 and S*3 pro<ide .imultaneou. <oi+e and "nternet .er<i+e. to .u-.+ri-er. u.in, 4ired and 4irele.. +onne+ti<ity re.pe+ti<ely 0n i,eal sol2tion to this /ro6le% is to ha(e /acket-s1itche, access. Ao1e(erthe local loo/ is o)ten a se/arate /h+sical line to each s26scri6er an, /acket access on this

,e,icate, line "i(es little a,(anta"e- as no one else can 2se this reso2rce an+1a+. In s2ch a sit2ation- it is a,(isa6le to se/arate the Internet ,ata at the net1ork no,e nearest to the s26scri6er- 1here ,ata )ro% %2lti/le s26scri6ers can 6e %2lti/le9e,. This 55 .re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT is sho1n in Ci"2re &.3- 1here se/aration o) Internet ,ata an, (oice tra))ic takes /lace at the 0ccess Centre !0C#- locate, t+/icall+ at a street-corner. 0s sho1n in the )i"2re- 6oth 1ire, an, 1ireless inter)aces to the 0C are /ossi6le. DS7 technolo"+ an, narro16an, ISDN e=2i/%ent can /ro(i,e relia6le- hi"h-s/ee,si%2ltaneo2s- (oice an, Internet access on a sin"le co//er /air. I) 1ire, access is 2se,there is strictl+ no restriction on the 6itrate 6et1een the s26scri6er an, the 0C- as lon" as the /h+sical %e,i2% can s2//ort it. 3.> 0irele.. o+al oop $.. Mo-ile 0irele.. A++e.. Sy.tem To,a+- there is little ,o26t that 1ireless access s+st e%s sho2l, /ro(i,e ,i"ital an, not analo" access. ;ireless connecti(it+ to s26scri6ers to,a+ is /ro(i,e, 6+ %o6ile co%%2nication s+ste%s as 1ell as 1ireless local loo/ s+ste%s. These t1o a//ear to 6e si%ilar an, are o)ten con)2se, 1ith each other. Ao1e(erthe re=2ire%ents )or the t1o s+ste%s are si"ni)icantl+ ,i))erent.

!h?9 +orDE!T 0irele.. A++e.. Sy.tem


5& .re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

9.2 "ntrodu+tion The corDECT ;ireless 0ccess S+ste% !;0S# is ,esi"ne, to /ro(i,e si%2ltaneo2s circ2it- s1itche, (oice an, %e,i2%-rate Internet connecti(it+ at ho%es an, o))ices. The 0ccess S+ste% %o,el- 1hich the corDECT e%2lates- is sho1n in Ci"2re 3.5.

Fi,ure 9.2 !on+eptual A++e.. Sy.tem pro<idin, .imultaneou. <oi+e and "nternet +onne+ti<ity 9.3 !on+eptual A++e.. Sy.tem In this conce/t2al %o,el- there is a S26scri6er Dnit !SD# locate, at the s26scri6er /re%ises.The SD has a stan,ar, t1o-1ire inter)ace to connect a tele/hone- )a9 %achine.CB !.26lic Call B))ice#- s/eaker/hone- cor,less /hone- or %o,e%. It also /ro(i,es ,irect !1itho2t a %o,e%# Internet connecti(it+ to a stan,ar, .C- 2sin" either a serial /ort !RS-&3& or DSB# or Ethernet. The 0ccess S+ste% allo1s si%2ltaneo2s tele/hone an, Internet connecti(it+. The SD<s are connecte, to an 0ccess Centre !0C# 2sin" an+ con(enient technolo"+ like 1ireless- /lain ol, co//er- DS7 on co//er- coa9ial ca6le- o/tical )i6re- or e(en /o1er lines. The 0C %2st 6e scala6le- ser(in" as )e1 as &'' s26scri6ers an, as %an+ as &''' s26scri6ers. In 2r6an areas- the 0C co2l, 6e locate, at a street corner- ser(in" a ra,i2s o) >'' % to 5 k%.This s%all ra,i2s in 2r6an areas is i%/ortant )or 1ireless access- in or,er to ena6le e))icient re-2se o) s/ectr2%. ;hen ca6le is 2se,- the s%all ra,i2s ens2res lo1 cost an, hi"her 6itrate Connecti(it+. Ao1e(er in r2ral areas- the ,istance 6et1een the 0C an, the SD co2l, easil+ 6e 5' k% an, e(en "o 2/ to &5 k% in certain sit2ations. The 0C is th2s a share, s+ste% caterin" to %2lti/le s26scri6ers. The (oice an, Internet tra))ic to an, )ro% s26scri6ers can 6e concentrate, here an, then carrie, on an+ a//ro/riate 6ackha2l trans/ort net1ork to the tele/hone an, Internet net1orks res/ecti(el+. 53 .re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

