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Advanced Adjectives and Adverbs Adverbs and adjectives are important because they provide key information on how

something is done in the case of adverbs, and how something appears to be in the case of adjectives. These exercises focuses on the wide variety of English adjective and adverb use. Each guide sheet provides information on how adjectives and adverbs are formed and used in specific situations and include numerous exercises, as well as examples to provide illustration of concepts explained. Adverb Placement in English Adverbs provide information about how, when or where something is done. It's easy to understand what adverbs do by looking at the word adverb: Adverbs add something to the verb! Let's take a look at a few examples: Jack often visits his grandmother in Chicago. -> The adverb 'often' tells us how often Jack visits his grandmother in Chicago. Alice plays golf very well. -> The adverb 'well' tells us how Alice plays golf. It tells us the quality of how she plays. However, they must remember to clean up before they leave. -> The adverb 'however' connects the sentence to the independent clause or sentence that comes before it. You may have noticed that the adverb placement is different in each of the three sentences. Adverb placement in English can be confusing at times. Generally, adverb placement is taught when focusing on specific types of adverbs. Adverb placement for adverbs of frequency comes directly before the main verb. Therefore, they come in the middle of the sentence. This is referred to as 'mid-position' adverb placement. Here is a general guide to adverb placement in English. Adverb Placement - Initial Position Adverb placement at the beginning of a clause or a sentence is referred to as 'initial position'. Connecting Adverbs Initial position adverb placement is used when using a connecting adverb to join a statement to the preceding clause or sentence. It's important to remember that these connecting adverbs take adverb placement at the beginning of a phrase in order to connect it to the phrase that has come before. Commas are often used after the use of a connecting adverb. There are a number of these connecting adverbs, here are some of the most common: However, Consequently, Then, Next, Still, Examples: Life is hard. However, life can be fun. The market is very difficult these days. Consequently, we need to focus on what works best for our customers. My friend Mark doesn't enjoy school. Still, he's working hard at getting good grades Time Adverbs Time adverbs are also used at the beginning of phrases to indicate when something should happen. It's important to note that time adverbs are used in in a number of adverb placements. Time adverbs are the most flexible of all adverbs in their adverb placement. Examples:

Tomorrow Peter is going to visit his mother in Chicago. Sundays I like playing golf with my friends. Sometimes Jennifer enjoys a relaxing day at the beach. Adverb Placement - Middle Position Focusing Adverbs Adverb placement of focusing adverbs generally takes place in the middle of a sentence, or in the 'mid-position'. Focusing adverbs put the emphasis on one part of the clause in order to modify, qualify or add additional information. Adverbs of frequency (sometimes, usually, never, etc.), adverbs of certainty (probably, certainly, etc.) and comment adverbs (adverbs expressing an opinion such as 'intelligently, expertly, etc.') can all be used as focusing adverbs. Examples: She often forgets to take her umbrella to work. Sam stupidly left his computer at home instead of taking it with him to the conference. I'll certainly buy a copy of his book. NOTE: Remember that adverbs of frequency are always placed before the main verb, rather than the auxiliary verb. (I don't often go to San Francisco. NOT I often don't go to San Francisco.) Adverb Placement - End Position Adverb placement is usually at the end of a sentence or phrase. While it's true that adverb placement can happen in the initial or mid-position, it's also true that adverbs generally are placed at the end of a sentence or phrase. Here are the three most common types of adverbs placed at the end of a sentence or phrase. Adverbs of Manner Adverb placement of adverbs of manner usually occurs at the end of a sentence or clause. Adverbs of manner tell us 'how' something is done. Examples: Susan hasn't done this report accurately. Sheila plays piano thoughtfully. Tim does his math homework carefully. Adverbs of Place Adverb placement of adverbs of place usually occurs at the end of a sentence or clause. Adverbs of place tell us 'where' something is done. Examples: Barbara is cooking pasta downstairs. I'm working in the garden outside. They will investigate the crime downtown. Adverbs of Time Adverb placement of adverbs of time usually occurs at the end of a sentence or clause. Adverbs of manner tell us 'when' something is done. Examples: Angie likes relaxing at home on weekends. Our meeting takes place at three o'clock. Frank is having a checkup tomorrow afternoon. Using Adverb Clauses with Time Expressions

