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English Grammar from EnglishClub.

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i- English Grammar Terms ii- The 8 English Parts of Speech


These are the words that you use to make a sentence. There are only 8 types of word - and the most important is the Verb!

1- Verbs 2- Nouns 3- A !ecti"es #- A "erbs $- Pronouns %- Prepositions &- 'on!unctions 8- (nter!ections iii- )e"ision

be, have, do, work man, town, music a, the, 69, big loudly, well, often you, ours, some at, in, on, from and, but, though ah, dear, er, um

i Glossary of English Grammar Terms


Active Voice In the active voice, the subject of the verb does the action (eg They killed the President).

See also Passive Voice. Adjective A word like big, red, easy, French etc. An adjective describes a noun or ronoun. Adverb A word like slowl!, "uietl!, well, often etc. An adverb #odifies a verb. Article $he %indefinite% articles are a and an. $he %definite article% is the. Auxiliary Verb A verb that is used with a #ain verb. Be, do and have are au&iliar! verbs. Can, may, must etc are #odal au&iliar! verbs. Clause A grou of words containing a subject and its verb (for e&a# le' It was late when he arrived). Conjunction A word used to connect words, hrases and clauses (for e&a# le' and, but, if). Infinitive $he basic for# of a verb as in to work or work. Interjection An e&cla#ation inserted into an utterance without gra##atical connection (for e&a# le' oh!, ah!, ouch!, well!). Modal Verb An au&iliar! verb like can, may, must etc that #odifies the #ain verb and e& resses ossibilit!, robabilit! etc. It is also called %#odal au&iliar! verb%. oun A word like table, dog, teacher, America etc. A noun is the na#e of an object, conce t, erson or lace. A %concrete noun% is so#ething !ou can see or touch like a person or car. An %abstract noun% is so#ething that !ou cannot see or touch like a decision or happiness. A %countable noun% is so#ething that !ou can count (for e&a# le' bottle, song, dollar). An %uncountable noun% is so#ething that !ou cannot count (for e&a# le' water, music, money). !bject In the active voice, a noun or its e"uivalent that receives the action of the verb. In the assive voice, a noun or its e"uivalent that does the action of the verb.

"artici#le $he -ing and -ed for#s of verbs. $he -ing for# is called the % resent artici le%. $he -ed for# is called the % ast artici le% (for irregular verbs, this is colu#n (). "art !f $#eech )ne of the eight classes of word in *nglish + noun, verb, adjective, adverb, ronoun, re osition, conjunction and interjection. "assive Voice In the assive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb (eg The President was killed). See also Active Voice. "hrase A grou of words not containing a subject and its verb (eg on the table the girl in a red dress). "redicate *ach sentence contains (or i# lies) two arts' a subject and a redicate. $he redicate is what is said about the subject. "re#osition A word like at, to, in, over etc. Pre ositions usuall! co#e before a noun and give infor#ation about things like ti#e, lace and direction. "ronoun A word like !, me, you, he, him, it etc. A ronoun re laces a noun. $entence A grou of words that e& ress a thought. A sentence conve!s a state#ent, "uestion, e&cla#ation or co##and. A sentence contains or i# lies a subject and a redicate. In si# le ter#s, a sentence #ust contain a verb and (usuall!) a subject. A sentence starts with a ca ital letter and ends with a full sto (.), "uestion #ark (,) or e&cla#ation #ark (-). $ubject *ver! sentence contains (or i# lies) two arts' a subject and a redicate. $he subject is the #ain noun (or e"uivalent) in a sentence about which so#ething is said. Tense $he for# of a verb that shows us when the action or state ha ens ( ast, resent or future). .ote that the na#e of a tense is not alwa!s a guide to when the action ha ens. $he % resent continuous tense%, for e&a# le, can be used to talk about the resent or the future. Verb

A word like "to# work, "to# love, "to# begin. A verb describes an action or state.

ii "arts of $#eech Exam#les


0ere are so#e sentences #ade with different *nglish arts of s eech' verb Sto #ronoun She noun $ara noun 1ohn verb loves verb s eaks verb ran verb works. noun ani#als. noun *nglish adverb well. noun 1ohn noun Ani#als verb verb is working. verb like adjective kind verb s eaks noun eo le. adjective good noun *nglish.

noun $ara

#ronoun She

#re#osition to

adjective noun the

adverb

station "uickl!.

#ron. She

verb adj. likes big

noun snakes

conjunction but

#ron. I

verb hate

#ron. the#. 0ere is a sentence

that contains ever! art of s eech' interjection 2ell, #ron. she conj. and adj. !oung noun 1ohn verb #re#. walk to noun school adverb slowl!.

%ords &ith More than !ne 'ob


3an! words in *nglish can have #ore than one job, or be #ore than one art of s eech. 4or e&a# le, %work% can be a verb and a noun5 %but% can be a conjunction and a re osition5 %well% can be an adjective, an adverb and an interjection. In addition, #an! nouns can act as adjectives. $o anal!6e the art of s eech, ask !ourself' %2hat job is this word doing in this sentence,%

0ere are so#e e&a# les' &ord work #art of s#eech noun verb but conjunction re osition well adjective adverb interjection afternoon noun noun acting as adjective exam#le 3! &or( is eas!. I &or( in 8ondon. 1ohn ca#e but 3ar! didn9t co#e. *ver!one ca#e but 3ar!. Are !ou &ell, She s eaks &ell. %ell- $hat9s e& ensive2e ate in the afternoon. 2e had afternoon tea.

$hese are just a few e&a# les. )f course, there are #ore, even for so#e of the words above. In fact, if !ou look in a good dictionar! !ou will see that the word but has si& jobs to do'

verb, noun, adverb, ronoun, re osition and conjuction-

) English Verbs

).)* %hat Are Verbs+


Verb <lassification 0el ing Verbs

3ain Verbs ).,* Verb -orms


4or#s of 3ain Verbs 4or#s of 3ain Verbs' *&a# les

to sing sing sang sung singing sings

4or#s of 0el ing Verbs )..* English Verb Tenses


2hat is $ense, $he *nglish $ense S!ste# o "resent Si# le, <ontinuous, Perfect Si# le, Perfect
o <ontinuous "ast Si# le, <ontinuous, Perfect Si# le, Perfect <ontinuous

! sing ! am singing ! have sung ! have been singing ! sang ! was singing

-uture Si# le, <ontinuous, Perfect Si# le, Perfect


<ontinuous

)./* "hrasal Verbs ).0* Conditionals ).1* Modal Verbs


put out look after get on with if ! win if ! won if ! had won can shall must$$$

<an, <ould, =e able to 0ave to, 3ust, 3ust not

Shall and 2ill ).2* Gerunds 3*ing4 ).5* 6uestions


=asic >uestion Structure =asic >uestion $! es

fishing is fun ! hate working %o you like me& 'hy do you like me& %o you like me or him& (ou like me don)t you&

).7* Tag 6uestions ).)8* The English $ubjunctive *e insists that he come

9el#ing Verbs
EnglishClub.com Ti# 0el ing verbs are also called %au&iliar! verbs%.

0el ing verbs have no #eaning on their own. $he! are necessar! for the gra##atical structure of a sentence, but the! do not tell us ver! #uch alone. 2e usuall! use hel ing verbs with #ain verbs. $he! %hel % the #ain verb (which has the real #eaning). $here are onl! about @7 hel ing verbs in *nglish, and we divide the# into two basic grou s'

"rimary hel#ing verbs 3. verbs4


$hese are the verbs be, do, and have. .ote that we can use these three verbs as hel ing verbs or as #ain verbs. )n this age we talk about the# as hel ing verbs. 2e use the# in the following cases'

be
o o

to #ake continuous tenses (0e is watching $V.) to #ake the assive (S#all fish are eaten b! big fish.)

have
o

to #ake erfect tenses (I have finished #! ho#ework.)

do
o o o o

to #ake negatives (I do not like !ou.) to ask "uestions (:o !ou want so#e coffee,) to show e# hasis (I do want !ou to ass !our e&a#.) to stand for a #ain verb in so#e constructions (0e s eaks faster than she does.)

Modal hel#ing verbs 3)8 verbs4


2e use #odal hel ing verbs to %#odif!% the #eaning of the #ain verb in so#e wa!. A #odal hel ing verb e& resses necessit! or ossibilit!, and changes the #ain verb in that sense. $hese are the #odal verbs'

can, could #a!, #ight will, would, shall, should #ust

@C

ought to

0ere are e&a# les using #odal verbs'


I can;t s eak <hinese. 1ohn may arrive late. %ould !ou like a cu of coffee, Bou should see a doctor. I reall! must go now.

EnglishClub.com Ti# $emi*modal verbs 3. verbs4 $he following verbs are often called %se#i+#odals% because the! the! are artl! like #odal hel ing verbs and artl! like #ain verbs' need dare used to

Main Verbs
EnglishClub.com Ti# 3ain verbs are also called %le&ical verbs%.

3ain verbs have #eaning on their own (unlike hel ing verbs). $here are thousands of #ain verbs, and we can classif! the# in several wa!s'

Transitive and intransitive verbs


A transitive verb takes a direct object' +omebody killed the President$ An intransitive verb does not have a direct object' *e died$ 3an! verbs, like speak, can be transitive or intransitive. 8ook at these e&a# les' transitive<

I sa& an ele hant. 2e are &atching $V. 0e s#ea(s *nglish.

intransitive<

0e has arrived. 1ohn goes to school. She s#ea(s fast.

@@

=in(ing verbs
A linking verb does not have #uch #eaning in itself. It %links% the subject to what is said about the subject. Dsuall!, a linking verb shows e"ualit! (E) or a change to a different state or lace (F). 8inking verbs are alwa!s intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs).

3ar! is a teacher. (#ar! E teacher) $ara is beautiful. (tara E beautiful) $hat sounds interesting. (that E interesting) $he sk! became dark. (the sk! F dark) $he bread has gone bad. (bread F bad)

:ynamic and stative verbs


So#e verbs describe action. $he! are called %d!na#ic%, and can be used with continuous tenses. )ther verbs describe state (non+action, a situation). $he! are called %stative%, and cannot nor#all! be used with continuous tenses (though so#e of the# can be used with continuous tenses with a change in #eaning). dynamic verbs 3exam#les4<

hit, e& lode, fight, run, go

stative verbs 3exam#les4<


be like, love, refer, wish i# ress, lease, sur rise hear, see, sound belong to, consist of, contain, include, need a ear, rese#ble, see#

>egular and irregular verbs


$his is #ore a "uestion of vocabular! than of gra##ar. $he onl! real difference between regular and irregular verbs is that the! have different endings for their ast tense and ast artici le for#s. 4or regular verbs, the ast tense ending and ast artici le ending is alwa!s the sa#e' +ed. 4or irregular verbs, the ast tense ending and the ast artici le ending is variable, so it is necessar! to learn the# b! heart. regular verbs< base, ast tense, ast artici le

look, looked, looked work, worked, worked

@2 irregular verbs< base, ast tense, ast artici le


bu!, bought, bought cut, cut, cut do, did, done

0ere are lists of regular verbs and irregular verbs.


EnglishClub.com Ti# )ne wa! to think of regular and irregular verbs is like this' all verbs are irregular and the so+called regular verbs are si# l! one ver! large grou of irregular verbs.

)ften the above divisions can be #i&ed. 4or e&a# le, one verb could be irregular, transitive and d!na#ic5 another verb could be regular, transitive and stative.

>egular Verbs
Dnlike *nglish irregular verbs, regular verbs change ver! little. $his is a list of :CC of the #ost co##on regular verbs in *nglish. $he ast tense and ast artici le of regular verbs end in *ed, for e&a# le' &or(? &or(ed? &or(ed. Please note the following oints. So#e verbs can be both regular and irregular, for e&a# le' learn, learned, learned learn, learnt, learnt

So#e verbs change their #eaning de ending on whether the! are regular verbs or irregular verbs, for e&a# le to hang' to hang + regular to hang + irregular hang, hanged, hanged hang, hung, hung to kill or die, b! dro neck ing with a ro e around the

to fi& so#ething (for e&a# le, a icture) at the to so that the lower art is free

$he resent tense of so#e regular verbs is the sa#e as the ast tense of so#e irregular verbs' regular found founded founded

@(

irregular

find found found

Irregular Verbs
Irregular verbs are an i# ortant feature of *nglish. 2e use irregular verbs a lot when s eaking, less when writing. )f course, the #ost fa#ous *nglish verb of all, the verb %to be%, is irregular. 2hat is the difference between regular and irregular verbs, 2ith regular verbs, the rule is si# le. $he ast si# le and ast artici le end in *ed. 0ere are so#e e&a# les of regular verbs' 2ith G*HD8AG verbs... @ase -orm finish the ast si# le and ast artici le alwa!s end sto in +ed' work =ut with irregular verbs, there is no rule' 2ith IGG*HD8AG verbs... so#eti#es the verb changes co# letel!' so#eti#es there is %half% a change' so#eti#es there is no change' @ase -orm sing bu! cut "ast $im#le sang bought cut "ast "artici#le sung bought cut "ast $im#le finished sto ed "ast "artici#le finished sto ed

worked

worked

A good wa! to learn irregular verbs is to tr! to sort the different t! es into grou s, as above. Irregular verbs are ver! co##on in *nglish, es eciall! s oken *nglish. 4or written and #ore for#al *nglish, we tend to use regular verbs. =ut when s eaking, we use irregular verbs a lot.

@/

)., Verb -orms


*nglish verbs co#e in several forms. 4or e&a# le, the verb to sing can be' to sing, sing, sang, sung, singing or sings. $his is a total of : for#s. .ot #an!, considering that so#e languages (4rench, for e&a# le) have #ore than (C for#s for an individual verb. *nglish tenses #a! be "uite co# licated, but the for#s that we use to #ake the tenses are actuall! ver! si# le- 2ith the e&ce tion of the verb to be, *nglish #ain verbs have onl! /, 7 or : for#s. To be has A for#s. Io not confuse verb for#s with tenses. 2e use the different verb for#s to #ake the tenses, but the! are not the sa#e thing. In this lesson we look at the for#s of #ain verbs and hel ing (au&iliar!) verbs, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

4or#s of 3ain Verbs 4or#s of 3ain Verbs' *&a# les 4or#s of 0el ing Verbs

-orms of Main Verbs


EnglishClub.com Ti# 3ain verbs are also called %le&ical verbs%.

*nglish #ain verbsJe&ce t the verb %to be%Jhave onl! /, 7 or : for#s. %$o be% has A for#s. V@ infinitive regular (to) work base work V2 #ast sim#le worked V( #ast #artici#le worked #resent #artici#le working #resent sim#le? .rd #erson singular works

@7

(to) sing (to) #ake (to) cut

sing sang #ake #ade cut cut did had #ast sim#le was, were

sung #ade cut done had #ast #artici#le been

singing #aking cutting doing having #resent #artici#le being

Sings #akes cuts Ioes has #resent sim#le a#, are, is

irregular

(to) doK do (to) haveK have infinitive (to) beK base be

In the above e&a# les'


to cut has / for#s' to cut, cut, cutting, cuts to &or( has 0 for#s' to work, work, worked, working, works to sing has 1 for#s' to sing, sing, sang, sung, singing, sings to be has 7 for#s' to be, be, was, were, been, being, a#, is, are

.ote that the infinitive can be with or without to. 4or e&a# le, to sing and sing are both infinitives. 2e often call the infinitive without to the %bare infinitive%.
EnglishClub.com Ti# $he verb to be is alwa!s an e&ce tion, in #an! wa!s-

At school, students usuall! learn b! heart the base, #ast sim#le and #ast #artici#le (so#eti#es called V@, V2, V(, #eaning Verb @, Verb 2, Verb () for the irregular verbs. $he! #a! s end #an! hours chanting' sing, sang, sung5 go, went, gone5 have, had, had5 etc. $he! do not learn these for the regular verbs because the ast si# le and ast artici le are alwa!s the sa#e' the! are for#ed b! adding %+ed% to the base. $he! do not learn the #ast #artici#le and .rd #erson singular #resent sim#le b! heartJfor another ver! si# le reason' the! never change. $he resent artici le is alwa!s #ade b! adding %+ing% to the base, and the (rd erson singular resent si# le is alwa!s #ade b! adding %s% to the base (though there are so#e variations in s elling). K .ote that %do%, %have% and %be% also function as hel ing or au&iliar! verbs, with e&actl! the sa#e for#s (e&ce t that as hel ing verbs the! are never in infinitive for#).

-orms of Main Verbs< Exam#les


Infinitive

I want to &or(

@:

0e has to sing. $his e&ercise is eas! to do. 8et hi# have one. To be, or not to be, that is the "uestion'

@ase * Im#erative

%or( wellMa(e this. 9ave a nice da!. @e "uiet-

@ase * "resent sim#le 3exce#t .rd #erson singular4


I &or( in 8ondon. Bou sing well. $he! have a lot of #one!.

@ase * After modal auxiliary verbs


I can &or( to#orrow. Bou must sing louder. $he! might do it. Bou could be right.

"ast sim#le

I &or(ed !esterda!. She cut his hair last week. $he! had a good ti#e. $he! &ere sur rised, but I &as not.

"ast #artici#le

I have &or(ed here for five !ears. 0e needs a folder made of lastic. It is done like this. I have never been so ha !.

"resent #artici#le

I a# &or(ing. $inging well is not eas!. 9aving finished, he went ho#e. Bou are being sill!-

@;

.rd #erson singular? #resent sim#le


0e &or(s in 8ondon. She sings well. She has a lot of #one!. It is Vietna#ese.

-orms of 9el#ing Verbs


EnglishClub.com Ti# 0el ing verbs are also called %au&iliar! verbs%.

All hel ing verbs are used with a #ain verb (either e& ressed or understoodK). $here are 2 grou s of hel ing verbs'

Tense hel#ing verbs, used to change the tense of the #ain verb. Modal hel#ing verbs, used to change the %#ood% of the #ain verb. Modal hel#ing verbs can #a! will shall #ust ought (to) <ould 3ight 2ould Should

Tense hel#ing verbs Io =e 0ave (to #ake si# le tenses) (to #ake continuous tenses) (to #ake erfect tenses)

%Io%, %be% and %have% as hel ing verbs have e&actl! the sa#e for#s as when the! are #ain verbs (see for#s of #ain verb above) (e&ce t that as hel ing verbs the! are never used in infinitive for#s). $ense hel ing verbs are followed b! the #ain verb in a articular for#(see for#s of #ain verb above)'

3odal hel ing verbs are invariable. $he! alwa!s have the sa#e for#.

%)ught% is followed b! the #ain verb in infinitive for#. )ther #odal hel ing verbs are followed b! the #ain verb in its base for# (V@).

do L V@ (base verb)

@?

be L +ing ( resent artici le) have L V( ( ast artici le)

ought L to... (infinitive) other modals L V@ (base verb)

%Io%, %be% and %have% can also function as #ain verbs. (see for#s of #ain verb above)

3odal hel ing verbs cannot also function as #ain verbs.

K So#eti#es we #ake a sentence that has a hel ing verb and see#s to have no #ain verb. In fact, the #ain verb is %understood%. 8ook at the following e&a# les'

>uestion' Can !ou s#ea( *nglish, ($he #ain verb s#ea( is %e& ressed%.) Answer' Bes, I can. ($he #ain verb s#ea( is not e& ressed. It is %understood% fro# the conte&t. 2e understand' Bes, I can s#ea( *nglish.

=ut if so#ebod! walked into the roo# and said %0ello. I can%, we would understand nothing-

@A

).. English Verb Tenses


In so#e languages, verb tenses are not ver! i# ortant or do not even e&ist. In *nglish, the conce t of verb tenses is ver! i# ortant. %hat is Tense+

$ense and $i#e

The English Tense $ystem


Gegular Verbs Irregular Verbs =e

Present $enses
Present $ense Present <ontinuous $ense Present Perfect $ense Present Perfect <ontinuous $ense ! do do ! do ! am doing ! am doing tomorrow ! have done ! have been doing

Past $enses
Past $ense Past <ontinuous $ense Past Perfect $ense Past Perfect <ontinuous $ense ! did do ! did ! was doing ! had done ! had been doing

2C

4uture $enses
4uture $ense 4uture <ontinuous $ense 4uture Perfect $ense 4uture Perfect <ontinuous $ense ! will do ! will be doing ! will have done ! will have been doing

%hat is Tense+
tense (noun)' a for# of a verb used to indicate the ti#e, and so#eti#es the continuation or co# leteness, of an action in relation to the ti#e of s eaking. (4ro# 8atin te# us E ti#e). $ense is a #ethod that we use in *nglish to refer to ti#eJ ast, resent and future. 3an! languages use tenses to talk about ti#e. )ther languages have no tenses, but of course the! can still talk about ti#e, using different #ethods. So, we talk about ti#e in *nglish with tenses. @ut, and this is a ver! big but'

we can also talk about ti#e without using tenses (for e&a# le, going to is a s ecial construction to talk about the future, it is not a tense) one tense does not alwa!s talk about one ti#e (see tense and ti#e for #ore about this)

Terminology
0ere are so#e of the ter#s used in discussing verbs and tenses.

Mood
indicative mood e& resses a si# le state#ent of fact, which can be ositive (affir#ative) or negative

I li(e coffee. I do not li(e coffee.

interrogative mood e& resses a "uestion

2h! do !ou li(e coffee,

im#erative mood e& resses a co##and

$it do&nA

subjunctive mood e& resses what is i#agined or wished or ossible

2@

$he President ordered that he attend the #eeting.

Voice
Voice shows the relationshi of the subject to the action. In the active voice, the subject does the action (cats eat #ice). In the #assive voice, the subject receives the action (#ice are eaten b! cats). A#ong other things, we can use voice to hel us change the focus of attention.

As#ect
As ect e& resses a feature of the action related to ti#e, such as co# letion or duration. Present si# le and ast si# le tenses have no as ect, but if we wish we can stress with other tenses that'

the action or state referred to b! the verb is co# leted (and often still relevant), for e&a# le' I have emailed the re ort to 1ane. (so now she has the re ort) ($his is called #erfective as#ect, using erfect tenses.) the action or state referred to b! the verb is in rogress or continuing (that is, unco# leted), for e&a# le' 2e are eating. ($his is called #rogressive as#ect, using rogressive McontinuousN tenses.)

