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NASA-CR-195487

:./v o5-c,,_J

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL

WING DESIGN

DETAIL

(Wing, Aileron, Flaps and Subsystems) Statement of Work Number 2

14 April 1993

AE421-04

Carbon Copy Design Inc. (TEAM Robert Downs, Lead Engineer Mike Zable James Hughes Tern' Heiser Kenneth Adrian Submitted to: Professor C. N. Eastlake

1)

(NASA-CR-195487)

AIRCRAFT

WING

N94-24974

STRUCTURAL DETAIL DESIGN (WING, AILERON, FLAPS, AND SUBSYSTEMS) (Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ.) 40 p G3105

Unclas

0204244

Table

of Contents

Project Design Trouble Summary

Summary Goals Spots of Critical of Design Skin Spar Wing Front Parts

1 I 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 Spar 7 12 13 14 14 Spar 16 22 22 22 22 Spar 28 28 29 29 3O

Philosophy

Description

Rear Spar .Mlerons Spar Anachments Loads and Loading

WingSkin
Front and Rear Ailerons Attachments Structural Substantiation Wing Skin Front and Rear Ailerons Spar Attachment Manufacturing Wing and ._Laintenance Skin

Front and Rear Ailerons Cost Summary \Veight Summary Conclusion Appendix

List of Tablesand Figures

Tables 1
-)

List of Critical High Alpha

Parts

Data

3 4 5 6 7

Low Alpha Data Web Thickness Spar .analysis Cost Summa.ry Weight Summary

Figures
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Triton Tier 1 Diagram Lift Distribution Curve Tier 2 Moment Spanwise Spanwise Spanwise V-n Diagram,. Shear Distribution Curve Moment Distribution Curve .arrangement Aircraft

Wing Planform Spar General Front Spar Rear Spar Aileron ,-_eron Ribs Aileron Spar Push Rod Bracket Attachments

5.5.

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I.

PROJECT

SUMMARY
=

1.1

Design

Goals

/
/

The flaps, this system This major the Aviation in 1.2 1.2.1 The features spars, required airworthiness an adequate the SOW and design and

goal

of ailerons are the

this for provisions fuselage/cabin design in set the

project a primary for

was

to flight the

design, trainer. system,

in

detail, Integrated the

the

wing, in

fuel

electrical structure. of consideration of Pederal all

carry-through displays wing by 23 the structure, the (FAR23) appropriate as well general taking

interface arrangement into sections as those

conceptual components requirements Regulation Statement Requirements

forth Part

established

of

Work.

Statement of ribs, the

of structural

Work

(SOW) design

requires of ailerons, also requires as electrical is flaps with the

that Triton all

the

following wing be

key shown; and all

stringers, The the tank wing and The including is in

flaps, SOW be any wing controls,

attachments that the as provisions

subsystems. of fuel lighting. full span, considered 629.

addressed needed weight

well

for or

equipment limited and FAR23 to subsystems. sections 259

navigation the loading through 1.2.2 The from up to -40" 10,000

lb. All 561

for

accordance

system F to

is +122"F feet.

to

remain and to design

operable atmospheric will also

for

temperatures conditions incorporate

ranging experienced provisions

The

for

environmental at +95" wind 4.0 F,

conditions inches ice gusts on in per all

experienced hour with 50

from mph

sand winds, 8.0

and

dust, up of wet to

rainfall 100% snow, 1.2.3 The service at

humidity inches

external

surfaces, with FAR23.

and

accordance

airplane life with

design all

is critical

also

intended components

to

have

twenty a safe

year life

displaying

of

107

load

cycles

on

rational

loads

adapted

from

the

limit

load

spectrum mission 1.3 Design The light all parts down 1.4

and

I0,000

operational

mission

cycles

according

to

the

profile. Philosophy design wing philosophy with set the forth adhered proper by the to was to construct while the FAR. a simple,

weight requirements were and Trouble The to

subsystems, SOW to and keep

maintaining Standard costs

used ease Spots first

whenever in the

possible construction

manufacturing

process.

major control assembly.

change cables This and design to the

to

the so was

design would too

was

the not

repositioning interfere once The with the only how to

of the

the rear

aileron spar for hang-up the rear

they not was

difficult

spacing other attach

the in

ribs the spar

stringers process

determined. in determining subsystem.