0t the 0C- the tele/hone an, Internet tra))ic is se/arate,. The tele/hone tra))ic is carrie, to the tele/hone net1ork on E5 links 2sin" access /rotocols s2ch as V5.&. The Internet tra))ic )ro% %2lti/le s26scri6ers is statisticall+ %2lti/le9e,- takin" a,(anta"e o) the 62rst+ nat2re o) Internet tra))ic- an, carrie, to the Internet net1ork. 0s 2se o) Voiceo(er-I. !VoI.# "ro1s- (oice tra))ic )ro% s26scri6er 2nits co2l, also 6e sent to the Internet- "ra,2all+ %akin" connecti(it+ to the tele/hone net1ork re,2n,ant. Ao1e(er)or connectin" to the le"ac+ tele/hone net1ork- the (oice /ort o) the 0C %a+ 6e re=2ire, )or so%e ti%e to co%e. 0n 0C co2l, also incor/orate s1itchin" an, %aintenance )2nctions 1hen re=2ire,. C2rther- it is /ossi6le to co-locate Internet ser(ers 1ith ac. . 9.9 +orDE!T 0irele.. A++e.. Sy.tem Collo1in" the conce/t2al %o,el- the corDECT ;ireless 0ccess S+ste% 2ses a si%ilar architect2re to /ro(i,e tele/hone an, Internet ser(ice to a s26scri6er- as sho1n in Ci"2re 3.&. The s26scri6er /re%ises e=2i/%ent- ;allset I. !;S-I.# or ;allset !;S#- has a 1ireless connection thro2"h a Co%/act Base Station !CBS# to an 0ccess S1itch- calle, a DECT Inter)ace Dnit !DID#. The air inter)ace is co%/liant to the DECT stan,ar, s/eci)ie, 6+ ETSI. The DID s1itches the (oice tra))ic to the tele/hone net1ork 2sin" the V5.& /rotocol to connect to an e9chan"e.

Fi,ure 9.3 +orDE!T 0irele.. o+al oop

54

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corDECT The DID also s1itches the Internet calls to a 62ilt-in Re%ote 0ccess S1itch !R0S# 1hich then ro2tes the tra))ic to the Internet net1ork. The R0S has an Ethernet inter)ace- 1hich is connecte, to the Internet 2sin" an+ s2ita6le ro2tin" ,e(ice. The CBS is nor%all+ connecte, to the DID 2sin" three t1iste,-/air 1ires- 1hich carr+ si"nals as 1ell as /o1er )ro% the DID to the CBS. 0lternati(el+- it can 6e connecte, to the DID thro2"h a Base Station Distri62tor !BSD#. The BSD is a re%ote 2nit connecte, to the DID 2sin" a stan,ar, E5 inter)ace !on ra,io- )i6re- or co//er# as sho1n in Ci"2re 3.3. 0 BSD can s2//ort 2/ to )o2r CBS<s.

Fi,ure 9.9 !BS remoted to D"* throu,h BSD Cor lon"-ran"e co%%2nication- a ;S-I. or ;S can also 6e connecte, to the CBS 2sin" a t1o- ho/ DECT 1ireless link- one 6et1een ;S-I. or ;S an, a Rela+ Base Station !RBS# an, another 6et1een the RBS an, CBS- The 1ireless ran"e s2//orte, 6et1een a ;S- I. or ;S an, the CBS or RBS is 5' k% in 7ine-o)-Si"ht !7BS# con,itions. The ran"e s2//orte, 6et1een a CBS an, RBS is &5 k% in 7BS con,itions. 0 t+/ical s+ste% consists o) one DID 1ith one or t1o R0S 2nits- 2/ to &' CBS<s- an, 2/ to a 5''' ;S-I.<s or ;S<s. The BSD an, RBS 2nits are 2se, as re=2ire, 6+ the ,e/lo+%ent scenario

55

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corDECT

!hapter >:Su-?.y.tem. o/ +orDE!T 0irele.. A++e.. Sy.tem


>.2 0all.et "P and 0all.et 0s sho1n in Ci"2re 4.5- the ;allset 1ith Internet .ort !;S-I.# /ro(i,es (oice connecti(it+ to the s26scri6er 2sin" a RJ-55 inter)ace- ena6lin" one to connect a stan,ar, DTMC or ,eca,ic tele/hone- E3 )a9 %achine- .CB !6atter+ re(ersalan, 5&:5@ kAI %eterin" are stan,ar, )eat2res#- s/eaker/hone- cor,less /hone- or %o,e%. In a,,ition- the ;S-I. has a RS-&3& /ort to ,irectl+ connect a .C !o6(iatin" the nee, )or a tele/hone %o,e%#. The .C esta6lishes a ,ial-2/ ... !.oint-to-.oint .rotocol# Internet connection 2sin" a stan,ar, ,ial-2/ 2tilit+. Internet access is s2//orte, at 35 or >' k6/s. In )act- the ;S-I. can s2//ort si%2ltaneo2s (oice an, 35 k6/s Internet connections. Besi,es these t1o 2ser inter)aces- the ;S-I. has an antenna /ort 1here either a 1hi/ antenna- or an e9ternall+ %o2nte, antenna !thro2"h ca6le#- can 6e connecte,. The /o1er to the ;S- I. is /ro(i,e, 6+ a 5& V a,a/tor connecte, to the 0C %ains an, o/tionall+ 6+ a solar /anel 1hich can 6e connecte, in /arallel. The ;S-I. has a 62ilt-in 6atter+ an, 6atter+ char"er. The 62ilt-in 6atter+ /ro(i,es 5@ ho2rs stan,-6+ ti%e an, %ore than 3 ho2rs talk ti%e )or (oice calls. 0 ;allset !;S# is a si%ilar ter%inal 1itho2t the Internet /ort.