Tense and Time


It is i# ortant not to confuse the name of a verb tense with the wa! we use it to talk about time. 4or e&a# le, a #resent tense does not alwa!s refer to #resent time'

I ho e it rains to#orrow. %rains% is resent si# le, but it refers here to future ti#e (to#orrow)

)r a #ast tense does not alwa!s refer to #ast time'

If I had so#e #one! now, I could bu! it. %had% is ast si# le but it refers here to resent ti#e (now)

$he following e&a# les show how different tenses can be used to talk about different ti#es.

22

$I3* $*.S* #ast "resent Si# le She li(es I am having dinner. "resent <ontinuous $he! "resent Perfect Si# le "resent Perfect <ontinuous I have seen *$. I have been #laying tennis. 2e have been &or(ing for four hours. "ast Si# le I finished one hour ago. I &as &or(ing at 2a# this #orning. I had not eaten for 2/ hours. 2e had been &or(ing for ( hours. If I had been &or(ing now, I would have #issed !ou. 0old on. I;ll do it now. If I had been &or(ing to#orrow, I could not have agreed. I;ll see !ou to#orrow. I &ill be &or(ing at A # tonight. I &ill have finished b! A # tonight. 2e &ill have been #arried for ten !ears ne&t #onth. If she loved !ou now, she would #arr! !ou. If !ou came to#orrow, !ou would see her. are living I have finished. in coffee. I am ta(ing #! e&a# ne&t #onth. 8ondon. #resent I &ant a coffee. future I leave to#orrow.

"ast <ontinuous "ast Perfect Si# le

"ast Perfect <ontinuous

-uture Si# le -uture <ontinuous

-uture Perfect Si# le

2(

-uture Perfect <ontinuous

$he! #a! be tired when !ou arrive because the! &ill have been &or(ing. In (C #inutes, we &ill have been &or(ing for four hours.

English Tense $ystem


4or ast and resent, there are 2 si# le tenses L : co# le& tenses (using au&iliar! verbs). $o these, we can add / %#odal tenses% for the future (using #odal au&iliar! verbs willOshall). $his #akes a total of @2 tenses in the active voice. Another @2 tenses are available in the assive voice. So now we have 2/ tenses. ,/ Tenses si# le tenses co# le& tenses (for#ed with au&iliar! verbs) ACTIVE #ast continuous #ast #erfect continuous #ast #ast #erfect "A$$IVE #ast continuous #ast #erfect continuous #resent continuous #resent #erfect continuous #resent #resent #erfect #resent continuous #resent #erfect continuous future continuous future #erfect continuous future future #erfect future continuous future #erfect continuous so+called %#odal tenses%
englishclub*com Tip Some grammar books use the word progressi"e instead of continuous. They are exactly the same.

ast #ast #ast #erfect

resent #resent #resent #erfect

future future future #erfect

2/ $he use of tenses in *nglish #a! be "uite co# licated, but the structure of *nglish tenses is actuall! ver! si# le. $he basic structure for a ositive sentence is'

subject L au&iliar! verb L #ain verb


An au&iliar! verb is used in all tenses. (In the si# le resent and si# le ast tenses, the au&iliar! verb is usuall! su ressed for the affir#ative, but it can and does e&ist for intensification.) $he following table shows the ), tenses for the verb to &or( in the active voice. structure #ast au&iliar! nor#al sim#le intensive #erfect do have base ast artici le resent artici le +ing resent artici le +ing I did work I had worked I was working I had been working I do work I have worked I a# working I have been working I will have worked I will be working I will have been working #ain verb I worked I work I will work #resent futureB

continuous

be

continuous #erfect

have been

K $echnicall!, there are no future tenses in *nglish. $he word &ill is a #odal au&iliar! verb and future tenses are so#eti#es called %#odal tenses%. $he e&a# les are included here for convenience and co# arison. 0ere are so#e #ore detailed e&a# les covering affir#ative, negative and interrogative with'

a regular verb an irregular verb the irregular verb %to be%

English Tense $ystem< regular verbs

27 $his age shows an e&a# le of the basic *nglish tense s!ste# with the regular verb to &or(. It includes the affir#ative or ositive for# (L), the negative for# (+) and the interrogative or "uestion for# (,). $he basic structure is'

L ositive' subject L au&iliar! verb L #ain verb + negative' subject L au&iliar! verb L not L #ain verb , "uestion' au&iliar! verb L subject L #ain verb
$hese are the various for#s of the #ain verb that we use to construct the various tenses' work base verb worked ast worked ast artici le working resent artici le +ing

Tenses

#ast

#resent I do work. I work. I do not work. :o I work, I have worked. I have not worked. 9ave I worked, I am working I am not working, Am I working,

future I will work. I will not work. 2ill I work, I &ill have worked. I &ill not have worked. %ill I have worked, I &ill be working. I &ill not be working. %ill I be working,

SI3P8* do L base verb (e&ce t future' will L base verb)

L + , L

I did work. I worked. I did not work. :id I work, I had worked. I had not worked. 9ad I worked, I &as working. I &as not working. %as I working,

SI3P8* P*G4*<$ have L ast artici le

+ ,

<).$I.D)DS be L ing

L + ,

2:

L
<).$I.D)DS P*G4*<$ have been L ing

I had been working. I had not been working. 9ad I been working,

I have been working. I have not been working. 9ave I been working,

I &ill have been working. I &ill not have been working. %ill I have been working,

+ ,

English Tense $ystem< irregular verbs


$his age shows an e&a# le of the basic *nglish tense s!ste# with the irregular verb to sing. It includes the affir#ative or ositive for# (L), the negative for# (+) and the interrogative or "uestion for# (,). $he basic structure is'

L ositive' subject L au&iliar! verb L #ain verb + negative' subject L au&iliar! verb L not L #ain verb , "uestion' au&iliar! verb L subject L #ain verb
$hese are the various for#s of the #ain verb that we use to construct the various tenses' sing base verb sang ast sung ast artici le singing resent artici le +ing

Tenses SI3P8* do L base verb (e&ce t future' will L base verb)

#ast

#resent I do sing. I sing. I do not sing. :o I sing,

future I will sing.

L + ,

I did sing. I sang. I did not sing. :id I sing,

I will not sing. 2ill I sing,

2;

L
SI3P8* P*G4*<$ have L ast artici le

I had sung. I had not sung. 9ad I sung, I &as singing. I &as not singing. %as I singing, I had been singing. I had not been singing. 9ad I been singing,

I have sung. I have not sung. 9ave I sung, I am singing I am not singing. Am I singing, I have been singing. I have not been singing. 9ave I been singing,

I &ill have sung. I &ill not have sung. %ill I have sung, I &ill be singing. I &ill not be singing. %ill I be singing, I &ill have been singing. I &ill not have been singing. %ill I have been singing,

+ , L

<).$I.D)DS be L +ing

+ ,

<).$I.D)DS P*G4*<$ have been L +ing

L + ,

englishclub*com Tip The basic structure of tenses for regular verbs and irregular verbs is e+actl, the same except to be!. The only difference is that with regular verbs the past and past participle are always the same worked" worked!" while with irregular verbs the past and past participle are not always the same sang" sung!. #ut the structure is the same! $t will help you a great deal to really understand that.

English Tense $ystem< to be


$his age shows the tense s!ste# for the irregular verb to be. It includes the affir#ative or ositive for# (L), the negative for# (+) and the interrogative or "uestion for# (,). %$o be% is an e&ce tional verb. It is alwa!s different fro# other verbs, in various wa!s. So we cannot e& ect %to be% to have e&actl! the sa#e structure as other verbs0owever, the basic structure for to be is the sa#e as for all verbs'

2?

L ositive' subject L au&iliar! verb L #ain verb + negative' subject L au&iliar! verb L not L #ain verb , "uestion' au&iliar! verb L subject L #ain verb Exce#tionA
4or si# le ast and si# le resent tenses, the structure is not the sa#e. In fact, it9s even easier- $here is no au&iliar! verb. 0ere is the structure'

L ositive' subject L #ain verb + negative' subject L #ain verb L not , "uestion' #ain verb L subject $hese are the various for#s of the
#ain verb that we use to construct the various tenses' be base was, were ast si# le been ast artici le being resent artici le a#, are, is resent si# le

2A

Tenses SI3P8* resent si# le or ast si# le (e&ce t future' will L base verb)

#ast

#resent I a# I a# not A# I, I have been. I have not been. 9ave I been, I am being I am not being. Am I being, I have been being. I have not been being. 9ave I been being,

future I will be I will not be 2ill I be, I &ill have been. I &ill not have been. %ill I have been, I &ill be being. I &ill not be being. %ill I be being, I &ill have been being. I &ill not have been being. %ill I have been being,

L + , L

I was I was not 2as I, I had been. I had not been. 9ad I been, I &as being. I &as not being. %as I being, I had been being. I had not been being. 9ad I been being,

SI3P8* P*G4*<$ have L ast artici le

+ , L

<).$I.D)DS be L +ing

+ ,

<).$I.D)DS P*G4*<$ have been L +ing

L + ,

In the following table, we see to be conjugated with all ersons in the singular (I, !ou, heOsheOit) and in the lural (we, !ou, the!) for the @2 tenses.

(C

SI3P8* I singular !ou heOsheOit we lural !ou the! P*G4*<$ I singular !ou heOsheOit we lural !ou the! <).$I.D)DS I singular !ou heOsheOit we lural !ou the! <).$I.D)DS P*G4*<$ I singular !ou

#ast was were was were were were #ast had been had been had been had been had been had been #ast was being were being was being were being were being were being #ast had been being had been being

#resent a# are is are are are #resent have been have been has been have been have been have been #resent a# being are being is being are being are being are being #resent have been being have been being

future will be will be will be will be will be will be future will have been will have been will have been will have been will have been will have been future will be being will be being will be being will be being will be being will be being future will have been being will have been being

(@

$im#le "resent Tense


( sing

How do we make the Simple Present Tense?

subject L au&iliar! verb L #ain verb


do $here are three i# ortant exce#tions' @. 4or ositive sentences, &e do not normally use the auxiliary. 2. 4or the (rd erson singular (he, she, it), we add s to the #ain verb or es to the au&iliar!. (. 4or the verb to be, we do not use an au&iliar!, even for "uestions and negatives. 8ook at these e&a# les with the #ain verb like' subject auxiliary verb main verb like likes not like not like like like coffee. coffee. coffee. coffee. coffee, coffee, base

L + ,

I, !ou, we, the! 0e, she, it I, !ou, we, the! do 0e, she, it Io Ioes does I, !ou, we, the! he, she, it

8ook at these e&a# les with the #ain verb be. .otice that there is no au&iliar!' subject I main verb a# are is 4rench. 4rench. 4rench.

Bou, we, the! 0e, she, it

(2

a# are is I !ou, we, the! he, she, it

not not not

old. old. old. late, late, late,

Bou, we, the! 0e, she, it A#

Are Is

How do we use the Simple Present Tense?


2e use the si# le resent tense when'

the action is general the action ha ens all the ti#e, or habituall!, in the ast, resent and future the action is not onl! ha ening now the state#ent is alwa!s true

1ohn drives a ta&i.


#ast #resent future

It is 1ohn9s job to drive a ta&i. 0e does it ever! da!. Past, resent and future. 8ook at these e&a# les'

I live in .ew Bork. $he 3oon goes round the *arth. 1ohn drives a ta&i. 0e does not drive a bus. 2e do not work at night. Io !ou la! football,

.ote that with the verb to be, we can also use the si# le resent tense for situations that are not general. 2e can use the si# le resent tense to talk about no&. 8ook at these e&a# les of the verb to be in the resent si# le tenseJso#e of the# are general, so#e of the# are no&'

((

A# I right, $ara is not at ho#e. Bou are ha !.


#ast #resent future

$he situation is now.

I a# not fat. 2h! are !ou so beautiful, Ga# is tall.


#ast #resent future

$he situation is general. Past, resent and future.


EnglishClub.com Ti# $his age shows the use of the si# le resent tense to talk about general events. =ut note that there are so#e other uses for the si# le resent tense, for e&a# le in conditional or if sentences, or to talk about the future. Bou will learn about those later.

"resent Continuous Tense


( am singing 2e often use the resent continuous tense in *nglish. It is ver! different fro# the si# le resent tense, both in structure and in use. In this lesson we look the structure and use of the resent continuous tense, follwed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

Structure' how do we #ake the resent continuous tense, Dse' when and wh! do we use the resent continuous tense, S elling' how do we s ell verbs with +ing for the resent continuous tense,

EnglishClub.com Ti# Continuous tenses are also called #rogressive tenses. So the resent rogressive tense is the sa#e as the resent continuous tense.

(/

9o& do &e ma(e the "resent Continuous+


$he structure of the resent continuous tense is'

subject L au&iliar! verb L #ain verb


be 8ook at these e&a# les' subject auxiliary verb a# are is are he the! not not main verb s eaking reading sta!ing la!ing watching waiting to !ou. this. in 8ondon. football. $V, for 1ohn, base L ing

L L + + , ,

I Bou She 2e Is Are

9o& do &e use the "resent Continuous+


2e use the resent continuous tense to talk about'

action ha ening now action in the future

Present continuous tense for action happening now


a) for action ha ening exactly no&

I a# eating #! lunch.

(7

#ast

#resent

future

$he action is ha now.

ening

8ook at these e&a# les. Gight now !ou are looking at this screen and at the sa#e ti#e...

...the ages are turning. b) for action ha

...the candle is burning.

...the nu#bers are s inning.

ening around no& ening just before and just

$he action #a! not be ha ening e&actl! now, but it is ha after now, and it is not er#anent or habitual.

1ohn is going out with 3ar!.


#ast #resent future

$he action is ha ening around now. 8ook at these e&a# les'


3uriel is learning to drive. I am living with #! sister until I find an a art#ent.

Present continuous tense for the future


2e can also use the resent continuous tense to talk about the futureJif we add a future &ord-- 2e #ust add (or understand fro# the conte&t) a future word. %4uture words% include, for e&a# le, tomorro&, next year, in 'une, at Christmas etc. 2e onl! use the resent continuous tense to talk about the future when we have lanned to do so#ething before we s eak. 2e have alread! made a decision and a #lan before s eaking.

(:

I a# taking #! e&a# ne&t #onth.


#ast #resent future

--A fir# lan or rogra##e e&ists now. 8ook at these e&a# les'

$he action is in the future.

2e;re eating in a restaurant tonight. 2e9ve alread! booked the table.. $he! can la! tennis with !ou to#orrow. $he!;re not &or(ing. 2hen are !ou starting !our new job,

In these e&a# les, we have a firm #lan or #rogramme before s#ea(ing. $he decision and lan were #ade before s eaking.

9o& do &e s#ell the "resent Continuous+


2e #ake the resent continuous tense b! adding +ing to the base verb. .or#all! it9s si# leJwe just add +ing. =ut so#eti#es we have to change the word a little. Perha s we double the last letter, or we dro a letter. 0ere are the rules to hel !ou know how to s ell the resent continuous tense. @asic rule 1ust add *ing to the base verb' work la! assist see be F F F F F working la!ing assisting seeing being

(;

Exce#tion )

If the base verb ends in consonant C stressed vo&el C consonant, double the last letter'

s
(vowels E a, e, i, o, u) sto run begin

t
consonant F F F sto

o
stressed vowel ing

#
consonant

running beginning

,ote that this e-ception does not apply when the last syllable of the base verb is not stressed. o en Exce#tion , F o ening

If the base verb ends in ie, change the ie to y' lie die F F l!ing d!ing

Exce#tion .

If the base verb ends in vo&el C consonant C e, o#it the e' co#e #istake F F co#ing #istaking

"resent "erfect Tense


( have sung $he resent erfect tense is a rather i# ortant tense in *nglish, but it gives s eakers of so#e languages a difficult ti#e. $hat is because it uses conce ts or ideas that do not e&ist in those languages. In fact, the structure of the resent erfect tense is ver! si# le. $he roble#s co#e with the use of the tense. In addition, there are so#e differences in usage between =ritish and A#erican *nglish.

(? In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the resent erfect, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

Structure' how to #ake the resent erfect tense Dse' when and wh! to use the resent erfect tense 4or and Since with the resent erfect tense. 2hat9s the difference,

EnglishClub.com Ti# $he resent erfect tense is reall! a ver! interesting tense, and a ver! useful one. $r! not to translate the resent erfect tense into !our language. 1ust tr! to acce t the conce ts of this tense and learn to %think% resent erfect- Bou will soon learn to li(e the resent erfect tense-

9o& do &e ma(e the "resent "erfect Tense+


$he structure of the resent erfect tense is'

subject L au&iliar! verb L #ain verb


have ast artici le 0ere are so#e e&a# les of the resent erfect tense' subject auxiliary verb have have has have !ou the! not not main verb seen eaten been not la!ed finished, done it, *$. #ine. to Go#e. football.

L L + + , ,

I Bou She 2e 0ave 0ave

Contractions &ith the #resent #erfect tense

(A 2hen we use the resent erfect tense in s eaking, we usuall! contract the subject and au&iliar! verb. 2e also so#eti#es do this when we write. I have Bou have 0e has She has It has 1ohn has $he car has 2e have $he! have I9ve Bou9ve 0e9s She9s It9s 1ohn9s $he car9s 2e9ve $he!9ve

0ere are so#e e&a# les'


I9ve finished #! work. 1ohn9s seen *$. $he!9ve gone ho#e.

EnglishClub.com Ti# 9e;s or he;s,,, =e careful- $he ;s contraction is used for the au&iliar! verbs have and be. 4or e&a# le, %It9s eaten% can #ean' It has eaten. M resent erfect tense, active voiceN It is eaten. M resent tense, assive voiceN It is usuall! clear fro# the conte&t.

9o& do &e use the "resent "erfect Tense+


$his tense is called the #resent erfect tense. $here is alwa!s a connection with the ast and with the #resent. $here are basicall! three uses for the resent erfect tense' @. e& erience 2. change (. continuing situation

1. Present perfect tense for experience


2e often use the resent erfect tense to talk about ex#erience fro# the ast. 2e are not interested in &hen !ou did so#ething. 2e onl! want to know if !ou did it'

/C

I have seen *$. 0e has lived in =angkok. 0ave !ou been there, 2e have never eaten caviar.
#ast #resent future

--$he action or state was in the ast. In #! head, I have a #e#or! now.

Connection &ith #ast< the event was in the ast. Connection &ith #resent< in #! head, no&, I have a #e#or! of the event5 I (no& so#ething about the event5 I have ex#erience of it.

2. Present perfect tense for change


2e also use the resent erfect tense to talk about a change or ne& infor#ation'

I have bought a car.


#ast #resent future

+
8ast week I didn9t have a car.

L
.ow I have a car.

1ohn has broken his leg.


#ast #resent future

L
Besterda! 1ohn had a good leg.

+
.ow he has a bad leg.

/@

0as the rice gone u ,


#ast #resent future

L
2as the rice P@.7C !esterda!,

+
Is the rice P@.;C toda!,

$he olice have arrested the killer.


#ast #resent future

+
Besterda! the killer was free.

L
.ow he is in rison.

Connection &ith #ast< the ast is the o osite of the resent. Connection &ith #resent< the resent is the o osite of the ast.
EnglishClub.com Ti# A#ericans do not use the resent erfect tense so #uch as =ritish s eakers. A#ericans often use the ast tense instead. An A#erican #ight sa! %Iid !ou have lunch,%, where a =ritish erson would sa! %0ave !ou had lunch,%

. Present perfect tense for continuing situation


2e often use the resent erfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. $his is a state that started in the #ast and continues in the #resent (and will robabl! continue into the future). $his is a state (not an action). 2e usuall! use for or since with this structure.

I have worked here since 1une. 0e has been ill for 2 da!s. 0ow long have !ou known $ara,
#ast #resent future

$he situation started in the

It continues u to now.

(It will robabl! continue

/2

ast. Connection &ith #ast< the situation started in the ast. Connection &ith #resent< the situation continues in the resent.

into the future.)

-or D $ince &ith "resent "erfect


2e often use for and since with the resent erfect tense.

2e use for to talk about a #eriod of ti#eJ7 #inutes, 2 weeks, : !ears. 2e use since to talk about a #oint in ast ti#eJA o9clock, @st 1anuar!, 3onda!.

for
a #eriod of time

since
a #oint in #ast time

Q
2C #inutes three da!s : #onths / !ears 2 centuries a long ti#e ever etc 0ere are so#e e&a# les'

:.@7 # 3onda! 1anuar! @AA/ @?CC I left school the beginning of ti#e etc

I have been here for 2C #inutes. I have been here since A o9clock. 1ohn hasn9t called for : #onths. 1ohn hasn9t called since 4ebruar!. 0e has worked in .ew Bork for a long ti#e.

/(

0e has worked in .ew Bork since he left school.

EnglishClub.com Ti# -or can be used with all tenses. $ince is usuall! used with erfect tenses onl!.

"resent "erfect Continuous Tense


( have !een singing

How do we make the Present Perfect "ontinuous Tense?


$he structure of the resent erfect continuous tense is'

subject L au&iliar! verb L au&iliar! verb L #ain verb


have has been base L ing 0ere are so#e e&a# les of the resent erfect continuous tense' subject auxiliary verb have have has have !ou the! not not auxiliary verb been been been been been been main verb waiting talking raining. la!ing seeing doing football. her, their ho#ework, for one hour. too #uch.

L L + + , ,

I Bou It 2e 0ave 0ave

Contractions
2hen we use the resent erfect continuous tense in s eaking, we often contract the subject and the first au&iliar!. 2e also so#eti#es do this in infor#al writing. I have been I9ve been

//

Bou have been 0e has been She has been It has been 1ohn has been $he car has been 2e have been $he! have been

Bou9ve been 0e9s been She9s been It9s been 1ohn9s been $he car9s been 2e9ve been $he!9ve been

0ere are so#e e&a# les'


I9ve been reading. $he car9s been giving trouble. 2e9ve been la!ing tennis for two hours.

How do we use the Present Perfect "ontinuous Tense?


$his tense is called the #resent erfect continuous tense. $here is usuall! a connection with the #resent or now. $here are basicall! two uses for the resent erfect continuous tense'

). An action that has just sto##ed or recently sto##ed


2e use the resent erfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the ast and sto ed recentl!. $here is usuall! a result no&.

I9# tired because I9ve been running.


#ast #resent future

--Gecent action.

Gesult now.

I9# tired MnowN because I;ve been running. 2h! is the grass wet MnowN, 9as it been raining, Bou don9t understand MnowN because !ou haven9t been listening.

