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SYLLABUS OF HTML

Collected by Nhat Duy Nguyen


nhatnd@hcm.!t."n
Sou#ce $ %%%.%&'chool'.com
TP.HCM, 27-08-2004
(
Table of Content
HTML Basic..............................................................................................3
HTML HOME................................................................................................................3
HTML & ............................................................................................................3
HTML !nt"o#$ction.....................................................................................................3
HTML Ele%ents...........................................................................................................5
HTML Basic Ta&s........................................................................................................6
HTML 'o"%attin&........................................................................................................9
HTML Entities...........................................................................................................11
....................................................................................................................................
HTML Lin(s...............................................................................................................12
HTML '"a%es HTML Tables ........................................................................................15
HTML Lists................................................................................................................20
HTML 'o"%s............................................................................................................. 22
HTML !%a&es...........................................................................................................26
HTML Bac(&"o$n#.....................................................................................................26
HTML )#*ance#
HTML La+o$t.............................................................................................................30
HTML 'onts..............................................................................................................31
HTML 4.0 ,+..........................................................................................................32
HTML -t+les..............................................................................................................34
HTML Hea#...............................................................................................................35
HTML Meta...............................................................................................................36
HTML ./Ls...............................................................................................................38
HTML -c"i0ts............................................................................................................39
HTML ebse"*e"......................................................................................................41

/efe"ences
HTML 1$ic( List........................................................................................................43
HTML Ta& List...........................................................................................................45
HTML )tt"ib$tes.......................................................................................................47
HTML E*ents.............................................................................................................48
HTML )-C!!.............................................................................................................49
HTML HTTP Status Messages.......................................................................................52
HTML 4.02 1$ic( List.......................................................................................................55
)
!- HTML !nt"o#$ce 3
,at is t,e o"l# i#e eb4
The World Wide Web (WWW) is most often called t,e eb.
The Web is a network of computers all o*e" t,e 5o"l#.
All the computers in the Web can co%%$nicate 5it, eac, ot,e".
All the computers use a co%%$nication stan#a"# calle# HTTP.
Ho5 #oes t,e 5o"(4
Web information is stored in documents called eb 0a&es.
Web pages are files stored on computers called eb se"*e"s.
Computers reading the Web pages are called eb clients.
Web clients view the pages with a program called a eb b"o5se".
Popular browsers are !nte"net E60lo"e" an# 7etsca0e 7a*i&ato".
Ho5 #oes t,e b"o5se" fetc, t,e 0a&es4
A browser fetches a Web page from a server b+ a "e8$est.
A request is a standard HTTP request containing a 0a&e a##"ess.
A page address looks like this: ,tt0399555.so%eone.co%90a&e.,t%.
Ho5 #oes t,e b"o5se" #is0la+ t,e 0a&es4
All Web pages contain inst"$ctions fo" #is0la+
The browser displays the page by "ea#in& t,ese inst"$ctions.
The most common display instructions are called HTML ta&s.
HTML tags look like this :0;T,is is a Pa"a&"a0,:90;.
,o is %a(in& t,e eb stan#a"#s4
The Web standards are not %a#e $0 by Netscape or Microsoft.
The rule-making body of the Web is the 3C.
W3C stands for the o"l# i#e eb Conso"ti$%.
W3C puts together specifications for eb stan#a"#s.
The most essential Web standards are HTML, C-- an# <ML.
The latest HTML standard is <HTML 2.0.
,at is an HTML 'ile4
HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
An HTML file is a text file containing small %a"($0 ta&s
The markup tags tell the Web browser ,o5 to #is0la+ the page
An HTML file must have an ,t% or ,t%l file extension
An HTML file can be created using a si%0le te6t e#ito"
=o >o$ ant to T"+ !t4
&
If you are running Windows, start Notepad.
If you are on a Mac start SimpleText.
In OSX start TextEdit and change the following preferences: Select (in the preferences window)
"Plain text" instead of "Rich text" and then select "Ignore rich text commands in HTML files". This is
very important because if you dont do this HTML codes probably won't work.
Type in the following text:
<html>
<head>
<title>Title of page</title>
</head>
<body>
This is my first homepage. <b>This text is bold</b>
</body>
</html>
Save the file as "mypage.htm".
Start your Internet browser. Select "Open" (or "Open Page") in the File menu of your browser. A
dialog box will appear. Select "Browse" (or "Choose File") and locate the HTML file you just created -
"mypage.htm" - select it and click "Open". Now you should see an address in the dialog box, for
example "C:\MyDocuments\mypage.htm". Click OK, and the browser will display the page.
E6a%0le E60laine#
The first tag in your HTML document is <html>. This tag tells your browser that this is the start of
an HTML document. The last tag in your document is </html>. This tag tells your browser that this
is the end of the HTML document.
The text between the <head> tag and the </head> tag is header information. Header information
is not displayed in the browser window.
The text between the <title> tags is the title of your document. The title is displayed in your
browser's caption.
The text between the <body> tags is the text that will be displayed in your browser.
The text between the <b> and </b> tags will be displayed in a bold font.
HTM o" HTML E6tension4
When you save an HTML file, you can use either the .htm or the .html extension. We have used
.htm in our examples. It might be a bad habit inherited from the past when some of the commonly
used software only allowed three letter extensions.
With newer software we think it will be perfectly safe to use .html.
7ote on HTML E#ito"s3
*
You can easily edit HTML files using a WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) editor like
FrontPage, Claris Home Page, or Adobe PageMill instead of writing your markup tags in a plain text
file.
But if you want to be a skillful Web developer, we strongly recommend that you use a plain text
editor to learn your primer HTML.
HTML Ele%ents
HTML #oc$%ents a"e te6t files %a#e $0 of HTML ele%ents.
HTML ele%ents a"e #efine# $sin& HTML ta&s.
HTML Ta&s
HTML tags are used to mark-up HTML ele%ents
HTML tags are surrounded by the t5o c,a"acte"s : an# ;
The surrounding characters are called an&le b"ac(ets
HTML tags normally co%e in 0ai"s like <b> and </b>
The first tag in a pair is the sta"t ta&, the second tag is the en# ta&
The text between the start and end tags is the ele%ent content
HTML tags are not case sensiti*e, <b> means the same as <B>
HTML Ele%ents
Remember the HTML example from the previous page:
<html>
<head>
<title>Title of page</title>
</head>
<body>
This is my first homepage. <b>This text is bold</b>
</body>
</html>
This is an HTML element:
<b>This text is bold</b>
The HTML element starts with a sta"t ta&: <b>
The content of the HTML element is: This text is bold
The HTML element ends with an en# ta&: </b>
The purpose of the <b> tag is to define an HTML element that should be displayed as bold.
This is also an HTML element:
<body>
This is my first homepage. <b>This text is bold</b>
+
</body>
This HTML element starts with the start tag <body>, and ends with the end tag </body>.
The purpose of the <body> tag is to define the HTML element that contains the body of the HTML
document.
,+ #o e .se Lo5e"case Ta&s4
We have just said that HTML tags are not case sensitive: <B> means the same as <b>. When you
surf the Web, you will notice that most tutorials use uppercase HTML tags in their examples. We
always use lowercase tags. Why?
If you want to prepare yourself for the next generations of HTML you should start using lowercase
tags. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends lowercase tags in their HTML 4
recommendation, and XHTML (the next generation HTML) demands lowercase tags.
Ta& )tt"ib$tes
Tags can have attributes. Attributes can provide additional information about the HTML elements on
your page.
This tag defines the body element of your HTML page: <body>. With an added bgcolor attribute,
you can tell the browser that the background color of your page should be red, like this: <body
bgcolor="red">.