Fi,ure >.2 0S?"P >.3 Multi4all.et

Fi,ure >.3 Multi4all.et

The M2lti1allset !M;S#- sho1n in Ci"2re 4.&-/ro(i,es si%2ltaneo2s (oice ser(ice to )o2r s26scri6ers. It has all the )eat2res o) the ;S- 62t at a si"ni)icantl+ lo1er /er-line cost. The M2lti1allset has a DECT Transcei(er Mo,2le !DTM#- 1hich is an o2t,oor 2nit 1ith a 62ilt-in antenna 1ith >.5 ,B "ain. It is connecte, to an in,oor S26scri6er 5@ .re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT Inter)ace Mo,2le !SIM# 2nit- 1hich has )o2r RJ-55 /orts )or tele/hones. Each /ort s2//orts all the ter%inals a ;S s2//orts. The connection 6et1een the DTM an, the SIM 2ses a sin"le t1iste,-/air 1ireo6(iatin" the nee, )or RC ca6le an, connectors. The M;S has a 62ilt-in 6atter+ )or 6ack2/ an, is /o1ere, thro2"h the 0C %ains. >.9 Multi4all.et "P The M2lti1allset 1ith Internet .ort !M;S-I.# is a M;S 1ith )o2r tele/hones an, an a,,itional Ethernet inter)ace to /ro(i,e ,ial-2/ Internet connecti(it+. M2lti/le .C<s can 6e connecte, to the Ethernet /ort an, /ro(i,e a share, 35:>' k6/s Internet connection. The ...-o(er-Ethernet /rotocol is 2se, to set 2/ in,i(i,2al connections. It is to 6e note, that at an+ ti%e- either )o2r si%2ltaneo2s tele/hone calls 1ith no Internet connection- or three tele/hone calls an, a 35 k6/s share, Internet connection- or t1o tele/hone calls an, a share, >' k6/s Internet connection- can 6e %a,e. De/en,in" on 2sa"e- this %a+ intro,2ce so%e 6lockin" )or (oice calls. >.> !ompa+t Ba.e Station The Co%/act Base Station !CBS#- sho1n in )i"2re 4.3- /ro(i,es the ra,io inter)ace 6et1een the DID an, the corDECT s26scri6er ter%inal. It s2//orts 2/ to 5& si%2ltaneo2s (oice calls. It is a s%all- 2no6tr2si(e- 1eather/roo) 2nit that is re%otel+ /o1ere, )ro% the DID or a BSD.

Fi,ure >.9 !ompa+t Ba.e Station

5>

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

The CBS has t1o antennas )or ,i(ersit+. 0 ,irectional antenna 1ith si"ni)icant "ain can 6e 2se, 1hen co(era"e is re=2ire, to 6e con)ine, to certain ,irections. Cor e9a%/le- i) the co(era"e area is ,i(i,e, into sectors- each sector can 6e co(ere, 6+ a ,i))erent Base Station 1ith ,irectional antennas. Cor 3@'' co(era"e 2sin" a sin"le CBSo%ni-,irectional antennas are 2se,.More than one CBS can 6e ,e/lo+e, to ser(e a sin"le sector or a cell. The %a9i%2% 7BS ran"e 6et1een a s26scri6er 2nit an, a CBS is 5' k%. 0n isolate, CBS s2//orts a//ro9i%atel+ 5.$ E o) tra))ic 1ith a Era,e o) Ser(ice !EBS# o) 5J- t+/icall+ ser(in" 3' - >' s26scri6ers. M2lti/le CBSHs ser(in" the sa%e sector or cell increases the tra))ic in Erlan"s han,le, 6+ each CBS. The CBS is connecte, to a DID or a Base Station Distri62tor !BSD# 1ith three t1iste,-/air co//er 1ires- each o) 1hich carr+ (oice:,ata tra))ic- si"nalin" an, /o1er. The %a9i%2% loo/ len"th- 1ith a '.4 %% ,ia%eter 1ire- can 6e 4 k% 6et1een the DID an, the CBS an, 5 k% 6et1een the BSD an, the CBS. >.@ DE!T "nter/a+e *nit The DECT Inter)ace Dnit !DID# sho1n in Ci"2re 4.4- i%/le%ents the )2nctions o) a s1itch !or a Re%ote 7ine Dnit#- Base Station Controller- an, the B/erations an, Maintenance Console !BMC#. S+ste% relia6ilit+ is "2arantee, 6+ a re,2n,ant- hot stan,-6+ architect2re. The BMC allo1s e9ha2sti(e real-ti%e %onitorin" an, %ana"e%ent o) the entire corDECT s+ste%. 0 )2ll+-con)i"2re, DID 1ith an in-62ilt Re%ote 0ccess S1itch !R0S# onl+ occ2/ies a sin"le &$D- 54K ca6inet an, cons2%es less than @'' ;.

