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HW:Anderson4.

6,dueFriday21June

InClassProblem(Example4.5)

ConsideraNACA23012airfoil.Themeancamberlineforthisairfoilisgivenby

z
c
= 2.6S9S _[
x
c

3
- u.6u7S [
x
c

2
+ u.1147 [
x
c
_
foru
x
c
u.2u2Sand
z
c
= u.u22u8 [1 -
x
c

foru.2u2S
x
c
1.u

Calculatea)theangleofattackatzerolift,b)theliftcoefficientwheno = 4,c)themomentcoefficient
aboutthequarterchord,andd)thelocationofthecenterofpressureintermsofx
cp
cwheno = 4.
Comparetheresultswithexperimentaldata.

Foru
x
c
u.2u2S
1
c
Jz
Jx
= 2.6S9S _S [
x
c

2
1
c
- u.6u7S(1) [
x
c

1
c
+ u.1147
1
c
_

Jz
Jx
= 2.6S9S _S [
x
c

2
- 1.21S [
x
c
+u.1147_

foru.2u2S
x
c
1.u
Jz
Jx
= -u.u22u8

Nowwetransferthisbyx = (c 2 )(1 - cos 0)

u.2u2S =
x
c
= (1 2 )(1 -cos 0)

u.4uSu = (1 - cos 0)

cos 0 = 1 - u.4uSu

cos 0 = u.S9Su

0 = u.9SSS roJions

Soforu 0 u.9SSS roJions


x
c
=
1 - cos 0
2

Jz
Jx
= 2.6S9S _S _
1 - cos 0
2
]
2
- 1.21S _
1 -cos 0
2
] +u.1147_
Jz
Jx
= 2.6S9S _
S
4
(1 - 2cos 0 + cos
2
0) - u.6u7S(1 -cos 0) + u.1147_

Jz
Jx
= 1.9946 - S.989S cos 0 + 1.9946 cos
2
0 - 1.61S6 +1.61S6 cos 0 + u.SuSu

Jz
Jx
= 1.9946 - 1.61S6 +u.SuSu + 1.61S6 cos 0 -S.989S cos 0 + 1.9946 cos
2
0

Jz
Jx
= u.684u -2.S7S7 cos 0 +1.99S cos
2
0

andforu.9SSS 0 n roJions

Jz
Jx
= -u.u22u8

Soweknowthat
o
L=0
= -
1
n
_
Jz
Jx
(cos 0 - 1)J0
n
0

Dividetheintervalintotwointegralsandsubstitutetheappropriateexpressionfor
dz
dx
intoeach

o
L=0
= -
1
n
_
Jz
Jx
(cos 0 -1)J0
0.9335
0
-
1
n
_
Jz
Jx
(cos 0 - 1)J0
n
0.9335

o
L=0
= -
1
n
_ (u.684u cos 0 - 2.S7S7 cos
2
0
0.9335
0
+1.99S cos
3
0 - u.684u +2.S7S7 cos 0 - 1.99S cos
2
0
)
J0
-
1
n
_ (-u.u22u8 cos 0 + u.u22u8)J0
n
0.9335

o
L=0
= -
1
n
_ (-u.684u +u.684u cos 0 + 2.S7S7 cos 0 - 2.S7S7 cos
2
0 -1.99S cos
2
0
0.9335
0
+ 1.99S cos
3
0
)
J0 -
1
n
_ (u.u22u8 - u.u22u8 cos 0)J0
n
0.9335

o
L=0
= -
1
n
_ (-u.684u + S.uS76 cos 0 -4.S686 cos
2
0 + 1.99S cos
3
0)J0
0.9335
0
-
1
n
_ (u.u22u8 -u.u22u8 cos 0)J0
n
0.9335