This tag defines an HTML table: <table>. With an added border attribute, you can tell the browser
that the table should have no borders: <table border="0">
Attributes always come in name/value pairs like this: name="value".
Attributes are always added to the start tag of an HTML element.
1$ote -t+les, ?"e#? o" @"e#@4
Attribute values should always be enclosed in quotes. Double style quotes are the most common,
but single style quotes are also allowed.
In some rare situations, like when the attribute value itself contains quotes, it is necessary to use
single quotes:
name='John "ShotGun" Nelson'
Basic HTML Ta&s
T,e %ost i%0o"tant ta&s in HTML a"e ta&s t,at #efine ,ea#in&s, 0a"a&"a0,s an# line
b"ea(s.
,
T,e best 5a+ to lea"n HTML is to 5o"( 5it, e6a%0les. e ,a*e c"eate# a *e"+ nice HTML
e#ito" fo" +o$. it, t,is e#ito", +o$ can e#it t,e HTML so$"ce co#e if +o$ li(e, an# clic( on
a test b$tton to *ie5 t,e "es$lt.
T"+ it >o$"self - E6a%0les
A very simple HTML document
This example is a very simple HTML document, with only a minimum of HTML tags. It demonstrates
how the text inside a body element is displayed in the browser.
Simple paragraphs
This example demonstrates how the text inside paragraph elements is displayed in the browser.
(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)
Hea#in&s
Headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags. <h1> defines the largest heading. <h6> defines
the smallest heading.
<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<h2>This is a heading</h2>
<h3>This is a heading</h3>
<h4>This is a heading</h4>
<h5>This is a heading</h5>
<h6>This is a heading</h6>
HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a heading.
Pa"a&"a0,s
Paragraphs are defined with the <p> tag.
<p>This is a paragraph</p>
<p>This is another paragraph</p>
HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a paragraph.
Line B"ea(s
The <br> tag is used when you want to end a line, but don't want to start a new paragraph. The
<br> tag forces a line break wherever you place it.
<p>This <br> is a para<br>graph with line breas</p>
The <br> tag is an empty tag. It has no closing tag.
Co%%ents in HTML
-
The comment tag is used to insert a comment in the HTML source code. A comment will be ignored
by the browser. You can use comments to explain your code, which can help you when you edit the
source code at a later date.
<!"" This is a #omment "">
Note that you need an exclamation point after the opening bracket, but not before the closing
bracket.
Basic 7otes - .sef$l Ti0s
When you write HTML text, you can never be sure how the text is displayed in another browser.
Some people have large computer displays, some have small. The text will be reformatted every
time the user resizes his window. Never try to format the text in your editor by adding empty lines
and spaces to the text.
HTML will truncate the spaces in your text. Any number of spaces count as one. Some extra
information: In HTML a new line counts as one space.
Using empty paragraphs <p> to insert blank lines is a bad habit. Use the <br> tag instead. (But
don't use the <br> tag to create lists. Wait until you have learned about HTML lists.)
You might have noticed that paragraphs can be written without the closing tag </p>. Don't rely on
it. The next version of HTML will not allow you to skip ANY closing tags.
HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after some elements, like before and after a
paragraph, and before and after a heading.
We use a horizontal rule (the <hr> tag), to separate the sections in our tutorials.
Mo"e E6a%0les
More paragraphs
This example demonstrates some of the default behaviors of paragraph elements.
Line breaks
This example demonstrates the use of line breaks in an HTML document.
Poem problems
This example demonstrates some problems with HTML formatting.
Headings
This example demonstrates the tags that display headings in an HTML document.
Center aligned heading
This example demonstrates a center aligned heading.
Horizontal rule
This example demonstrates how to insert a horizontal rule.
Hidden comments
This example demonstrates how to insert a hidden comment in the HTML source code.
.
Background color
This example demonstrates adding a background-color to an HTML page.
Basic HTML Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<html> Defines an HTML document
<body> Defines the document's body
<h1> to <h6> Defines header 1 to header 6
<p> Defines a paragraph
<br> Inserts a single line break
<hr> Defines a horizontal rule
<!--> Defines a comment
HTML Te6t 'o"%attin&
HTML #efines a lot of ele%ents fo" fo"%attin& o$t0$t, li(e bol# o" italic te6t.
Belo5 a"e a lot of e6a%0les t,at +o$ can t"+ o$t +o$"self3
E6a%0les
Text formatting
This example demonstrates how you can format text in an HTML document.
Preformatted text
This example demonstrates how you can control the line breaks and spaces with the pre tag.
"Computer output" tags
This example demonstrates how different "computer output" tags will be displayed.
Address
This example demonstrates how to write an address in an HTML document.
Abbreviations and acronyms
This example demonstrates how to handle an abbreviation or an acronym.
Text direction
This example demonstrates how to change the text direction.
Quotations
This example demonstrates how to handle long and short quotations.
Deleted and inserted text
This example demonstrates how to mark a text that is deleted or inserted to a document.
/
Ho5 to Aie5 HTML -o$"ce
Have you ever seen a Web page and wondered "How do they do that?"
To find out, simply click on the VIEW option in your browsers toolbar and select SOURCE or PAGE
SOURCE. This will open a window that shows you the actual HTML of the page.
Te6t 'o"%attin& Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<b> Defines bold text
<big> Defines big text
<em> Defines emphasized text
<i> Defines italic text
<small> Defines small text
<strong> Defines strong text
<sub> Defines subscripted text
<sup> Defines superscripted text
<ins> Defines inserted text
<del> Defines deleted text
<s> Deprecated. Use <del> instead
<strike> Deprecated. Use <del> instead
<u> Deprecated. Use styles instead
?Co%0$te" O$t0$t? Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<code> Defines computer code text
<kbd> Defines keyboard text
<samp> Defines sample computer code
<tt> Defines teletype text
<var> Defines a variable
<pre> Defines preformatted text
<listing> Deprecated. Use <pre> instead
<plaintext> Deprecated. Use <pre> instead
<xmp> Deprecated. Use <pre> instead
Citations, 1$otations, an# =efinition Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<abbr> Defines an abbreviation
<acronym> Defines an acronym
<address> Defines an address element
<bdo> Defines the text direction
<blockquote> Defines a long quotation
<q> Defines a short quotation
(0
<cite> Defines a citation
<dfn> Defines a definition term
Co%0$te" Bo(e
C$sto%e"3 I don't have a '7' key.
-$00o"t3 It's between the '6' and '8' key.
C$sto%e"3 I don't have a '7' key.
-$00o"t3 Do you see the '1' key?
C$sto%e"3 Yes.
-$00o"t3 What's to the right of that?
C$sto%e"3 '2'
-$00o"t3 And further right?
C$sto%e"3 '3', '4', '5', '6'
-$00o"t3 What's the next key?
C$sto%e"3 '8'
-$00o"t3 It should be to the left of the '8'
C$sto%e"3 Oh, that '7' key?
HTML C,a"acte" Entities
-o%e c,a"acte"s li(e t,e : c,a"acte", ,a*e a s0ecial %eanin& in HTML, an# t,e"efo"e
cannot be $se# in t,e te6t.
To #is0la+ a less t,an si&n C:D in HTML, 5e ,a*e to $se a c,a"acte" entit+.
C,a"acte" Entities
Some characters have a special meaning in HTML, like the less than sign (<) that defines the start
of an HTML tag. If we want the browser to actually display these characters we must insert
character entities in the HTML source.
A character entity has three parts: an ampersand (&), an entity name or a # and an entity number,
and finally a semicolon (;).
To display a less than sign in an HTML document we must write: &ltE or &FG0E
The advantage of using a name instead of a number is that a name is easier to remember. The
disadvantage is that not all browsers support the newest entity names, while the support for entity
numbers is very good in almost all browsers.