,. An action continuing u# to no&

/7 2e use the resent erfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the ast and is continuing no&. $his is often used with for or since.

I have been reading for 2 hours.


#ast #resent future

Action started in ast.


Action is continuing now.

I have been reading for 2 hours. MI a# still reading now.N 2e;ve been studying since A o9clock. M2e9re still stud!ing now.N 0ow long have !ou been learning *nglish, MBou are still learning now.N 2e have not been smo(ing. MAnd we are not s#oking now.N

#or and Since with Present Perfect "ontinuous Tense


2e often use for and since with the resent erfect tense.

2e use for to talk about a #eriod of ti#eJ7 #inutes, 2 weeks, : !ears. 2e use since to talk about a #oint in ast ti#eJA o9clock, @st 1anuar!, 3onda!.

for
a #eriod of time

since
a #oint in #ast time

Q
2C #inutes three da!s : #onths / !ears 2 centuries a long ti#e :.@7 # 3onda! 1anuar! @AA/ @?CC I left school

/:

ever etc

the beginning of ti#e etc

0ere are so#e e&a# les'


I have been stud!ing for ( hours. I have been watching $V since ; #. $ara hasn9t been feeling well for 2 weeks. $ara hasn9t been visiting us since 3arch. 0e has been la!ing football for a long ti#e. 0e has been living in =angkok since he left school.

EnglishClub.com Ti# -or can be used with all tenses. $ince is usuall! used with erfect tenses onl!.

$im#le "ast Tense


( sang $he sim#le #ast tense is so#eti#es called the reterite tense. 2e can use several tenses to talk about the ast, but the si# le ast tense is the one we use #ost often. In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the si# le ast tense, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

Structure' how do we #ake the si# le ast tense, Dse' how do we use the si# le ast tense,

9o& do &e ma(e the $im#le "ast+


$o #ake the si# le ast tense, we use'

#ast form onl! or au&iliar! did C base form

0ere !ou can see e&a# les of the #ast form and base form for irregular verbs and regular verbs' V) V, V.

/;

base regular verb

#ast

#ast #artici#le worked e& loded liked gone seen sung Bou do not need the ast artici le for# to #ake the si# le ast tense. It is shown here for co# leteness onl!. $he ast for# for all regular verbs ends in +ed. $he ast for# for irregular verbs is variable. Bou need to learn it b! heart.

&or( &or(ed ex#lode ex#loded li(e li(ed go see sing &ent sa& sang

irregular verb

$he structure for #ositive sentences in the si# le ast tense is'

subject L #ain verb


ast $he structure for negative sentences in the si# le ast tense is'

subject L au&iliar! verb L not L #ain verb


did base $he structure for Euestion sentences in the si# le ast tense is'

au&iliar! verb L subject L #ain verb


did base $he au&iliar! verb did is not conjugated. It is the sa#e for all ersons (I did, !ou did, he did etc). And the base for# and ast for# do not change. 8ook at these e&a# les with the #ain verbs go and &or(' subject auxiliary verb main verb went worked to school. ver! hard.

I Bou

/?

+ ,

She 2e Iid Iid

did did !ou the!

not not

go work go work

with #e. !esterda!. to 8ondon, at ho#e,

Exce#tionA $he verb to be is different. 2e conjugate the verb to be (I was, !ou were, heOsheOit was, we were, the! were)5 and we do not use an au&iliar! for negative and "uestion sentences. $o #ake a "uestion, we e&change the subject and verb. 8ook at these e&a# les' subject main verb was were was were I, heOsheOit !ou, we, the! not not here. in 8ondon. there. ha !.

L + ,

I, heOsheOit Bou, we, the! I, heOsheOit Bou, we, the! 2as 2ere

right, late,

9o& do &e use the $im#le "ast+


2e use the si# le ast tense to talk about an action or a situationJan eventJin the ast. $he event can be short or long. 0ere are so#e short events with the si# le ast tense'

$he car e& loded at A.(Ca# !esterda!. She went to the door. 2e did not hear the tele hone. Iid !ou see that car,

/A

#ast

#resent

future

$he action is in the ast. 0ere are so#e long events with the si# le ast tense'

I lived in =angkok for @C !ears. $he 1urassic eriod lasted about :2 #illion !ears. 2e did not sing at the concert. Iid !ou watch $V last night,
#ast #resent future

$he action is in the ast. .otice that it does not #atter how long ago the event is' it can be a few #inutes or seconds in the ast, or #illions of !ears in the ast. Also it does not #atter how long the event is. It can be a few #illiseconds (car e& losion) or #illions of !ears (1urassic eriod). 2e use the si# le ast tense when'

the event is in the #ast the event is com#letely finished we sa! (or understand) the time andOor #lace of the event

EnglishClub.com Ti# In general, if we sa! the time or #lace of the event, we #ust use the si# le ast tense5 we cannot use the resent erfect.

0ere are so#e #ore e&a# les'


I lived in that house when I was !oung. 0e didn9t li(e the #ovie. 2hat did !ou eat for dinner, 1ohn drove to 8ondon on 3onda!. 3ar! did not go to work !esterda!. :id !ou #lay tennis last week, I &as at work !esterda!. 2e &ere not late (for the train).

7C

%ere !ou angr!,

.ote that when we tell a stor!, we usuall! use the si# le ast tense. 2e #a! use the ast continuous tense to %set the scene%, but we al#ost alwa!s use the si# le ast tense for the action. 8ook at this e&a# le of the beginning of a stor!' %$he wind was howling around the hotel and the rain was ouring down. It &as cold. $he door o#ened and 1a#es =ond entered. 0e too( off his coat, which &as ver! wet, and ordered a drink at the bar. 0e sat do&n in the corner of the lounge and "uietl! dran( his...%
EnglishClub.com Ti# $his age shows the use of the si# le ast tense to talk about ast events. =ut note there are so#e other uses for the si# le ast tense, for e&a# le in conditional or if sentences.

"ast Continuous Tense


$ was singing. $he #ast continuous tense is an i# ortant tense in *nglish. 2e use it to sa! what we were in the #iddle of doing at a articular #o#ent in the ast. In this lesson we look at'

Structure' how do we #ake the ast continuous tense, Dse' how do we use the ast continuous tense, o Past continuous tense L si# le ast tense

englishclub*com Tip 'ontinuous tenses are also called progressi"e tenses.

9o& do &e ma(e the "ast Continuous Tense+


$he structure of the ast continuous tense is'

subject L

au&iliar! verb =*

#ain verb

7@

conjugated in si# le ast tense &as &ere

resent artici le base C ing

4or negative sentences in the ast continuous tense, we insert not between the au&iliar! verb and #ain verb. 4or "uestion sentences, we e&change the subject and auxiliary verb. 8ook at these e&a# le sentences with the ast continuous tense' subject auxiliary verb was were was were !ou the! not not main verb watching working hel ing joking. being la!ing sill!, football, $V. hard. 3ar!.

L L + + , ,

I Bou 0e, she, it 2e 2ere 2ere

english club*com Tip The spelling rules for adding ing to make the past continuous tense are the same as for the present continuous tense.

9o& do &e use the "ast Continuous Tense+


$he ast continuous tense e& resses action at a #articular moment in the ast. $he action started before that #o#ent but has not finished at that #o#ent. 4or e&a# le, !esterda! I watched a fil# on $V. $he fil# started at ; # and finished at A #.

At ? # !esterda!, I was watching $V.

72

#ast ? # At ? #, I was in the #iddle of watching $V.

#resent

future

2hen we use the ast continuous tense, our listener usuall! knows or understands what ti#e we are talking about. 8ook at these e&a# les'

I &as &or(ing at @C # last night. $he! &ere not #laying football at Aa# this #orning. 2hat &ere !ou doing at @C # last night, 2hat &ere !ou doing when he arrived, She &as coo(ing when I tele honed her. 2e &ere having dinner when it started to rain. Ga# went ho#e earl! because it &as sno&ing.

english club*com Tip Some verbs cannot be used document break % refer to &verb meanings with continuous tenses'! in continuous(progressive tenses.

2e often use the ast continuous tense to %set the scene% in stories. 2e use it to describe the background situation at the #o#ent when the action begins. )ften, the stor! starts with the ast continuous tense and then #oves into the si# le ast tense. 0ere is an e&a# le' % 1a#es =ond &as driving through town. It &as raining. $he wind &as blo&ing hard. .obod! &as &al(ing in the streets. Suddenl!, =ond saw the killer in a tele hone bo&...%

"ast Continuous Tense C $im#le "ast Tense


2e often use the ast continuous tense with the si# le ast tense. 2e use the ast continuous tense to e& ress a long action. And we use the si# le ast tense to e& ress a short action that ha ens in the middle of the long action. 2e can join the two ideas with &hen or &hile. In the following e&a# le, we have two actions' @. long action (watching $V), e& ressed with ast continuous tense 2. short action (tele honed), e& ressed with si# le ast tense

7(

#ast 8ong action. I was watching $V at ? #. ? # Bou tele honed at ? #. Short action.

#resent

future

2e can join these two actions with &hen'

I was watching $V &hen !ou tele honed.

(.otice that %when !ou tele honed% is also a wa! of defining the ti#e M? #N.) 2e use'

&hen L short action (si# le ast tense) &hile L long action ( ast continuous tense)

$here are four basic co#binations' I was walking ast the car %hen the car e& loded $he car e& loded %hile I was walking ast the car &hen it e& loded. I was walking ast it. &hile I was walking ast it. it e& loded.

.otice that the long action and short action are relative.

%2atching $V% took a few hours. %$ele honed% took a few seconds. %2alking ast the car% took a few seconds. %*& loded% took a few #illiseconds.

"ast "erfect Tense


$ had sung. $he #ast #erfect tense is "uite an eas! tense to understand and to use. $his tense talks about the % ast in the ast%.

7/ In this lesson we look at'


Structure' how do we #ake the ast erfect tense, Dse' how do we use the ast erfect tense,

9o& do &e ma(e the "ast "erfect Tense+


$he structure of the ast erfect tense is'

subject L au&iliar! verb 0AV* L #ain verb


conjugated in si# le ast tense had ast artici le V.

4or negative sentences in the ast erfect tense, we insert not between the au&iliar! verb and #ain verb. 4or "uestion sentences, we e&change the subject and auxiliary verb. 8ook at these e&a# le sentences with the ast erfect tense' subject auxiliary verb had had had had !ou the! not not main verb finished sto gone left. arrived, eaten dinner, ed #! work. before #e. to school.

L L + + , ,

I Bou She 2e 0ad 0ad

2hen s eaking with the ast erfect tense, we often contract the subject and au&iliar! verb' I had !ou had I9d !ou9d

77

he had she had it had we had the! had

he9d she9d it9d we9d the!9d

englishclub*com Tip The - contraction is also used for the auxiliary verb .oul . )or example" .e- can mean* +e ha or +e .oul

#ut usually the main verb is in a different form" for example* +e had arri"e past participle! +e would arri"e base!

$t is always clear from the context.

9o& do &e use the "ast "erfect Tense+


$he ast erfect tense e& resses action in the #ast before another action in the #ast. $his is the #ast in the #ast. 4or e&a# le'

$he train left at Aa#. 2e arrived at A.@7a#. 2hen we arrived, the train had left.

$he train had left when &e arrived.


#ast $rain leaves in ast at Aa#. A A .@7 #resent future

2e arrive in ast at A.@7a#.

7: 8ook at so#e #ore e&a# les'


I wasn9t hungr!. I had just eaten. $he! were hungr!. $he! had not eaten for five hours. I didn9t know who he was. I had never seen hi# before. %3ar! wasn9t at ho#e when I arrived.% %Geall!, 2here had she gone,%

Bou can so#eti#es think of the ast erfect tense like the resent erfect tense, but instead of the ti#e being no& the ti#e is #ast. #ast #erfect tense had R done R FR #ast no& future #resent #erfect tense have R done R FR #ast no& future

4or e&a# le, i#agine that !ou arrive at the station at A.@7a#. $he station#aster sa!s to !ou'

%Bou are too late. $he train has left.%

8ater, !ou tell !our friends'

%2e &ere too late. $he train had left.%

2e often use the ast erfect tense in re orted s eech after verbs like said? told? as(ed? thought? &ondered' 8ook at these e&a# les'

0e told us that the train had left. I thought I had met her before, but I was wrong. 0e e& lained that he had closed the window because of the rain. I wondered if I had been there before. I asked the# wh! the! had not finished.

"ast "erfect Continuous Tense


$ had been singing.

7;

How do we make the Past Perfect "ontinuous Tense?


$he structure of the ast erfect continuous tense is'

subject L

au&iliar! verb 0AV*


conjugated in si# le ast tense had

au&iliar! verb =*
ast artici le been

#ain verb
resent artici le base C ing

4or negative sentences in the ast erfect continuous tense, we insert not after the first au&iliar! verb. 4or "uestion sentences, we e&change the subject and first auxiliary verb. 8ook at these e&a# le sentences with the ast erfect continuous tense' subject auxiliary verb had had had had !ou the! not not auxiliary verb been been been been been been main verb working. la!ing working e& ecting drinking, waiting long, tennis. well. her.

L L + + , ,

I Bou It 2e 0ad 0ad

2hen s eaking with the ast erfect continuous tense, we often contract the subject and first au&iliar! verb' I had been !ou had been he had she had been I9d been !ou9d been he9d been she9d been

7?

it had been we had been

it9d been we9d been

the! had been the!9d been

How do we use the Past Perfect "ontinuous Tense?


$he ast erfect continuous tense is like the ast erfect tense, but it e& resses longer actions in the #ast before another action in the #ast. 4or e&a# le'

Ga# started waiting at Aa#. I arrived at @@a#. 2hen I arrived, Ga# had been &aiting for two hours.

Ga# had been &aiting for two hours when I arrived.


#ast Ga# starts waiting in ast at Aa#. A @@ I arrive in ast at @@a#. 0ere are so#e #ore e&a# les'

#resent

future

1ohn was ver! tired. 0e had been running. I could s#ell cigarettes. So#ebod! had been smo(ing. Suddenl!, #! car broke down. I was not sur rised. It had not been running well for a long ti#e. 9ad the ilot been drin(ing before the crash,

Bou can so#eti#es think of the ast erfect continuous tense like the resent erfect continuous tense, but instead of the ti#e being no& the ti#e is #ast. #ast #erfect continuous tense had R R been R R doing R R FFFF R R #ast no& future #resent #erfect continuous tense R have R R been R R doing R R FFFF R #ast no& future

7A 4or e&a# le, i#agine that !ou #eet Ga# at @@a#. Ga# sa!s to !ou'

%I am angr!. I have been &aiting for two hours.%

8ater, !ou tell !our friends'

%Ga# &as angr!. 0e had been &aiting for two hours.%

$im#le -uture Tense


$ will sing. $he sim#le future tense is often called &ill, because we #ake the si# le future tense with the #odal au&iliar! will.

How do we make the Simple #uture Tense?


$he structure of the si# le future tense is'

subject L au&iliar! verb 2I88 L #ain verb


invariable &ill base V)

4or negative sentences in the si# le future tense, we insert not between the au&iliar! verb and #ain verb. 4or "uestion sentences, we e&change the subject and auxiliary verb. 8ook at these e&a# le sentences with the si# le future tense' subject auxiliary verb will will will will !ou not not main verb o en finish be leave arrive the door. before #e. at school to#orrow. !et. on ti#e,

L L + + ,

I Bou She 2e 2ill

:C

2ill

the!

want

dinner,

2hen we use the si# le future tense in s eaking, we often contract the subject and au&iliar! verb' I will !ou will he will she will it will we will I9ll !ou9ll he9ll she9ll it9ll we9ll

the! will the!9ll 4or negative sentences in the si# le future tense, we contract with &on;t, like this' I will not !ou will not he will not she will not it will not we will not the! will not I won9t !ou won9t he won9t she won9t it won9t we won9t the! won9t

How do we use the Simple #uture Tense?


$im#le future tense for o "lan
2e use the si# le future tense when there is no lan or decision to do so#ething before we s eak. 2e #ake the decision s ontaneousl! at the ti#e of s eaking. 8ook at these e&a# les'

0old on. I;ll get a en. 2e &ill see what we can do to hel !ou. 3a!be we;ll stay in and &atch television tonight.

:@ In these e&a# les, we had no fir# lan before s eaking. $he decision is #ade at the time of s#ea(ing. 2e often use the si# le future tense with the verb to thin( before it'

I thin( I9ll go to the g!# to#orrow. I thin( I will have a holida! ne&t !ear. I don9t thin( I9ll bu! that car.

$im#le future tense for "rediction


2e often use the si# le future tense to #ake a rediction about the future. Again, there is no fir# lan. 2e are sa!ing &hat &e thin( &ill ha##en. 0ere are so#e e&a# les'

It &ill rain to#orrow. Peo le &on;t go to 1u iter before the 22nd centur!. 2ho do !ou think &ill get the job,

$im#le future tense &ith @E


2hen the #ain verb is be, we can use the si# le future tense even if we have a fir# lan or decision before s eaking. *&a# les'

I;ll be in 8ondon to#orrow. I9# going sho ing. I &on;t be ver! long. %ill !ou be at work to#orrow,

english club*com Tip ,ote that when we have a plan or intention to do something in the future" we usually use other tenses or expressions" such as the present continuous tense or going to.

-uture Continuous Tense


$ will be singing.

How do we make the #uture "ontinuous Tense?


$he structure of the future continuous tense is'

subject L

au&iliar! verb au&iliar! verb L L 2I88 =*

#ain verb

:2

invariable &ill

invariable be

resent artici le base C ing

4or negative sentences in the future continuous tense, we insert not between &ill and be. 4or "uestion sentences, we e&change the subject and &ill. 8ook at these e&a# le sentences with the future continuous tense' subject auxiliary verb will will will will !ou the! not not auxiliary verb main verb be be be be be be working l!ing using having la!ing watching at @Ca#. on a beach to#orrow. the car. dinner at ho#e. football, $V,

L L + + , ,

I Bou She 2e 2ill 2ill

2hen we use the future continuous tense in s eaking, we often contract the subject and will' I will !ou will he will she will it will we will I9ll !ou9ll he9ll she9ll it9ll we9ll

the! will the!9ll 4or s oken negative sentences in the future continuous tense, we contract with &on;t, like this'

:(

I will not !ou will not he will not she will not it will not we will not the! will not

I won9t !ou won9t he won9t she won9t it won9t we won9t the! won9t

english club*com Tip +e sometimes use shall instead of .ill" especially for $ and we.

How do we use the #uture "ontinuous Tense?


$he future continuous tense e& resses action at a #articular moment in the future. $he action will start before that #o#ent but it will not have finished at that #o#ent. 4or e&a# le, to#orrow I will start work at 2 # and sto work at : #'

At / # to#orrow, I will be working.


#ast / # At / #, I will be in the #iddle of working. 2hen we use the future continuous tense, our listener usuall! knows or understands what ti#e we are talking about. 8ook at these e&a# les'

#resent

future

I &ill be #laying tennis at @Ca# to#orrow. $he! &on;t be &atching $V at A # tonight. 2hat &ill !ou be doing at @C # tonight, 2hat &ill !ou be doing when I arrive, She &ill not be slee#ing when !ou tele hone her. 2e ;ll be having dinner when the fil# starts. $ake !our u#brella. It &ill be raining when !ou return.

-uture "erfect Tense

:/ $ will have sung. $he future #erfect tense is "uite an eas! tense to understand and use. $he future erfect tense talks about the #ast in the future.

How do we make the #uture Perfect Tense?


$he structure of the future erfect tense is'

subject L

au&iliar! verb au&iliar! verb L L 2I88 0AV*


invariable &ill invariable have

#ain verb
ast artici le V.

8ook at these e&a# le sentences in the future erfect tense' subject auxiliary verb will will will will !ou the! not not auxiliary verb have have have have have have main verb finished forgotten gone left. arrived, received it, b! @Ca#. #e b! then. to school.

L L + + , ,

I Bou She 2e 2ill 2ill

In s eaking with the future erfect tense, we often contract the subject and &ill. So#eti#es, we contract the subject, &ill and have all together' I will have !ou will have I9ll have !ou9ll have I9ll9ve !ou9ll9ve

:7

he will have she will have it will have we will have the! will have

he9ll have she9ll have it9ll have we9ll have

he9ll9ve she9ll9ve it9ll9ve we9ll9ve

the!9ll have the!9ll9ve

english club*com Tip +e sometimes use shall instead of .ill" especially for $ and we.

How do we use the #uture Perfect Tense?


$he future erfect tense e& resses action in the future before another action in the future. $his is the #ast in the future. 4or e&a# le'

$he train will leave the station at Aa#. Bou will arrive at the station at A.@7a#. 2hen !ou arrive, the train &ill have left.

$he train &ill have left when you arrive.


#ast #resent future $rain leaves in future at Aa#. A A .@7 Bou arrive in future at A.@7a#. 8ook at so#e #ore e&a# les'

Bou can call #e at work at ?a#. I &ill have arrived at the office b! ?. $he! will be tired when the! arrive. $he! &ill not have sle#t for a long ti#e. %3ar! won9t be at ho#e when !ou arrive.% %Geall!, 2here &ill she have gone,%

Bou can so#eti#es think of the future erfect tense like the resent erfect tense, but instead of !our view oint being in the resent, it is in the future'

:: #resent #erfect tense R have R done R FR #ast no& future #ast no& future #erfect tense will R have R done R FR future

-uture "erfect Continuous Tense


$ will have been singing.

How do we make the #uture Perfect "ontinuous Tense?


$he structure of the future erfect continuous tense is'

au&iliar! au&iliar! au&iliar! subject L verb L verb L L verb =* 2I88 0AV*


invariable &ill invariable have ast artici le been

#ain verb
resent artici le base C ing

4or negative sentences in the future erfect continuous tense, we insert not between &ill and have. 4or "uestion sentences, we e&change the subject and &ill. 8ook at these e&a# le sentences with the future erfect continuous tense' subject auxiliary verb will will will not auxiliary verb have have have auxiliary verb been been been main verb working travelling using for four hours. for two da!s. the car.

L L +

I Bou She

:;

+ , ,

2e 2ill 2ill

will !ou the!

not

have have have

been been been

waiting la!ing watching

long. football, $V,

2hen we use the future erfect continuous tense in s eaking, we often contract the subject and au&iliar! verb' I will !ou will he will she will it will we will I9ll !ou9ll he9ll she9ll it9ll we9ll

the! will the!9ll 4or negative sentences in the future erfect continuous tense, we contract with &on;t, like this' I will not !ou will not he will not she will not it will not we will not the! will not I won9t !ou won9t he won9t she won9t it won9t we won9t the! won9t

How do we use the #uture Perfect "ontinuous Tense?