was

fuselage/cabin

Summary Item Wing Name Skin Load

of

Critical Source

Detail M.S. 0.27

Parts Page #

Torsional Loads Bending Moments Bending Moments Torsion Shear

Front Spar Caps Rear Spar Caps Aileron spar

0.02

0.033

0.51 0.88

Front Spar Connection Bolt Rear Spar Connection Bolt

Shear

1.35

Table I

2.0 2.1

Description Wing The Skin wing

of

Design

skin

serves providing of to the

as

a the

smooth proper skin

covering lift followed structural worst

over required all

the for

wing powered set

support flight. forth by

structure The the design FAR

wing

procedures

maintain to

proper

stiffness, case and conditions. spars The and skin maintain ribs the for the and

including The the skin proper

resistance combined airfoil edge are edge Spar front spar caps with

buckling the ribs, for the

under

stringers, entire

shape are

wingspan. sheet The

leading stringers leading 2.2 Front The the cap

hydropressed aluminum by a

aluminum extrusions. brake.

standard is formed

bending

of

the

wing by the

serves the lift

as of

primary the wing. imposed

load The on

path spar the

for

bending carries

moments the

imposed of

portion

bending

moments

front load

spar imposed of

while on a

the the

shear front

web spar.

carries The

the spar

portion is for a

of

the

shear I-beam

built-up the caps, of are the caps

composed standard with a

standard for of AD8-10 between

aluminum the

extrusion and These the and to was and

another 7075-T6 riveted and

extrusion thickness using rivets was spacing

stiffeners, inches. between stiffeners at 6 inches

sheet

0.071 rivets the

components web the aid kept webs and web. in

together DD4-10 spacing Rivet inches. closer additional 2.3 Rear The Additional about spar spar inch to to 2.4 the is a to

Stiffener manufacturing. at have 0.6 been to used avoid

kept on

constant the web-cap

joints spar wing, caps these

constant could kept

Although the tips

smaller of in the the

were

constant

joints Spar design loading attachment built-up a

support

structure.

rationale was

remains imposed upon of

similar the

for rear and

the spar

rear by

spar. the moments The for a were were 0.05 used used the

fittings I-beam

the of for

flaps a

ailerons. extrusion and rivets rivets

composed

7075-T6 stiffeners, AD6-4 AD4-4

caps, thick secure attach Ailerons FAR

standard of to

extrusion 7075-T6 the spar to the for

the web. while

sheet the the web

the

caps web.

stiffener

regulations

were

used for

for proper

the

design

of

the

ailerons The selected The

and

the

attachments deflection incorperated

required was with

aileron The Frise

deflection. aileron ailerons. type

aileron to be

+20" the

and Triton

-I0". are

area

of

each

aileron

is

15it

The

aileron

skin

and

stiffners

are

composed coupler 2.5 Spar The

of are

2024-T3 constructed

while of

the

intrenal

channel

and

push

rod

7075-T6.

Attachments front spar is one continuous and is piece, this of to AN 4-15 is a to fully ease in

manufacturing, assembled fuselage/cabin are it used 3-14. 3.0 3.1 3.1.1 Loads Wing and Skin placed is two to in wing.

installation, The frame. shear. joined the rear spar The The at spar

transportaion directly used spar center is are not of

bolted

the and these bolts piece, The are bolts AN

bolts rear the to

one the

continuous fuselage. frame

pieces attach

the

fuselage/cabin

Loading

The multiplied .4c to on this

design by the

procedure the dynamic which are Pig. the 4).

followed pressure, causes pitching a

incorporates then nose moments up moving pitching created

the this

CMa

c to Added flaps and

moment

m.a.c,

moment. by the

moment (See

ailerons

_ure 4
III

Mac=CMac = (-0 " 04)(1/2)( " O02377)(167kts = -419.5

(1)pV2S_ *z'69ft*s-1 kts ft*Ib )(150"6ft2)(4"57ft)

Move

MAC

to

leading

edge

and

calculate

moment

at

0.4c,

M.4 c

-671.2

ft*Ib

The by The is

next the

things flaps and

taken

into

consideration at their by fact the

were

the

moments about This two hinges

created 0.4c. force which

ailerons force created to

respective flap that is there

hinges 183.3#. are

calculated divided a by force

two of

due 91.7#.

the

yields

MflaP1=(91.7#)

(I. 92' )=176. lft*lb

MflaP2

=(91.7#)

(1.67

' )=152.8ft*1b

Next process. torsion

the

moments Next on the

for these wing.

the 6

ailerons moments were

were

calculated to produce

by

the a

same total

summed

= M.4 c + ZMflap

s + ZMailerons

T 3.2 3.2.1 Using determined 3, Niu Sections the the for 4 V-n each and 5, lift, seen in Front and Rear