7ote that the entities are case sensitive.
This example lets you experiment with character entities: Character Entities
7on-b"ea(in& -0ace
The most common character entity in HTML is the non-breaking space.
((
Normally HTML will truncate spaces in your text. If you write 10 spaces in your text HTML will
remove 9 of them. To add spaces to your text, use the &nbsp; character entity.
T,e Most Co%%on C,a"acte" Entities3
/es$lt =esc"i0tion Entit+ 7a%e Entit+ 7$%be"
non-breaking space &nbsp; &#160;
< less than &lt; &#60;
> greater than &gt; &#62;
& ampersand &amp; &#38;
" quotation mark &quot; &#34;
' apostrophe &apos; &#39;
-o%e Ot,e" Co%%onl+ .se# C,a"acte" Entities3
/es$lt =esc"i0tion Entit+ 7a%e Entit+ 7$%be"
cent &cent; &#162;
pound &pound; &#163;
yen &yen; &#165;
section &sect; &#167;
copyright &copy; &#169;
registered trademark &reg; &#174;
multiplication &times; &#215;
division &divide; &#247;
To see a full list of HTML character entities go to our HTML Entities Reference
HTML Lin(s
HTML $ses a ,+0e"lin( to lin( to anot,e" #oc$%ent on t,e eb.
E6a%0les
Create hyperlinks
This example demonstrates how to create links in an HTML document.
An image as a link
This example demonstrates how to use an image as a link.
(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)
T,e )nc,o" Ta& an# t,e H"ef )tt"ib$te
HTML $ses t,e :a; Canc,o"D ta& to c"eate a lin( to anot,e" #oc$%ent.
()
An anchor can point to any resource on the Web: an HTML page, an image, a sound file, a movie,
etc.
The syntax of creating an anchor:
<a href$%&rl%>Text to be displayed</a>
The <a> tag is used to create an anchor to link from, the href attribute is used to address the
document to link to, and the words between the open and close of the anchor tag will be displayed
as a hyperlink.
This anchor defines a link to W3Schools:
<a href$%http'//www.w3s#hools.#om/%>(isit )3*#hools!</a>
The line above will look like this in a browser:
Visit W3Schools!
T,e Ta"&et )tt"ib$te
With the target attribute, you can define 5,e"e the linked document will be opened.
The line below will open the document in a new browser window:
<a href$%http'//www.w3s#hools.#om/%
target$%+blan%>(isit )3*#hools!</a>
T,e )nc,o" Ta& an# t,e 7a%e )tt"ib$te
The name attribute is used to create a named anchor. When using named anchors we can create
links that can jump directly into a specific section on a page, instead of letting the user scroll around
to find what he/she is looking for.
Below is the syntax of a named anchor:
<a name$%label%>Text to be displayed</a>
The name attribute is used to create a named anchor. The name of the anchor can be any text you
care to use.
The line below defines a named anchor:
<a name$%tips%>,sef&l Tips *e#tion</a>
You should notice that a named anchor is not displayed in a special way.
To link directly to the "tips" section, add a # sign and the name of the anchor to the end of a URL,
like this:
(&
<a href$%http'//www.w3s#hools.#om/html+lins.asp-tips%>
.&mp to the ,sef&l Tips *e#tion</a>
A hyperlink to the Useful Tips Section from WITHIN the file "html_links.asp" will look like this:
<a href$%-tips%>.&mp to the ,sef&l Tips *e#tion</a>
Basic 7otes - .sef$l Ti0s
Always add a trailing slash to subfolder references. If you link like this:
href="http://www.w3schools.com/html", you will generate two HTTP requests to the server,
because the server will add a slash to the address and create a new request like this:
href="http://www.w3schools.com/html/"
Named anchors are often used to create "table of contents" at the beginning of a large document.
Each chapter within the document is given a named anchor, and links to each of these anchors are
put at the top of the document.
If a browser cannot find a named anchor that has been specified, it goes to the top of the
document. No error occurs.
Mo"e E6a%0les
Open a link in a new browser window
This example demonstrates how to link to another page by opening a new window, so that the
visitor does not have to leave your Web site.
Link to a location on the same page
This example demonstrates how to use a link to jump to another part of a document.
Break out of a frame
This example demonstrates how to break out of a frame, if your site is locked in a frame.
Create a mailto link
This example demonstrates how to link to a mail message (will only work if you have mail installed).
Create a mailto link 2
This example demonstrates a more complicated mailto link.
Lin( Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<a> Defines an anchor
HTML '"a%es
it, f"a%es, +o$ can #is0la+ %o"e t,an one eb 0a&e in t,e sa%e b"o5se" 5in#o5.
(*
E6a%0les
Vertical frameset
This example demonstrates how to make a vertical frameset with three different documents.
Horizontal frameset
This example demonstrates how to make a horizontal frameset with three different documents.
How to use the <noframes> tag
This example demonstrates how to use the <noframes> tag.
(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)
'"a%es
With frames, you can display more than one HTML document in the same browser window. Each
HTML document is called a frame, and each frame is independent of the others.
The disadvantages of using frames are:
The web developer must keep track of more HTML documents
It is difficult to print the entire page
T,e '"a%eset Ta&
The <frameset> tag defines how to divide the window into frames
Each frameset defines a set of rows o" columns
The values of the rows/columns indicate the amount of screen area each row/column will
occupy
T,e '"a%e Ta&
The <frame> tag defines what HTML document to put into each frame
In the example below we have a frameset with two columns. The first column is set to 25% of the
width of the browser window. The second column is set to 75% of the width of the browser window.
The HTML document "frame_a.htm" is put into the first column, and the HTML document
"frame_b.htm" is put into the second column:
<frameset #ols$%25/015/%>
<frame sr#$%frame+a.htm%>
<frame sr#$%frame+b.htm%>
</frameset>
Basic 7otes - .sef$l Ti0s
If a frame has visible borders, the user can resize it by dragging the border. To prevent a user from
doing this, you can add noresize="noresize" to the <frame> tag.
Add the <noframes> tag for browsers that do not support frames.
(+
Mo"e E6a%0les
Mixed frameset
This example demonstrates how to make a frameset with three documents, and how to mix them in
rows and columns.
Frameset with noresize="noresize"
This example demonstrates the noresize attribute. The frames are not resizable. Move the mouse
over the borders between the frames and notice that you can not move the borders.
Navigation frame
This example demonstrates how to make a navigation frame. The navigation frame contains a list of
links with the second frame as the target. The file called "tryhtml_contents.htm" contains three
links. The source code of the links:
<a href ="tryhtml_frame_a.htm" target ="showframe">Frame a</a><br>
<a href ="tryhtml_frame_b.htm" target ="showframe">Frame b</a><br>
<a href ="tryhtml_frame_c.htm" target ="showframe">Frame c</a>
The second frame will show the linked document.
Inline frame
This example demonstrates how to create an inline frame (a frame inside an HTML page).
Jump to a specified section within a frame
This example demonstrates two frames. One of the frames has a source to a specified section in a
file. The specified section is made with <a name="C10"> in the "link.htm" file.
Jump to a specified section with frame navigation
This example demonstrates two frames. The navigation frame (content.htm) to the left contains a
list of links with the second frame (link.htm) as a target. The second frame shows the linked
document. One of the links in the navigation frame is linked to a specified section in the target file.
The HTML code in the file "content.htm" looks like this: <a href ="link.htm" target
="showframe">Link without Anchor</a><br><a href ="link.htm#C10" target ="showframe">Link
with Anchor</a>.