Fi,ure >.> DE!T "nter/a+e *nit :D"*; 4ith in?-uilt RAS

5$

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT D/ to &' CBSHs can 6e s2//orte, 6+ a DID- ,irectl+ or thro2"h the BSD. The DID /ro(i,es 2/ to ei"ht E5 links to the tele/hone net1ork an,:or R0S. The si"nalin" /rotocol 2se, is either V5.&- 1hich /arents the DID !as an R7D# to an e9chan"e- or R&MC- in 1hich case the DID acts as a 5'''-line e9chan"e. There is a thir, o/tion1herein the corDECT s+ste%- 2sin" a,,itional e=2i/%ent- a//ears to an e9chan"e si%/l+ as a n2%6er o) t1iste,-/air lines. M2lti/le DID<s are %ana"e, thro2"h a centraliIe, Net1ork Mana"e%ent S+ste% !NMS#. >.A i&ON Remote A++e.. S4it+h The iKBN Re%ote 0ccess S1itch !R0S#- sho1n in Ci"2re 4.5- is a 54K 5D 2nit nor%all+ inte"rate, 1ithin the DID ca6inet. It ter%inates the ... connections )ro% Internet s26scri6ers 2sin" corDECT ;S-I. or M;S-I.. It is connecte, to the DID 2sin" 2/ to t1o E5 /orts an, ,oes I.- 6ase, ro2tin" )or 2/ to @' si%2ltaneo2s corDECT Internet calls. The R0S has a 5'BaseT Ethernet /ort to connect to the Internet. It s2//orts R0DIDS )or acco2ntin" an, a2thentication- .0. )or 2ser a2thentication an, is %ana"e, 2sin" SNM..

Fi,ure >.@ i&ON RAS >.B Ba.e Station Di.tri-utor

Fi,ure >.A Ba.e Station Di.tri-utor

The Base Station Distri62tor !BSD# is a co%/act-re%otel+ locate,- locall+ /o1ere,- rack-%o2nta6le 2nit that s2//orts 2/ to )o2r CBS<s !1ith /o1er )ee,#. The E5 inter)ace 6et1een a DID an, the BSD can 6e on co//er- )i6re- or ra,io an, link ,istance ,e/en,s onl+ on the link ,esi"n. The BSD is ,esi"ne, to e9ten, corDECT co(era"e to /ockets o) s26scri6ers locate, )ar a1a+ )ro% the DID. >.C Relay Ba.e Station

54

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT 0 Rela+ Base Station !RBS#- as sho1n in Ci"2re 4.>- e9ten,s the ran"e o) the corDECT s+ste% 6+ rela+in" DECT /ackets 6et1een the CBS an, s26scri6er 2nits. The RBS can han,le 55 calls si%2ltaneo2sl+. The RBS consists o) t1o 2nits. The RBS 0ir Dnit is t+/icall+ %o2nte, on a to1er:%ast an, ho2ses the 6ase6an, an, the RC s26-s+ste%. The RBS Ero2n, Dnit s2//lies /o1er an, /ro(i,e %aintenance s2//ort to the 0ir Dnit an, is %o2nte, at the 6otto% o) the to1er. The RBS 2ses three antennas. Bne antenna !2s2all+ a ,irectional antenna 1ith hi"h "ain#- re)erre, to as the RBS;S antenna- /oints to1ar,s the CBS 1ith 1hich the RBS is co%%2nicatin". The other t1o antennas- calle, RBSBS antennas are 2se, )or co%%2nication 1ith the s26scri6er 2nits !t1o antennas are 2se, )or ,i(ersit+#. These antennas are si%ilar to those 2se, 6+ the CBS.

Fi,ure >.B Relay Ba.e Station The %a9i%2% 7BS ran"e 6et1een a CBS an, a RBS is &5 k%- 1hile the %a9i%2% 7BS ran"e 6et1een the RBS an, corDECT s26scri6ers is 5' k%.

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.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