Nowsolvetheintegralsnotingthat
_cos 0 J0 = sin0

_cos
2
0 J0 =
1
2
sin 0 cos 0 +
1
2
0

_cos
3
0 J0 =
1
S
sin 0 (cos
2
0 + 2)

o
L=0
= -
1
n
|-2.868S0 + S.uS7S sin0 - 2.184S sin 0 cos 0 +u.66S sin0 (cos
2
0 + 2)]
0
0.9335
-
1
n
|u.u22u80 -u.u22u8 sin0]
0.9335
n

o
L=0
= -
1
n
(-u.uu6S + u.u66S) = -u.u191 roJions

o
L=0
= -1.u9
(b)foro = 4 = u.u698 roJions

c
I
=
Jc
I
Jo
(o - o
L=0
)

c
I
= 2n(o - o
L=0
)

c
I
= 2n(u.u698 +u.u191)

c
I
= u.SS9

(c)moment
c
m,c4
=
n
4
(A
2
-A
1
)
SoweneedA
1
andA
2
.Forn 1wehave
A
n
=
2
n
_
Jz
Jx
cos n0 J0
n
0

A
n
=
2
n
_ (u.684u -2.S7S7 cos 0 +1.99S cos
2
0) cos n0 J0
0.9335
0
+
2
n
_ (-u.u22u8) cos n0 J0
n
0.9335

Forn = 1

A
1
=
2
n
_ (u.684u - 2.S7S7 cos 0 + 1.99S cos
2
0) cos 0 J0
0.9335
0
+
2
n
_ (-u.u22u8) cos 0 J0
n
0.9335

A
1
=
2
n
|u.684u sin 0 -1.1868 sin0 cos 0 - 1.1868 0 +u.66S sin 0 (cos
2
0 + 2)]
0
0.9335
+
2
n
|-u.u22u8 sin0]
0.9335
n

A
1
= u.u9S4

Forn = 2
A
2
=
2
n
{-u.684u 0 + 2.S7S6 sin0 -u.626(u.S)(sin 0 cos 0 +0) -4.747(1 S ) cos 0 (cos
2
0 + 2)
+ S.99|(1 4 ) cos
3
0 sin 0 + (S 8 )(sin0 cos 0 + 0)]]
0
0.9335
+
2
n
|u.u22u8 0 - u.u446(1 2 )(sin0 cos 0 + 0)]
0.9335
n

A
2
= u.u792

c
m,c4
=
n
4
(A
2
- A
1
) =
n
4
(u.u792 - u.u9S4)

c
m,c4
= -u.u127
(d)centerofpressure

x
cp
c
=
1
4
_1 +
n
c
I
(A
1
-A
2
)_ =
1
4
j1 +
n
u.SS9
(u.u9S4 - u.u792)[

x
cp
c
= u.27S

AerodynamicCenter

Theaerodynamiccenterisdefinesasthepointaboutwhichthemomentisindependentofangleof
attack.

Atfirstglancethereisnoreasontothinkthatsuchapointshouldexist,butthefactthattheliftand
momentcurvesarelinearimpliesthatsuchapointcanbefound.

Beginbydefiningx
uc
andthenx
uc
= x
uc
candseeifwecanfindanexpressionforit

Themomentaboutthispointwouldbe

H
uc
= H
c4
+I(cx
uc
- c4)
Nondimensionalizethesebydividingbyq

c
2

c
m,uc
= c
m,c4
+c
I
(x
uc
-14)

Nowtakethederivativewithrespecttoangleofattack

Jc
m,uc
Jo
=
Jc
m,c4
Jo
+
Jc
I
Jo
(x
uc
- 14)

Iftheaerodynamiccenterisindependentoftheleftsidewillbezero,theotherderivativesarethe
slopesofthemomentandliftcurves

u = m
0
+o
0
(x
uc
- 14)

x
uc
= 14 -
m
0
o
0

Thisexpressionworkssolongastheliftandmomentcoefficientcurvesarelinearandsohaveconstant
slopes.

Vortexpanelmethod

Thevortexpanelmethodisconstructedthesamewayasthesourcepanelmethod,butsinceitisbased
onvortexsheets,itproducesliftsowecanusefullyemployitwithairfoils.

Wemodelthebody(wingsection)asaseriesofnflatpanels.Eachpanelisaflatvortexsheetwith
vortexstrengthperunitlength.Thestrengthisconstantoneachpanel,butcanbedifferentfor
differentpanels.Itcanbenegativeonsomepanels.

WefirstanalyzethevelocitypotentialatapointPinducedbythevortexsheetonthepanelj.

]
= -
1
2n
_ 0
p]
y
]
Js
]
]

Theintegralistakenoverthelengthofpanelj.

