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MICRO AIR VEHICLES

MOHAMED RINJU P M S7M2 ROLL NO:27209

WHAT ARE MAVS(AVS)?

Multi functional, militarily capable, small flight vehicles. size should be less than15cms. Reynolds's no < 10^5. For a Primarily intended and developed for defence applications.

WHY MAVS? WHY NOT SOMETHING BIGGER?

Keeps security personnel out of harms by providing situational awareness right down to platoon level. Direct connectivity Can be individually controlled Can be used for a wide range of new missions _ (even unthought-of before)

APPLICATIONS

Reconnaissance Surveillance Defence applications Weather forecast Wildlife study &photography Crowd control

Targeting Border surveillance Traffic monitoring Tracking criminals & illegal activities Biochemical sensing inspection of pipes

OVER THE HILL RECONNAISSANCE

MOTHER BIRD APPROACH

Tracking of chemicals

MAIN SUB SYSTEMS


1.

FLIGHT CONTROL

2.

PROPULSION SYSTEM
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM GUIDANCE&NAVIGATION

3.

4.

MAV flight regime compared with existing flight vehicles

FLIGHT CONTROL&AERODYNAMICS

Reynolds's no:= inertia force/viscous force Low Reynolds's no: flights may have lift to drag ratio of 5 to 10. The best aspect ratios usually lie between 1&2 Angle of attack should be 5-12 for good endurance. If angle of attack <5, low aerodynamic efficiency Endurance=/power requirement For optimal endurance the mav should fly at7

ACTIVE OR PASSIVE CONTROL


Use strategies using MEMS Create &install tiny sensors miniature actuators Flow character controlled by sensor arrays Flexible membranes or micro flaps to affect the flow as required Micro motors piezoelectric devices magneto elastic ribbons

WING DESIGN AND FABRICATION

Types of wings

wing shapes
Composite materials, Carbon fibres carbon fibre-balsawood sand witches are commonly used

Inflatable wing

Distend (fill) with air or gas

Application in UAV, military


To stow the wings Can be launched from gun or aircraft

Advantages of aircrafts with inflatable wings


Can be packed to 1/10 of original size Low mass Low power requirements High reusability It can be steered, accelerated, and decelerated in level flight. High stability and control High lift and slow landing speed

Experiment on inflatable wing


Experiment conducted using I 2000 It was launched from 800-1000 feet Inflatable wings comes out in 1\3 sec Successfully controlled the launch,flight and landing

Controlling of wing
by using piezoelectric material

actuator can be quartz and substrate can be aluminum or steel inflatable wings has smooth surface so low value of skin friction

I-2000 & X-24A

Both have inflatable wing I-2000 is UAV X-24A is manned

Disadvantages

They are not self powered

Cannot launch from ground


There are chances of air bag buckling

PROPULSION SYSTEM

Propulsion system alone consumes 90% of total power Lithium alkaline batteries IC engines Reciprocating chemical muscle Lithium battery that recharges using solar energy and fuel cells are also future prospects
Self consuming systems

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

A video/still camera, various sensors, micro processors, Transducers & an omni directional antennae

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION


A combination of GPS+inertial sensing is ideal Geographical information system to provide a map terrain for infrastructure would be great Pressure sensors

MAV SYSTEM INTEGRATION

REFERENCES

Research paper Death by a thousand cutsmicro air vehicles in the service of air force missions- by ARTHUR F HUBER,II LT COL USAF http://mil.ufl.edu/~nechyba 2. Davis, W.R., "Micro UAV," Presentation to 23rd Annual AUVSI Symposium, 15-19 July, 1996. Research paper by James M. McMichael Program Manager Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and Col. Michael S. Francis, USAF (Ret.) formerly of Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office MICRO AERIAL VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT: DESIGN, COMPONENTS, FABRICATION, AND FLIGHT-TESTING Research paper by Gabriel Torres and Thomas J. Mueller 117 Hessert Center, University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MICRO AIR VEHICLE CONCEPT: PROJECT BIDULE Mr T. Spoerry1, Dr K.C. Wong School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering University of Sydney NSW 2006

Aerodynamics for engineers:-John J. Bertin Mechanics of flight :-A.C Kermode Inflatable wing on aircraft article :-new scientist june 2001 www. nasa explores. COM\aerodynamics\inflatable wing Miller, Jay,, The X-Planes, Aero fax, Arlington, Texas, 1988 morphing of inflatable wing for UAV David Cardigan* and Tim Smith ILC Dover, Frederica, DE 19946 Innovative Wing Design Could Soar in Martian Skies by benianntova Inflatable wing for high lift john H gleen research centre Ohio www.nastech.com/mechtech www.spaceref.com/newtech www.nasa.gov/aerodynamics www.nasa.gov/multimeadia

BACK REFERENCES

Mueller, T. J., "Low Reynolds Number Vehicles", AGARDograph No. 288, 1985 Lissaman, P. B. S., "Low-Reynolds-Number Airfoils", Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 15, 1983, pp. 223-239 Burgart, M., Miller, J., and Murphy, L., "Design of a Micro Air Vehicle for the 2000 MAV Competition", internal progress report, University of Notre Dame, 2000 ernet, 14 December 2000, available from http://defence-data.com/f2000/ pagefa1006.htm. Air Force 2A New Thrust in DERA Micro Air Vehicle Development, 24 July 2000, n.p.: On -line. Int 025, August 1996, n.p.; On-line. Internet, 18 December 2000, available from http://www.au.af.mil/au/2025/index2.htm. Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) 1, Air Force Basic Doctrine, September 1997. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, New World Vistas Air and Space Power for the 21st Century Summary Volume, 1995, n.p.; On-line. Internet, 4 December 2000, available from http://www.sab.hq.af.mil/Archives/1995/NWV/vistas.htm. Ashley, Steven, Palm-size Spy Plane, Mechanical Engineering, February 1998, n.p.; On-line. Internet, 16 November 2000, available at http://www.memagazine.org/ backissues/february98/features/palmsize/palmsize.html. Ashley, Steven, Turbines on a Dime, Mechanical Engineering, October 1997, n.p.; Online. Internet, 16 November 2000, available at http://www.memagazine.org/ backissues/october97/features/turbdime/ turbdime.html. Barrows, Geoffrey L., Optic Flow Sensors for MAV Navigation, Proceedings of the Conference on Fixed, Flapping and Rotary Vehicles at Very Low Reynolds Numbers, 5-7 June 2000, University of Notre Dame, ed. Thomas J. Mueller, 13 pages. Brendley, Keith W. and Randall Steeb, Military Applications of Microelectromechanical Systems, RAND Report MR-175-OSD/AF/A. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1993. Carroll, Bruce, MEMS for Micro Air Vehicles, Project Summaries, n.p.; On-line. Internet, 24 August 2000, available from http://www.darpa.mil/MTO/MEMS/ Projects/individual_66.html. Carroll, S., US Navy, DARPA Develop IMINT/EW Payloads for Mini-UAVs, Journal of Electronic Defense 21, no. 9 (September 1998): 30-32. Chandler, Jerome Greer, Micro Planes, Popular Science 252, no. 1 (January 1998): 5459.