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FLEXURE DESIGN EXAMPLES

These design examples have been taken from Chapter 2 of the CAC Concrete
Design Handbook, 3rd edition
Example 2.1 Analysis of a Rectangular Beam with Tension
Reinforcement
Compute moment resistance Mr for the rectangular section shown in the figure. f'c = 30 MPa;
fy = 400 MPa.

(Example 2.1)
1.

Calculate effective depth d:


d = 600 - 40 - 11.3 - (19.5/2) = 539 mm

2.

Calculate reinforcement ratio :


= As / bd = (4 x 300) / (400 x 539) = 0.0056 = 0.56%

3.

Determine Kr corresponding to = 0.56% from Table 2.1:


Kr = 1.8 MPa

4.

Calculate resisting moment Mr:


Mr = Krbd2 x 10-6 = 1.8 (400) (539)2 x 10-6 = 209 kN.m

Example 2.2 Design of a Rectangular Beam with Tension


Reinforcement

600 mm

600 mm

Design the rectangular beam shown in the figure for a factored moment of Mf = 415 kN.m.
Use normal density concrete with f'c = 40 MPa, fy = 400 MPa, and maximum aggregate size of 25
mm. The beam is to be built in a non-corrosive environment, having interior exposure.

1.

Estimate effective depth d, assuming 25M bars for flexural reinforcement and 10M stirrups
for transverse reinforcement. Select a clear cover of 30 mm from Table 2.6 (for noncorrosive environment, interior exposure).
d = 600 - 30 - 11.3 - (25.2/2) = 546 mm

2.

Calculate resistance factor Kr : For design; Mr Mf = 415 kN.m


Kr = Mr x 106 / bd2 = 415 x 106 / (400) (546)2 = 3.48 MPa

3.

Determine reinforcement ratio from Table 2.1: = 1.13%

4.

Determine required tension reinforcement:


As = bd = 0.0113 x 400 x 546 = 2468 mm2
No. of 25M bars required; 2468/500 = 4.94
Select 5 - 25M bars

5.

Check minimum steel requirement:


Mr 1.2 Mcr
Mr = 415 kN.m for 5 - 25M bars
Mcr = 0.6 f'c I/ct (Eq. 2-5 and 2-6)
I = bh3/12 = (400)(600)3 / 12 = 7.2 x 109 mm4
ct = 600 / 2 = 300 mm; = 1.0 (normal density concrete)
Mcr = 0.6 (1.0) 40 (7.2 x 109 ) / (300) = 91 x 106 N.mm

Mr = 415 kN.m > 1.2 (91) = 109 kN.m O.K.


Note: Eq. 2-7 may be used in lieu of Eq. 2-5.
Asmin = 0.2 f'c bt h / fy (Eq. 2-7)
Asmin = 0.2 (40)(400)(600) / (400) = 759 mm2
As = 5 (500) = 2500 > 759 mm2 O.K.
6.

Check minimum bar spacing:


s = [400 - 2(30) - 2(11.3) - 5(25.2)] / 4 = 48 mm
From Table 2.6;
s 1.4 db = 1.4 (25.2) = 35 mm O.K.
S 1.4 amax = 1.4 (25) = 35 mm O.K.
s 30 mm O.K.

7.

Check maximum bar spacing as governed by crack control:


Compute quantity "z" from Eq. 2-32 or Table 2.7: z = fs(dcA)1/3
Note: For calculation of A and dc clear cover need not be taken greater than 50 mm.
From Table 2.7; y = h - d = 600 - 546 = 54 mm;
A = 2yb/5 = 2 (54) (400) / 5 = 8640 mm2
fs = 0.6 fy = 0.6 (400) = 240 MPa; dc = 600 - 546 = 54 mm
z = 240 (54 x 8640)1/3 = 18,614 N/mm
z = 18,614 N/mm < 30,000 N/mm (interior exposure) O.K.

8.

Check if skin reinforcement is needed:


h 750 mm no skin reinforcement is needed.

9.

Final design: Use 5 -25M bars as longitudinal tension reinforcement with 10M stirrups and
30 mm clear cover for the stirrup steel.

Example 2.3 Analysis of a Rectangular Beam with Tension and


Compression Reinforcement

400 mm

Calculate the flexural resistance of the beam shown in the figure.


f'c = 30 MPa; fy = 400 MPa.

(Example 2.3)
1.

Compute moment resistance provided by steel couple M'r from Table 2.2 :
Note : Total moment resistance = Mr + M'r
' = A's / bd = (2 x 700) / (600 x 330) = 0.0071; d'/d = 65 / 330 = 0.20
From Table 2.2; M'r = K'r bd2 x 10-6 kN.m, and for ' = 0.71 %,
K'r = 1.93 MPa; M'r = 1.93 (600) (330)2 x 10-6 = 126 kN.m
Note: M'r= 126 kN.m is found assuming that the compression steel is yielding.