Theangle0
p]
istheanglefromthepaneljtothepointp.Itcanbefoundby

0
p]
= tan
-1
y - y
]
x - x
]

ThetotalvelocitypotentialatPinducedbyallthepanelsisthen

(P) =
]
n
]=1
= -
y
]
2n
_ 0
p]
Js
]
]
n
]=1

Thisgivesusoneequationfornunknownvaluesofy
]
.

Wecanrepeatthisfornpointsonthesurfaceoftheairfoil.Theseareconventionallythesamepointsas
thosethatdefinethecentersofthepanels.

(x

, y

) = -
y
]
2n
_ 0
]
Js
]
]
n
]=1

where
0
]
= tan
-1
y

- y
]
x

- x
]

Foreachoftheseipointswewillevaluatethevelocityweknowtheangletothefreestream[

andthe
directionoftheunitnormalvectorn

Thevelocityinducedat(x

, y

)ythenpanelsinthedirectionnormaltothesurfaceis

I
n,
=
J(x

, y

)
Jn

= -
y
]
2n
_
J0
]
Jn

Js
]
]
n
]=1

Wemustalsoaddinthenormalvelocityinducedbythefreestream

I
,n
= I

cos [

Foreverypaneltobealongastreamline
I
,n
+ I
n,
= u
Foreveryi

cos [

-
y
]
2n
_
J0
]
Jn

Js
]
= u
]
n
]=1

Whichgiveusnequationsinnunknowns

ThisdoesnothoweverguaranteethatwesatisfytheKuttacondition

Wemusthavezerovortexstrengthatthetrailingedge,soweimposeonemoreequationforcingthe
averageofthetwopanelsthatjoinatthetrailingedgetobezero

y
-1
= -y

Thisgivesusn+1equationsfornunknownswhichleadstoanoverdeterminedset.Tosolvethisweomit
oneofthecontrolpoints

Recallthatweshowedthat
y = I
1
- I
2

ThewingisasolidsoinitsownreferenceframeI
2
= uso

y = I
1

Andthevortexstrengthgivesthevelocityjustoutsidetheboundarylayer

FromthisandtheBernoilliequationwecanfindthepressuredistribution

Oncewehavevaluesfory
]
forallnpanelswecanfindthelifteasily

I = y
]
n
]=1
s
]

Wheres
]
isthelengthofthejthpanel.Theliftisthen

I = p

y
]
n
]=1
s
]

Thishasbeenafirstorderanalysis.Weassumedthevortexstrengthwasaconstantalongeachpanel.
Asecondordermethodwouldassumethevortexstrengthvariedlinearlyalongeachpanel.Thisgivesa
continuousvalueofvortexstrengthandacontinuousfunctionforvelocityandpressure.

Resultsforthisslightlymorecomplexmethodareshownbelow

Kelvinscirculationtheoremandthestartingvortex

Ifweobserveaflowattime1,anddescribeaclosedcurveC
1
withinitattime1andintegrate

I
1
= _ I

Js
c
1

Andwethenobserveagainattime2,andfollowacurveC
2
throughthesamefluidelements

I
2
= _ I

Js
c
2

WewillfindthatI
1
= I
2

Orputmorecompactly

I
t
= u

ThisisKelvinscirculationtheoremanditholdsforinviscidcompressibleflowsifp = n(P)

Ifwenowconsideracurveenclosinganairfoilatrest,thecirculationwillbezero.

Ifafterweobservetheairfoilatrest,wethenstartitmoving,anditgeneratesliftandcirculationaround
itself,thetotalcirculationaroundC
2
mustremainzero.

IfwesubdivideC
2
intoaregion3containingtheairfoilandaregion4wheretheairfoilwaspreviouslyat
restwewillfindthat

I
3
= -I
4

Therewillbeastartingvortexleftbehindbytheairfoilwhenitstartedmoving.Thiscanbeshown
experimentally

Imagetakenfrom:K.Matsuuchi,T.Nomura,J.Sakakibara,H.Shintani,B.E.UngerechtsUnsteadyflowfieldaroundahumanhandand
propulsiveforceinswimming,JournalofBiomechanics,Vol.42,Issue1,pp.4247,5January2009

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Btcx5hTf_A

Flowvisualizationofaircraftwingtipvortices.(NASA)

AirfoilDrag(skinfrictiondrag)