1228

ft*ib

14736

in*Ib

Spar

diagram, spar. and

Figure Using example the 6, and 6, high

5,

the

worst as 79,

case outlined

loading in textbook curves

was Chapter by were the

method page

of

the

spanwise as of

shear, Figures both the

moment 7, and and low

distribution 8. By

developed, center using rear

approximating of on attack the in and front 2.

pressure

for

angle loading

moment spars was

equilibrlum determined.

respective The forces

and

are

listed

Table

High Station Shear Front 26 44 62 79 96 114 131 149 167 185 Table 2 3543.61bs 3,155.5 2,722.5 2,320.9 1,892.4 1,502.9 1,139.8 763.1 411.3 211.1 on Spar Shear Rear

Alpha
=

on Spar

Moment Front

on Spar

Moment Rear 4185ft*lbs 3,007 1,688 1,251 819 396 200 50 9.1 0

on Spar

580.91bs 469.1 360.5 267.2 190.7 121.9 68.4 28.5 5.3 2.8

25,528ft*Ibs 20,228 12,746 11,071 8,123 4,885 3,321 1,358 695 0

Figure

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I I I I

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11

Low Station Shear Front 26 44 62 79 96 114 131 149 167 185 Table 3.2.2 Additional coefficient highest equal 3.4 to moments caused by 3 3,090.61bs 2,760.9 2,389.8 2,040.9 1,679.9 1,339.8 1,020.6 686.5 371.9 192 on Spar Shear Rear

Alpha on Spar Moment Front on Spar Moment Rear on Spar

1,050 877.5 704.9 552 411.4 291.2 192.2 108.1 46.3 17.1

22265ft*Ibs 17,698 13,645 9,732 7,211 4,354 2,974 1,221 629 0

7561ft*Ibs 5,625 4,025 2,632 1,765 946 560 192 78 0

ailerons

were

determined at low

using

the the root,

of normal of 580

force. ibs.

Aileron This

deflection the

alpha moment

produced at the

loading 11,346

produces

highest

ft+ibs.

Ailero_ The Loads Part times on the aileron The components on the must adhere to FAR requirements to the force as

stated

in

23.397. the

loading

aileron

is equal

generated

area. Failero n = W * A

F = 25.831b*ft

* 7.5ft

= 193.71b

This moment stated into parts.

force

was

then

multiplied

by This

a 3.277" moment

moment was then

arm

to

generate by then of

the 1.25

hige as

which in FAR

was for flc_

634.8in*lb. a moment and shear of

multiplied was

793.5in*lb. to

This

moment the

transformed necessary

a shear

stress

determine

sizing

all

12

The

forces

acting

on

the

aileron

spar

were

calculated

by

the

use

of

Lotus.

Several

examples

of

the

calculations

from

this

program

can

be

seen

in

the spar to

Appendix. is not a

The

reason

for

using

Lotus The of

was

that of program

the inertia was

C-channel and that ibs the shear for

used

for

the had was

standard The

extrusion. overall outcome a

moment this of

centroids force a

calculated. to be

found

25,371

ibs

for

thickness

0.032in,

32,387

thickness

of

0.025in, sheet

and was

40,406 used. were was

ibs

for This

thickness

of

0.020in. of safety

Using equal of the

these to skin used

results 0.51. thickness. for this

7075-T6

yielded to maximize to

a margin the be

Calculations The final thickness

done

efficiency The

determined

0.020in.

material

application order to use

was

chosen

to

be

2024-T3.

This

sheet

is

thicker

than

necessary

in

standard

thickness

The unacceptable

calculation large.

of The

the

rivet

spacing

yielded a

values spacing

which of

were 13.7 inches.

calculations

indincated

This rivet.

was

reduced THe rivet

to

an

assumed for

spacing this

of

diameters a

from blind

the rivet.

center The

of part

each

chosen

applicationwas

number the 3.5

for

this through

piece which

is

CR is

3213-4-4. would be

This placed.

was

chosen

due

to

the

thickness

of

sheet

Attachments

The

front

spar

is

attached

by

bolts

which

are

placed

in

shear.

These

bolts

are

under

3543.6

in*lb.