2e use the future erfect continuous tense to talk about a long action before so#e oint in the future. 8ook at these e&a# les'

I &ill have been &or(ing here for ten !ears ne&t week.

:?

0e will be tired when he arrives. 0e &ill have been travelling for 2/ hours.

)./ "hrasal Verbs and other multi*&ord verbs


Phrasal verbs are art of a large grou of verbs called %#ulti+word verbs%. Phrasal verbs and other #ulti+word verbs are an i# ortant art of the *nglish language. 3ulti+word verbs, including hrasal verbs, are ver! co##on, es eciall! in s oken *nglish. A #ulti+ word verb is a verb like % ick u %, %turn on% or %get on with%. 4or convenience, #an! eo le refer to all #ulti+word verbs as hrasal verbs. $hese verbs consist of a basic verb C another &ord or &ords. $he other word(s) can be re ositions andOor adverbs. $he two or three words that #ake u #ulti+word verbs for# a short % hrase%Jwhich is wh! these verbs are often all called % hrasal verbs%. $he i# ortant thing to re#e#ber is that a #ulti+word verb is still a verb. %Het% is a verb. %Het u %, is also a verb, a different verb. %Het% and %get u % are two different verbs. $he! do not have the sa#e #eaning. So !ou should treat each #ulti+word verb as a se arate verb, and learn it like an! other verb. 8ook at these e&a# les. Bou can see that there are three t! es of #ulti+word verb' single+word verb loo( direct !our e!es in a certain direction Bou #ust loo( before !ou lea .

:A

#ulti+ word verbs

re ositional verbs hrasal verbs

loo( after loo( u#

take care of search for and find infor#ation in a reference book antici ate with leasure

2ho is loo(ing after the bab!, Bou can loo( u# #! nu#ber in the tele hone director!. I loo( for&ard to #eeting !ou.

hrasal+ re ositional verbs

loo( for&ard to

In this lesson we look at the three t! es of #ulti+word verbs, including hrasal verbs, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

Phrasal Verbs Pre ositional Verbs Phrasal+ re ositional Verbs

EnglishClub.com Ti# 8ike #an! gra##ar books, we divide #ulti+word verbs into' re ositional verbs hrasal verbs hrasal+ re ositional verbs )ther gra##ars, however, call all #ulti+word verbs % hrasal verbs%.

"hrasal Verbs
Phrasal verbs are a grou of #ulti+word verbs #ade fro# a verb lus another word or words. 3an! eo le refer to all #ulti+word verbs as hrasal verbs. )n these ages we #ake a distinction between three t! es of #ulti+word verbs' re ositional verbs, hrasal verbs and hrasal+ re ositional verbs. )n this age we look at #hrasal verbs ro er. Phrasal verbs are #ade of'

verb L adverb
Phrasal verbs can be'

intransitive (no direct object) transitive (direct object)

0ere are so#e e&a# les of hrasal verbs'

;C

exam#les #hrasal verbs get u# brea( do&n #ut off turn do&n meaning direct object I don9t like to get u#. 0e was late because his car bro(e do&n. 2e will have to #ut off $he! turned do&n the #eeting. #! offer.

intransitive hrasal verbs transitive hrasal verbs

rise fro# bed cease to function ost one refuse

$e#arable "hrasal Verbs


2hen hrasal verbs are transitive (that is, the! have a direct object), we can usuall! se arate the two arts. 4or e&a# le, %turn down% is a se#arable hrasal verb. 2e can sa!' %turn do&n #! offer% or %turn #! offer do&n%. 8ook at this table' transitive hrasal verbs are $he! $he! turned turned #! offer do&n do&n. #! offer.

se arable

0owever, if the direct object is a #ronoun, we have no choice. 2e must se arate the hrasal verb and insert the ronoun between the two arts. 8ook at this e&a# le with the se arable hrasal verb %switch on%' direct object ronouns must go between the two arts of transitive hrasal verbs 1ohn 1ohn 1ohn 1ohn s&itched s&itched s&itched s&itched the radio it on on. on. on it. $his is not ossible. the radio. $hese are all ossible.

EnglishClub.com Ti#

;@
Se arable or inse arable hrasal verbs, So#e dictionaries tell !ou when hrasal verbs are se arable. If a dictionar! writes %look (so#ething) u %, !ou know that the hrasal verb %look u % is se arable, and !ou can sa! %look so#ething u % and %look u so#ething%. It9s a good idea to write %so#ethingOso#ebod!% as a ro riate in !our vocabular! book when !ou learn a new hrasal verb, like this' get u# brea( do&n #ut so#ethingOso#ebod! off turn sthgOsb! do&n $his tells !ou whether the verb needs a direct object (and where to ut it).

"re#ositional Verbs
Pre ositional verbs are a grou of #ulti+word verbs #ade fro# a verb lus another word or words. 3an! eo le refer to all #ulti+word verbs as hrasal verbs. )n these ages we #ake a distinction between three t! es of #ulti+word verbs' re ositional verbs, hrasal verbs and hrasal+ re ositional verbs. )n this age we look at #re#ositional verbs. Pre ositional verbs are #ade of'

verb L re osition
=ecause a re osition alwa!s has an object, all re ositional verbs have direct objects. 0ere are so#e e&a# les of re ositional verbs' exam#les #re#ositional verbs believe in loo( after tal( about &ait for meaning direct object have faith in the e&istence of take care of discuss await I believe in 0e is loo(ing after Iid !ou tal( about 1ohn is &aiting for Hod. the dog. #e, 3ar!.

Pre ositional verbs cannot be se arated. $hat #eans that we cannot ut the direct object between the two arts. 4or e&a# le, we #ust sa! %look after the bab!%. 2e cannot sa! %look the bab! after%'

;2

#re#ositional verbs are

inse arable

2ho is loo(ing after the bab!, 2ho is loo(ing the bab! after,

$his is ossible. $his is not ossible.

EnglishClub.com Ti# It is a good idea to write %so#ethingOso#ebod!% in !our vocabular! book when !ou learn a new re ositional verb, like this' believe in so#ethingOso#ebod! loo( after sthgOsb! $his re#inds !ou that this verb needs a direct object (and where to ut it).

"hrasal*#re#ositional Verbs
Phrasal+ re ositional verbs are a s#all grou of #ulti+word verbs #ade fro# a verb lus another word or words. 3an! eo le refer to all #ulti+word verbs as hrasal verbs. )n these ages we #ake a distinction between three t! es of #ulti+word verbs' re ositional verbs, hrasal verbs and hrasal+ re ositional verbs. )n this age we look at #hrasal* #re#ositional verbs. Phrasal+ re ositional verbs are #ade of'

verb L adverb L re osition


8ook at these e&a# les of hrasal+ re ositional verbs' exam#les #hrasal*#re#ositional verbs meaning direct object 0e doesn9t get on &ith I won9t #ut u# &ith I loo( for&ard to 2e have run out his wife. !our attitude. seeing !ou. eggs.

get on &ith #ut u# &ith loo( for&ard to run out of

have a friendl! relationshi with tolerate antici ate with leasure use u , e&haust

;(

of =ecause hrasal+ re ositional verbs end with a re osition, there is alwa!s a direct object. And, like re ositional verbs, hrasal+ re ositional verbs cannot be se arated. 8ook at these e&a# les' hrasal+ re ositional verbs are 2e 2e ran out of ran out of fuel. it.

inse arable

EnglishClub.com Ti# It is a good idea to write %so#ethingOso#ebod!% in !our vocabular! book when !ou learn a new hrasal+ re ositional verb, like this' get on &ith so#ebod! #ut u# &ith sthgOsb! run out of so#ething $his re#inds !ou that this verb needs a direct object (and where to ut it).

).0 English Conditionals


$here are several structures in *nglish that are called conditionals. %<ondition% #eans %situation or circu#stance%. If a articular condition is true, then a articular result ha ens.

If ! E @C then 2! E 2C If ! E ( then 2! E :

$here are three basic conditionals that we use ver! often. $here are so#e #ore conditionals that we do not use so often. In this lesson, we will look at the three basic

;/ conditionals as well as the so+called 6ero conditional. 2e9ll finish with a "ui6 to check !our understanding.

Structure of <onditional Sentences 4irst <onditional Second <onditional $hird <onditional Sero <onditional Su##ar!

EnglishClub.com Ti# Peo le so#eti#es call conditionals %I4% structures or sentences, because there is usuall! (but not alwa!s) the word %if% in a conditional sentence.

$tructure of Conditional $entences


$he structure of #ost conditionals is ver! si# le. $here are two basic ossibilities. )f course, we add #an! words and can use various tenses, but the basic structure is usuall! like this' Icondition result

I4 ! E @C 2! E 2C
or like this' result Icondition

2! E 2C I4 ! E @C

-irst Conditional< real #ossibility


2e are talking about the future. 2e are thinking about a articular condition or situation in the future, and the result of this condition. $here is a real ossibilit! that this condition will ha en. 4or e&a# le, it is #orning. Bou are at ho#e. Bou lan to la! tennis this afternoon. =ut there are so#e clouds in the sk!. I#agine that it rains. 2hat will !ou do,

;7

I-

condition #resent sim#le

result %I== C base verb I will sta! at ho#e.

If

it rains

.otice that we are thinking about a future condition. It is not raining !et. =ut the sk! is cloud! and !ou think that it could rain. 2e use the resent si# le tense to talk about the ossible future condition. 2e use 2I88 L base verb to talk about the ossible future result. $he i# ortant thing about the first conditional is that there is a real #ossibility that the condition &ill ha##en. 0ere are so#e #ore e&a# les (do !ou re#e#ber the two basic structures' I4 condition result O result I4 condition,)' ICondition #resent sim#le If If If If If I see 3ar! $ara is free to#orrow >esult %I== C base verb I will tell her. he will invite her.

the! do not ass their e&a# their teacher will be sad. it rains to#orrow it rains to#orrow will !ou sta! at ho#e, what will !ou do,

result %I== C base verb I will tell 3ar! 0e will invite $ara $heir teacher will be sad 2ill !ou sta! at ho#e 2hat will !ou do

I-

condition #resent sim#le

if if if if if

I see her. she is free to#orrow. the! do not ass their e&a#. it rains to#orrow, it rains to#orrow,

EnglishClub.com Ti# So#eti#es, we use shall, can, or may instead of &ill, for e&a# le' If !ou are good toda!, !ou can watch $V tonight.

;:

$econd Conditional< unreal #ossibility or dream


$he second conditional is like the first conditional. 2e are still thinking about the future. 2e are thinking about a articular condition in the future, and the result of this condition. =ut there is not a real ossibilit! that this condition will ha en. 4or e&a# le, !ou do not have a lotter! ticket. Is it ossible to win, .o- .o lotter! ticket, no win- =ut #a!be !ou will bu! a lotter! ticket in the future. So !ou can think about winning in the future, like a drea#. It9s not ver! real, but it9s still ossible. Icondition #ast sim#le If result %!F=: C base verb

I won the lotter! I would bu! a car.

.otice that we are thinking about a future condition. 2e use the ast si# le tense to talk about the future condition. 2e use 2)D8I L base verb to talk about the future result. $he i# ortant thing about the second conditional is that there is an unreal #ossibility that the condition &ill ha##en. 0ere are so#e #ore e&a# les' Icondition #ast sim#le If If If If I #arried 3ar! Ga# beca#e rich result %!F=: C base verb I would be ha !.

she would #arr! hi#.

it snowed ne&t 1ul! would !ou be sur rised, it snowed ne&t 1ul! what would !ou do,

result %!F=: C base verb

I-

condition #ast sim#le

;;

I would be ha

if if if if

I #arried 3ar!. he beca#e rich. it snowed ne&t 1ul!, it snowed ne&t 1ul!,

She would #arr! Ga# 2ould !ou be sur rised 2hat would !ou do

EnglishClub.com Ti# So#eti#es, we use should, could or might instead of &ould, for e&a# le' If I won a #illion dollars, I could sto working.

Third Conditional< no #ossibility


$he first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future. 2ith the third conditional we talk about the #ast. 2e talk about a condition in the ast that did not ha en. $hat is wh! there is no ossibilit! for this condition. $he third conditional is also like a drea#, but with no #ossibility of the drea# co#ing true. 8ast week !ou bought a lotter! ticket. =ut !ou did not win. '+( Condition "ast "erfect If >esult %!F=: 9AVE C "ast "artici#le

I had won the lotter! I would have bought a car.

.otice that we are thinking about an i# ossible ast condition. Bou did not win the lotter!. So the condition was not true, and that articular condition can never be true because it is finished. 2e use the ast erfect tense to talk about the i# ossible ast condition. 2e use 2)D8I 0AV* L ast artici le to talk about the i# ossible ast result. $he i# ortant thing about the third conditional is that both the condition and result are im#ossible now. 0ere are so#e #ore e&a# les' Icondition #ast #erfect result %!F=: 9AVE C #ast #artici#le

;?

If If If If If

I had seen 3ar! $ara had been free !esterda!

I would have told her. I would have invited her.

the! had not assed their e&a# their teacher would have been sad. it had rained !esterda! it had rained !esterda! would !ou have sta!ed at ho#e, what would !ou have done,

result %!F=: 9AVE C #ast #artici#le I would have told 3ar! I would have invited $ara $heir teacher would have been sad 2ould !ou have sta!ed at ho#e 2hat would !ou have done

I-

condition #ast #erfect

if if if if if

I had seen her. she had been free !esterda!. the! had not assed their e&a#. it had rained !esterda!, it had rained !esterda!,

EnglishClub.com Ti# So#eti#es, we use should have, could have, might have instead of &ould have, for e&a# le' If !ou had bought a lotter! ticket, !ou might have won.

Gero Conditional< certainty


2e use the so+called Hero conditional when the result of the condition is alwa!s true, like a scientific fact. $ake so#e ice. Put it in a sauce an. 0eat the sauce an. 2hat ha beco#es water). Bou would be sur rised if it did not. Icondition #resent sim#le result #resent sim#le ens, $he ice #elts (it

;A

If

!ou heat ice

it #elts.

.otice that we are thinking about a result that is alwa!s true for this condition. $he result of the condition is an absolute certainty. 2e are not thinking about the future or the ast, or even the resent. 2e are thinking about a si# le fact. 2e use the resent si# le tense to talk about the condition. 2e also use the resent si# le tense to talk about the result. $he i# ortant thing about the 6ero conditional is that the condition al&ays has the same result. 0ere are so#e #ore e&a# les' Icondition #resent sim#le If If If If I #iss the ? o9clock bus I a# late for work eo le don9t eat !ou heat ice result #resent sim#le I a# late for work. #! boss gets angr!. the! get hungr!. does it #elt,

result #resent sim#le I a# late for work

I-

condition #resent sim#le

if

I #iss the ? o9clock bus. I a# late for work. the! don9t eat. !ou heat it,

3! boss gets angr! if Peo le get hungr! Ioes ice #elt if if

EnglishClub.com Ti# 2e can also use &hen instead of if, for e&a# le' %hen I get u late I #iss #! bus.

Conditionals< $ummary
0ere is a little chart to hel !ou to visuali6e the basic *nglish conditionals. Io not take the 7CT and @CT figures too literall!. $he! are just to hel !ou.

?C

#robability @CCT 7CT @CT CT

conditional

exam#le

time an! ti#e future future ast

6ero conditional If !ou heat ice, it #elts. first conditional second conditional third conditional If it rains, I will sta! at ho#e. If I won the lotter!, I would bu! a car. If I had won the lotter!, I would have bought a car.

).1 Modal Verbs 3modal auxiliaries4


<an, <ould, =e able to 0ave to, 3ust, 3ust not

?@ Shall and 2ill


EnglishClub.com Ti# 3odal au&iliar! verbs #a! sound difficult but in fact the!9re eas!. $he! are invariable (no conjugation). And the #ain verb is alwa!s the %bare infinitive% (the infinitive without %to%).

Can? Could? @e able to


Can and could are #odal au&iliar! verbs. Be able to is not an au&iliar! verb (it uses the verb be as a #ain verb). 2e include be able to here for convenience. In this lesson we look at these three verbs, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

<an <ould =e able to

Can
Can is an au&iliar! verb, a #odal au&iliar! verb. 2e use can to'

talk about ossibilit! and abilit! #ake re"uests ask for or give er#ission

Structure of "an

subject L can L #ain verb


$he #ain verb is alwa!s the bare infinitive (infinitive without %to%). subject auxiliary verb can cannot 0e can;t Can !ou la! tennis, la! tennis. main verb la! tennis.

L + ,

?2 .otice that'

Can is invariable. $here is onl! one for# of can. $he #ain verb is al&ays the bare infinitive.

EnglishClub.com Ti# $he #ain verb is alwa!s the bare infinitive (infinitive without %to%). 2e cannot sa!'

$se of "an
can< "ossibility and Ability
2e use can to talk about what is ossible, what we are able or free to do'

She can drive a car. 1ohn can s eak S anish. I cannot hear !ou. (I can;t hear !ou.) Can !ou hear #e,

.or#all!, we use can for the resent. =ut it is ossible to use can when we #ake resent decisions about future abilit!. A. Can !ou hel #e with #! ho#ework, ( resent) =. Sorr!. I9# bus! toda!. =ut I can hel !ou to#orrow. (future)

can< >eEuests and !rders


2e often use can in a "uestion to ask so#ebod! to do so#ething. $his is not a real "uestion + we do not reall! want to know if the erson is able to do so#ething, we want the# to do it- $he use of can in this wa! is infor#al (#ainl! between friends and fa#il!)'

Can !ou #ake a cu of coffee, lease. Can !ou ut the $V on. Can !ou co#e here a #inute. Can !ou be "uiet-

can< "ermission
2e so#eti#es use can to ask or give er#ission for so#ething' A. Can I s#oke in this roo#, =. Bou can;t s#oke here, but !ou can s#oke in the garden.

?( (.ote that we also use could, #a!, #ight for er#ission. $he use of can for er#ission is infor#al.)

Could
Could is an au&iliar! verb, a #odal au&iliar! verb. 2e use could to'

talk about ast ossibilit! or abilit! #ake re"uests

Structure of "ould

subject L could L #ain verb


$he #ain verb is alwa!s the bare infinitive (infinitive without %to%). subject auxiliary verb could could not She couldn;t Could !our grand#other s eak 1a anese, s eak <hinese. main verb s eak 1a anese.

L + ,

3! grand#other

.otice that'

Could is invariable. $here is onl! one for# of could. $he #ain verb is al&ays the bare infinitive.

EnglishClub.com Ti# $he #ain verb is alwa!s the bare infinitive. 2e cannot sa!'

$se of "ould
could< "ast "ossibility or Ability
2e use could to talk about what was ossible in the ast, what we were able or free to do'

I could swi# when I was 7 !ears old.

?/

3! grand#other could s eak seven languages. 2hen we arrived ho#e, we could not o en the door. (...couldn;t o en the door.) Could !ou understand what he was sa!ing,

2e use could ( ositive) and couldn)t (negative) for general abilit! in the ast. =ut when we talk about one s ecial occasion in the ast, we use be able to ( ositive) and couldn)t (negative). 8ook at these e&a# les' "ast General $#ecific !ccasion A #an fell into the river !esterda!. $he olice &ere able to save hi#.

L +

3! grand#other could s eak S anish.

3! grand#other couldn;t s eak A #an fell into the river !esterda!. $he olice S anish. couldn;t save hi#.

could< >eEuests
2e often use could in a "uestion to ask so#ebod! to do so#ething. $he use of could in this wa! is fairl! olite (for#al)'

Could !ou tell #e where the bank is, lease, Could !ou send #e a catalogue, lease,

@e able to
Although we look at be able to here, it is not a #odal verb. It is si# l! the verb be lus an adjective (able) followed b! the infinitive. 2e look at be able to here because we so#eti#es use it instead of can and could. 2e use be able to'

to talk about abilit!

Structure of %e a!le to
$he structure of be able to is'

subject L be L able L infinitive be


subject

able

main verb adjective infinitive

?7

L + ,

am is not

able

to drive.

She isn;t Are !ou

able

to drive.

able

to drive,

.otice that be able to is ossible in all tenses, for e&a# le'


I &as able to drive... I &ill be able to drive... I have been able to drive...

.otice too that be able to has an infinitive for#'

I would like to be able to s eak <hinese.

$se of %e a!le to
be able to< ability
2e use be able to to e& ress abilit!. %Able% is an adjective #eaning' having the ower, skill or #eans to do so#ething. If we sa! %I am able to swi#%, it is like sa!ing %I can swi#%. 2e so#eti#es use %be able to% instead of %can% or %could% for abilit!. %=e able to% is ossible in all tensesJbut %can% is ossible onl! in the resent and %could% is ossible onl! in the ast for abilit!. In addition, %can% and %could% have no infinitive for#. So we use %be able to% when we want to use other tenses or the infinitive. 8ook at these e&a# les'

I have been able to swi# since I was five. ( resent erfect) Bou &ill be able to s eak erfect *nglish ver! soon. (future si# le) I would like to be able to fl! an air lane. (infinitive)

EnglishClub.com Ti# @e able to is not a #odal au&iliar! verb. 2e include it here for convenience, because it is often used like %can% and %could%, which are #odal au&iliar! verbs.

9ave to? Must? Must not


/ust is a #odal au&iliar! verb. *ave to is not an au&iliar! verb (it uses the verb have as a #ain verb). 2e include have to here for convenience.

?: In this lesson we look at these two verbs, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

0ave to 3ust 3ust not

9ave to 3objective obligation4


2e often use have to to sa! that so#ething is obligator!, for e&a# le'

<hildren have to go to school.

Structure of Have to
*ave to is often grou ed with #odal au&iliar! verbs for convenience, but in fact it is not a #odal verb. It is not even an au&iliar! verb. In the have to structure, %have% is a main verb. $he structure is'

subject L au&iliar! verb L have L infinitive (with to)


8ook at these e&a# les in the si# le tense' subject auxiliary verb main verb have has do not !ou have have infinitive 3&ith to4 to work. to see to go the doctor. to school,

L + ,

She I Iid

$se of Have to
In general, have to e& resses im#ersonal obligation. $he subject of have to is obliged or forced to act b! a se arate, e&ternal ower (for e&a# le, the 8aw or school rules). *ave to is objective. 8ook at these e&a# les'

In 4rance, !ou have to drive on the right. In *ngland, #ost schoolchildren have to wear a unifor#. 1ohn has to wear a tie at work.