2.

Compute moment resistance provided by tension reinforcement (As - A's)


from Table 2.1:
= (As - A's) / bd = (8 x 500 - 2 x 700) / (600) (330) = 0.0131
From Table 2.1; Mr = Kr bd2 x 10-6 kN.m, and for

= 1.31 %,

Kr = 3.83 MPa; Mr = 3.83 (600) (330)2 x 10-6 = 250 kN.m


3.

Total moment resistance of section:


Mr + M'r = 250 + 126 = 376 kN.m

Example 2.4 Design of a Rectangular Beam with Tension and


Compression Reinforcement
Design the rectangular beam section shown in the figure for a factored moment of Mf = 700
kN.m. The beam is to be built as part of a parking structure located in Ottawa, with a limited
cross-sectional size due to functional requirements.

560 mm

560 mm

f'c = 30 MPa; fy = 400 MPa; maximum aggregate size = 25 mm.

a) Given Section
1.

b) Final Design
(Example 2.4)

Determine concrete cover for corrosive environment from Table 2.6:


Select 60 mm clear cover to stirrups.

2.

Estimate effective depth d assuming 30M bars for longitudinal reinforcement and 10M
stirrups.
d = 560 - 60 - 11.3 - (29.9/2) = 474 mm

3.

Determine the required tension reinforcement from Table 2.1 :


For design; Mr Mf = 700 kN.m.
For Mr = 700 kN.m; Kr = Mr x 106/(bd2) = 700x106 / [(460)(474)2] = 6.77 MPa
There is no value given in Table 2.1 for Kr = 6.77 MPa indicating that the section can not
be designed to behave in a ductile manner (under-reinforced) unless compression
reinforcement is used. Try using compression reinforcement.

4.

Determine required compression reinforcement from Table 2.2:


Provide maximum tension reinforcement given in Table 2.1.
For f'c = 30 MPa; select = 2.63 %, and read corresponding Kr = 6.4 MPa
Moment resistance provided by this reinforcement; Mr = Kr bd2 x 10-6
Mr = 6.4 (460)(474)2 x 10-6 = 661 kN.m
Remaining moment resistance to be provided by compression reinforcement;
M'r = Mf - Mr = 700 - 661 = 39 kN.m

K'r = M'r x 106 / bd2 = 39 x 106 / (460)(474)2 = 0.38 MPa


Compute d' based on assumed compression bar size of 15M;
d' = 60 + 11.3 + (16/2) = 79 mm
d' / d = 79 / 474 = 0.17; from Table 2.2; ' = 0.14 %
A's = ' bd = 0.0014(460)(474) = 305 mm2
Use 2-15M with A's = 400 mm2 and d' = 79 mm.
5.

Determine required tension reinforcement:


+ ' = 2.63 + 0.14 = 2.77; As = 0.0277 (460)(474) = 6040 mm2
Use 9 30M bars with As = 6300 mm2.
Note: 9 30M bars can not be placed within b = 460 mm in a single row without violating the
cover and/or minimum spacing limitations specified in Table 2.6. Therefore, use double
layers of reinforcement and revise the design.

6.

Revise d:
Revise "d" based on double layers of 30M bars and 45 mm clear spacing between the two
layers:
d = 560 - 60 - 11.3 - 29.9 - 45/2 = 436 mm
Note: More reinforcement will be needed since "d" is reduced.

7.

Determine required compression reinforcement from Table 2.2:


Provide maximum tension reinforcement given in Table 2.1.
For f'c = 30 MPa; select = 2.63 %, and read corresponding Kr = 6.4 MPa
Moment resistance provided by this reinforcement; Mr = Kr bd2 x 10-6
Mr = 6.4 (460)(436)2 x 10-6 = 560 kN.m
Remaining moment resistance to be provided by compression reinforcement;
M'r = Mf - Mr = 700 - 560 = 140 kN.m
K'r = M'r x 106 / bd2 = 140 x 106 / (460)(436)2 = 1.60 MPa
d' / d = 79 / 436 = 0.18; from Table 2.2 read ' = 0.57 %
A's = ' bd = 0.0057(460)(436) = 1143 mm2 (required)
Use 2-30M with A's = 1400 mm2 (provided)
Note: The effect of the change in d from 79 mm to 86 mm, because of the use of 30M top
reinforcement instead of 15M initially assumed, is negligible and is compensated in the extra
steel area provided.

8.

Determine required tension reinforcement:


+ ' = 2.63 + 0.57 = 3.20; As = 0.0320 (460)(436) = 6418 mm2
Use 10-30M bars in two layers (5-30M in each layer), with As = 7000 mm2

9.