'"a%e Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<frameset> Defines a set of frames
<frame> Defines a sub window (a frame)
<noframes> Defines a noframe section for browsers that do not handle frames
<iframe> Defines an inline sub window (frame)
HTML Tables
it, HTML +o$ can c"eate tables.
E6a%0les
Tables
This example demonstrates how to create tables in an HTML document.
(,
Table borders
This example demonstrates different table borders.
(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)
Tables
Tables are defined with the <table> tag. A table is divided into rows (with the <tr> tag), and each
row is divided into data cells (with the <td> tag). The letters td stands for "table data," which is the
content of a data cell. A data cell can contain text, images, lists, paragraphs, forms, horizontal
rules, tables, etc.
<table border$%1%>
<tr>
<td>row 10 #ell 1</td>
<td>row 10 #ell 2</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>row 20 #ell 1</td>
<td>row 20 #ell 2</td>
</tr>
</table>
How it looks in a browser:
row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2
row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2
Tables an# t,e Bo"#e" )tt"ib$te
If you do not specify a border attribute the table will be displayed without any borders. Sometimes
this can be useful, but most of the time, you want the borders to show.
To display a table with borders, you will have to use the border attribute:
<table border$%1%>
<tr>
<td>2ow 10 #ell 1</td>
<td>2ow 10 #ell 2</td>
</tr>
</table>
Hea#in&s in a Table
Headings in a table are defined with the <th> tag.
<table border$%1%>
<tr>
<th>3eading</th>
<th>4nother 3eading</th>
</tr>
(-
<tr>
<td>row 10 #ell 1</td>
<td>row 10 #ell 2</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>row 20 #ell 1</td>
<td>row 20 #ell 2</td>
</tr>
</table>
How it looks in a browser:
Hea#in& )not,e" Hea#in&
row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2
row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2
E%0t+ Cells in a Table
Table cells with no content are not displayed very well in most browsers.
<table border$%1%>
<tr>
<td>row 10 #ell 1</td>
<td>row 10 #ell 2</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>row 20 #ell 1</td>
<td></td>
</tr>
</table>
How it looks in a browser:
row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2
row 2, cell 1
Note that the borders around the empty table cell are missing.
To avoid this, add a non-breaking space (&nbsp;) to empty data cells, to make the borders visible:
<table border$%1%>
<tr>
<td>row 10 #ell 1</td>
<td>row 10 #ell 2</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>row 20 #ell 1</td>
<td>5nbsp6</td>
</tr>
</table>
(.
How it looks in a browser:
row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2
row 2, cell 1
Basic 7otes - .sef$l Ti0s
The <thead>,<tbody> and <tfoot> elements are seldom used, because of bad browser support.
Expect this to change in future versions of XHTML. If you have Internet Explorer 5.0 or newer, you
can view a working example in our XML tutorial.
Mo"e E6a%0les
Table with no border
This example demonstrates a table with no borders.
Headings in a table
This example demonstrates how to display table headers.
Empty cells
This example demonstrates how to use "&nbsp;" to handle cells that have no content.
Table with a caption
This example demonstrates a table with a caption.
Table cells that span more than one row/column
This example demonstrates how to define table cells that span more than one row or one column.
Tags inside a table
This example demonstrates how to display elements inside other elements.
Cell padding
This example demonstrates how to use cellpadding to create more white space between the cell
content and its borders.
Cell spacing
This example demonstrates how to use cellspacing to increase the distance between the cells.
Add a background color or a background image to a table
This example demonstrates how to add a background to a table.
Add a background color or a background image to a table cell
This example demonstrates how to add a background to one or more table cells.
Align the content in a table cell
This example demonstrates how to use the "align" attribute to align the content of cells, to create a
"nice-looking" table.
The frame attribute
This example demonstrates how to use the "frame" attribute to control the borders around the
table.
(/
Table Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<table> Defines a table
<th> Defines a table header
<tr> Defines a table row
<td> Defines a table cell
<caption> Defines a table caption
<colgroup> Defines groups of table columns
<col> Defines the attribute values for one or more columns in a table
<thead> Defines a table head
<tbody> Defines a table body
<tfoot> Defines a table footer
HTML Lists
HTML s$00o"ts o"#e"e#, $no"#e"e# an# #efinition lists.
E6a%0les
An unordered list
This example demonstrates an unordered list.
An ordered list
This example demonstrates an ordered list.
(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)
.no"#e"e# Lists
An unordered list is a list of items. The list items are marked with bullets (typically small black
circles).
An unordered list starts with the <ul> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag.
<&l>
<li>7offee</li>
<li>8il</li>
</&l>
Here is how it looks in a browser:
Coffee
Milk
Inside a list item you can put paragraphs, line breaks, images, links, other lists, etc.
)0
O"#e"e# Lists
An ordered list is also a list of items. The list items are marked with numbers.
An ordered list starts with the <ol> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag.
<ol>
<li>7offee</li>
<li>8il</li>
</ol>
Here is how it looks in a browser:
1. Coffee
2. Milk
Inside a list item you can put paragraphs, line breaks, images, links, other lists, etc.
=efinition Lists
A definition list is not a list of items. This is a list of terms and explanation of the terms.
A definition list starts with the <dl> tag. Each definition-list term starts with the <dt> tag. Each
definition-list definition starts with the <dd> tag.
<dl>
<dt>7offee</dt>
<dd>9la# hot drin</dd>
<dt>8il</dt>
<dd>)hite #old drin</dd>
</dl>
Here is how it looks in a browser:
Coffee
Black hot drink
Milk
White cold drink
Inside a definition-list definition (the <dd> tag) you can put paragraphs, line breaks, images, links,
other lists, etc.
Mo"e E6a%0les
Different types of ordered lists
This example demonstrates different types of ordered lists.
Different types of unordered Lists
This example demonstrates different types of unordered lists.
)(
Nested list
This example demonstrates how you can nest lists.
Nested list 2
This example demonstrates a more complicated nested list.
Definition list
This example demonstrates a definition list.
List Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<ol> Defines an ordered list
<ul> Defines an unordered list
<li> Defines a list item
<dl> Defines a definition list
<dt> Defines a definition term
<dd> Defines a definition description
<dir> Deprecated. Use <ul> instead
<menu> Deprecated. Use <ul> instead
HTML 'o"%s an# !n0$t
HTML 'o"%s a"e $se# to select #iffe"ent (in#s of $se" in0$t.
E6a%0les
Text fields
This example demonstrates how to create text fields on a HTML page. A user can write text in a text
field.
Password fields
This example demonstrates how to create a password field on a HTML page.
(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)
'o"%s
A form is an area that can contain form elements.
Form elements are elements that allow the user to enter information (like text fields, textarea fields,
drop-down menus, radio buttons, checkboxes, etc.) in a form.
A form is defined with the <form> tag.
<form>
<inp&t>
))
<inp&t>
</form>
!n0$t
The most used form tag is the <input> tag. The type of input is specified with the type attribute.
The most commonly used input types are explained below.
Te6t 'iel#s
Text fields are used when you want the user to type letters, numbers, etc. in a form.
<form>
:irst name'
<inp&t type$%text% name$%firstname%>
<br>
;ast name'
<inp&t type$%text% name$%lastname%>
</form>
How it looks in a browser:
First name:
Last name:
Note that the form itself is not visible. Also note that in most browsers, the width of the text field is
20 characters by default.
/a#io B$ttons
Radio Buttons are used when you want the user to select one of a limited number of choices.
<form>
<inp&t type$%radio% name$%sex% <al&e$%male%> 8ale
<br>
<inp&t type$%radio% name$%sex% <al&e$%female%> :emale
</form>
How it looks in a browser:
Male
Female
Note that only one option can be chosen.
C,ec(bo6es
Checkboxes are used when you want the user to select one or more options of a limited number of
choices.