After

factor

of

safety

and

fitting

factors

were

taken was

into decided

consideration, to use two AN5

both bolts

being to

1.5, minimize

the

final failure

shear

was

6112

in*lb. plus the

It

possibilities

single followed

shear for

for the

one rear

of

these

bolts and two

is AN3

5750in*lb. bolts will

The do

same the

routine job.

was

spar,

]3

4.0 4.1 4.1.1 flow

Structural Wing Skin The in the

Substantiation

total

torsion which

was was

then then the

used

to

compute by

the

shear

wing

skin, to

divided force in

different skin in the

standard form of

thickness' pounds per

determine inch. T : 2Aq =

the

square

1228

ft*ib

( 1228 ft* Ib) (12_t )


q "

= (2) (240in 2)

30.7

lb*in

q _ "E These spacing, the For

30.7 .032

: 959psi

' alone employed force

30.7 .025 with in in

1228psi different an the

' rib

30.7 .020 and process

1535psi

forces, then buckling thick skin:

stringer to determine

were

iterative skin.

critical .020"

Fcr

= KSE(b)

Ks b

and is

E the

are

determined between

from

Figure

5.4.6

from

the

design

text.

spacing

stringers.

Fcr

(9)(I07)(=_)

2 =

lO00ps

This thickness

allowable of

force .020".

was

too

low

for

the

force

experienced

by

14

For

.025"

thick

skin: Fcr = (9)(107)('_5)2 = 1563 psi

These

critical by which that

forces dividing

were the

then shear met

compared flow by

to

the

initial

forces to

calculated determine determined .032" will being is 2024-T3 have a

standard

thickness' It to was 78.5 section the wing edge span.

thickness the Aluminum skin

the

requirements. at next the the 48 root inch

thickness sheet. The with

station

is

spanwise of leading entire

thickness of of

of .020"

.025" thick

remainder The the

constructed

aluminum. along

skin

constructed

.025"

thick

2024-T3

4.1.2 The for is the only spacing exception 13 edge inches are spacing are standard between of the the rib ribs at from the station of .020" is NAS 6.4 was calculated flap/aileron 94.5. 2024-T3 inches. The to be 16 inches which and The

division ribs

outboard caps for

leading calculated stringers

constructed the stringers

aluminum. The

extrusion

346-11.

4.1.3 The determine the and next the aspect rivet lift of the wing To skin do design this with and total calculated flow 15 through the the process airload moment at on the the was moment about to from the ac

spacing. was used, by the

additional the moments

along flaps the was shear

created to torsion, to determine

ailerons torsion at

different the wing skin. wing. root, This

spanwlse The was worst

stations, case

determine which a

employed

number was then divided


for used given are rivets to

into

the
a at

allowable desirable .6 inches.

single spacing. See

shear The Figure

forces rivets 9.

calculate spaced

MS20442AD-4-4

=-

T 2A

"

366957 in*Ib (2) (240 in 2)

= 705

Ib*in -I

Spacing

fallowable q

= 705

3881b Ib*in -I

6 "

in

4.1.4

Fatigue The fatigue of Front Web The

Life life flight Spar of the wing skin was calculated to be in

excess 4.2 4.2.1

200,000 and Analysis web As Rear

hours. (Figures II and 12)

analysis such, only

for

both

front

and

rear is

spars

is The

very following

similar. example By the first web

one most

calculation critical flow, This the value

shown. of

illustrates finding can be the

the

loading maximum must

the

rear

web. in the

shear

allowable be greater

shear than

determined.

actual

shear,

fs. Web H=4.1", _V_ q-_at flap hinge 2: hole 414.40 D=

Lightening x 1.5=

1650.71b 4.1in

lb/in

16

Figure

3> "O

I
17

Figure

11

!i

"

,!
0 ___ 0 O _

[
|

_EZ v-ZZ-_

"
2_

Ii

18

Figure

12

Ii: I
_o-_
0 0 I I 0 0 o I O O O O -O O O O O _

_,_
14

I o'

.s

19

bs/t

FO

K1

PS

fs

O. 0 2 5

240 200 150 120

7,000 7,750 10,000 12,000

1.3 1.2 0.975 0.8

9,100 9,300 9,750 9,600

16,576 13,813 10,360 8,288

0.03 0.04 0.05


Table 4

Use

thickness _ Fs M'S'-_s-l=

of

0.05"

for

web

9600 8288-1=

.1583

4.2.2

Spar Once

Cap again, for both

Analysis the front bending axis. spar required is process and moment. Using determined. spar cap size Fig. I0 _, used rear to spars. This the Using is found. analyze The moment necessary the the spar acts spar cap at a cap carries distance
of

is

very all y

similar of above inertia theorem, the

applied the of the neutral the

moment parallel

axis

2O

Area A B C D E F1 F2 F3 P4 Sum Table 5 _= ZAy a-'k'_ 0.1875 0.1875 0.249 0.1875 0.1875 0.0022 0.0022 0.0022 0.0022 1.0078 5.82 5.01 2.94 0.875 0.0625 5.73 5.73 0.1473 0.1473