?; In each of the above cases, the obligation is not the subject9s o inion or idea. $he obligation is i# osed fro# outside. 2e can use have to in all tenses, and also with #odal au&iliaries. 2e conjugate it just like an! other #ain verb. 0ere are so#e e&a# les' main verb auxiliary verb have had have will is have #a! have having had have

subject ast si# le resent si# le future si# le I I I

infinitive to work to work to work to wait. to change the ti#e. to do it again. !esterda!. toda!. to#orrow.

resent continuous She resent erfect #odal (#a!) 2e $he!

Must 3subjective obligation4


2e often use must to sa! that so#ething is essential or necessar!, for e&a# le'

I must go.

Structure of &ust
/ust is a #odal au&iliar! verb. It is followed b! a #ain verb. $he structure is'

subject L must L #ain verb


$he #ain verb is the base verb (infinitive without %to%). 8ook at these e&a# les' subject auxiliary must I Bou must must main verb go visit ho#e. us.

??

2e

must

sto#

now.

EnglishClub.com Ti# 8ike all au&iliar! verbs, %#ust% cannot be followed b! to. So, we sa!' I #ust go now. (not KI #ust to go now.)

$se of &ust
In general, must e& resses #ersonal obligation. /ust e& resses what the s#ea(er thinks is necessar!. /ust is subjective. 8ook at these e&a# les'

I must sto s#oking. Bou must visit us soon. 0e must work harder.

In each of the above cases, the %obligation% is the o inion or idea of the erson s eaking. In fact, it is not a real obligation. It is not i# osed fro# outside.
EnglishClub.com Ti# It is so#eti#es ossible to use %#ust% for real obligation, for e&a# le a rule or a law. =ut generall! we use %have to% for this.

2e can use must to talk about the #resent or the future. 8ook at these e&a# les'

I #ust go now. ( resent) I #ust call #! #other to#orrow. (future)

$here is no #ast tense for must. 2e use have to to talk about the ast.

Must not 3#rohibition4


2e use must not to sa! that so#ething is not er#itted or allowed, for e&a# le'

Passengers #ust not talk to the driver.

Structure of &ust not


/ust is an auxiliary verb. It is followed b! a main verb. $he structure for must not is'

subject L must not L #ain verb


$he #ain verb is the base verb (infinitive without %to%).

?A /ust not is often contracted to mustn)t. 8ook at these e&a# les' subject I Bou Students auxiliary must C not mustn;t mustn;t must not main verb forget disturb be #! ke!s. hi#. late.

@< like all au&iliar! verbs, must cannot be followed b! to. So, we sa!'

Bou #ustn9t arrive late. (not Bou #ustn9t to arrive late.)

$se of &ust not


/ust not e& resses rohibition + so#ething that is not #ermitted? not allo&ed. $he rohibition can be subjective (the s eaker9s o inion) or objective (a real law or rule). 8ook at these e&a# les'

I #ustn9t eat so #uch sugar. (subjective) Bou #ustn9t watch so #uch television. (subjective) Students #ust not leave bic!cles here. (objective) Police#en #ust not drink on dut!. (objective)

2e use must not to talk about the #resent or the future'


Visitors #ust not s#oke. ( resent) I #ustn9t forget $ara9s birthda!. (future)

2e cannot use must not for the #ast. 2e use another structure to talk about the ast, for e&a# le'

2e were not allowed to enter. I couldn9t ark outside the sho .

$hall and %ill


Peo le #a! so#eti#es tell !ou that there is no difference between shall and &ill, or even that toda! nobod! uses shall (e&ce t in offers such as %Shall I call a ta&i,%). $his is not reall! true. $he difference between shall and &ill is often hidden b! the fact that we usuall! contract the# in s eaking with ;ll. =ut the difference does e&ist.

AC $he truth is that there are t&o conjugations for the verb &ill' )st Conjugation 3objective? sim#le statement of fact4 "erson I Singular !ou he, she, it we Plural !ou the! Verb shall will will shall will will Exam#le I shall be in 8ondon to#orrow. Bou will see a large building on the left. 0e will be wearing blue. 2e shall not be there when !ou arrive. Bou will find his office on the ;th floor. $he! will arrive late. Contraction I9ll Bou9ll 0e9ll 2e shan9t Bou9ll $he!9ll

,nd Conjugation 3subjective? strong assertion? #romise or command4 "erson I Singular !ou he, she, it we Plural !ou the! Verb will shall shall will shall shall Exam#le I will do ever!thing ossible to hel . Bou shall be sorr! for this. It shall be done. 2e will not interfere. Bou shall do as !ou9re told. $he! shall give one #onth9s notice. Contraction I9ll Bou9ll It9ll 2e won9t Bou9ll $he!9ll

It is true that this difference is not universall! recogni6ed. 0owever, let those who #ake assertions such as %A#ericans never use 9shall9% eruse a good A#erican *nglish dictionar!, or #an! A#erican legal docu#ents, which often contain hrases such as'

Each #arty shall give one #onth9s notice in writing in the event of ter#ination.

.ote that e&actl! the sa#e rule a lies in the case of should and would. It is erfectl! nor#al, and so#ewhat #ore elegant, to write, for e&a# le'

I should be grateful if you &ould kindl! send #e !our latest catalogue.

A@

).2 Gerunds 3*ing4


EnglishClub.com Ti# Herunds are so#eti#es called %verbal nouns%.

2hen a verb ends in +ing, it #a! be a gerund or a resent artici le. It is i# ortant to understand that the! are not the sa#e. 2hen we use a verb in +ing for# #ore like a noun, it is usuall! a gerund'

A2

-ishing is fun.

2hen we use a verb in +ing for# #ore like a verb or an adjective, it is usuall! a resent artici le'

Anthon! is fishing. I have a boring teacher.

In this lesson, we look at the different wa!s in which we use gerunds, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

Herunds as Subject, )bject or <o# le#ent Herunds after Pre ositions Herunds after <ertain Verbs Herunds in Passive Sense

EnglishClub.com Ti# 3an! gra##arians do not like to use the e& ression %gerund%. $hat is because there is so#eti#es no clear difference between a gerund and a resent artici le.

Gerunds as $ubject? !bject or Com#lement


$r! to think of gerunds as verbs in noun for#. 8ike nouns, gerunds can be the subject, object or co# le#ent of a sentence'

$mo(ing costs a lot of #one!. I don9t like &riting. 3! favourite occu ation is reading.

=ut, like a verb, a gerund can also have an object itself. In this case, the whole e& ression Mgerund L objectN can be the subject, object or co# le#ent of the sentence.

$mo(ing cigarettes costs a lot of #one!. I don9t like &riting letters. 3! favourite occu ation is reading detective stories.

8ike nouns, we can use gerunds with adjectives (including articles and other deter#iners)'

#ointless Euestioning a settling of debts

A(

the ma(ing of %$itanic% his drin(ing of alcohol

=ut when we use a gerund with an article, it does not usuall! take a direct object'

a settling of debts (not a settling debts) 3aking %$itanic% was e& ensive. $he #aking of %$itanic% was e& ensive.

EnglishClub.com Ti# Io !ou see the difference in these two sentences, In one, %reading% is a gerund (noun). In the other %reading% is a resent artici le (verb). 3! favourite occu ation is reading. 3! favourite niece is reading. -nswer

reading as gerund (noun) 3! favourite occu ation 3! favourite occu ation reading as resent artici le (verb) 3! favourite niece 3! favourite niece

3ain Verb is is Au&iliar! Verb is has

<o# le#ent reading. football. 3ain Verb reading. finished.

Gerunds after "re#ositions


$his is a good rule. It has no e&ce tionsIf we want to use a verb after a re osition, it #ust be a gerund. It is i# ossible to use an infinitive after a re osition. So for e&a# le, we sa!'

I will call !ou after arriving at the office. Please have a drink before leaving. I a# looking forward to meeting !ou. Io !ou object to &or(ing late, $ara alwa!s drea#s about going on holida!.

.otice that !ou could re lace all the above gerunds with %real% nouns'

A/

I will call !ou after #! arrival at the office. Please have a drink before !our de arture. I a# looking forward to our lunch. Io !ou object to this job, $ara alwa!s drea#s about holida!s.

EnglishClub.com Ti# $he above rule has no e&ce tions- So wh! is %to% followed b! %driving% in @ and b! %drive% in 2, @. $ am used to ri"ing on the left. 2. $ used to ri"e on the left. -nswer

to as re osition I a# used I a# used to as infinitive I used I used

"re#osition to to Infinitive to drive to smo(e. on the left driving on the left. ani#als.

Gerunds after Certain Verbs


2e so#eti#es use one verb after another verb. )ften the second verb is in the infinitive for#, for e&a# le'

I want to eat.

=ut so#eti#es the second verb #ust be in gerund for#, for e&a# le'

I dislike eating.

$his de ends on the first verb. 0ere is a list of verbs that are usuall! followed b! a verb in gerund for#'

admit appreciate avoid carry on consider defer delay deny detest dislike endure en0oy escape e-cuse face feel like finish forgive give up can)t help imagine involve leave off mention mind miss postpone practise put off report resent risk can)t stand suggest understand

A7 8ook at these e&a# les'


She is considering having a holida!. Io !ou feel like going out, I can)t help falling in love with !ou. I can)t stand not seeing !ou.

EnglishClub.com Ti# So#e verbs can be followed b! the gerund for# or the infinitive for# without a big change in #eaning' begin continue hate intend like love prefer propose start I like to la! tennis. I like la!ing tennis. It started to rain. It started raining.

Gerunds in "assive $ense


2e often use a gerund after the verbs need re1uire and want. In this case, the gerund has a assive sense.

I have three shirts that need &ashing. (need to be washed) $his letter re1uires signing. (needs to be signed) $he house wants re#ainting. (needs to be re ainted)

EnglishClub.com Ti# $he e& ression %so#ething wants doing% is =ritish *nglish.

).5 6uestions
2hat is a "uestion, A state#ent is a sentence that gives infor#ation. A "uestion is a sentence that asks for infor#ation. $tatement< I like *nglish<lub.co#.

A: 6uestion< Io !ou like *nglish<lub.co#, A written "uestion in *nglish alwa!s ends with a "uestion #ark' , In this lesson we look at basic "uestions in *nglish, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

=asic >uestion Structure =asic >uestion $! es

@asic 6uestion $tructure


$he basic structure of a "uestion in *nglish is ver! si# le'

au&iliar! verb L subject L #ain verb


auxiliary verb Io Are 2ill 0ave subject !ou the! main verb like la!ing 3ar!, football, to $ok!o, *$,

Anthon! go !ou seen

Exce#tionA 4or the verb be in si# le resent and si# le ast, we do not use an au&iliar! verb. 2e si# l! reverse the ositions of be and subject' $tatement< 6uestion< 0e Is is Her#an.

he Her#an,

@asic 6uestion Ty#es


$here are ( basic ty#es of "uestion' @. IesJ o 6uestions (the answer to the "uestion is %Bes% or %.o%) 2. 6uestion %ord 6uestions (the answer to the "uestion is %Infor#ation%) (. Choice 6uestions (the answer to the "uestion is %in the "uestion%)

A;

). IesJ o 6uestions
auxiliary verb :o Can 9as :id subject !ou !ou she the! main verb &ant drive, finished go her work, ho#e, dinner, Ans&er Bes or .o Bes, I do. .o, I can9t. Bes, she has. .o, the! didn9t.

*&ce tion- verb @E si# le resent and si# le ast Is %as Anne Ga# 4rench, at ho#e, Bes, she is. .o, he wasn9t.

,. 6uestion %ord 6uestions


Euestion &ord 2here 2hen 2ho 2h! auxiliary verb do &ill did hasn;t subject !ou we she $ara main verb live, have meet, done it, lunch, Ans&er Infor#ation In Paris. At @ #. She #et Ga#. =ecause she can9t.

*&ce tion- verb @E si# le resent and si# le ast 2here 0ow is &as =o#ba!, she, In India. Ver! well.

.. Choice 6uestions
auxiliary verb subject main verb !> Ans&er In the "uestion

A?

:o %ill :id

!ou we she

&ant meet go

tea 1ohn to 8ondon

or or or

coffee, 1a#es, .ew Bork,

<offee, lease. 1ohn. She went to 8ondon.

*&ce tion- verb @E si# le resent and si# le ast Is %ere !our car the! white P@7 or or black, P7C, It9s black. P@7.

).7 Tag 6uestions


A tag "uestion is a s ecial construction in *nglish. It is a state#ent followed b! a #ini+ "uestion. $he whole sentence is a %tag "uestion%, and the #ini+"uestion at the end is called a %"uestion tag%.

AA
EnglishClub.com Ti# A %tag% is so#ething s#all that we add to so#ething larger. 4or e&a# le, the little iece of cloth added to a shirt showing si6e or washing instructions is a tag.

2e use tag "uestions at the end of state#ents to ask for confir#ation. $he! #ean so#ething like' %A# I right,% or %Io !ou agree,% $he! are ver! co##on in *nglish. $he basic structure is'

L + Positive state#ent, negative tag, + .egative state#ent, L ositive tag,

8ook at these e&a# les with ositive state#ents' #ositive statement KCL #ain verb co#ing, finished, like like will can #ust should hel , co#e, go, tr! are was harder, *nglish, there, coffee, coffee, negative tag K*L ersonal ronoun
(sa#e as subject) notes.

subject

au&iliar!

au&iliar!

not

Bou 2e Bou Bou $he! I 2e 0e Bou 1ohn

are have do

are have do do wo can #ust should are was

n9t n9t n9t n9t n9t 9t n9t n9t n9t n9t

!ou, we, !ou, !ou, the!, I, we, he, !ou, he,


no au&iliar! for #ain verb be resent U ast Bou (do) like... won9t E will not

@CC 8ook at these e&a# les with negative state#ents' negative statement K*L subject It 2e Bou $he! $he! I 2e 0e Bou 1ohn So#e s ecial cases' I am right, aren9t I, Bou have to go, don9t !ou, I have been answering, haven9t I, othing ca#e in the ost, did it, =et;s go, shall we, 0e;d better do it, hadn9t he, 0ere are so#e #i&ed e&a# les'
aren9t I (not a#n9t I) !ou (do) have to go... use first au&iliar! treat state#ents with nothing, nobod! etc like negative state#ents let9s E let us he had better (no au&iliar!)

#ositive tag KCL #ain verb au&iliar! is that, coffee, have do will us, it right, her, so fast, n9t *nglish, will can #ust should are was ersonal ronoun
(sa#e as subject)

au&iliar! is have do will wo can #ust should n9t

raining,

it, we, !ou, the!, the!, I, we, he, !ou, he,

never seen n9t not n9t like hel , re ort

never do n9t n9t tell drive are was

not there,

@C@

=ut !ou don9t reall! love her, do !ou, $his will work, won9t it, 2ell, I couldn9t hel it, could I, =ut !ou9ll tell #e if she calls, won9t !ou, 2e9d never have known, would we, $he weather9s bad, isn9t it, Bou won9t be late, will !ou, .obod! knows, do the!,

.otice that we often use tag "uestions to ask for infor#ation or hel , starting with a negative state#ent. $his is "uite a friendl!O olite wa! of #aking a re"uest. 4or e&a# le, instead of sa!ing %2here is the olice station,% (not ver! olite), or %Io !ou know where the olice station is,% (slightl! #ore olite), we could sa!' %Bou wouldn9t know where the olice station is, would !ou,% 0ere are so#e #ore e&a# les'

Bou don9t know of an! good jobs, do !ou, Bou couldn9t hel #e with #! ho#ework, could !ou, Bou haven9t got P@C to lend #e, have !ou,

Intonation
2e can change the #eaning of a tag "uestion with the #usical itch of our voice. 2ith rising intonation, it sounds like a real "uestion. =ut if our intonation falls, it sounds #ore like a state#ent that doesn9t re"uire a real answer' intonation Bou don9t know where #! wallet is, It9s a beatiful view, do !ou, isn9t it, O rising V falling
real "uestion not a real "uestion

Ans&ers to tag Euestions


EnglishClub.com Ti# A Euestion tag is the %#ini+"uestion% at the end. A tag Euestion is the whole sentence.

0ow do we answer a tag "uestion, )ften, we just sa! Bes or .o. So#eti#es we #a! re eat the tag and reverse it (..., do the!, Bes, the! do). =e ver! careful about answering tag "uestions. In so#e languages, an o osite s!ste# of answering is used, and non+native *nglish s eakers so#eti#es answer in the wrong wa!. $his can lead to a lot of confusionEnglishClub.com Ti# Answer a tag "uestion according to the truth of the situation. Bour answer reflects the real facts, not (necessaril!) the "uestion.

@C2 4or e&a# le, ever!one knows that snow is white. 8ook at these "uestions, and the correct answers' tag "uestion Snow is white, isn9t it, Snow isn9t white, is it, Snow is black, isn9t it, Snow isn9t black, is it, correct answer Bes (it is). Ies it iso it isn;t.o (it isn9t).
the answer is the sa#e in both cases + because snow IS 20I$*the answer is the sa#e in both cases + because snow IS .)$ =8A<W-

but notice the change of stress when the answerer does not agree with the "uestioner

In so#e languages, eo le answer a "uestion like %Snow isn9t black, is it,% with %Bes% (#eaning %Bes, I agree with !ou%). $his is the &rong ans&er in *nglish0ere are so#e #ore e&a# les, with correct answers'

$he #oon goes round the earth, doesn9t it, Bes, it does. $he earth is bigger than the #oon, isn9t it, Bes. $he earth is bigger than the sun, isn9t it, o, it isn;tAsian eo le don9t like rice, do the!, Ies, the! do*le hants live in *uro e, don9t the!, o, the! don;t3en don9t have babies, do the!, .o. $he *nglish al habet doesn9t have /C letters, does it, o, it doesn;t.

6uestion tags &ith im#eratives


So#eti#es we use "uestion tags with i# eratives (invitations, orders), but the sentence re#ains an i# erative and does not re"uire a direct answer. 2e use won)t for invitations. 2e use can can)t will would for orders. i# erative L "uestion tag invitation $ake a seat, won9t !ou, notes. olite

@C(

0el #e, can !ou, 0el #e, can9t !ou, order <lose the door, would !ou, Io it now, will !ou, Ion9t forget, will !ou,

"uite friendl! "uite friendl! (so#e irritation,) "uite olite less olite with negative i# eratives onl! will is ossible

$ame*&ay Euestion tags


Although the basic structure of tag "uestions is ositive+negative or negative+ ositive, it is so#eti#e ossible to use a ositive+ ositive or negative+negative structure. 2e use sa#e+wa! "uestion tags to e& ress interest, sur rise, anger etc, and not to #ake real "uestions.

So !ou9re having a bab!, are !ou, $hat9s wonderfulShe wants to #arr! hi#, does she, So#e chanceSo !ou think that9s a#using, do !ou, $hink again.

.egative+negative tag "uestions usuall! sound rather hostile'

So !ou don9t like #! looks, don9t !ou,

@C/

).)8 $ubjunctive
$he subjunctive is a s ecial, relativel! rare verb for# in *nglish.

"onstruction of the Su!'unctive


$he structure of the subjunctive is e&tre#el! si# le. 4or all verbs e&ce t the ast tense of to be, the subjunctive is the sa#e as the bare infinitive (infinitive without %to%)' to be #ast I &ere !ou &ere he, she, it &ere we &ere !ou &ere the! &ere ever!thing else, sa#e as bare infinitive #resent I be !ou be he, she, it be we be !ou be the! be #ast and #resent I &or( !ou &or( he, she, it &or( we &or( !ou &or( the! &or(

EnglishClub.com Ti# $he subjunctive does not change according to erson (I, !ou, he etc).

$se of the Su!'unctive


2e use subjunctives #ainl! when talking about events that are not certain to ha e&a# le, we use the subjunctive when talking about events that so#ebod!'

en. 4or

wants to ha en ho es will ha en i#agines ha ening

8ook at these e&a# les'


$he President re"uests that !ou be resent at the #eeting. It is vital that !ou be resent at the #eeting. If !ou &ere at the #eeting, the President would be ha !.

$he subjunctive is t! icall! used after two structures'

@C7

the verbs< ask, co##and, de#and, insist, ro ose, reco##end, re"uest, suggest L that the ex#ressions< it is desirable, essential, i# ortant, necessar!, vital L that

0ere are so#e e&a# les with the subjunctive'


$he #anager insists that the car ark be locked at night. $he board of directors reco##ended that he join the co# an!. It is essential that we vote as soon as ossible. It was necessar! that ever! student submit his essa! b! the weekend.

.otice that in these structures the subjunctive is alwa!s the sa#e. It does not #atter whether the sentence is ast or resent. 8ook at these e&a# les'

"resent< $he President re"uests that the! sto# the occu ation. "ast< $he President re"uested that the! sto# the occu ation. "resent< It essential that she be resent. "ast< It was essential that she be resent.

EnglishClub.com Ti# $he use of the subjunctive as above is #ore co##on in A#erican *nglish than in =ritish *nglish, where should C infinitive is often used' The manager insists that the car park shoul be locked at night. $t was essential that we shoul "ote as soon as possible.

2e usuall! use the subjunctive &ere instead of %was% after if (and other words with si#ilar #eaning). 8ook at these sentences'

If I &ere !ou, I would ask her. Su ose she &ere here. 2hat would !ou sa!,

%hy do &e say MI &ereM? Mhe &ereM+


2e so#eti#es hear things like %if I &ere !ou, I would go% or %if he &ere here, he would tell !ou%. .or#all!, the ast tense of the verb %to be% is' I was, he was. =ut the if ! were you structure does not use the ast si# le tense of the verb %to be%. It uses the #ast subjunctive of the verb %to be%. In the following e&a# les, !ou can see that we often use the subjunctive for# &ere instead of %was% after'

if as if &ish su##ose

@C:

-ormal ($he &ere for# is correct at all ti#es.) If I &ere !ounger, I would go. If he &eren;t so #ean, he would bu! one for #e. I wish I &eren;t so slowI wish it &ere longer. It9s not as if I &ere ugl!. She acts as if she &ere >ueen. If I &ere !ou, I should tell her.