)&
<form>
<inp&t type$%#he#box% name$%bie%>
= ha<e a bie
<br>
<inp&t type$%#he#box% name$%#ar%>
= ha<e a #ar
</form>
How it looks in a browser:
I have a bike
I have a car
T,e 'o"%@s )ction )tt"ib$te an# t,e -$b%it B$tton
When the user clicks on the "Submit" button, the content of the form is sent to another file. The
form's action attribute defines the name of the file to send the content to. The file defined in the
action attribute usually does something with the received input.
<form name$%inp&t% a#tion$%html+form+a#tion.asp%
method$%get%>
,sername'
<inp&t type$%text% name$%&ser%>
<inp&t type$%s&bmit% <al&e$%*&bmit%>
</form>
How it looks in a browser:
Username:
Submit
If you type some characters in the text field above, and click the "Submit" button, you will send
your input to a page called "html_form_action.asp". That page will show you the received input.
Mo"e E6a%0les
Checkboxes
This example demonstrates how to create check-boxes on a HTML page. A user can select or
unselect a checkbox.
Radiobuttons
This example demonstrates how to create radio-buttons on a HTML page.
Simple drop down box
This example demonstrates how to create a simple drop-down box on a HTML page. A drop-down
box is a selectable list.
Another drop down box
This example demonstrates how to create a simple drop-down box with a pre-selected value.
)*
Textarea
This example demonstrates how to create a text-area (a multi-line text input control). A user can
write text in the text-area. In a text-area you can write an unlimited number of characters.
Create a button
This example demonstrates how to create a button. On the button you can define your own text.
Fieldset around data
This example demonstrates how to draw a border with a caption around your data.
'o"% E6a%0les
Form with input fields and a submit button
This example demonstrates how to add a form to a page. The form contains two input fields and a
submit button.
Form with checkboxes
This form contains two checkboxes, and a submit button.
Form with radiobuttons
This form contains two radio buttons, and a submit button.
Send e-mail from a form
This example demonstrates how to send e-mail from a form.
'o"% Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<form> Defines a form for user input
<input> Defines an input field
<textarea> Defines a text-area (a multi-line text input control)
<label> Defines a label to a control
<fieldset> Defines a fieldset
<legend> Defines a caption for a fieldset
<select> Defines a selectable list (a drop-down box)
<optgroup> Defines an option group
<option> Defines an option in the drop-down box
<button> Defines a push button
<isindex> Deprecated. Use <input> instead
HTML !%a&es
it, HTML +o$ can #is0la+ i%a&es in a #oc$%ent.
E6a%0les
Insert images
This example demonstrates how to display images in your Web page.
)+
Insert images from different locations
This example demonstrates how to display images from another folder or another server in your
Web page.
(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)
T,e !%a&e Ta& an# t,e -"c )tt"ib$te
In HTML, images are defined with the <img> tag.
The <img> tag is empty, which means that it contains attributes only and it has no closing tag.
To display an image on a page, you need to use the src attribute. Src stands for "source". The value
of the src attribute is the URL of the image you want to display on your page.
The syntax of defining an image:
<img sr#$%&rl%>
The URL points to the location where the image is stored. An image named "boat.gif" located in the
directory "images" on "www.w3schools.com" has the URL:
http://www.w3schools.com/images/boat.gif.
The browser puts the image where the image tag occurs in the document. If you put an image tag
between two paragraphs, the browser shows the first paragraph, then the image, and then the
second paragraph.
T,e )lt )tt"ib$te
The alt attribute is used to define an "alternate text" for an image. The value of the alt attribute is
an author-defined text:
<img sr#$%boat.gif% alt$%9ig 9oat%>
The "alt" attribute tells the reader what he or she is missing on a page if the browser can't load
images. The browser will then display the alternate text instead of the image. It is a good practice
to include the "alt" attribute for each image on a page, to improve the display and usefulness of
your document for people who have text-only browsers.
Basic 7otes - .sef$l Ti0s
If an HTML file contains ten images - eleven files are required to display the page right. Loading
images take time, so my best advice is: Use images carefully.
Mo"e E6a%0les
Background image
This example demonstrates how to add a background image to an HTML page.
),
Aligning images
This example demonstrates how to align an image within the text.
Let the image float
This example demonstrates how to let an image float to the left or right of a paragraph.
Adjust images to different sizes
This example demonstrates how to adjust images to different sizes.
Display an alternate text for an image
This example demonstrates how to display an alternate text for an image. The "alt" attribute tells
the reader what he or she is missing on a page if the browser can't load images. It is a good
practice to include the "alt" attribute for each image on a page.
Make a hyperlink of an image
This example demonstrates how to use an image as a link.
Create an image map
This example demonstrates how to create an image map, with clickable regions. Each of the regions
is a hyperlink.
Turn an image into an image map
This example demonstrates how to turn an image into an image map. You will see that if you move
the mouse over the image, the coordinates will be displayed on the status bar.
!%a&e Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<img> Defines an image
<map> Defines an image map
<area> Defines an area inside an image map
HTML !%a&es
it, HTML +o$ can #is0la+ i%a&es in a #oc$%ent.
E6a%0les
Insert images
This example demonstrates how to display images in your Web page.
Insert images from different locations
This example demonstrates how to display images from another folder or another server in your
Web page.
(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)
T,e !%a&e Ta& an# t,e -"c )tt"ib$te
In HTML, images are defined with the <img> tag.
)-
The <img> tag is empty, which means that it contains attributes only and it has no closing tag.
To display an image on a page, you need to use the src attribute. Src stands for "source". The value
of the src attribute is the URL of the image you want to display on your page.
The syntax of defining an image:
<img sr#$%&rl%>
The URL points to the location where the image is stored. An image named "boat.gif" located in the
directory "images" on "www.w3schools.com" has the URL:
http://www.w3schools.com/images/boat.gif.
The browser puts the image where the image tag occurs in the document. If you put an image tag
between two paragraphs, the browser shows the first paragraph, then the image, and then the
second paragraph.
T,e )lt )tt"ib$te
The alt attribute is used to define an "alternate text" for an image. The value of the alt attribute is
an author-defined text:
<img sr#$%boat.gif% alt$%9ig 9oat%>
The "alt" attribute tells the reader what he or she is missing on a page if the browser can't load
images. The browser will then display the alternate text instead of the image. It is a good practice
to include the "alt" attribute for each image on a page, to improve the display and usefulness of
your document for people who have text-only browsers.
Basic 7otes - .sef$l Ti0s
If an HTML file contains ten images - eleven files are required to display the page right. Loading
images take time, so my best advice is: Use images carefully.
Mo"e E6a%0les
Background image
This example demonstrates how to add a background image to an HTML page.
Aligning images
This example demonstrates how to align an image within the text.
Let the image float
This example demonstrates how to let an image float to the left or right of a paragraph.
Adjust images to different sizes
This example demonstrates how to adjust images to different sizes.
Display an alternate text for an image
This example demonstrates how to display an alternate text for an image. The "alt" attribute tells
the reader what he or she is missing on a page if the browser can't load images. It is a good
practice to include the "alt" attribute for each image on a page.
).
Make a hyperlink of an image
This example demonstrates how to use an image as a link.
Create an image map
This example demonstrates how to create an image map, with clickable regions. Each of the regions
is a hyperlink.
Turn an image into an image map
This example demonstrates how to turn an image into an image map. You will see that if you move
the mouse over the image, the coordinates will be displayed on the status bar.
!%a&e Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<img> Defines an image
<map> Defines an image map
<area> Defines an area inside an image map
HTML La+o$t
E*e"+5,e"e on t,e eb +o$ 5ill fin# 0a&es t,at a"e fo"%atte# li(e ne5s0a0e" 0a&es
$sin& HTML col$%ns.