!h?@ (O0 corDECT 0OR&S


Base, on the Di"ital Enhance, Cor,less Teleco%%2nications !DECT# stan,ar,s s/eci)ie, 6+ the E2ro/ean Teleco%%2nications Stan,ar,s Instit2te !ETSI#CorDECT /ro(i,es cost-e))ecti(e- si%2ltaneo2s hi"h-=2alit+ (oice an, ,ata connecti(it+ in 6oth 2r6an an, r2ral areas. It /ro(i,es (oice co%%2nication 2sin" 3& K6/s 0D.CMan, Internet connecti(it+ at 35:>' K6/s on the sa%e line 2sin" a serial /ort. CorDECT e%/lo+s M2lti-Carrier Ti%e Di(ision M2lti/le 0ccess !MC-TDM0#- a techni=2e in 1hich the )re=2enc+ can chan"e )ro% one ti%e slot to another8 DECT ,e)ines a 1ireless co%%2nication stan,ar, 6et1een a Ci9e, .art !C.# an, a .orta6le .art !..#. Co%%2nication takes /lace 2sin" Ea2ssian Cre=2enc+ Shi)t Ke+in" !ECSK# Mo,2lation. This ne1 s+ste% 2ses a )ra%e o) 5' %sec in 1hich &4 ti%e slots are ,e)ine,. Co%%2nication 6et1een C. an, .. is ti%e-,i(ision ,2/le9 in 1hich 5& ti%e slots are 2se, )or a one 1a+ trans%ission. In a &' MAI )re=2enc+ s/ectr2%- 5' carriers are ,e)ine,. Th2s- )or co%%2nication )ro% .. to C.- 5' carriers can 6e 2se, in each o) the 5& ti%e slots- a%o2ntin" to 5&' channels. In DECT- no channel is /er%anentl+ assi"ne, to an+ C. or ... ;hich %eans- an+ .. can select an+ o) the 5&' channels to co%%2nicate 1ith a C. 2sin" the D+na%ic Channel Selection !DCS# al"orith%L The al"orith% re=2ires the .. to %eas2re Recei(e Si"nal Stren"th !RSSI# on all the 5&' channels. It locks to the C. /ro(i,in" the stron"est si"nal an, then %aintains a RSSI ta6le )or all other channels. ;hen a .. tries to esta6lish a connection- it chooses the channel /ro(i,in" lo1est inter)erence. E(en 1hile a co%%2nication /rocess is takin" /lace- the RSSI ta6le is /erio,icall+ 2/,ate, an, i) a channel 1ith less inter)erence than the c2rrent one is )o2n,- a sea%less han,o(er to the ne1 channel takes /lace. ETSI has s/eci)ie, the 5$$' - 5435 MAI 6an, )or DECT. Nor%all+ an+ &' MAI 6an, o2t o) this s/ectr2% can 6e chosen )or o/eration. Each DECT channel can carr+ 3& k6/s o) /a+loa,- an, the (oice co,in" e%/lo+e, in DECT is 3& k6/s 0D.CM. It is also /ossi6le )or t1o DECT channels to 6e co%6ine, to /ro(i,e ,ata co%%2nication at @4 k6/s 6et1een .. an, C.. The corDECT s26scri6er ter%inalcalle, ;allset- /ro(i,es an RJ-55 tele/hone /ort an, an RJ-&3& serial /ort )or si%2ltaneo2s internet access 2sin" a .C. The Internet access s/ee, is 35:>' K6/s. Re)er )i" 5.5 )or corDECT Inter)ace Dnit at S26scri6ers /lace.

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corDECT

Fi,:@.2 +orDE!T "nter/a+e *nit

The corDECT s+ste% has 6een ,esi"ne, s2ch that it can 6e easil+ inte"rate, 1ith the e9istin" net1ork. The s+ste% inter)aces to the net1ork on E5 !&.'4$ M6/s# lines as /er ITD-T E>'3 stan,ar,. In one o) the con)i"2rations- the corDECT s+ste% acts like a s1itch alon" 1ith the 1ireless local loo/. The n2%6erin" /lan is )le9i6le so that it can 6e %o,i)ie, as /er the re=2ire%ents. The tones- anno2nce%ents- %eterin"- char"in"s1itchin"- ro2tin" an, s/ecial ser(ices are /ro(i,e, 6+ the Ms1itch /artH o) the corDECT s+ste%. 0lternati(el+- corDECT can also 6e con)i"2re, as an 0ccess Net1ork connecte, to a %ain e9chan"e 2sin" ITD-T s/eci)ie, access /rotocol V5.&.0 trans/arent (ersion 1ith t1o-1ire analo" inter)ace to an+ e9chan"e is also a(aila6le )or =2ick rollo2t. CorDECT has 6een ,esi"ne, to 6e a %o,2lar s+ste%. ;hile the 6asic 2nit /ro(i,es ser(ice to 2/ to 5''' s26scri6ers- %2lti/le corDECT s+ste%s can 6e connecte, to"ether 2sin" a transit s1itch. The s+ste% has 6een ,esi"ne, in s2ch a 1a+ that the initial in(est%ent )or the Ci9e, .art is lo1. C2rther- since this sche%e ,oes not re=2ire )re=2enc+ /lannin"- the installations nee, not 6e coor,inate,. Co2/le, 1ith the lo1 costit th2s %akes corDECT one o) the %ost (ersatile ;ireless in 7ocal 7oo/ s+ste%s a(aila6le to,a+.