Informal ($he &as for# is ossible in infor#al, fa#iliar conversation.) If I &as !ounger, I would go. If he &asn;t so #ean, he would bu! one for #e. I wish I &asn;t so slowI wish it &as longer. It9s not as if I &as ugl!. She acts as if she &as >ueen. ote< 2e do not nor#all! sa! %if I was !ou%, even in fa#iliar conversation.

So#e fi&ed e& ressions use the subjunctive. 0ere are so#e e&a# les'

=ong live the NingA God bless AmericaA 9eaven forbidA Be that as it may, he still wants to see her. Come &hat may, I will never forget !ou. 2e are all citi6ens of the world, as it were.

@C;

).)) Active Voice? "assive Voice


$here are two s ecial for#s for verbs called voice' @. Active voice 2. "assive voice $he active voice is the %nor#al% voice. $his is the voice that we use #ost of the ti#e. Bou are robabl! alread! fa#iliar with the active voice. In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb' subject active <ats eat verb object

FFF
fish.

$he #assive voice is less usual. In the assive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb' subject #assive 4ish verb object

XXX
are eaten b! cats.

$he object of the active verb beco#es the subject of the assive verb' subject active #assive *ver!bod! %ater verb drinks is drunk object &ater. b! ever!bod!.

@C?

"assive Voice
$he assive voice is less usual than the active voice. $he active voice is the %nor#al% voice. =ut so#eti#es we need the assive voice. In this lesson we look at how to construct the assive voice, when to use it and how to conjugate it.

"onstruction of the Passive (oice


$he structure of the #assive voice is ver! si# le'

subject L au&iliar! verb (be) L #ain verb ( ast artici le)


$he #ain verb is al&ays in its ast artici le for#' base regular irregular work sing ast worked sang #ast #artici#le &or(ed sung

8ook at these e&a# les' subject 2ater @CC eo le I 2e Are auxiliary verb 3to be4 is are a# are the! main verb 3#ast #artici#le4 drunk e# lo!ed aid not aid aid b! ever!one. b! this co# an!. in euro. in dollars. in !en,

$se of the Passive (oice


2e use the assive when'

we want to #ake the active object #ore i# ortant we do not know the active subject

@CA

subject give i# ortance to active object (Wenned!) active subject unknown "resident Nennedy 3! wallet

verb was killed has been stolen.

object b! 8ee 0arve! )swald.

.ote that we alwa!s use by to introduce the #assive object (4ish are eaten by cats).
EnglishClub.com Ti# 8ook at this sentence' 0e was killed &ith a gun.

.or#all! we use by to introduce the assive object. =ut the gun is not the active subject. $he gun did not kill hi#. 0e was killed by so#ebod! &ith a gun. In the active voice, it would be' So#ebod! killed hi# &ith a gun. $he gun is the instru#ent. So#ebod! is the %agent% or %doer%.

"on'ugation for the Passive (oice


2e can for# the assive in an! tense. In fact, conjugation of verbs in the assive tense is rather eas!, as the #ain verb is alwa!s in ast artici le for# and the au&iliar! verb is alwa!s be. $o for# the re"uired tense, we conjugate the au&iliar! verb. So, for e&a# le'

resent si# le' It is #ade resent continuous' It is being #ade resent erfect' It has been #ade

0ere are so#e e&a# les with #ost of the ossible tenses' infinitive resent ast si# le future conditional It &ill be washed. It &ould be washed. to be washed It is washed. It &as washed.

@@C

resent ast continuous future conditional resent ast erfect si# le future conditional resent ast erfect continuous future conditional

It is being washed. It &as being washed. It &ill be being washed. It &ould be being washed. It has been washed. It had been washed. It &ill have been washed. It &ould have been washed. It has been being washed. It had been being washed. It &ill have been being washed. It &ould have been being washed.

@@@

).), Infinitive or *ing+


So#eti#es we need to decide whether to use a verb in its'

*ing for# (%doing%) or infinitive for# (%to do%).

4or e&a# le, onl! one of the following sentences is correct. 2hich one,

I dislike &or(ing late. (,,,) I dislike to &or( late. (,,,)

)hen to use the infinitive


$he infinitive for# is used after certain verbs' - forget help learn teach train - choose e-pect hope need offer want would like - agree encourage pretend promise recommend - allow can2can)t afford decide manage mean refuse

I forgot to close the window. 3ar! needs to leave earl!. 2h! are the! encouraged to learn *nglish, 2e can;t afford to take a long holida!.

$he infinitive for# is alwa!s used after adjectives, for e&a# le' - disappointed glad happy pleased relieved sad surprised

I was ha##y to hel the#. She will be delighted to see !ou.

$his includes too C adjective'

@@2

$he water was too cold to swi# in. Is !our coffee too hot to drink,

$he infinitive for# is used after adjective C enough'


0e was strong enough to lift it. She is rich enough to bu! two.

)hen to use *ing


$he +ing for# is used when the word is the subject of a sentence or clause'

$&imming is good e&ercise. Ioctors sa! that smo(ing is bad for !ou.

$he +ing for# is used after a #re#osition'


I look forward to #eeting !ou. $he! left &ithout sa!ing %Hoodb!e.%

$he +ing for# is used after certain verbs' - avoid dislike en0oy finish give up mind2not mind practise

I disli(e getting u earl!. 2ould !ou mind o ening the window,

EnglishClub.com Ti# So#e verbs can be followed b! the *ing for# or the infinitive without a big change in #eaning' begin continue hate intend like love prefer propose start. It started to rain. It started raining. I like to la! tennis. I like la!ing tennis.

@@(

).). "lural Verbs &ith $ingular $ubjects


2e often use singular nouns that refer to grou s of eo le (eg government, committee, team) as if the! were lural. $his is articularl! true in =ritish *nglish. $his is because we often think of the grou as eo le, doing things that eo le do (eating, wanting, feeling etc). In such cases, we use'

#lural verb #lural #ronoun (the!) &ho (not which)

0ere are so#e e&a# les'


$he co##ittee &ant sandwiches for lunch. They have to leave earl!. 3! fa#il!, &ho don;t see #e often, have asked #e ho#e for <hrist#as. $he tea# ho#e to win ne&t ti#e.

0ere are so#e e&a# les of words and e& ressions that can be considered singular or lural'

choir, class, club, co##ittee, co# an!, fa#il!, govern#ent, jur!, school, staff, tea#, union, the ==<, board of directors, the <onservative Part!, 3anchester Dnited, the 3inistr! of 0ealth

=ut when we consider the grou as an i# ersonal unit, we use singular verbs and ronouns'

$he new co# an! is the result of a #erger. An average fa#il! consists of four eo le. $he co##ittee, &hich &as for#ed in @AAA, is #ade u of four #en and four wo#en.

@@/ .otice that this is often a "uestion of st!le and logic. $he i# ortant thing is to be consistent.
englishclub*com Tip .sing a plural verb with singular sub/ect is less common in -merican 0nglish.

).)/ Verb Meanings &ith Continuous Tenses


$here are so#e verbs that we do not nor#all! use in the continuous tense. And there are other verbs that we use in the si# le tense with one #eaning and in the continuous tense with another #eaning. In this lesson we look at various uses of continuous tenses.

Verbs not Dsed with <ontinuous $enses Verbs with $wo 3eanings =e and <ontinuous $enses

Verbs not Fsed &ith Continuous Tenses


2e usuall! use the following verbs with si# le tenses onl! (not continuous tenses)'

hate like love need prefer want wish believe imagine know mean reali3e recogni3e remember suppose understand belong concern consist contain depend involve matter need owe own possess appear resemble seem hear see

0ere are so#e e&a# les' I &ant a coffee. I don;t believe !ou are right. not I a# wanting a coffee. not I a# not believing !ou are right.

@@7

:oes this en belong to !ou, It seemed wrong. I don;t hear an!thing.

not Is this en belonging to !ou, not It was see#ing wrong. not I a# not hearing an!thing.

.otice that we often use can L see2hear'


I can see so#eone in the distance. (not I a# seeing so#eone in the distance.) I can9t hear !ou ver! well. (not I a# not hearing !ou ver! well.)

EnglishClub.com Ti# 2ith verbs that we don9t use in the continuous tense, there is no real action or activit!. <o# are %to hear% and %to listen%. %$o hear% #eans %to receive sound in !our ears%. $here is no real action or activit! b! !ou. 2e use %to hear% with si# le tenses onl!. =ut %to listen% #eans %to tr! to hear%. Bou #ake an effort to hear. $here is a kind of action or activit!. 2e can use %to listen% with si# le or continuous tenses.

Verbs &ith T&o Meanings


So#e verbs have two different #eanings or senses. 4or one sense we #ust use a si# le tense. 4or the other sense we can use a continuous or si# le tense. 4or e&a# le, the verb to think has two different senses' @. to believe, to have an o inion (e-ample. I think Gick! 3artin is se&!.) 2. to reflect, to use !our brain to solve a roble# (e-ample. I a# thinking about #! ho#ework.) In sense @. there is no real action, no activit!. $his sense is called %stative%. In sense 2. there is a kind of action, a kind of activit!. $his sense is called %d!na#ic%. 2hen we use the stative sense, we use a si# le tense. 2hen we use the d!na#ic sense, we can use a si# le or continuous tense, de ending on the situation. 8ook at these e&a# les' $tative sense (no real action) Si# le onl! I thin( she is beautiful. :ynamic sense (a kind of action) <ontinuous =e "uiet. I;m thin(ing. Si# le I &ill thin( about this roble# to#orrow.

@@:

I don;t consider that he 2e are considering !our job is the right #an for the a lication and will give !ou our job. answer in a few da!s. $his table measures / & She is measuring the roo# for a : feet. new car et. Ioes the wine taste good, 3ar! has three children. I &as tasting the wine when I dro ed the glass. Please hone later. 2e are having dinner now.

2e consider ever! job a lication ver! carefull!. A good car enter measures his wood carefull!. I alwa!s taste wine before I drink it. 2e have dinner at ? # ever! da!.

EnglishClub.com Ti# If !ou have a doubt about a articular verb, ask !ourself the "uestion' %Is there an! real action or activit!,%

Be and Continuous Tenses


$he verb be can be an au&iliar! verb (3arie is learning *nglish) or a #ain verb (3arie is 4rench). )n this age we look at the verb be as a main verb. Dsuall! we use si# le tenses with the verb be as a #ain verb. 4or e&a# le, we sa!'

8ondon is the ca ital of the DW. (not 8ondon is being the ca ital of the DW.) Is she beautiful, (not Is she being beautiful,) 2ere !ou late, (not 2ere !ou being late,)

So#eti#es, however, we can use the verb be with a continuous tense. $his is when the real sense of the verb is %to act% or %to behave%. Also, of course, the action is te# orar!. <o# are the following e&a# les' 3ar! is a careful erson. (3ar! is alwa!s careful + it9s her nature.) Is he alwa!s so stu id, (Is that his ersonalit!,) Andrew is not usuall! selfish. (It is not Andrew9s character to be selfish.) 1ohn is being careful. (1ohn is acting carefull! now, but #a!be he is not alwa!s careful + we don9t know.) $he! were being reall! stu id. ($he! were behaving reall! stu idl! at that #o#ent.) 2h! is he being so selfish, (2h! is he acting so selfishl! at the #o#ent,)

.otice that we also #ake a difference between %to be sick% and %to be being sick%'

@@;

She is sick (E she is not well) She is being sick (E she is vo#iting)

EnglishClub.com Ti# 0ere is the structure of the verb be in the continuous resent tense' I a# being Bou are being 0e, she, it is being 2e are being Bou are being $he! are being

).)0 Used to do D Be used to


$hese two e& ressions look the sa#e, but actuall! the! are co# letel! different. In this lesson we look at the structure and use of both e& ressions, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

Dsed to do =e used to

Used to do
2e use used to do to talk about the ast. It is not a tense but it is like a tense. It is a s ecial e& ression. 2e use the e& ression used to do for the ast onl!.
EnglishClub.com Ti# Io not confuse used to do with with the e& ression be used to. $he! have different #eanings.

How do we make use to o?


$he structure is' subject auxiliary did 3not4 main verb use used infinitive to do.

@@?

+ ,

I :id

did !ou

not

use use

to do. to do,

EnglishClub.com Ti# 4sed or use, when there is did in the sentence, we sa! use to (without the d) when there is no did in the sentence, we sa! used to (with the d)

How do we use use to o?


2e use this e& ression to talk about'

an activit! that we did regularl! in the ast (like a habit) a situation that was true in the ast I used to s#oke.

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ast 8ook at these e&a# les. the #ast

resent

future

the #resent .ow she works in a bank. .ow he doesn9t watch #uch $V. .ow the! are divorced. .ow there is a su er#arket here. .ow I go swi##ing.

L L L L + ,

She used to work in a sho . 0e used to watch a lot of $V. $he! used to be #arried. $here used to be a cine#a here. I didn9t use to go swi##ing. Iid !ou use to s#oke,

@@A

Be used to
Be used to something Be used to doing Be used to is an e& ression. It is not a tense. If I sa! %I a# used to $hailand%, it is like sa!ing %I a# accusto#ed to $hailand.%
EnglishClub.com Ti# Io not confuse be used to with with the s ecial construction used to do. $he! have different #eanings.

How do we make be use to?


$he structure is'

subject L be L used to L object


subject main verb be am is aren;t you not (not) used to used to used to used to used to object horses. horses. horses. horses,

L + ,

I 0e 2e Are

If the object is a verb, we use the *ing for#' subject #ain verb be (not) a# is aren9t !ou not used to object verbCing used to cooking. used to cooking. used to cooking. used to cooking.

L + ,

I 0e 2e Are

EnglishClub.com Ti# 2h! do we use *ing for a verb after be used to, =ecause we alwa!s use *ing for a verb after a re osition +

@2C
and the to is a re osition-

How do we use be use to?


$he be used to e& ression is for talking about so#ething that is familiar to us or easy for us. 4or e&a# le'

I am used to driving on the left.

It #eans that it is not a roble# for #e to drive on the left of the road. I a# 1a anese. In 1a an, eo le drive on the left. .ow I a# living in the DSA where eo le drive on the right. )f course, I drive on the right in the DSA, but when I go to 1a an it is eas! for #e to drive on the left because %I a# used to it%. 8ook at these e&a# les.

I am used to hard work. I am used to working hard. 0e is not used to .ew Bork. 0e isn;t used to living in .ew Bork. Are !ou used to fast food, Are !ou used to eating "uickl!,

Be used to &ith other tenses


2e can use be used to in an! tense. 2e just conjugate the verb be in the tense that we need. 8ook at these e&a# les'

2hen we lived in =angkok, we &ere used to hot weather. I have been used to snakes for a long ti#e. Bou &ill soon be used to living alone.

@2@

).)1 going to
going to is not a tense. It is a s ecial e& ression to talk about the future.

How do we make a sentence with +going to+?


$he structure is'

subject L be L going L infinitive


$he verb %be% is conjugated ( ast, resent or future). subject be a# 3not4 going going going is isn9t not going going infinitive to bu! to go to take to rain. a new car. swi##ing. the e&a#.

L L + +

I I9# 0e It

@22

Are

!ou

going

to aint

the house,

How do we use +going to+?


going to 3for intention4
2e use going to when we have the intention to do so#ething before we s eak. 2e have alread! #ade a decision before s eaking. 8ook at these e&a# les'

1o has won the lotter!. 0e sa!s he;s going to buy a Porsche. 2e;re not going to #aint our bedroo# to#orrow. 2hen are !ou going to go on holida!,

In these e&a# les, we had an intention or #lan before s#ea(ing. $he decision was #ade before s eaking.

going to 3for #rediction4


2e often use going to to #ake a rediction about the future. )ur rediction is based on resent evidence. 2e are sa!ing what we think will ha en. 0ere are so#e e&a# les'

$he sk! is ver! black. It;s going to sno&. It9s ?.(C- Bou;re going to miss the trainI crashed the co# an! car. 3! boss isn;t going to be ver! ha

!-

In these e&a# les, the #resent situation (black sk!, the ti#e, da#aged car) gives us a good idea of what is going to ha en.

@2(

).)2 -uture Time


$he future is uncertain. 2e know the ast. 2e know the resent. 2e do not know the future. 2e can be @CCT sure or certain about the ast and the resent. =ut we can never be @CCT certain about the future. In *nglish there are several structures and tenses to talk about the future. It is usuall! the degree of certaint! about the future that decides our choice of structure or tense. In this lesson we look at four of the #ost co##on wa!s to talk about the future, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

2ill' for no rior lan and rediction Hoing to' for intention and rediction Present <ontinuous' for rior lan Present Si# le' for schedule Su##ar!

EnglishClub.com Ti# Although we often talk about %future tenses%, technicall! there are no future tenses in *nglishJonl! different wa!s of talking about the future, using s ecial constructions, other tenses or #odal verbs.

%ill

@2/ )ne of the #ost co##on wa!s to talk about the future is with &ill, for e&a# le' I will call !ou tonight. 2e often call this the %future si# le tense%, but technicall! there are no future tenses in *nglish. In this construction, the word &ill is a #odal au&iliar! verb.

)ill, no prior plan


2e use &ill when there is no rior lan or decision to do so#ething before &e s#ea(. 2e #ake the decision at the time of s#ea(ing. 8ook at these e&a# les'

0old on. I;ll get a en. 2e &ill see what we can do to hel !ou. 3a!be we;ll stay in and &atch television tonight.

In these e&a# les, we had no firm #lan before s#ea(ing. $he decision is #ade at the time of s#ea(ing. 2e often use %will% with the verb %to think%'

I think I;ll go to the g!# to#orrow. I think I;ll have a holida! ne&t !ear. I don9t think I;ll buy that car.

)ill, prediction
2e often use %will% to #ake a rediction about the future. Again, there is no fir# lan. 2e are sa!ing what we thin( will ha en. 0ere are so#e e&a# les'

It &ill rain to#orrow. Peo le &on;t go to 1u iter before the 22nd centur!. 2ho do !ou think &ill get the job,

)ill - to !e
$he verb %to be% is an e&ce tion with %will%. *ven when we have a ver! fir# lan, and we are not s eaking s ontaneousl!, we can use %will% with %to be%. 8ook at these e&a# les'

I &ill be in 8ondon to#orrow. $here &ill be 7C eo le at the art!. $he #eeting &ill be at A.(C a#.

EnglishClub.com Ti# $he verb to be is alwa!s e&ce tional-

Going to

@27

.oing to, intention


2e use the s ecial %going to% construction when we have the intention to do so#ething before &e s#ea(. 2e have alread! made a decision before s#ea(ing. 8ook at these e&a# les'

I have won P@,CCC. I a# going to buy a new $V. 2e9re not going to see #! #other to#orrow. 2hen are !ou going to go on holida!,

In these e&a# les, we had an intention or #lan before s#ea(ing. $he decision was #ade before we s oke.

.oing to, prediction


2e often use %going to% to #ake a rediction about the future. )ur rediction is based on evidence. 2e are sa!ing what see#s sure to ha en. 0ere are so#e e&a# les'

$he sk! is ver! black. It is going to sno&. It9s ?.(C- Bou9re going to miss the trainI crashed the co# an! car. 3! boss isn9t going to be ver! ha

!-

In these e&a# les, the resent situation (black sk!Othe ti#eOda#aged car) gives us a good idea of what is going to ha en.
EnglishClub.com Ti# 2e use &ill for rediction when we have no real evidence' %It will rain to#orrow.% (It9s #! feeling but I can9t be sure.) 2e use going to for rediction when there is so#e real evidence' %It9s going to rain.% ($here9s a big, black cloud in the sk! and if it doesn9t rain I9ll be ver! sur rised.)

"resent Continuous< for #rior #lan


2e often use the resent continuous tense to talk about the future. )f course, we nor#all! use the resent continuous to talk about action ha ening in the resent, but if &e add a future &ord, we can use it to talk about the future. (=! %future word% we #ean words like %to#orrow%, %ne&t week%, %in 1une% etc. $he future word #a! be clearl! e& ressed or understood fro# the conte&t.) 2e use the resent continuous only &hen a #lan exists before we s eak. 8ook at these e&a# les'

@2:

3ar! is ta(ing her #usic e&a# next year. $he! canYt la! tennis with !ou tomorro&. $he! ;re &or(ing. 2eOre going to the theatre on -riday.

EnglishClub.com Ti# So#eti#es there is no real difference between an intention (%Hoing $o%) and a lan (<ontinuous Present). In this case, it doen9t #atter which we use. 2e9re going to aint the bedroo# to#orrow. 2e9re ainting the bedroo# to#orrow.

"resent $im#le< for schedule


2hen an event is on a schedule or ti#etable (for e&a# le, the take+off ti#e for a lane), we often use the #resent sim#le to e& ress the future. 2e usuall! also use a future word (e& ressed or understood) like %to#orrow%, %at :.(C #%, %ne&t week%. )nl! a few verbs are used in this wa!, for e&a# le'

be, o en, close, begin, start, end, finish, arrive, co#e, leave, return

8ook at these sentences'


$he train leaves Ietroit at A # tonight. 1ohn starts work next &ee(. Tomorro& is $hursda!.

-uture Time< $ummary


2hen we s eak, we choose the tense that we use. $his is i# ortant in *nglish, because the tense we choose e& resses #ore than just a si# le fact. 2hen we s eak about the future, the tense we choose can e& ress how we %see% the future, even our ersonal feelings about the future. It certainl! e& resses what we believe to be the robabilit! (the chance, the realit!) of so#ething ha ening or whether we have alread! decided to do it. $his table gives a sim#le scale of robabilit! for each structure. It is not exact because language is not a science, and there are #an! variables. $his table should hel !ou to think about the %conce t% of the future in *nglish. $his conce t does not e&ist in all languages, but it is rather i# ortant in *nglish. T robabilit! before s eaker structure used for exam#le

@2;

s eaks of event ha

ening will going to resent continuous resent si# le no lan intention lan schedule Ion9t get u . I9ll answer the hone. 2e9re going to watch $V tonight. I9# taking #! e&a# in 1une. 3! lane takes off at :.CCa# to#orrow.

CT ;CT ACT AA.AAAT

EnglishClub.com Ti# It is im#ossible in *nglish to e& ress the future with @CCT certaint!. ($he s eakers of an! language that can do this #ust all be #illionaires-)

).)5 -or D $ince for Time


2e often use for and since when talking about ti#e.

for L eriod
A #eriod is a duration of ti#e, for e&a# le' 7 #inutes, 2 weeks, : !ears. For #eans %fro# the beginning of the eriod until the end of the eriod.% For can be used with all tenses.

since L oint
A #oint is a recise #o#ent in ti#e, for e&a# le' A o9clock, @st 1anuar!, 3onda!. +ince #eans %fro# a #oint in the ast until no&.% +ince is nor#all! used with erfect tenses. for a eriod (fro# start to end) since a oint (u to now)

@2?