dverb clauses provide additional information about how something is done. They are much like adverbs in that they tell the reader when, why or how someone did something. All clauses contain a subject and a verb, adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions. For example, Tom helped the student with the homework because he didn't understand the exercise. ... because he didn't understand the exercise explains why Tom helped and is an adverb clause. Begin by studying adverb clauses which are often called "time clauses" in English grammar books and follow specific patterns. Take a look at the chart below to study the various usage of different time expressions. Punctuation When an adverb clause begins the sentence, use a comma to separate the two clauses. Example: As soon as he arrives, we will have some lunch. When the adverb clause finishes the sentence, there is no need for a comma. Example: He gave me a call when he arrived in town. Adverb Clauses with Time When He was talking on the phone when I arrived. When she called, he had already eaten lunch. I washed the dishes when my daughter fell asleep. We'll go to lunch when you come to visit. 'When' means 'at that moment, at that time, etc.'. Notice the different tenses used in relationship to the clause beginning with when. It is important to remember that 'when' takes either the simple past OR the present - the dependent clause changes tense in relation to the 'when' clause. Before We will finish before he arrives. She (had) left before I telephoned. 'Before' means 'before that moment'. It is important to remember that 'before' takes either the simple past OR the present. After We will finish after he comes. She ate after I (had) left. 'After' means 'after that moment'. It is important to remember that 'after' takes the present for future events and the past OR past perfect for past events. While, as She began cooking while I was finishing my homework. As I was finishing my homework, she began cooking. 'While' and 'as' mean 'during that time'. 'While' and 'as' are both usually used with the past continuous because the meaning of 'during that time' which indicates an action in progess. By the time By the time he finished, I had cooked dinner. We will have finished our homework by the time they arrive. 'By the time' expresses the idea that one event has been completed before another. It is important to notice the use of the past perfect for past events and future perfect for future events in the main clause. This is because of the idea of something happening up to another point in time. Until, till We waited until he finished his homework. I'll wait till you finish. 'Until' and 'till' express 'up to that time'. We use either the simple present or simple past with 'until' and 'till'. 'Till' is usually only used in spoken English.

Since I have played tennis since I was a young boy. They have worked here since 1987. 'Since' means 'from that time'. We use the present perfect (continuous) with 'since'. 'Since' can also be used with a specific point in time. As soon as He will let us know as soon as he decides (or as soon as he has decided). As soon as I hear from Tom, I will give you a telephone call. 'As soon as' means 'when something happens - immediately afterwards'. 'As soon as' is very similar to 'when' it emphasizes that the event will occur immediately after the other. We usually use the simple present for future events, although present perfect can also be used. Whenever, every time Whenever he comes, we go to have lunch at "Dick's". We take a hike every time he visits. 'Whenever' and 'every time' mean 'each time something happens'. We use the simple present (or the simple past in the past) because 'whenever' and 'every time' express habitual action. The first, second, third, fourth etc., next, last time The first time I went to New York, I was intimidated by the city. I saw Jack the last time I went to San Francisco. The second time I played tennis, I began to have fun. The first, second, third, fourth etc., next, last time means 'that specific time'. We can use these forms to be more specific about which time of a number of times something happened. Focus on Adjectives Ending in -ic and -ical Many adjectives end in either '-ic' or '-ical'. Examples of Adjectives ending in '-ic': athletic energetic prophetic scientific Example Sentences: The boys are very athletic and play a variety of sports I didn't realize you were so energetic! You've completed 10 exercises in the last hour. His writings were very prophetic and some think show the way of the future. Many feel that the only valid way to learn is the scientific approach. Examples of Adjectives ending in '-ical': magical diabolical cynical musical Example Sentences: We had a magical evening at the concert. His political use of the military was diabolical. I wish she weren't so cynical. I don't know whether I can believe anything she says. You Timothy is quite musical and plays the piano well. An extension of the adjective ending '-ical' is the adjective ending in '-logical'. These adjectives tend to be used with scientific and medical related terms. Examples of Adjectives ending in '-logical':