&&

.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

!h?A Superiority o/ +orDE!T 0

o<er other 0

.y.tem

;77 incl2,e (ario2s s+ste%s s2ch as .AS- CDM0- an, DECT. No1 here 1e 1ill co%/are the corDECT ;77 s+ste% 1ith other s+ste%s. Microcell2lar s+ste%s s2ch as those 6ase, on DECT or .AS are the onl+ 1ireless s+ste%s that can /ro(i,e hi"h ca/acit+ 2sin" (er+ %o,est 6an,1i,ths. Macrocell2lar architect2res ha(e the a,(anta"e that onl+ three or )o2r 6ase stations nee, to 6e set 2/ in a cit+. The %icrocell2lar architect2re on the other han, ,e%an,s installation o) se(eral tho2san, 6ase stations on the streets an, 1ith /h+sical 1irin" 6et1een the 6ase stations an, the DID. Des/ite this (er+ lar"e n2%6er o) 6ase stations an, so%e 1irin" re=2ire, 6et1een the DID an, 6ase stations in the corDECT s+ste%. Still it has cost an, o/erational a,(anta"es o(er %acrocell2lar s+ste%s. Macrocell2lar s+ste%s s2ch as CDM0 or DCS:5$''- )or instance- /ro(i,e a co%/lete 1ireless local loo/ )ro% the e9chan"e to the s26scri6ers. B2t s2ch %acrocell2lar s+ste%s ha(e li%itations in ter%s o) the ,ensit+ o) s26scri6ers the+ can cater to on a "i(en 6an,1i,th. The hi"hest ca/acit+ clai% has not e9cee,e, &5-''' )or a %etro/olitan cit+- ass2%in" t+/ical tele/hone 2se o) 5' /er cent. This %o,est ca/acit+ is achie(e, 6+ 2sin" lo1 6it-rate- s/eech-s/eci)ic co%/ression techni=2es to re,2ce 6an,1i,th /er call. The lo1 6it-rate co%/ression techni=2es e%/lo+e, 6+ %acrocell2lar architect2res to conser(e 6an,1i,th are consi,ere, technolo"ical /l2s-/oints onl+ in (al2e-a,,e, ser(ices like cell2lar tele/hones. The co%/ression al"orith%s that take the 6it-rate ,o1n to $k6/s or lo1er 6+ e9/loitin" s/eech-s/eci)ic )eat2res cannot han,le nons/eech %o,e% or )a9 si"nals. T0B7E @.5: Co%/arison: corDECT 1ith Macrocell2lar corDECT Man+- Ine9/ensi(e &''% to 3 k% S2//orte, 7o1- .e,estrian Ai"h B))ices- Resi,ential area &3 Macro cellular Ce1 - E9/ensi(e >k% to 5$k% Not s2//orte, Ai"h- 02to%o6ile 7o1 Mo6iles .re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

Base Stations Cell Ra,i2s Data trans%ission Mo6ilit+ Ca/acit+ 0//lication

corDECT

The co%/act 6ase station 1ill cost %2ch less than /resent-,a+ 6ase stations o) %acrocell2lar co%%2nications s+ste%s. Tho2san,s o) s2ch 6ase stations are alrea,+ in /lace in Ja/an. Macrocell2lar s+ste%s like CDM0 2se a6o2t @' KAI /er channel. S2ch s+ste%s re=2ire )ar )e1er 6ase stations 62t o))er (oice:,ata 6it rate o) 4.@ to 53 k6/s- an, ser(e 2/ to 3& s26scri6ers /er s=2are kilo%eter i) the cell ra,i2s is 5'-kilo%eters 1ith three sectors- ass2%in" /er)ect re2se o) )re=2enc+ in e(er+ sector. The ESM:DCS 5$'' 2ses sli"htl+ less s/ectr2% /er channel !5' kAI# an, has a re2se e))icienc+ o) one in )o2r cells. The s26scri6er ,ensit+ ser(e, is th2s e(en lo1er. Bn the other han,- %icrocell2lar s+ste%s like DECT an, .AS s+ste%s co2l, s2//ort 2/ to >''' s26scri6ers 1hen 6ase station ra,i2s is &5'-%eters. 0ccor,in" to corDECT %an2)act2rers- this )eat2re o) %o,2lar e9/ansion 1ill hel/ ser(ice /ro(i,ers a(oi, i,le in(est%ents. Ne1 6ase stations can 6e installe, as the n2%6er o) s26scri6ers "ro1s. T0B7E @.&: Co%/arison: corDECT 1ith CDM0 Cre=2enc+ .lannin" .o1er .lannin" Voice N2alit+ S26scri6er Densit+ Ser(ices S2//orte, DECT Not re=2ire, No /o1er /lannin" 3& k6/s Ver+ Ai"h Voice:)a9:,ata: CDMA Re=2ire, .o1er /lannin" is co%/le9 4.@-53 k6/s 7o1 7i%ite, ,ata han,lin"

The in)rastr2ct2re cost o) 6ase station an, 6ase station controller in %acro s+ste%s is a si"ni)icant /art o) the total /er line cost. The cost o) the 6ase station an, the DID in DECT an, .AS t+/e o) s+ste%s is a s%aller )raction o) the total cost. Co%/letel+ 1ireless %acrocell2lar s+ste%s 1ill contin2e to 6e /ri%e can,i,ates )or s/eci)ic a//lications ,e%an,in" )ast installation. B2t /ro/onents o) the %icrocell2lar .AS an, DECT sa+ costs are likel+ to 6e a 6ottleneck )or s2ch %acrocell2lar s+ste%s. T0B7E @.3: Co%/arison: corDECT 1ith .AS DECT N2%6er o) si%2ltaneo2s call 5& N2%6er o) s2//orte, 6ase &' &4 PHS 3 @$ .re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT stations Total S26scri6ers:Base Station .o1er 0t Base Station Aan, /orta6le RC /o1er Ser(ices S2//orte,