FEEEX QEEEFR
all tenses for... 2C #inutes three da!s : #onths / !ears 2 centuries a long ti#e ever etc #erfect tenses since... Aa# 3onda! 1anuar! @AA; @7CC I left school the beginning of ti#e etc

For can be used with all tenses. 0ere are a few e&a# les'

$he! stud! for t&o hours ever! da!. $he! are stud!ing for three hours toda!. 0e has lived in =angkok for a long time. 0e has been living in Paris for three months. I worked at that bank for five years. 2ill the universe continue for ever,

For is not used with %all da!%, %all the ti#e% etc.

I was there all day. (not Kfor all da!)

+ince is nor#all! used with #erfect tenses'


0e has been here since 7am. 0e has been working since he arrived. I had lived in .ew Bork since my childhood.

+ince can also be used in the structure %It is M#eriodN since...%'


It is a year since I saw her. 9o& long is it since !ou got #arried,

EnglishClub.com Ti#

@2A
=oth for and since also have different #eanings, with no reference to ti#e. 0ere are so#e e&a# les' $his is for !ou. Is this the train for 8ondon, $ince !ou ask, I9ll sa! !es. $ince he didn9t stud! he didn9t ass the e&a#.

, English ouns
It9s not eas! to describe a noun. In si# le ter#s, nouns are %things% (and verbs are %actions%). 8ike food. 4ood (noun) is so#ething !ou eat (verb). )r ha##iness. 0a (noun) is so#ething !ou want (verb). )r human being. A hu#an being (noun) is so#ething !ou are (verb). ,.) %hat are ouns+ 2hat do nouns do, 2hat9s their job, 2h! are the! i# ortant, 0ow can I recogni6e a noun, ,., Countable ouns? Fncountable ouns 2h! is this i# ortant, 2h! do so#e nouns have no lural, dog2dogs rice hair"s# iness

@(C ,.. "ro#er ouns 3 ames4 Io we sa! %Atlantic )cean% or %the Atlantic )cean%, Should I write %februar!% or %4ebruar!%, ,./ "ossessive ;s Adding 9s or 9 to show ossession. +hirley /r 5eckyll Thailand +ony

5ohn)s car my parents) house

,.) %hat are ouns+


It is not eas! to define a noun. $he si# le definition is' %a #erson? #lace or thing%. 0ere are so#e e&a# les'

"erson' #an, wo#an, teacher, 1ohn, 3ar! "lace' ho#e, office, town, countr!side, A#erica Thing' table, car, banana, #one!, #usic, love, dog, #onke!

$he roble# with this definition is that it does not e& lain wh! %love% is a noun but can also be a verb. Another (#ore co# licated) wa! of recogni6ing a noun is b! its' @. Ending 2. "osition (. -unction )4 oun Ending $here are certain word endings that show that a word is a noun, for e&a# le'

+it! F nationality +#ent F a##ointment +ness F ha##iness +ation F relation +hood F childhood

=ut this is not is not true for the word endings of all nouns. 4or e&a# le, the noun %s oonful% ends in +ful, but the adjective %careful% also ends in +ful. ,4 "osition in $entence 2e can often recognise a noun b! its osition in the sentence.

@(@ .ouns often co#e after a deter#iner. (A %deter#iner% is a word like a, an, the, this, #!, such.)

a relief an afternoon the doctor this &ord #! house such stu#idity

.ouns often co#e after one or #ore adjectives.


a great relief a eaceful afternoon the tall, Indian doctor this difficult &ord #! brown and white house such crass stu#idity

.4 -unction in a $entence .ouns have certain functions (jobs) in a sentence, for e&a# le'

subject of verb F :octors work hard. object of verb F 0e likes coffee. subject and object of verb F Teachers teach students.

=ut the subject or object of a sentence is not alwa!s a noun. It could be a ronoun or a hrase. In the sentence %3! doctor works hard%, the noun is %doctor% but the subject is %3! doctor%.

,., Countable and Fncountable ouns


*nglish nouns are often described as %countable% or %uncountable%. In this lesson we look at'

Countable nouns Fncountable nouns ouns that can be countable and uncountable

@(2

Countable ouns
<ountable nouns are eas! to recogni6e. $he! are things that we can count. 4or e&a# le' % en%. 2e can count ens. 2e can have one, two, three or #ore ens. 0ere are so#e #ore countable nouns'

dog, cat, ani#al, #an, erson bottle, bo&, litre coin, note, dollar cu , late, fork table, chair, suitcase, bag

<ountable nouns can be singular or lural'


3! dog is la!ing. 3! dogs are hungr!.

2e can use the indefinite article aJan with countable nouns'

A dog is an ani#al.

2hen a countable noun is singular, we #ust use a word like aJtheJmyJthis with it'

I want an orange. (not I want orange.) 2here is my bottle, (not 2here is bottle,)

2hen a countable noun is lural, we can use it alone'


I like oranges. =ottles can break.

2e can use some and any with countable nouns'


I9ve got some dollars. 0ave !ou got any ens,

2e can use a fe& and many with countable nouns'


I9ve got a fe& dollars. I haven9t got many ens.

englishclub*com Tip 12eople1 is countable. 12eople1 is the plural of 1person1. +e can count people. There is one person here. There are three people here.

@((

Fncountable ouns
Dncountable nouns are substances, conce ts etc that we cannot divide into se arate ele#ents. 2e cannot %count% the#. 4or e&a# le, we cannot count %#ilk%. 2e can count %bottles of #ilk% or %litres of #ilk%, but we cannot count %#ilk% itself. 0ere are so#e #ore uncountable nouns'

#usic, art, love, ha iness advice, infor#ation, news furniture, luggage rice, sugar, butter, water electricit!, gas, ower #one!, currenc!

2e usuall! treat uncountable nouns as singular. 2e use a singular verb. 4or e&a# le'

This news is ver! i# ortant. Bour luggage loo(s heav!.

2e do not usuall! use the indefinite article aJan with uncountable nouns. 2e cannot sa! %an infor#ation% or %a #usic%. =ut we can sa! a something of'

a #iece of news a bottle of water a grain of rice

2e can use some and any with uncountable nouns'


I9ve got some #one!. 0ave !ou got any rice,

2e can use a little and much with uncountable nouns'


I9ve got a little #one!. I haven9t got much rice.

englishclub*com Tip .ncountable nouns are also called 1mass nouns1.

2hen !ou learn a new word, it9s a good idea to learn whether it9s countable or uncountable.

@(/

ouns that can be Countable and Fncountable


So#eti#es, the sa#e noun can be countable and uncountable, often with a change of #eaning. Countable $here are two hairs in #! coffee$here are two lights in our bedroo#. Shhhhh- I thought I heard a noise. 0ave !ou got a a er to read, (E news a er) )ur house has seven roo#s. 2e had a great ti#e at the art!. /acbeth is one of Shakes eare9s greatest works. hair light noise #a#er room time &or( Fncountable I don9t have #uch hair. <lose the curtain. $here9s too #uch lightIt9s difficult to work when there is too #uch noise. I want to draw a icture. 0ave !ou got so#e a er, Is there roo# for #e to sit here, 0ave !ou got ti#e for a coffee, I have no #one!. I need work-

englishclub*com Tip 3rinks coffee" water" orange /uice! are usually uncountable. #ut if we are thinking of a cup or a glass" we can say in a restaurant" for example!* P Two teas and one coffee please.

,.. "ro#er ouns 3 ames4


A ro er noun is the s ecial word (or na#e) that we use for a erson, lace or organi6ation, like 1ohn, 3arie, 8ondon, 4rance or Son!. A na#e is a noun, but a ver! s ecial nounJa ro er noun. Pro er nouns have s ecial rules. common noun #an, bo! wo#an, girl #ro#er noun 1ohn 3ar!

@(7

countr!, town co# an! sho , restaurant #onth, da! of the week book, fil#

*ngland, 8ondon 4ord, Son! 3ace!s, 3cIonalds 1anuar!, Sunda! 'ar 6 Peace, Titanic

In this lesson we look at the uses of ro er nouns, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

Dsing <a ital 8etters with Pro er .ouns Pro er .ouns without $0* Pro er .ouns with $0*

Fsing Ca#ital =etters &ith "ro#er ouns


2e al&ays use a Ca ital =etter for the first letter of a ro er noun (na#e). $his includes na#es of eo le, laces, co# anies, da!s of the week and #onths. 4or e&a# le'

$he! like 1ohn. (not K$he! like john.) I live in *ngland. She works for Son!. $he last da! in 1anuar! is a 3onda!. 2e saw Titanic in the )deon <ine#a.

"ro#er ouns &ithout T9E


2e do not use Zthe[ with na#es of eo le. 4or e&a# le' =ill (not Kthe =ill) first na#es 0ilar! <linton surna#es Hates full na#es 0ilar! Hates

@(: 2e do not nor#all! use Zthe[ with na#es of co# anies. 4or e&a# le'

Genault, 4ord, Son!, *nglish<8D=.net Heneral 3otors, Air 4rance, =ritish Airwa!s 2arner =rothers, =rown U Son 8td

2e do not nor#all! use Zthe[ for sho s, banks, hotels etc na#ed after a founder or other erson (with +Ys or +s). 4or e&a# le' sho s banks hotels, restaurants churches, cathedrals 0arrods, 3arks U S encer, 3ace!s =arcla!s =ank SteveYs 0otel, 1oeYs <af\, 3cIonalds St 1ohnYs <hurch, St PeterYs <athedral

2e do not nor#all! use Zthe[ with na#es of laces. 4or e&a# le' towns states, regions countries continents islands #ountains 2ashington (not Kthe 2ashington), Paris, $ok!o $e&as, Went, *astern *uro e *ngland, Ital!, =ra6il Asia, *uro e, .orth A#erica <orsica *verest

Exce#tionA If a countr! na#e includes ZStates[, ZWingdo#[, ZGe ublic[ etc, we use Zthe[' states kingdo# re ublic the Dnited States, the DS, the Dnited States of A#erica, the DSA the Dnited Wingdo#, the DW the 4rench Ge ublic

2e do not use Zthe[ with ZPresidentOIoctorO3r etc L .a#e['

@(;

the resident, the king the ca tain, the detective the doctor, the rofessor #! uncle, !our aunt

President =ush (not Kthe President =ush) <a tain Wirk, Ietective <olo#bo Ioctor 2ell, Ir 2ell, Professor Iolittle Dncle 1ack, Aunt 1ill 3r Hates (not Kthe 3r Hates), 3rs <linton, 3iss =lack

8ook at these e&a# le sentences'


I wanted to s eak to the doctor. I wanted to s eak to :octor @ro&n. 2ho was the #resident before "resident Nennedy,

2e do not use Zthe[ with Z8akeO3ount L .a#e[' the lake 8ake Victoria

the #ount 3ount *verest 8ook at this e&a# le sentence'

2e live beside =a(e Victoria. 2e have a fantastic view across the la(e.

2e do not nor#all! use Zthe[ for roads, streets, s"uares, arks etc' streets etc s"uares etc arks etc )&ford Street, $renhol#e Goad, 4ifth Avenue $rafalgar S"uare, )undle Place, Piccadill! <ircus <entral Park, Wew Hardens

3an! big, i# ortant buildings have na#es #ade of two words (for e&a# le, Wenned! Air ort). If the first word is the na#e of a erson or lace, we do not nor#all! use Zthe[' eo le laces Wenned! Air ort, Ale&ander Palace, St PaulYs <athedral 0eathrow Air ort, 2aterloo Station, *dinburgh <astle

@(?

"ro#er ouns &ith T9E


2e nor#all! use %the% for countr! na#es that include ZStates[, ZWingdo#[, ZGe ublic[ etc' States the Dnited States of A#ericaOthe DSA

Wingdo# the Dnited Wingdo#Othe DW Ge ublic the 4rench Ge ublic

2e nor#all! use Zthe[ for na#es of canals, rivers, seas and oceans' canals rivers seas the Sue6 <anal the Giver .ile, the .ile the 3editerranean Sea, the 3editerranean

oceans the Pacific )cean, the Pacific 2e nor#all! use Zthe[ for #lural na#es of eo le and laces' eo le (fa#ilies, for e&a# le) countries island grou s #ountain ranges 8ook at these sentences'

the <lintons the Phili ines, the Dnited States

the Virgin Islands, the =ritish Isles the 0i#ala!as, the Al s

I saw the Clintons toda!. It was =illYs birthda!. $rinidad is the largest island in the %est Indies. 3ount *verest is in the 9imalayas.

2e nor#all! use Zthe[ with the following sorts of na#es' hotels, restaurants the Git6 0otel, the Peking Gestaurant

@(A

banks cine#as, theatres #useu#s buildings news a ers organisations

the .ational 2est#inster =ank the Go!al $heatre, the A=< <ine#a the =ritish 3useu#, the .ational Haller! the 2hite 0ouse, the <r!stal Palace the Iail! $elegra h, the Sunda! Post the Dnited .ations, the ==<, the *uro ean Dnion

2e nor#all! use Zthe[ for na#es #ade with Z]of]['


the $ower of 8ondon the Hulf of Sia# the $ro ic of <ancer the 8ondon School of *cono#ics the =ank of 4rance the Statue of 8ibert!

,./ "ossessive ;s
2hen we want to show that so#ething belongs to so#ebod! or so#ething, we usuall! add ;s to a singular noun and an a ostro he (;) to a lural noun, for e&a# le'

the bo!9s ball (one bo!) the bo!s9 ball (two or #ore bo!s)

.otice that the nu#ber of balls does not #atter. $he structure is influenced b! the ossessor and not the ossessed. one ball one boy more than one boy the bo!9s ball the bo!s9 ball more than one ball the bo!9s balls the bo!s9 balls

@/C

ENG/(S0 '/12 T(P Although we can use %of% to show ossession, it is #ore usual to use ossessive 9s. $he following hrases have the sa#e #eaning, but ^2 is #ore usual and natural'

@. the bo!friend of #! sister 2. #! sister9s bo!friend $he structure can be used for a whole hrase'

the #an ne&t door9s #other (the #other of the man ne-t door) the >ueen of *ngland9s oodles (the oodles of the 7ueen of 8ngland) the President of the DSA9s secretar! (the secretar! of the President of the 4+A)

"ro#er ouns 3 ames4


2e ver! often use ossessive 9s with na#es'

$his is 3ar!9s car. 2here is Ga#9s tele hone, 2ho took Anthon!9s en, I like $ara9s hair.

2hen a na#e ends in %s%, we usuall! treat it like an! other singular noun, and add ;s'

$his is <harles9s chair.

=ut it is ossible (es eciall! with older, classical na#es) to just add the a ostro he (;)'

2ho was 1esus9 father,

Irregular "lurals
So#e nouns have irregular lural for#s without %s% (#an F #en). $o show ossession, we usuall! add ;s to the lural for# of these nouns' singular noun #! child9s dog the #an9s work the #ouse9s cage a erson9s clothes #lural noun #! children9s dog the #en9s work the #ice9s cage eo le9s clothes

@/@

. English Adjectives
It is said that the adjective is the ene#! of the noun. $hat #a! be true, but adjectives are still ver! useful words. $he! add infor#ation to a sentence, and tell us #ore about nouns and ronouns. ..) :eterminers .., Adjective !rder ... Com#arative Adjectives ../ $u#erlative Adjectives the a2an this some any beautiful long dark brown richer more e-citing the richest the most e-citing

..) :eterminers
The or A3An4 Each an E"er, Some an An,

:eterminers< A? An or The+
2hen do we sa! %the dog% and when do we sa! %a dog%, ()n this age we talk onl! about singular, countable nouns.) The and AJAn are called %articles%. 2e divide the# into %definite% and %indefinite% like this' Articles :efinite $he Indefinite A, An

2e use %definite% to #ean sure, certain. %Iefinite% is articular.

@/2 2e use %indefinite% to #ean not sure, not certain. %Indefinite% is general. 2hen we are talking about one thing in articular, we use the. 2hen we are talking about one thing in general, we use a or an. $hink of the sk! at night. In the sk! there is @ #oon and #illions of stars. So nor#all! we could sa!'

I saw the #oon last night. I saw a star last night.

8ook at these e&a# les' The


A? An The ca ital of 4rance is Paris. I have found the book that I lost. 0ave !ou cleaned the car, $here are si& eggs in the fridge. Please switch off the $V when !ou finish.

I was born in a town. 1ohn had an o#elette for lunch. 1a#es =ond ordered a drink. 2e want to bu! an u#brella. 0ave !ou got a en,

)f course, often we can use The or AJAn for the sa#e word. It de ends on the situation. 8ook at these e&a# les'

2e want to bu! an u#brella. (An! u#brella, not a articular u#brella.) 2here is the u#brella, (2e alread! have an u#brella. 2e are looking for our u#brella, a articular u#brella.)

$his little stor! should hel !ou understand the difference between The and A? An'

A #an and a wo#an were walking in )&ford Street. The wo#an saw a dress that she liked in a sho . She asked the #an if he could bu! the dress for her. 0e said' %Io !ou think the sho will acce t a che"ue, I don9t have a credit card.%

:eterminers< Each? Every


Each and every have si#ilar but not alwa!s identical #eanings. Verbs with each and every are alwa!s conjugated in the singular. Each E ever! one se aratel!.

@/(

Every E each, all. So#eti#es, each and every have the sa#e #eaning'

Prices go u each !ear. Prices go u every !ear.

=ut often the! are not e&actl! the sa#e. Each e& resses the idea of 9one b! one9. It e# hasi6es individualit!. Every is half+wa! between each and all. It sees things or eo le as singular, but in a grou or in general. <onsider the following'

Every artist is sensitive. Each artist sees things differentl!. Every soldier saluted as the President arrived. $he President gave each soldier a #edal. Each soldier received a #edal fro# the President.

Each can be used in front of the verb'

$he soldiers each received a #edal.

Each can be followed b! 9of9'


$he President s oke to each of the soldiers. 0e gave a #edal to each of the#.

Every cannot be used for 2 things. 4or 2 things, each can be used'

0e was carr!ing a suitcase in each hand. ens'

Every is used to sa! how often so#ething ha


$here is a lane to =angkok every da!. $he bus leaves every hour.

@//

Ieter#iners' So#e and An! So#e E a little, a few or a s#all nu#ber or a#ount An! E one, so#e or all Dsuall!, we use so#e in ositive (L) sentences and an! in negative (+) and "uestion (,) sentences. some any I have P@C. I don9t have any #one!. Io !ou have any #one!, I don9t have P@ and I don9t have P@C and I don9t have P@,CCC,CCC. I have PC. Io !ou have P@ or P@C or P@,CCC,CCC, exam#le

L + ,

I have some #one!.

In general, we use so#ethingOan!thing and so#ebod!Oan!bod! in the sa#e wa! as so#eOan!. 8ook at these e&a# les'

0e needs so#e sta# s. I #ust go. I have so#e ho#ework to do. I9# thirst!. I want so#ething to drink. I can see so#ebod! co#ing. 0e doesn9t need an! sta# s. I can sta!. I don9t have an! ho#ework to do. I9# not thirst!. I don9t want an!thing to drink. I can9t see an!bod! co#ing. Ioes he need an! sta# s, Io !ou have an! ho#ework to do, Io !ou want an!thing to drink, <an !ou see an!bod! co#ing, 2e use an! in a ositive sentence when the real sense is negative.

I refused to give the# an! #one!. (E I did not give the# an! #one!) She finished the test without an! difficult!. (E she did not have an! difficult!)

So#eti#es we use so#e in a "uestion, when we e& ect a ositive B*S answer. (2e could sa! that it is not a real "uestion, because we think we know the answer alread!.)

2ould !ou like so#e #ore tea,

@/7

<ould I have so#e sugar, lease,

.., Adjective !rder


$here are 2 basic ositions for adjectives' @. before the noun 2. after certain verbs (be, beco#e, get, see#, look, feel, sound, s#ell, taste) adjective @ 2 I like big noun cars. 3! car is big. verb adjective

In this lesson we look at the osition of adjectives in a sentence, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

Adjective before noun Adjective after certain verbs

Adjective @efore oun


2e so#eti#es use #ore than one adjective before the noun'

I like big blac( dogs. She was wearing a beautiful long red dress.

2hat is the correct order for two or #ore adjectives, @ $he general order is' o#inion? fact'

a nice 4rench car (not 9a 4rench nice car9)

(9) inion9 is what !ou thin( about so#ething. 94act9 is what is definitel! true about so#ething.) 2 $he nor#al order for fact adjectives is siHe? age? sha#e? colour? material? origin'

a big, old, s"uare, black, wooden <hinese table

( Ieter#iners usuall! co#e first, even though the! are fact adjectives'

@/:

articles (a, the) ossessives (#!, !our...) de#onstratives (this, that...) "uantifiers (so#e, an!, few, #an!...) nu#bers (one, two, three)

0ere is an e&a# le with o#inion and fact adjectives' adjectives determiner o#inion fact age $wo nice old sha e round colour red candles. noun

2hen we want to use two colour adjectives, we join the# with 9and9'

.ews a ers are usuall! blac( and &hite. She was wearing a long, blue and yello& dress.

$hese rules are not alwa!s rigid. <onsider the following conversations' Conversation ) A 9I want to bu! a round table.9 = 9Io !ou want a new round table or an old round table,9 Conversation , A 9I want to bu! an old table9. = 9Io !ou want a round old table or a s"uare old table,9

Adjective After Verb


2e can use an adjective after certain verbs. *ven though the adjective is after the verb, it does not describe the verb. It describes the subject of the verb (usuall! a noun or ronoun). 4or e&a# le' subject verb adjective

Ga# is English. =ecause she had to wait, she became im#atient. Is it getting dar(, $he e&a#ination did not seem difficult. Bour friend looks nice.

@/;

$his towel feels dam#. $hat new fil# doesn9t sound ver! interesting. Iinner smells good tonight. $his #ilk tastes sour.

... Com#arative Adjectives


2hen we talk about 2 things, we can %co# are% the#. 2e can see if the! are the sa#e or different. Perha s the! are the sa#e in so#e wa!s and different in other wa!s.