HTML La+o$t - .sin& Tables
One very common practice with HTML, is to use
HTML tables to format the layout of an HTML
page.
A part of this page is formatted with two
columns, like a newspaper page.
As you can see at this page, there is a left
column and a right column.
This text is displayed in the left column.
An HTML <table> is used to divide a part of this
Web page into two columns.
The trick is to use a table without borders, and
maybe a little extra cell-padding.
No matter how much text you add to this page,
it will stay inside its column borders.
-a%e La+o$t - Colo" )##e#
One very common practice with HTML, is to use
HTML tables to format the layout of an HTML
page.
A part of this page is formatted with two
columns, like a newspaper page.
As you can see at this page, there is a left
column and a right column.
An HTML <table> is used to divide a part of this
Web page into two columns.
This text is displayed in the right column.
The trick is to use a table without borders, and
maybe a little extra cell-padding.
No matter how much text you add to this page,
it will stay inside its column borders.
)/
E6a%0les
Dividing a part of an HTML page into table columns is very easy to do. To let you experiment with it,
we have put together this simple example.
HTML Bo(e
-t$#ent3 "How do you spell HTML?"
HTML 'onts
T,e :font; ta& in HTML is #e0"ecate#. !t is s$00ose# to be "e%o*e# in a f$t$"e *e"sion of
HTML.
E*en if a lot of 0eo0le a"e $sin& it, +o$ s,o$l# t"+ to a*oi# it, an# $se st+les instea#.
T,e HTML :font; Ta&
With HTML code like this, you can specify both the size and the type of the browser output :
<p>
<font si>e$%2% fa#e$%(erdana%>
This is a paragraph.
</font>
</p>
<p>
<font si>e$%3% fa#e$%Times%>
This is another paragraph.
</font>
</p>
Try it yourself
'ont )tt"ib$tes
)tt"ib$te E6a%0le P$"0ose
size="number" size="2" Defines the font size
size="+number" size="+1" Increases the font size
size="-number" size="-1" Decreases the font size
face="face-name" face="Times" Defines the font-name
color="color-value" color="#eeff00" Defines the font color
color="color-name" color="red" Defines the font color
T,e :font; Ta& -,o$l# 7OT be .se#
The <font> tag is deprecated in the latest versions of HTML (HTML 4 and XHTML).
&0
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has removed the <font> tag from its recommendations. In
future versions of HTML, style sheets (CSS) will be used to define the layout and display properties
of HTML elements.
T,e /i&,t a+ to =o !t - it, -t+les
Set the font of text
This example demonstrates how to set the font of a text.
Set the font size of text
This example demonstrates how to set the font size of a text.
Set the font color of text
This example demonstrates how to set the color of a text.
Set the font, font size, and font color of text
This example demonstrates how to set the font, font size, and font color of a text.
,e"e to Lea"n Mo"e )bo$t -t+le -,eets4
'i"st off3 Finish the last chapters in our HTML tutorial !!! In the following chapters we will explain
why some tags, like <font>, are to be removed from the HTML recommendations, and how to insert
a style sheet in an HTML document.
To learn more about style sheets: Study our CSS Tutorial.
,+ $se HTML 4.04
HTML 3.2 as Ae"+ "on& H
The original HTML was ne*e" inten#e# to contain tags for fo"%attin& a document. HTML tags
were intended to define the content of the document like:
<p>This is a paragraph</p>
<ul>This is an unordered list</ul>.
When tags like <font> and color attributes were added to the HTML 3.2 specification, it started a
#e*elo0e"s@ ni&,t%a"e. Development of large web sites where fonts and color information had to
be added to every single Web page, became a long, expensive and unduly painful process.
,at is so I"eat )bo$t HTML 4.0 4
With HTML 4.0 all formatting can be moved out of the HTML document and into a separate st+le
s,eet.
Because HTML 4.0 separates the presentation of the document from its structure, we have got what
we always needed: Total control of presentation layout without messing up the document content.
,at -,o$l# >o$ #o )bo$t !t 4
&(
Stop using presentation style attributes inside your HTML tags.
Our complete HTML Tag Reference indicates deprecated HTML 4.0 tags and attributes. It also
includes a lot of examples with complete source code.
Also take a look at our CSS Section and start a new developer life.
P"e0a"e >o$"self fo" <HTML
XHTML is the next generation of HTML. You should start preparing for it now. The most important
thing you can do is to start writing valid HTML 4.01. Also start writing your tags in lower case.
Always close your tag elements. Never end a paragraph without </p>.
7OTE3 The official HTML 4.01 recommends the use of lower case tags.
If you want to read about how this web site was converted to XHTML. Go to our XHTML School.
Aali#ate >o$" HTML 'iles as HTML 4.02
An HTML document is validated against a Document Type Definition (DTD). Before an HTML file can
be properly validated, a correct DTD must be added as the first line of the file.
The HTML 4.01 Strict DTD includes elements and attributes that have not been deprecated or do not
appear in framesets:
<!?@7TABC 3T8; B,9;=7
%"//)37//?T? 3T8; 4.D1//CE%
%http'//www.w3.org/T2/html4/stri#t.dtd%>
The HTML 4.01 Transitional DTD includes everything in the strict DTD plus deprecated elements and
attributes:
<!?@7TABC 3T8; B,9;=7
%"//)37//?T? 3T8; 4.D1 Transitional//CE%
%http'//www.w3.org/T2/html4/loose.dtd%>
The HTML 4.01 Frameset DTD includes everything in the transitional DTD plus frames as well:
<!?@7TABC 3T8; B,9;=7
%"//)37//?T? 3T8; 4.D1 :rameset//CE%
%http'//www.w3.org/T2/html4/frameset.dtd%>
Test >o$" HTML it, t,e 3C Aali#ato"
Input your page address in the box below
like http://www.w3schools.com/
Validate the page
&)
Co%0$te" Bo(e
C$sto%e"3 What P?
-$00o"t3 The P on your keyboard.
C$sto%e"3 What do you mean?
-$00o"t3 P on your keyboard.
C$sto%e"3 I'm not going to do that!
HTML -t+les
it, HTML 4.0 all fo"%attin& can be %o*e# o$t of t,e HTML #oc$%ent an# into a se0a"ate
st+le s,eet.
E6a%0les
Styles in HTML
This example demonstrates how to format an HTML document with style information added to the
<head> section.
Link that is not underlined
This example demonstrates how to make a link that is not underlined, using a style attribute.
Link to an external style sheet
This example demonstrates how to use the <link> tag to link to an external style sheet.
Ho5 to .se -t+les
When a browser reads a style sheet, it will format the document according to it. There are three
ways of inserting a style sheet:
E6te"nal -t+le -,eet
An external style sheet is ideal when the style is applied to many pages. With an external style
sheet, you can change the look of an entire Web site by changing one file. Each page must link to
the style sheet using the <link> tag. The <link> tag goes inside the head section.
<head>
<lin rel$%stylesheet% type$%text/#ss%
href$%mystyle.#ss%>
</head>
!nte"nal -t+le -,eet
An internal style sheet should be used when a single document has a unique style. You define
internal styles in the head section with the <style> tag.
<head>
<style type$%text/#ss%>
body Fba#gro&nd"#olor' redG
p Fmargin"left' 2DpxG
&&
</style>
</head>
!nline -t+les
An inline style should be used when a unique style is to be applied to a single occurrence of an
element.
To use inline styles you use the style attribute in the relevant tag. The style attribute can contain
any CSS property. The example shows how to change the color and the left margin of a paragraph:
<p style$%#olor' red6 margin"left' 2Dpx%>
This is a paragraph
</p>
To learn more about styles, visit our CSS tutorial.