psychological cardiological chronological ideological Example Sentences: The psychological study of patients has led to many helpful discoveries. The cardiological unit of the hospital has saved many lives. The chronological listing of each King's reign can be found on page 244. Many feel that an ideological approach to our political problems will not solve anything. There are a few cases in which both adjective endings are used with slight changes in meaning. Here are some of the most common: economic / economical economic = relating to economics and finance economical = money saving, frugal Example Sentences: The economic picture looks pretty depressing for the next few quarters. It's economical to reuse your banana peels as compost. historic / historical historic = famous and important historical = dealing with history Example Sentences: The historic Battle of the Bulge was fought in Belgium. The historical significance of Da Vinci's writings was discussed in Peter Gould's essay. lyric / lyrical lyric = relating to poetry lyrical = resembling poetry, musicality, etc. Example Sentences: Lyric poetry reading can help you find the music of everyday language. His lyrical approach to scientific writing help to popularize the subject. Adjective + Preposition Adjectives are used in simple sentences to describe people and objects. For example, She is an interesting speaker. More complex sentences use adjectives + prepositions to make statements about a person's attitude towards something. For example, She is excited about the concert tonight. Here is a list of the most common adjective + preposition combinations to express people's feelings. ABOUT Use the following adjectives followed by 'about'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. angry / annoyed / furious about something Example: I'm really angry about our losses on the stock market! excited about something Example: He's excited about his birthday party next week. worried / upset about something Example: He's worried about his upcoming examinations. sorry about something Example: I'm very sorry about losing your book. AT

Use the following adjectives followed by 'at'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. good / excellent / brilliant at something OR at doing something Example: They are excellent at planning fun parties. bad / hopeless at something OR at doing something Example: Unfortunately, I'm hopeless at being on time. AT / BY Use the following adjectives followed by 'at' or 'by'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. amazed / astonished / shocked / surprised at OR by something Example: I was amazed at his stamina. FOR Use the following adjectives followed by 'for'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. angry with someone for something Example: I'm really angry with John for his total lack of responsibility. famous for something Example: She's famous for her watercolor paintings. responsible for something Example: You'll have to speak to John, he's responsible for customer complaints. sorry for doing something Example: He says he's sorry for shouting at you. (to feel or be) sorry for someone Example: I really feel sorry for Pam. FROM Use the following adjectives followed by 'from'. different from someone / something Example: His photographs are very different from his paintings. Adjective Preposition Combinations - # 2 - 'of / on / to / with' OF Use the following adjectives followed by 'of'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. nice / kind / good / generous of someone (to do something) Example: It was very nice of him to buy me a present. mean of someone (to do something) Example: It was very mean of Susan to say that to Tom. stupid / silly of someone (to do something) Example: I'm afraid it was stupid of me to come. intelligent / clever / sensible of someone (to do something) Example: That was quite sensible of Tom. polite of someone (to do something) Example: It was very polite of Peter to invite my sister to the party. impolite / rude of someone (to do something) Example: I can't believe how rude it was of Jack to shout at his daughter in front of all those people. unreasonable of someone (to do something)

Example: Don't be so hard on yourself! It's unreasonable of you to expect to understand everything immediately. proud of something or someone Example: I'm very proud of my daughter's wonderful progress in school. ashamed of someone or something Example: She's ashamed of her bad grades. jealous / envious of someone or something Example: She's really envious of her sister's wealth. aware / conscious of something Example: Teens are often overly conscious of skin blemishes. capable / incapable of something Example: Peter is quite capable of conducting the meeting on his own. fond of someone or something Example: She is so fond of her niece. short of something Example: I'm afraid I'm short of cash tonight. tired of something Example: I'm tired of your complaining! ON Use the following adjective followed by 'on'. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. to be keen on something Example: She is very keen on horses. TO Use the following adjectives followed by 'to'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. married / engaged to someone Example: Jack is engaged to Jill. nice / kind / good / generous to someone Example: She was very generous to me when I was staying with her. mean / impolite / rude / unpleasant / unfriendly / cruel to someone Example: How can you be so unfriendly to your neighbors? similar to something Example: His painting is similar to Van Gough. WITH Use the following adjectives followed by 'with'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. angry / annoyed / furious with someone for something Example: I'm furious with my brother for having lied to me! delighted / pleased / satisfied with something Example: He is quite satisfied with his results. disappointed with something Example: She's really disappointed with her new car. bored / fed up with something Example: Let's go. I'm fed up with this party. crowded with (people, tourists, etc.)