&4' 5'' %; 5' %; Voice:)a9:%o,e%

&'4 5'' to 5'' %; 5'' %; !$'%1 /-/# (oice:)a9:%o,e%

!h?B MER"TS AND DEMER"TS OF +orDE!T 0


-

S)STEM

Merit.: ? corDECT is the %ost cost e))ecti(e ;ireless in 7ocal 7oo/ s+ste% to /ro(i,e Basic Tele/hon+ an, Internet access on a sa%e line. Ai"hl+ Cost e))icient. It can 6e easil+ i%/le%ente, 1ith )e1er e))orts. Re=2ires less %aintenance. It can 1ork e))icientl+ in harsh en(iron%ents 1itho2t nee, )or air con,itionin". The /o1er cons2%/tion o) the corDECT e9chan"e is (er+ lo1. It can 6e i%/le%ente, in lar"e re"ion in r2ral areas an, s%all re"ion in 2r6an area. It has hi"h s26scri6er ,ensit+ an, s26scri6er ,ensit+ increases as ra,i2s o) 1orkin" ran"e ,ecreases !re) ta6le >.5# S26scri6er ,ensit+ is in(ersel+ /ro/ortional to the s=2are o) cell ra,i2s. The i%/lication o) this can 6e seen 6+ a e9a%/le: Cor e.".- i) N O &''- e O '.5 Erlan"- the ca/acit+ !s26scri6er ,ensit+# (aries 1ith cell ra,i2s as )ollo1s: Ta-le B.2 Cell radius ( r ) r O &5 k% r O 5' k% r O 3 k% r O 5 k% r O 5'' % Subscriber density (S.D.) SD P 5 /er s=. k% SD P @ /er s=. k% SD P >' /er s=. k% SD P @4' /er s=. k% SD P &55' /er s=. k%

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.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

Demerit.: ? 7ar"e n2%6ers o) 6ase stations are re=2ire, )or /ro/er co%%2nication in 2r6an areas. S%all cell ra,i2s is ,esire, to increase s26scri6er<s ,ensit+.

!h?C DE!T: Some Salient Feature.


2. FreDuen+y Band The RC 6an, ori"inall+ allotte, to DECT is 5$$' Q 54'' MAI- tho2"h the entire &' MAI nee, not 6e e%/lo+e, 6+ each s+ste%. 0ll DECT-6ase, s+ste%s incl2,in" /ri(ate an, /26lic s+ste%s o/erate on the co%%on 6an, 1ith no re=2ire%ent )or re"2lation. 0n e9ten,e, DECT 6an, that incl2,es the 6an, 54'' Q 5435 MAI is also ,e)ine,. 3. Mode o/ A++e.. The DECT stan,ar, e%/lo+s a (ersion o) Ti%e Di(ision M2lti/le 0ccess !TDM0#. There are 5' )re=2encies o) o/eration in a &' MAI 6an,- 1ith a s/acin" o) 5.>&$ MAI. The 62rst-rate is 5.55& M6/s- acco%%o,atin" &4 slots. The co%%2nication is Ti%e Di(ision D2/le9 !TDD#. This not onl+ ens2res that /ro/a"ation con,itions are i,entical at an+ ti%e in 6oth ,irections o) trans%ission- 62t also si%/li)ies transcei(er ,esi"n. The &4 slots in a TDM0 )ra%e are ,i(i,e, into t1o "ro2/s o) 5& slots each- one "ro2/ )or each ,irection o) trans%ission. The )ra%e str2ct2re is sho1n in Ci"2re $.5. The )ra%e ,2ration is 5' %s an, a TDD slot-/air is se/arate, 6+ 5 %s. Fi,ure C.2

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.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT 9. Multi?!arrier TDMA 0 (er+ i%/ortant ,i))erence that sets DECT a/art )ro% con(entional TDM0 s+ste%s is that all the slots in a TDM0 )ra%e nee, not 6e trans%itte, on the sa%e )re=2enc+. Each o) the 5& slots co2l, 6e on a ,i))erent )re=2enc+- tho2"h the /air o) slots 2se, )or each TDD link %2st 6e on the sa%e )re=2enc+. This (ariation o) TDM0 is calle, M2lti-Carrier TDM0 !MC-TDM0# an, is the ke+ to the hi"h ca/acit+ achie(e, 6+ DECT. The 5& slot-/airs an, 5' )re=2encies "i(e rise to 5&' channels- as i) the+ 1ere in,e/en,ent o) one another. 0 ;allset can o/erate on one or %ore o) these 5&' channels- 1hile a Base Station recei(es an, trans%its on a %a9i%2% o) 5& o) the% at a "i(en ti%e. The conce/t o) MC- TDM0 is ill2strate, in Ci"2re 0.& )or a h+/othetical )ra%e o) three slots- 1ith each slot e%/lo+in" a ,i))erent )re=2enc+.

>. Tran.mit Po4er The /o1er trans%itte, 6+ ;allset or Base Station is &5' %; ,2rin" the 62rst- or a6o2t 5' %; a(era"e /o1er. This ties in 1ith the nee, )or s%all cells to increase )re=2enc+ re-2se an, conser(es 6atter+ /o1er. @. $oi+e Di,itiEation