-t+le Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<style> Defines a style definition
<link> Defines a resource reference
<div> Defines a section in a document
<span> Defines a section in a document
<font> Deprecated. Use styles instead
<basefont> Deprecated. Use styles instead
<center> Deprecated. Use styles instead
Bo(e
C$sto%e"3 Hello, it's me!
-$00o"t3 It's me too!
C$sto%e"3 No, Esmie. E, s, m, i, e!
-$00o"t3 Sorry!
HTML Hea#
E6a%0les
The title of a document
The title information inside a head element is not displayed in the browser window.
One target for all links
This example demonstrates how to use the base tag to let all the links on a page open in a new
window.
&*
T,e Hea# Ele%ent
The head element contains general information, also called meta-information, about a document.
Meta means "information about".
You can say that meta-data means information about data, or meta-information means information
about information.
!nfo"%ation !nsi#e t,e Hea# Ele%ent
The elements inside the head element should not be displayed by a browser.
According to the HTML standard, only a few tags are legal inside the head section. These are:
<base>, <link>, <meta>, <title>, <style>, and <script>.
Look at the following illegal construct:
<head>
<p>This is some text</p>
</head>
In this case the browser has two options:
Display the text because it is inside a paragraph element
Hide the text because it is inside a head element
If you put an HTML element like <h1> or <p> inside a head element like this, most browsers will
display it, even if it is illegal.
Should browsers forgive you for errors like this? We don't think so. Others do.
Hea# Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<head> Defines information about the document
<title> Defines the document title
<base> Defines a base URL for all the links on a page
<link> Defines a resource reference
<meta> Defines meta information
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<!DOCTYPE> Defines the document type. This tag goes before the <html> start tag.
HTML Meta
E6a%0les
&+
Document description
Information inside a meta element describes the document.
Document keywords
Information inside a meta element describes the document's keywords.
Redirect a user
This example demonstrates how to redirect a user if your site address has changed.
T,e Meta Ele%ent
As we explained in the previous chapter, the head element contains general information (meta-
information) about a document.
HTML also includes a meta element that goes inside the head element. The purpose of the meta
element is to provide meta-information about the document.
Most often the meta element is used to provide information that is relevant to browsers or search
engines like describing the content of your document.
7ote3 W3C states that "Some user agents support the use of META to refresh the current page
after a specified number of seconds, with the option of replacing it by a different URI. Authors
should not use this techniue to forward users to different pages, as this ma!es the page
inaccessible to some users. Instead, automatic page forwarding should be done using ser"er#side
redirects" at http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/global.html#adef-http-equiv.
Je+5o"#s fo" -ea"c, En&ines
Some search engines on the WWW will use the name and content attributes of the meta tag to
index your pages.
T,is %eta ele%ent #efines a #esc"i0tion of +o$" 0a&e3
<meta name="description" content="Free Web tutorials on HTML, CSS, XML, and XHTML">

T,is %eta ele%ent #efines (e+5o"#s fo" +o$" 0a&e3
<meta name="keywords" content="HTML, DHTML, CSS, XML, XHTML, JavaScript, VBScript">
The intention of the name and content attributes is to describe the content of a page.
However, since too many webmasters have used meta tags for spamming, like repeating keywords
to give pages a higher ranking, some search engines have stopped using them entirely.
You can read more about search engines in our Web Building Tutorial.
.n(no5n Meta )tt"ib$tes
Sometimes you will see meta attributes that are unknown to you like this:
&,
<meta name="security" content="low">
Then you just have to accept that this is something unique to the site or to the author of the site,
and that it has probably no relevance to you.
You can see a complete list of the meta element attributes in our
Complete HTML 4.01 Tag Reference.
HTML .nifo"% /eso$"ce Locato"s
HTML Lin(s
When you click on a link in an HTML document like this: Last Page, an underlying <a> tag points to
a place (an address) on the Web with an href attribute value like this: <a href="lastpage.htm">Last
Page</a>.
The Last Page link in the example is a link that is relative to the Web site that you are browsing,
and your browser will construct a full Web address like
http://www.w3schools.com/html/lastpage.htm to access the page.
.nifo"% /eso$"ce Locato"s
Something called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is used to address a document (or other data)
on the World Wide Web. A full Web address like this: http://www.w3schools.com/html/lastpage.htm
follows these syntax rules:
sc,e%e://,ost.#o%ain:0o"t/0at,/filena%e
The sc,e%e is defining the t+0e of Internet service. The most common type is ,tt0.
The #o%ain is defining the Internet #o%ain na%e like w3schools.com.
The ,ost is defining the domain host. If omitted, the default host for http is 555.
The 30o"t is defining the 0o"t n$%be" at the host. The port number is normally omitted. The
default port number for http is 80.
The 0at, is defining a 0at, (a sub directory) at the server. If the path is omitted, the resource (the
document) must be located at the root directory of the Web site.
The filena%e is defining the name of a document. The default filename might be default.asp, or
index.html or something else depending on the settings of the Web server.
./L -c,e%es
Some examples of the most common schemes can be found below:
-c,e%es )ccess
file a file on your local PC
&-
ftp a file on an FTP server
http a file on a World Wide Web Server
gopher a file on a Gopher server
news a Usenet newsgroup
telnet a Telnet connection
WAIS a file on a WAIS server
)ccessin& a 7e5s&"o$0
The following HTML code:
<a href="news:alt.html">HTML Newsgroup</a>
creates a link to a newsgroup like this HTML Newsgroup.
=o5nloa#in& 5it, 'TP
The following HTML code:
<a href="ftp://www.w3schools.com/ftp/winzip.exe">Download WinZip</a>
creates a link to download a file like this: Download WinZip.
(The link doesn't work. Don't try it. It is just an example. W3Schools doesn't really have an ftp
directory.)
Lin( to +o$" Mail s+ste%
The following HTML code:
<a href="mailto:someone@w3schools.com">someone@w3schools.com</a>
creates a link to your own mail system like this:
someone@w3schools.com
HTML -c"i0ts
)## sc"i0ts to HTML 0a&es to %a(e t,e% %o"e #+na%ic an# inte"acti*e.
E6a%0les
Insert a script
This example demonstrates how to insert a script into your HTML document.
&.
Work with browsers that do not support scripts
This example demonstrates how to handle browsers that do not support scripting.
!nse"t a -c"i0t into HTML Pa&e
A script in HTML is defined with the <script> tag. Note that you will have to use the type attribute
to specify the scripting language.
<html>
<head>
</head>
<body>
<s#ript type$%text/Ha<as#ript%>
do#&ment.writeI%3ello )orld!%J
</s#ript>
</body>
</html>
The script above will produce this output:
Hello World!
7ote3 To learn more about scripting in HTML, visit our JavaScript School.
Ho5 to Han#le Ol#e" B"o5se"s
A browser that does not recognize the <script> tag at all, will display the <script> tag's content as
text on the page. To prevent the browser from doing this, you should hide the script in comment
tags. An old browser (that does not recognize the <script> tag) will ignore the comment and it will
not write the tag's content on the page, while a new browser will understand that the script should
be executed, even if it is surrounded by comment tags.
E6a%0le
Ba*a-c"i0t3
<script type="text/javascript">
<!--
document.write("Hello World!")
//-->
</script>
AB-c"i0t3
<script type="text/vbscript">
<!--
document.write("Hello World!")
'-->
</script>
T,e :nosc"i0t; Ta&
In addition to hiding the script inside a comment, you can also add a <noscript> tag.
&/
The <noscript> tag is used to define an alternate text if a script is NOT executed. This tag is used
for browsers that recognize the <script> tag, but does not support the script inside, so this browser
will display the text inside the <noscript> tag instead. However, if a browser supports the script
inside the <script> tag it will ignore the <noscript> tag.