Ay 1.091 0.939 .732 0.164 0.012 0.013 0.013 0.00032 0.00032 2.964

Ay z 6.351 4.706 2.152 0.1436 0.0007 0.0722 0.0722 0.00005 0.00005

Icx 0.00024 0.0352 0.5146 0.0352 0.00024 -

Ix' x ' 6.3512 4.7412 2.6666 0.1788 0.0009 0.0722 0.0722 0.00005

0.00005 14.083

2.964 = 1.0078

= 2.49,

Ixx = Z I x 'x' x (Z AreaXZ

Ay) 2 = 5.37in 4

F=

My Ixx

= 136,1551b_iv(2.49in)=74,543 5.37in 4

PS

M.S.

77'000-1= 74,543

.033

4.2.3 4.2.3.1

Composite Front Composite

Analysis Spar analysis to carry of the the shear for The 5.20 Ibs. web front load. lateral overall Despite to web 2 required zero and a 2 total 90 and of the of 445

degree plies decrease web was was

plies were

degree to composite weight it

arbitrarily crack propogation. to use and

added

stability weight the

calculated to

be

reduced cost of

decided

aluminum

decrease

manufacturing.

21

4.2.3.2

Rear Composite

Spar analysis to carry added which of the for the shear. lateral rear 4 web zero required and 4 and 90 a total degree to of 4 45

degree were crack Although Aluminum However, difficulty the

plies arbitrarily

plies

stability in a total thicker

decrease of a 0.06".

propagation, the web, it is

resulted web is

thickness than weighing manufacturing

composite the

slightly is

comparable 3.14 Ibs.

composite that the

web the

lighter,

believed

increased weight

outweighs web.

slight

advantage

gained

by

using

composite

4.2.4

Fatigue The fatigue of

Life life flight to be of the hours, front spar was the calculated rear spar to fatigue be in life

excess was 4.3

200,000

while

calculated Ailerons See The Section fatigue

80,000

flight

hours.

3.4 life

for of

analysis. the aileron

Figures skin

13,14,15,16 was calculated to be 18,018 flight

hours. 4.4 Spar See 5.0 5.1 Attachments Section 3.5 for and analysis. Maintenance Figure 17. Provisions

Manufacturing Wing The Skin leading rivet in a

edge holes previous

skin are

for

the

wing The

is

formed

by of The

a the

brake, skin is edge

while mentioned caps

the

drilled. section of piece

thickness report. 2024-T3 A1

this of

leading is .020"

are

hydropressed

from

that

22

Figure

13

_i ------'F

i i

021

'

b,_

_w

Bi

_'_

!1

li'i

:i

r
'!ll
23

Ill

Figure

14

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27

thick. edge are

The caps, standard

ribs, are

which by of

are the

the same

same

thickness The in these

as

the

leading wing skins

formed sheets

process. as mentioned in

main the sheets

aluminum are edge

previous the same

sections. as 5.2 5.2.1 they are

The in and Spar

rivet the Rear

holes leading Spars

drilled skins.

Front Front The

spar

caps

and to

vertical simplify rivets.

stiffeners construction. The the holes for web is

are

formed The caps by are drilled Access

from are use to

a then of a

standard drilled shear proper the web to

extrusion to accommodate proper by

trimmed

the

shape, sawing. to is

while Rivet allow

stiffeners are also

cut

their

height and of

through to the in the

stiffeners the wing

attachment. lightening

interior spar 5.2.2 web. Rear The piece caps. and are is The

provided

through

holes

Spar spar then cap is constructed to allow from for are height and is a extruded the a 7075-T6 web to AI. the This spar

drilled

riveting made by web of sawing. to

vertical to their the

stiffeners proper stiffeners The web a shear.

standard Rivet them

extrusion, holes to A1 be sheet of the are

cut

drilled attached which wing 5.3 is is

through together. shaped provided

allow

standard Access to in

thickness the interior

using by

lightening

holes

the

shear

web.