Check spacing of tension reinforcement from Table 2.6:


s = [460 - 2(60) - 2(11.3) - 5(29.9)] / 4 = 42 mm
42 mm = 1.4 bd = 1.4(29.9) = 42 mm
> 1.4 amax= 1.4(25) = 35 mm
> 30 mm
Note: This section is heavily reinforced in the tension region and hence is not likely to violate
minimum steel and crack control requirements.
Final design is illustrated in the figure.

Reinforcement ratio (%) for rectangular sections with tension


reinforcement fy = 400 MPa
A
c f y

= s
M r = K r bd 2 x 10 6 kN .m;
K r = 1
s f y ;
bd
2 f '

Table 2.1

1 c

30
0.81
0.90
2.63

35
0.80
0.88
3.00

45
50
0.78 0.78
0.86 0.85
3.67 3.98

55
0.77
0.83
4.27

60
0.76
0.82
4.55

0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27

0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27

0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27

0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27

f'c
(MPa)
1 :
1 :
bal :
Kr
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.28

0.15 0.15
0.18 0.18
0.21 0.21
0.24 0.24
0.27 0.27

0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27

40
0.79
0.87
3.34
(%)
0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

0.31
0.34
0.38
0.41
0.44

0.31 0.30
0.34 0.34
0.37 0.37
0.40 0.40
0.44 0.43

0.30
0.33
0.37
0.40
0.43

0.30
0.33
0.36
0.40
0.43

0.30
0.33
0.36
0.39
0.43

0.30
0.33
0.36
0.39
0.42

0.30
0.33
0.36
0.39
0.42

0.30
0.33
0.36
0.39
0.42

1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

0.48
0.51
0.55
0.58
0.62

0.47 0.46
0.50 0.50
0.54 0.53
0.57 0.56
0.61 0.60

0.46
0.49
0.53
0.56
0.59

0.46
0.49
0.52
0.55
0.59

0.46
0.49
0.52
0.55
0.58

0.46
0.49
0.52
0.55
0.58

0.45
0.49
0.52
0.55
0.58

0.45
0.48
0.52
0.55
0.58

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

0.66
0.69
0.73
0.77
0.81

0.64 0.63
0.68 0.67
0.71 0.70
0.75 0.73
0.79 0.77

0.62
0.66
0.69
0.73
0.76

0.62
0.65
0.69
0.72
0.75

0.62
0.65
0.68
0.71
0.75

0.61
0.65
0.68
0.71
0.74

0.61
0.64
0.68
0.71
0.74

0.61
0.64
0.67
0.70
0.74

2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

0.85
0.89
0.93
0.98
1.02

0.82
0.86
0.90
0.94
0.98

0.79
0.83
0.86
0.90
0.93

0.79
0.82
0.85
0.89
0.92

0.78
0.81
0.85
0.88
0.92

0.78
0.81
0.84
0.88
0.91

0.77
0.80
0.84
0.87
0.90

0.77
0.80
0.83
0.87
0.90

20
25
0.82 0.81
0.92 0.91
1.83 2.24

0.81
0.84
0.88
0.91
0.95

Table 2.1 (Contd)

f'c(
(MPa)