DECT e%/lo+s 3& k6/s 0D.CM. This ens2res toll =2alit+ an, /er%its all the ,ata !)a9:%o,e%# ser(ices a(aila6le )ro% a con(entional 1ire, connection. It is also /ossi6le to occ2/+ a ,o26le-slot to trans%it at @4 k6/s 1ith error connection. This can 6e 2se, )or .CM or )or ,ata connecti(it+. A. Modulation DECT e%/lo+s Ea2ssian Cre=2enc+ Shi)t Ke+in" !ECSK# 1ith a Ea2ssian Cilter !BTO'.5#. Bnl+ >5J o) the 62rst rate o) 5.55& M6/s is 2se, )or (oice. DECT e%/lo+s 0D.CM )or its hi"h (oice =2alit+ an, ECSK 6eca2se transcei(er cost is re,2ce,. B+ thro1in" in "enero2s si"nalin" ca/acit+- DECT is a6le to e%/lo+ a (er+ so/histicate, channel selection /roce,2re. This is the %ost i%/ortant as/ect o) DECT 1hich sets it a/art )ro% e9istin" cell2lar s+ste%s an, is ,isc2sse, 6elo1. &> .re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

Ch-9 Application of CorDECT WLL


corDECT ;ireless in 7ocal 7oo/ S+ste%- a 6rain chil, o) TeNeT "ro2/ o) In,ian Instit2te o) Technolo"+- Ma,ras an, Mi,as Co%%2nication Technolo"ies o) Chennai has 6een in 2se in a n2%6er o) co2ntries. It has 6een s2ccess)2ll+ (ali,ate, 6+ the local teleco% a2thorities in se(eral co2ntries an, has )o2n, 1i,e acce/tance.
After successful field trials by the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) at several sites in ndia! and by Telebras! the "ra#ilian counterpart of DoT! at $au %aulo! "ra#il! the technolo&y has been licensed to four of the ma'or Telecom E(uipment manufacturers in ndia) t is bein& manufactured by *+s) Crompton ,reaves Ltd) "an&alore! *+s) Electronics Corporation of ndia Ltd) -yderabad (.ith a tie-up .ith T for corDECT)! *+s) -imachal /uturistic Communication Ltd) 0e. Delhi and *+s) $hyam Telecom Ltd) 0e. Delhi)All these manufacturers have already supplied corDECT WLL systems to *T0L! "$0L and a fe. basic service operators in ndia and abroad)

CorDECT is co%%erciall+ o/erate, 6+ MTN7 in 6oth its %etro net1orks !M2%6ai * Delhi# )or o(er a +ear no1- an, MTN7 has initiate, a secon, /hase /roc2re%ent )or 6oth these cities recentl+. BSN7 !)or%erl+ the DoT# has teste, corDECT in three o) its cities )or nearl+ a +ear- an, is in the /rocess o) in,2ctin" it in a total o) &4 cities. Be)ore this co2l, ha//en- corDECT ha, to "o thro2"h the strin"ent t+/e a//ro(al /rocess o) TEC- an, then 6e a//ro(e, 6+ the DoT N0 a"enc+. C2rrentl+- there are )iel, trials 2n,er1a+ in Iran- E"+/t an, Re%en. Co%%ercial corDECT s+ste%s are also o/erational in 0r"entina- BraIil- T2nisia an, Ni"eria. B2tsi,e o) In,ia- corDECT is %an2)act2re, 2n,er license 6+ BBS 0ccess in Sin"a/ore an, 6+ &$ .re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT B%nico% in T2nisia. corDECT 1ill 6e %an2)act2re, soon locall+ in BraIil too- to take a,(anta"e o) their /re)erential ta9 re"i%e an, attracti(e )inancin" sche%es a(aila6le )ro% their state o1ne, )inancial instit2tions )or locall+ %an2)act2re, /ro,2cts.

!ON! *S"ON: A F*T*RE PROOF S)STEM


The corDECT 1ireless local loo/ s+ste% o))ers relati(el+ lo1 cost an, ra/i, installation o) teleco% ser(ices in areas 1ith e(en hi"h s26scri6er ,ensit+ en(iron%ents. This %icrocell2lar s+ste% relies on a %o,est 6an,1i,th o) &'MAI )or the entire co2ntr+. T1o or three DECT 1ireless local loo/ s+ste%s an, DECT 6ase, local area net1orks co2l, coe9ist in the sa%e area 1itho2t inter)erin" 1ith one another Q all o/eratin" on the sa%e &'MAI 6an,1i,th. The hi"h ca/acit+ is achie(e, not 6+ 2sin" lo1 6it-rate co%/ression techni=2es 62t 1ith toll =2alit+ 0D.CM or .CM (oice co,in". The %icrocell2lar s+ste% can /ro(i,e 0D.CM !3&k6/s# or .CM !@4k6/s# an, e(en ISDN !5&$k6/s# ser(ices to 2sers. Its ,e(elo/ers ,escri6e it as a K)2t2re /roo)K s+ste%.

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.re/are, B+:Bri al Shah

corDECT

Bi6lio"ra/h+

REFEREN!ES:? 2. 3. 9. >. 5. BOO&S:? 0illiam .tallin,: H4irele.. +ommuni+ation. and net4or5.I# 3nd Edition JDelhi: pear.on edu+ation# a.ia 3773 http:FF444.de+t.+hFpu-li+do+.Fte+hni+aldo+ument.pd/ http:FF444.de+t4e-.+om http:FF444.et.i.or,Fpre..roomFarti+le.Fde+tG37arti+le.pd/ 444.+4+.nu..edu..,F+4+pu-FE/ile.Fapp+.pd/ 444.tenet.re..inFpaper.F+orde+t.pd/

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corDECT

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