Ailerons The skin as of the the wing ailerons skin. follows The ribs the in same the manufacturing aileron are

processes

28

.=J

constructed lightning which 6.0 forms Cost

of holes the

2024-T3 stamped aileron

which in spar

was the is

hydropressed locations.

into

form The of

with C-channel 7075-T6.

the

proper a custom

extrusion

Summary Item Wing Front Rear Table 6 Skin Spar Spar Cost Merit 4.2 3.99 4.75

6.1

Wing The

Skin wing skin because process. the will upper and cost the It is lower merit only was real calculated machining that to both 3060 wings. in 3 from for done rivets The the one to method it are is of the to

production, drilling fasten process of

estimated skins

needed

drilling total volume

remove

approximately

86.5

aluminum.

7.0

Weight

Summary Table Part Wing Wing Skin Ribs Weight 88.5 22.5 68.5 57.6 14.7 251.8 Estimate Lbs

Stringers, Front Rear Spar Spar

Aileron Total Table The limit estimated of 259 lbs 7 weight given of in 251.8 the Ibs stays

within of Work.

the

specified

Statement

29

8.0

Summary The calculations that the the and proposed to drawings design which is a were usable for a done system minimum Some to the in this which cost slight design, The system but report will due to

indicate allow

aircraft

function and

properly

manufacturing modifications but all major

manufacturing were systems as here not seen only necessary are in

maintainence. repesct as

with the this same

original proposed.

originally indicate

calculations, designed also to

report, to 2 FAR

that 23

the

conforms of Work

Part

requirements The drawings, will between consensus design of fit

the

Statement show that

requirements. systems

included, the space

the with

structural no interface

deisnged

into

available and control is need that for

interference the

structure deisgn main team wing

linkages. this the is Triton a

Therefore, workable aircraft. and

the the

reliable

of

30

Appendix

Calculations

for

the

C-spar

in

the

Aileron

bol= bo2= bo3= theta2= theta3= Thickne

1.07 1.767 1.16 34.4 14.2 0.032 AREA 0.03424 0.05654 0.03712 x y of of of of of of of of of inertia inertia inertia inertia inertia inertia inertia inertia inertia

in in in deg deg in X 0.535 1.569 1.506 1.27398 0.79098 in in in in in in in in in _

0.60039 0.24784

tad rad

SECT1 SECt2 SECF3 centroid centroid Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment MOMENT Stress sigma= y= I= Mdown=

Y 0.016 0.729 1.600

Xl 0.0187 X2 0.01671 Y2 0.00067 XY2-O.O012 X2' 0,01267 X3 0.08222 Y3 0.09015 XY30.08408 X3' 0.04271 X 0.07408

OF INTERIA due to

bending 25371.6

My/I= 0.667 0.074O8 2817.8

Calculations

for

the

C-spar

in

the

Aileron

bol= bo2= bo3= theta2= theta3= Thickne

1.07 1.767 1.16 34.4 14.2 0.025 AREA 0.02675 0.04418 0.029 x y of inertia of inertia of inertia of inertia of inertia of inertia of inertia of inertia of inertia

in in in deg deg in X 0.535 1.569 1.506 1.27398 0.79004

0.60039 0.24784

tad tad

SECT1 SECT2 SECT3 centroid centroid Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment MOMENT Stress sigma= y= I= Mdown=

Y 0.013 0.729 1.600

in Xl 0.01461 in X2 0.01311 in Y2 0.0005 in XY2-O.O009 in X2' 0.00992 in X3 0.06424 in Y3 0.0692 in XY30.06509 in X3' 0.03358 ABOUT X 0.05811

OF INTERIA due to bending

My/I= 0.66794 0.05811 2817.8

32387.7

Calculations

for the C-spar

in the Aileron

bol= bo2= bo3 = theta2= theta3= Thickne

1.07 1.767 1.16 34.4 14.2 0.02 AREA 0.0214 0.03534 0.0232 x Y of of of of of of of of of

in in in deg deg in X 0.535 1.569 1.506 1.27398 0.78937

0.60039 0.24784

rad rad

SECrl S_ SECI_ centroid centroid Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment Moment MOMENT

Y 0.010 0.729 1.600

inertia in X1 0.01169 inertia in X2 0.01052 inertia in Y2 0.00038 inertia in XY2-O.0007 inertia in X2' 0.00795 inertia in X3 0.05139 inertia in Y3 0.05466 inertia in XY30.05172 inertia in X3' 0.02699 ABOl/r X 0.04663

OF INTERIA

Stress due to bending sigma= y= I= Mdown= My/I= 0.6686 0.04663 2817.8 4O4O6