Example: Disneyland is crowded with tourists in July. Adjective Placement Adjectives describe nouns. Often, writers use only one adjective to describe a noun either by placing the adjective in front of the noun or by using a stative verb and placing the adjective at the end of the sentence. For example: He's an excellent teacher. She seems very shy. Sometimes, more than one adjective is used to describe a noun. In this case, English speakers use a specific adjective order when placing each adjective. Each adjective is separated by a comma. For example: He drives an big, expensive, German car. Her employer is an interesting, old, Dutch man. When using more than one adjective to describe a noun place the adjectives in the following order before the noun. NOTE: We usually use no more than three adjectives preceding a noun. 1. Opinion Example: an interesting book, a boring lecture 2. Dimension Example: a big apple, a thin wallet 3. Age Example: a new car, a modern building, an ancient ruin 4. Shape Example: a square box, an oval mask, a round ball 5. Color Example: a pink hat, a blue book, a black coat 6. Origin Example: some Italian shoes, a Canadian town, an American car 7. Material Example: a wooden box, a woolen sweater, a plastic toy Here are some examples of nouns modified with three adjectives in the correct order based on the list above. Notice that the adjectives are not separated by commas. A wonderful old Italian clock. (opinion - age - origin) A big square blue box. (dimension - shape - color) A disgusting pink plastic ornament. (opinion - color - material) Some slim new French trousers. (dimension - age - origin) Place the three adjectives in the correct order before the noun. When you have decided on the correct order, click through to the next page to see if you have answered correctly. book interesting - small - Spanish picture modern - ugly - rectangular opinion old - boring - American apple ripe - green - delicious suit woolen - large - black house beautiful - modern - small magazine German - slender - strange cap cotton - funny - green book interesting - small - Spanish

ANSWER: an interesting small Spanish book picture modern - ugly - rectangular ANSWER: an ugly modern rectangular picture opinion old - boring - American ANSWER: a boring old American opinion apple ripe - green - delicious ANSWER: a delicious ripe green apple suit woolen - large - black ANSWER: a large black woolen suit house beautiful - modern - small ANSWER: a beautiful small modern house magazine German - slender - strange ANSWER: a strange slender German magazine cap cotton - funny - green ANSWER: a funny green cotton cap What are Adverbs? Question: What are Adverbs? Adverbs are used to modify verbs. They can describe how, when, where, and how often something is done. Here is a guide to the five types of adverbs. Answer: eight parts of speech The Five Types of Adverbs Adverbs of Manner: Adverbs of manner provide information on how someone does something. For example: Jack drives very carefully. Adverbs are one of the eight parts of speech. Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of time provide information on when something happens. For example: We'll let you know our decision next week. Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequencyprovide information on how often something happens. For example: They usually get to work at eight o'clock. Once you have studied adverbs of frequency, try this adverbs of frequency quiz to test your knowledge. To review the rules of adverbs of frequency this complete guide will help. Adverbs of Degree: Adverbs of degree provide information concerning how much of something is done. For example: They like playing golf a lot. Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment provide a comment, or opinion about a situation. For example: Fortunately, there were enough seats left for the concert. Adverb Formation Adverbs are usually formed by adding '-ly' to an adjective. For example: quiet - quietly, careful - carefully, careless - carelessly Adjectives ending in '-le' change to '-ly'. For example: possible - possibly, probable - probably, incredible - incredibly Adjectives ending in '-y' change to '-ily'. For example: lucky - luckily, happy - happily, angry - angrily Adjectives ending in '-ic' change to '-ically'. For example: basic - basically, ironic - ironically, scientific - scientifically Some adjectives are irregular. The most common irregular adverbs are: good - well, hard - hard, fast -fast

Adverb Sentence Placement Adverbs of Manner: Adverbs of manner are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence). For example: Their teacher speaks quickly. Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of time are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence). For example: She visited her friends last year. Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency are placed before the main verb (not the auxiliary verb). For example: He often goes to bed late. Do you sometimes get up early? Adverbs of Degree: Adverbs of degree are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence). For example: She'll attend the meeting as well. Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment are placed at the beginning of a sentence. For example: Luckily, I was able to come to the presentation. Important Exceptions to Adverb Placement Some adverbs are placed at the beginning of a sentence to provide more emphasis. For example: Now you tell me you can't come! Adverbs of frequency are placed after the verb 'to be' when used as the main verb of the sentence. For example: Jack is often late for work. Some adverbs of frequency (sometimes, usually, normally) are also placed at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis. For example: Sometimes I visit my friends in London.