2e can use co# arative adjectives to describe the differences. %A is bigger than =.%

-ormation of Com#arative Adjectives


$here are two wa!s to for# a co# arative adjective'

short adjectives' add ;*er; long adjectives' use ;more;

$hort adjectives

@+s!llable adjectives 2+s!llable adjectives ending in +!

old, fast ha !, eas!

ormal rule< add 9+er9 Variation' if the adjective ends in +e, just add +r Variation' if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double the last consonant Variation' if the adjective ends in +!, change the +! to +i =ong adjectives

old F older late F later big F bigger ha ! F ha ier

2+s!llable adjectives not ending in +! all adjectives of ( or #ore s!llables

#odern, leasant e& ensive, intellectual

@/?

ormal rule< use 9#ore9

#odern F #ore #odern e& ensive F #ore e& ensive

Ti# 2ith so#e 2+s!llable adjectives, we can use 9+er9 or 9#ore9'


"uiet F "uieterO#ore "uiet clever F clevererO#ore clever narrow F narrowerO#ore narrow si# le F si# lerO#ore si# le

Exce#tionA $he following adjectives have irregular for#s'


good F better well (health!) F better bad F worse far F fartherOfurther

Fse of Com#arative Adjectives


2e use co# arative adjectives when talking about 2 things (not ( or @C or @,CCC,CCC things, onl! 2 things). )ften, the co# arative adjective is followed b! 9than9. 8ook at these e&a# les'

1ohn is @#?C. 0e is tall. =ut <hris is @#?7. 0e is taller than 1ohn. A#erica is big. =ut Gussia is bigger. I want to have a more #o&erful co# uter. Is 4rench more difficult than *nglish,

If we talk about the two lanets *arth and 3ars, we can co# are the# like this'

@/A

Earth Iia#eter (k#) Iistance fro# Sun (#illion k#) 8ength of da! (hours) 3oons Surface te# erature (_<) @2,;:C @7C

Mars :,;AC 22? 3ars is smaller than *arth. 3ars is more distant fro# the Sun. A da! on 3ars is slightl! longer than a da! on *arth. 3ars has more #oons than *arth. 3ars is colder than *arth.

2/ @ 22

27 2 +2(

../ $u#erlative Adjectives


Com#arison is between 2 things' %A is bigger than =.%

A A

=ut the su#erlative is the e&tre#e between ( or #ore things. %A is the biggest.%

<

-ormation of $u#erlative Adjectives


As with co# arative adjectives, there are two wa!s to for# a su#erlative adjective' short adjectives' add ;*est; long adjectives' use ;most;

2e also usuall! add 9the9 at the beginning. $hort adjectives @+s!llable adjectives 2+s!llable adjectives ending in +! old, fast ha !, eas!

@7C

ormal rule< add 9+est9 Variation' if the adjective ends in +e, just add +st Variation' if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double the last consonant Variation' if the adjective ends in +!, change the +! to +i =ong adjectives 2+s!llable adjectives not ending in +! all adjectives of ( or #ore s!llables

old F the oldest late F the latest big F the biggest ha ! F the ha iest

#odern, leasant e& ensive, intellectual #odern F the #ost #odern e& ensive F the #ost e& ensive

ormal rule< use 9#ost9

Ti# 2ith so#e 2+s!llable adjectives, we can use 9+est9 or 9#ost9'


"uiet F the "uietestO#ost "uiet clever F the cleverestO#ost clever narrow F the narrowestO#ost narrow si# le F the si# lestO#ost si# le

Exce#tionA $he following adjectives have irregular for#s'


good F the best bad F the worst far F the furthest

Fse of $u#erlative Adjectives


2e use a su erlative adjective to describe @ thing in a grou of ( or #ore things. 8ook at these e&a# les'

1ohn is @#;7. Iavid is @#?C. <hris is @#?7. <hris is the tallest. A#erica, <hina and Gussia are big countries. =ut Gussia is the biggest. 3ount *verest is the highest #ountain in the world.

@7@ If we talk about the three lanets *arth, 3ars and 1u iter, we can use su erlatives like this' Earth Iia#eter (k#) Iistance fro# Sun (#illion k#) 8ength of da! (hours) 3oons Surface te# erature (_<) @2,;:C @7C 2/ @ 22 Mars :,;AC 22? 27 2 +2( 'u#iter @/2,?CC ;;? @C @: +@7C 1u iter is the biggest. 1u iter is the most distant fro# the Sun. 1u iter has the shortest da!. 1u iter has the most #oons. 1u iter is the coldest.

2hen we co# are one thing with itself, we do not use %the%'

*ngland is coldest in winter. (not the coldest) 3! boss is #ost generous when we get a big order. (not the #ost generous)

@72

/ Adverbs
An adverb is a word that tells us #ore about a verb. An adverb %"ualifies% or %#odifies% a verb ($he #an ran Euic(ly). =ut adverbs can also #odif! ad0ectives ($ara is really beautiful), or even other adverbs (It works very well). /.) %hat are Adverbs+ /., Adverbs of -reEuency

/.) %hat are Adverbs+


3an! different kinds of word are called adverbs. 2e can usuall! recogni6e an adverb b! its' @. -unction 3'ob4 2. -orm (. "osition ). -unction $he rinci al job of an adverb is to #odif! (give #ore infor#ation about) verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. In the following e&a# les, the adverb is in bold and the word that it #odifies is in italics.

3odif! a verb' + 1ohn speaks loudly. (0ow does 1ohn s eak,) + 3ar! lives locally. (2here does 3ar! live,) + She never smokes. (2hen does she s#oke,) 3odif! an adjective' + 0e is really handsome. 3odif! another adverb' + She drives incredibly slowly.

@7( =ut adverbs have other functions, too. $he! can'

3odif! a whole sentence' + !bviously, ! can)t know everything. 3odif! a re ositional hrase' + It9s immediately inside the door.

,. -orm 3an! adverbs end in +l!. 2e for# such adverbs b! adding +l! to the adjective. 0ere are so#e e&a# les'

"uickl!, softl!, strongl!, honestl!, interestingl!

=ut not all words that end in +l! are adverbs. %4riendl!%, for e&a# le, is an adjective. So#e adverbs have no articular for#, for e&a# le'

well, fast, ver!, never, alwa!s, often, still

.. "osition Adverbs have three #ain ositions in the sentence'

4ront (before the subject)' + o& we will stud! adverbs. 3iddle (between the subject and the #ain verb)' + 2e often stud! adverbs. *nd (after the verb or object)' + 2e stud! adverbs carefully.

/., Adverbs of -reEuency


Adverbs of 4re"uenc! answer the "uestion %0ow often,% or %0ow fre"uentl!,% $he! tell us how often so#ebod! does so#ething. Adverbs of fre"uenc! co#e before the #ain verb (e&ce t the #ain verb %to be%)'

2e usually go sho ing on Saturda!. I have often done that. She is al&ays late.

@7/

9ccasionally, sometimes, often, fre1uently and usually can also go at the beginning or end of a sentence'

$ometimes the! co#e and sta! with us. I la! tennis occasionally.

:arely and seldom can also go at the end of a sentence (often with %ver!%)'

2e see the# rarely. 1ohn eats #eat ver! seldom.

@77

0 "ronouns
Pronouns are s#all words that take the lace of a noun. 8ike' he, you, ours, themselves, some, each... If we didn9t have ronouns, we would have to re eat a lot of nouns. %o you like the President& ! don)t like the President$ The President is pompous$ 2ith ronouns, we can sa!+ %o you like the President& ! don)t like her$ She is pompous$ Personal ronouns list includes ossessive adjectives for convenience and co# arison. "ronouns nu#ber erson @st 2nd singular (rd genderK subject #Of #Of 3 4 . @st lural 2nd (rd #Of #Of #OfOn I !ou he she it we !ou the! object #e !ou hi# her it us !ou the# #ossessive reflexive 3ine Bours 0is 0ers Its )urs Bours $heirs #!self !ourself hi#self herself itself ourselves !ourselves the#selves

"ossessive adjectives 3! Bour 0is 0er Its )ur Bour $heir

K #E#ale fEfe#ale nEneuter

*&a# les+

@7:

#ronoun

subject object

$he likes ho#ework. $he teacher gave me so#e ho#ework.

#ossessive $his ho#ework is yours. reflexive #ossessive adjective 1ohn did the ho#ework himself. $he teacher corrected our ho#ework.

1 English "re#ositions
A #re#osition is a word governing, and usuall! co#ing in front of, a noun or pronoun and e& ressing a relation to another word or ele#ent, as in'

She left before breakfast 'hat did !ou co#e for,

1.) =ist of English "re#ositions 1., A $im#le >ule for "re#ositions in English 1.. "re#ositions of "lace< at? in? on 1./ "re#ositions of Time< at? in? on

at the bus stop in the bo- on the wall at Christmas in /ay on Friday

1.) =ist of English "re#ositions


$here are #ore than @CC re ositions in *nglish. Bet this is a ver! s#all nu#ber when !ou think of the thousands of other words (nouns, verbs etc). Pre ositions are i# ortant words. 2e use individual re ositions #ore fre"uentl! than other individual words. In fact, the re ositions of, to and in are a#ong the ten #ost fre"uent words in *nglish. 0ere is a short list of ;C of the #ore co##on one+word re ositions. 3an! of these re ositions have #ore than one #eaning. Please refer to a dictionar! for recise #eaning and usage. A full list of @7C re ositions (including one+word and co# le& re ositions with (;C e&a# le sentences) is *nglish Pre ositions 8isted.(se arate doc)

1., English "re#osition >ule


$here is one ver! si# le rule about re ositions. And, unlike #ost rules, this rule has no e&ce tions.

@7; >ule+ A re osition is followed b! a %noun%. It is never followed b! a verb. =! %noun% we include'

noun (dog, #one!, love) #ro#er noun 3name4 (=angkok, 3ar!) #ronoun (!ou, hi#, us) noun grou# (#! first job) gerund (swi##ing)

A re osition cannot be followed b! a verb. If we want to follow a re osition b! a verb, we #ust use the %+ing% for# which is reall! a gerund or verb in noun for#. 0ere are so#e e&a# les' $ubject C verb #re#osition $he food is She lives $ara is looking $he letter is Pascal is used She isn9t used I ate )n In 4or Dnder $o $o before MnounM the table. 1a an. !ou. !our blue book. *nglish eo le. working. co#ing.

6uestion< In the following sentences, wh! is %to% followed b! a verb, $hat should be i# ossible, according to the rule'

I would like to go now. She used to s#oke.

Ans&er< In these sentences, %to% is not a re osition. It is art of the infinitive (%to go%, %to s#oke%).

1.. "re#ositions of "lace< at? in? on


In general, we use'

@7?

at for a P)I.$ in for an *.<8)S*I SPA<* on for a SDG4A<* in E C=!$E: $"ACE in the garden in 8ondon in 4rance in a bo& on $F>-ACE on the wall on the ceiling on the door on the cover on the floor on the car et on the #enu on a age

At "!I T at the corner at the bus sto at the door at the to of the age

at the end of the road in #! ocket at the entrance at the crossroads at the entrance in #! wallet in a building in a car

8ook at these e&a# les'


1ane is waiting for !ou at the bus sto . $he sho is at the end of the street. 3! lane sto ed at Iubai and 0anoi and arrived in =angkok two hours late. 2hen will !ou arrive at the office, Io !ou work in an office, I have a #eeting in .ew Bork. Io !ou live in 1a an, 1u iter is in the Solar S!ste#. $he author9s na#e is on the cover of the book. $here are no rices on this #enu. Bou are standing on #! foot. $here was a %no s#oking% sign on the wall. I live on the ;th floor at 2@ )&ford Street in 8ondon.

.otice the use of the re ositions of lace at, in and on in these standard e& ressions' At in !n

@7A

at ho#e at work at school at universit! at college at the to at the botto# at the side at rece tion

in a car in a ta&i in a helico ter in a boat in a lift (elevator) in the news a er in the sk! in a row in )&ford Street

on a bus on a train on a lane on a shi on a bic!cle, on a #otorbike on a horse, on an ele hant on the radio, on television on the left, on the right on the wa!

1./ "re#ositions of Time< at? in? on


2e use'

at for a PG*<IS* $I3* in for 3).$0S, B*AGS, <*.$DGI*S and 8).H P*GI)IS on for IABS and IA$*S

@:C

At ">ECI$E TIME at ( o9clock at @C.(Ca# at noon at dinnerti#e at bedti#e at sunrise at sunset at the #o#ent

in M! T9$? IEA>$? CE TF>IE$ and =! G "E>I!:$ in 3a! in su##er in the su##er in @AAC in the @AACs in the ne&t centur! in the Ice Age in the astOfuture

!n :AI$ and :ATE$ on Sunda! on $uesda!s on : 3arch on 27 Iec. 2C@C on <hrist#as Ia! on Inde endence Ia! on #! birthda! on .ew Bear9s *ve

8ook at these e&a# les'


I have a #eeting at Aa#. $he sho closes at #idnight. 1ane went ho#e at lunchti#e. In *ngland, it often snows in Iece#ber. Io !ou think we will go to 1u iter in the future, $here should be a lot of rogress in the ne&t centur!. Io !ou work on 3onda!s, 0er birthda! is on 2C .ove#ber. 2here will !ou be on .ew Bear9s Ia!,

.otice the use of the re osition of ti#e at in the following standard e& ressions'

@:@

Ex#ression at night at the weekend at <hrist#asO*aster at the sa#e ti#e at resent

Exam#le $he stars shine at night. I don9t usuall! work at the &ee(end. I sta! with #! fa#il! at Christmas. 2e finished the test at the same time. 0e9s not ho#e at #resent. $r! later. .otice the use of the

re ositions of ti#e in and on in these co##on e& ressions' in in the #orning in the #ornings in the afternoon(s) in the evening(s) also use at? in? on.

on on $uesda! #orning on Saturda! #ornings on Sunda! afternoons on 3onda! evening 2hen we sa! last? next? every? this we do not

I went to 8ondon last 1une. (not in last 1une) 0e9s co#ing back next $uesda!. (not on ne&t $uesda!) I go ho#e every *aster. (not at ever! *aster) 2e9ll call !ou this evening. (not in this evening)

2 Conjunctions
<onjunctions are words that join. A conjunction joins two arts of a sentence. 2.) %hat are Conjunctions+ 2., Coordinating Conjunctions 2.. $ubordinating Conjunctions and but or nor for yet so although because since unless

@:2

2.) %hat are Conjunctions+


<onjunctions are words that %join%. <onjunctions join two arts of a sentence. ). -orm <onjunctions have three basic for#s'

$ingle %ord for e&a# le' and, but, because, although) Com#ound (often ending with as or that) (for e&a# le' rovided that, as long as, in order that) Correlative (which surround an adverb or adjective) (for e&a# le' so...that)

,. -unction 3'ob4 <onjunctions are divided into two basic t! es.

Coordinating Conjunctions are used to join two arts of a sentence that are gra##aticall! e"ual. $he two arts #a! be single words or clauses, for e&a# le' + 5ack and 5ill went u the hill. + The water was warm but ! didn)t go swimming. $ubordinating Conjunctions are used to join a subordinate de endent clause to a #ain clause, for e&a# le' + ! went swimming, although it was cold.

.. "osition

Coordinating Conjunctions alwa!s co#e between the words or clauses that the! join. $ubordinating Conjunctions usuall! co#e at the beginning of the subordinate clause.

2., Coordinating Conjunctions


$he short, si# le conjunctions are called %coordinating conjunctions%'

and, but, or, nor, for, !et, so

A coordinating conjunction joins arts of a sentence (for e&a# le words or inde endent clauses) that are gra##aticall! eEual or si#ilar. A coordinating conjunction shows that the ele#ents it joins are si#ilar in i# ortance and structure'

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8ook at these e&a# les + the two ele#ents that the coordinating conjunction joins are shown in s"uare brackets M N'

I like MteaN and McoffeeN. MGa# likes teaN, but MAnthon! likes coffeeN.

<oordinating conjunctions alwa!s co#e bet&een the words or clauses that the! join. 2hen a coordinating conjunction joins inde endent clauses, it is alwa!s correct to lace a co##a before the conjunction'

I want to work as an inter reter in the future, so I a# stud!ing Gussian at universit!.

0owever, if the inde endent clauses are short and well+balanced, a co##a is not reall! essential'

She is kind so she hel s eo le.

2hen %and% is used with the last word of a list, a co##a is o tional'

0e drinks beer, whisk!, wine, and ru#. 0e drinks beer, whisk!, wine and ru#.

englishclub*com Tip The 4 coordinating con/unctions are short" simple words. They have only two or three letters. There5s an easy way to remember them - their initials spell* 5 A N 2 6 7 S )or -nd ,or #ut 6r 7et So

2.. $ubordinating Conjunctions


$he #ajorit! of conjunctions are %subordinating conjunctions%. <o##on subordinating conjunctions are'

after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while

A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate (de endent) clause to a #ain (inde endent) clause'

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8ook at this e&a# le' #ain or inde endent clause Ga# went swi##ing subordinate or de endent clause Although subordinating conjunction
englishclub*com Tip - subordinate or dependent clause 1depends1 on a main or independent clause. $t cannot exist alone. $magine that somebody says to you* 18ello! -lthough it was raining.1 +hat do you understand9 ,othing! #ut a main or independent clause can exist alone. 7ou will understand very well if somebody says to you* 18ello! :am went swimming.1

it was raining.

A subordinating conjunction alwa!s co#es at the beginning of a subordinate clause. It %introduces% a subordinate clause. 0owever, a subordinate clause can so#eti#es co#e after and so#eti#es before a #ain clause. $hus, two structures are ossible'

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Ga# went swi##ing although it &as raining.

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Although it &as raining, Ga# went swi##ing.

5 Interjections
0i- $hat9s an interjection. '+) Interjection is a big na#e for a little word. Interjections are short e&cla#ations like !hA, Fm or AhA $he! have no real gra##atical value but we use the# "uite often, usuall! #ore in s eaking than in writing. 2hen interjections are inserted into a sentence, the!

@:7 have no gra##atical connection to the sentence. An interjection is so#eti#es followed b! an e&cla#ation #ark (-) when written. 0ere are so#e interjections with e&a# les' interjection meaning e& ressing leasure e& ressing reali6ation Ah e& ressing resignation e& ressing sur rise Alas Iear e& ressing sur rise asking for re etition *h e& ressing en"uir! e& ressing sur rise inviting agree#ent *r hello, hullo e& ressing sur rise calling attention he! e& ressing sur rise, jo! etc 0i h## e& ressing greeting e& ressing hesitation, doubt or disagree#ent %0e!- 2hat a good idea-% %0i- 2hat9s new,% %0##. I9# not so sure.% %0ello- 3! car9s gone-% %0e!- look at that-% e& ressing hesitation e& ressing greeting %Iear #e- $hat9s a sur rise-% %It9s hot toda!.% %*h,% %I said it9s hot toda!.% %2hat do !ou think of that, eh,% %*h- Geall!,% %8et9s go, eh,% %8i#a is the ca ital of...er...Peru.% %0ello 1ohn. 0ow are !ou toda!,% e& ressing grief or it! e& ressing it! %Ah well, it can9t be he ed.% %Ah- I9ve won-% %Alas, she9s dead now.% %)h dear- Ioes it hurt,% exam#le %Ah, that feels good.% %Ah, now I understand.%

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e& ressing sur rise )h, o e& ressing ain e& ressing leading ouch Dh Dh+huh D#, u## well introducing a re#ark e& ressing ain e& ressing hesitation e& ressing agree#ent e& ressing hesitation e& ressing sur rise

%)h- Bou9re here-% %)h- I9ve got a toothache.% %)h, lease sa! 9!es9-% %)uch- $hat hurts-% %Dh...I don9t know the answer to that.% %Shall we go,% %Dh+huh.% %?7 divided b! 7 is...u#...@;.% %2ell I never-% %2ell, what did he sa!,%

iii >evision< English "arts of $#eech


$here are thousands of words in an! language. =ut not all words have the sa#e job. 4or e&a# le, so#e words e& ress %action%. )ther words e& ress a %thing%. )ther words %join% one word to another word. $hese are the %building blocks% of the language. $hink

@:; of the# like the arts of a house. 2hen we want to build a house, we use concrete to #ake the foundations or base. 2e use bricks to #ake the walls. 2e use window fra#es to #ake the windows, and door fra#es to #ake the doorwa!s. And we use ce#ent to join the# all together. *ach art of the house has its own job. And when we want to build a sentence, we use the different t! es of word. *ach t! e of word has its own job. 2e can categori6e *nglish words into ? basic t! es or classes. $hese classes are called % arts of s eech%.
EnglishClub.com Ti# So#e gra##ar books categori6e *nglish into 7 or )8 arts of s eech. At *nglish<lub.co#, we use the traditional categori6ation of 5 arts of s eech.

It9s "uite i# ortant to recogni6e arts of s eech. $his hel s !ou to anal!6e sentences and understand the#. It also hel s !ou to construct good sentences. In this lesson, we have an overview of the eight arts of s eech, followed b! a "ui6 to check !our understanding'

Parts of S eech $able Parts of S eech *&a# les 2ords with 3ore than )ne 1ob

"arts of $#eech Table


$his is a su##ar! of the ? arts of s eech. Bou can find #ore detail if !ou click on each art of s eech. #art of s#eech Verb function or MjobM action or state exam#le &ords (to) be, have, do, like, work, sing, can, #ust en, dog, work, #usic, town, 8ondon, teacher, 1ohn aOan, the, :A, so#e, good, big, red, well, interesting exam#le sentences *nglish<lub.co# is a web site. I li(e *nglish<lub.co#. $his is #! dog. 0e lives in #! house. 2e live in =ondon.

.oun

thing or erson

Adjective

describes a noun

3! dog is big. I like big dogs.

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Adverb

describes a verb, adjective or adverb re laces a noun links a noun to another word joins clauses or sentences or words short e&cla#ation, so#eti#es inserted into a sentence

"uickl!, silentl!, well, badl!, ver!, reall! I, !ou, he, she, so#e

3! dog eats Euic(ly. 2hen he is very hungr!, he eats really "uickl!. $ara is Indian. $he is beautiful.

Pronoun Pre osition <onjunction

to, at, after, on, but 2e went to school on 3onda!. and, but, when I like dogs and I like cats. I like cats and dogs. I like dogs but I don9t like cats. !uch- $hat hurts- 9i- 0ow are !ou, %ell, I don9t know.

Interjection

oh-, ouch-, hi-, well