200

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

0.95
0.98
1.02
1.05
1.09

0.94
0.98
1.01
1.04
1.08

0.94
0.97
1.00
1.04
1.07

0.93
0.97
1.00
1.03
1.07

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

1.06
1.11
1.15
1.20
1.25

1.02
1.06
1.10
1.14
1.18

0.99
1.03
1.06
1.10
1.14

0.97
1.01
1.04
1.08
1.12

(%)
0.96
0.99
1.03
1.06
1.10

3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

1.30
1.35
1.40
1.46
1.51

1.22
1.26
1.31
1.35
1.40

1.18
1.22
1.26
1.30
1.34

1.15
1.19
1.23
1.27
1.31

1.14
1.17
1.21
1.25
1.28

1.12
1.16
1.19
1.23
1.27

1.11
1.15
1.18
1.22
1.25

1.11
1.14
1.17
1.21
1.24

1.10
1.13
1.17
1.20
1.23

4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

1.57
1.63
1.69
1.76
1.83

1.45
1.49
1.54
1.59
1.64

1.38
1.43
1.47
1.51
1.56

1.35
1.39
1.43
1.47
1.51

1.32
1.36
1.40
1.44
1.47

1.30
1.34
1.38
1.41
1.45

1.29
1.32
1.36
1.40
1.43

1.28
1.31
1.35
1.38
1.42

1.27
1.30
1.34
1.37
1.41

4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

1.69
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.91

1.60
1.65
1.69
1.74
1.79

1.55
1.59
1.63
1.67
1.72

1.51
1.55
1.59
1.63
1.67

1.49
1.53
1.56
1.60
1.64

1.47
1.51
1.54
1.58
1.62

1.45
1.49
1.53
1.56
1.60

1.44
1.48
1.51
1.55
1.59

5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

1.97
2.03
2.09
2.16
2.23

1.84
1.88
1.93
1.99
2.04

1.76
1.81
1.85
1.90
1.94

1.71
1.75
1.80
1.84
1.88

1.68
1.72
1.76
1.80
1.84

1.66
1.69
1.73
1.77
1.81

1.64
1.67
1.71
1.75
1.79

1.62
1.66
1.69
1.73
1.77

5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9

2.09
2.15
2.20
2.26
2.32

1.99
2.04
2.08
2.13
2.18

1.92
1.97
2.01
2.06
2.10

1.88
1.92
1.96
2.00
2.05

1.85
1.89
1.93
1.97
2.01

1.82
1.86
1.90
1.94
1.98

1.80
1.84
1.88
1.92
1.95

6.0
6.1
6.2

2.38 2.23
2.44 2.28
2.50 2.33

2.15
2.19
2.24

2.09 2.05
2.13 2.09
2.17 2.13

2.02
2.06
2.10

1.99
2.03
2.07

Kr

6.3
6.4

2.57 2.39
2.63 2.44

2.29
2.33

2.22 2.17
2.26 2.21

2.14
2.18

2.11
2.15

Table 2.1 (Contd)

f'c
(MPa)
Kr
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9

35

40

45

50

2.50
2.55
2.61
2.67
2.73

(%)
2.38
2.43
2.48
2.53
2.58

2.31
2.35
2.40
2.44
2.49

2.25
2.30
2.34
2.38
2.43

2.22
2.26
2.30
2.34
2.38

2.19
2.23
2.26
2.30
2.34

2.63
2.68
2.74
2.79
2.85

2.54
2.58
2.63
2.68
2.73

2.47
2.52
2.56
2.61
2.65

2.42
2.46
2.51
2.55
2.59

2.39
2.43
2.47
2.51
2.55

7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9

2.90
2.96
3.02
3.08
3.14

2.78
2.83
2.88
2.93
2.99

2.70
2.74
2.79
2.84
2.89

2.64
2.68
2.72
2.77
2.81

2.59
2.63
2.68
2.72
2.76

8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

3.20 3.04
3.26 3.09
3.33 3.15
3.20
3.26

2.93
2.98
3.03
3.08
3.13

2.86
2.91
2.95
3.00
3.05

2.80
2.85
2.89
2.94
2.98

8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9

3.32
3.38
3.44
3.50
3.56

3.18
3.24
3.29
3.34
3.40

3.09
3.14
3.19
3.24
3.29

3.02
3.07
3.12
3.16
3.21

9.0
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

3.62

3.45
3.51
3.56
3.62
3.68

3.34
3.39
3.44
3.49
3.54

3.25
3.30
3.35
3.40
3.45

3.74
3.80
3.86

3.59
3.65
3.70

3.49
3.54
3.59

7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

9.5
9.6
9.7

20

25

30

2.79
2.85
2.91
2.98

55

60

9.8
9.9
10.0
10.5
11.0

3.92
3.98

3.76
3.81

3.64
3.69

3.87
4.16

3.75
4.01
4.29

10

Table 2.2 Compression reinforcement ratio (%); fy = 400 MPa


M' r = K' r bd 2 x 10 6 kN .m

d'/d:

d'

K' r = 1 ' s f ' y


d

' =

0.05

0.10

0.15
'
(%)

0.20

0.25

0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00

0.06
0.12
0.19
0.25
0.31

0.07
0.13
0.20
0.26
0.33

0.07
0.14
0.21
0.28
0.35

0.07
0.15
0.22
0.29
0.37

0.08
0.16
0.24
0.31
0.39

1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00

0.37
0.43
0.50
0.56
0.62

0.39
0.46
0.52
0.59
0.65

0.42
0.48
0.55
0.62
0.69

0.44
0.51
0.59
0.66
0.74

0.47
0.55
0.63
0.71
0.78

2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00

0.68
0.74
0.80
0.87
0.93

0.72
0.78
0.85
0.92
0.98

0.76
0.83
0.90
0.97
1.04

0.81
0.88
0.96
1.03
1.10

0.86
0.94
1.02
1.10
1.18

3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00

0.99
1.05
1.11
1.18
1.24

1.05
1.11
1.18
1.24
1.31

1.11
1.18
1.25
1.31
1.38

1.18
1.25
1.32
1.40
1.47

1.25
1.33
1.41
1.49
1.57

K'r

A' s
bd

11

Table 2.6 Spacing and cover requirements for beam reinforcement

12

Table 2.7 Crack control requirement

13