E6a%0le
Ba*a-c"i0t3
<script type="text/javascript">
<!--
document.write("Hello World!")
//-->
</script>
<noscript>Your browser does not support JavaScript!</noscript>
AB-c"i0t3
<script type="text/vbscript">
<!--
document.write("Hello World!")
'-->
</script>
<noscript>Your browser does not support VBScript!</noscript>
-c"i0t Ta&s
Ta& =esc"i0tion
<script> Defines a script
<noscript> Defines an alternate text if the script is not executed
<object> Defines an embedded object
<param> Defines run-time settings (parameters) for an object
<applet> Deprecated. Use <object> instead
/ea#+ to P$blis, >o$" o"(4
>o$" 'i"st -te03 ) Pe"sonal eb -e"*e"
If you want other people to view your pages, you must publish them.
To publish your work, you have to copy your files to a web server.
Your own PC can act as a web server if it is connected to a network.
If you are running Windows 98, you can use the PWS (Personal Web Server).
PWS is hiding in the PWS folder in your Windows CD.
Pe"sonal eb -e"*e" CP-D
PWS turns any Windows computer into a Web server. PWS is easy to install and ideal for developing
and testing Web applications. PWS has been optimized for workstation use, but has all the
requirements of a full Web server. It also runs Active Server Pages (ASP) just like its larger brother
IIS.
*0
Ho5 to !nstall a Pe"sonal eb -e"*e" CP-D3
Browse your Windows installation to see if you have installed PWS.
If not, install PWS from the PWS directory on your Windows CD.
Follow the instructions and get your Personal Web Server up and running.
Read more about Microsoft's Personal Web Server.
!nte"net !nfo"%ation -e"*e" C!!-D
Windows 2000's built-in Web server IIS, makes it easy to build large applications for the Web. Both
PWS and IIS include ASP, a server-side scripting standard that can be used to create dynamic and
interactive Web applications. IIS is also available for Windows NT.
If you want to read more about ASP, you should study our ASP School.
Read more about Microsoft's Internet Information Services.
>o$" 7e6t -te03 ) P"ofessional eb -e"*e"
If you do not want to use PWS or IIS, you must upload your files to a public server.
Most Internet Service Providers (ISP's) will offer to host your web pages.
If your employer has an Internet Server, you can ask him to host your Web site.
If you are really serious about this, you should install your own Internet Server.
Before you select an ISP, make sure you read W3Schools Web Hosting Tutorial !!
*(
HTML REFERENCES
HTML 4.02 1$ic( List
HTML 1$ic( List f"o% 3-c,ools. P"int it, fol# it, an# 0$t it in +o$" 0oc(et.
HTML Basic =oc$%ent
<html>
<head>
<title>Document name goes here</title>
</head>
<body>
Visible text goes here
</body>
</html>
Hea#in& Ele%ents
<h1>Largest Heading</h1>
<h2> . . . </h2>
<h3> . . . </h3>
<h4> . . . </h4>
<h5> . . . </h5>
<h6>Smallest Heading</h6>
Te6t Ele%ents
<p>This is a paragraph</p>
<br> (line break)
<hr> (horizontal rule)
<pre>This text is preformatted</pre>
Lo&ical -t+les
<em>This text is emphasized</em>
<strong>This text is strong</strong>
<code>This is some computer code</code>
P,+sical -t+les
<b>This text is bold</b>
<i>This text is italic</i>
Lin(s, )nc,o"s, an# !%a&e Ele%ents
*)
<a href="http://www.w3schools.com/">This is a Link</a>
<a href="http://www.w3schools.com/"><img src="URL" alt="Alternate Text"></a>
<a href="mailto:someone@microsoft.com">Send e-mail</a>
A named anchor:
<a name="tips">Useful Tips Section</a>
<a href="#tips">Jump to the Useful Tips Section</a>
.no"#e"e# list
<ul>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Next item</li>
</ul>
O"#e"e# list
<ol>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Next item</li>
</ol>
=efinition list
<dl>
<dt>First term</dt>
<dd>Definition</dd>
<dt>Next term</dt>
<dd>Definition</dd>
</dl>
Tables
<table border="1">
<tr>
<th>someheader</th>
<th>someheader</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>sometext</td>
<td>sometext</td>
</tr>
</table>
'"a%es
<frameset cols="25%,75%">
<frame src="page1.htm">
<frame src="page2.htm">
</frameset>
'o"%s
<form action="http://www.somewhere.com/somepage.asp" method="post/get">
*&
<input type="text" name="lastname" value="Nixon" size="30" maxlength="50">
<input type="password">
<input type="checkbox" checked="checked">
<input type="radio" checked="checked">
<input type="submit">
<input type="reset">
<input type="hidden">
<select>
<option>Apples
<option selected>Bananas
<option>Cherries
</select>
<textarea name="Comment" rows="60" cols="20"></textarea>
</form>
Entities
&lt; is the same as <
&gt; is the same as >
&#169; is the same as
Ot,e" Ele%ents
<!-- This is a comment -->
<blockquote>
Text quoted from some source.
</blockquote>
<address>
Address 1<br>
Address 2<br>
City<br>
</address>
Ta& list is O"#e"e# )l0,abeticall+
See also: Ordered by Function
77: indicates the earliest version of Netscape that supports the tag
!E: indicates the earliest version of Internet Explorer that supports the tag
Ta& =esc"i0tion 77 !E
<!--...--> Defines a comment 3.0 3.0
<!DOCTYPE> Defines the document type
<a> Defines an anchor 3.0 3.0
<abbr> Defines an abbreviation 6.2
<acronym> Defines an acronym 6.2 4.0
<address> Defines an address element 4.0 4.0
<applet> Deprecated. Defines an applet 2.0 3.0
**
<area> Defines an area inside an image map 3.0 3.0
<b> Defines bold text 3.0 3.0
<base> Defines a base URL for all the links in a page 3.0 3.0
<basefont> Deprecated. Defines a base font 3.0 3.0
<bdo> Defines the direction of text display 6.2 5.0
<big> Defines big text 3.0 3.0
<blockquote> Defines a long quotation 3.0 3.0
<body> Defines the body element 3.0 3.0
<br> Inserts a single line break 3.0 3.0
<button> Defines a push button 6.2 4.0
<caption> Defines a table caption 3.0 3.0
<center> Deprecated. Defines centered text 3.0 3.0
<cite> Defines a citation 3.0 3.0
<code> Defines computer code text 3.0 3.0
<col> Defines attributes for table columns 3.0
<colgroup> Defines groups of table columns 3.0
<dd> Defines a definition description 3.0 3.0
<del> Defines deleted text 6.2 4.0
<dir> Deprecated. Defines a directory list 3.0 3.0
<div> Defines a section in a document 3.0 3.0
<dfn> Defines a definition term 3.0
<dl> Defines a definition list 3.0 3.0
<dt> Defines a definition term 3.0 3.0
<em> Defines emphasized text 3.0 3.0
<fieldset> Defines a fieldset 6.2 4.0
<font> Deprecated. Defines the font face, size, and color of text 3.0 3.0
<form> Defines a form 3.0 3.0
<frame> Defines a sub window (a frame) 3.0 3.0
<frameset> Defines a set of frames 3.0 3.0
<h1> to <h6> Defines header 1 to header 6 3.0 3.0
<head> Defines information about the document 3.0 3.0
<hr> Defines a horizontal rule 3.0 3.0
<html> Defines an html document 3.0 3.0
<i> Defines italic text 3.0 3.0
<iframe> Defines an inline sub window (frame) 6.0 4.0
<img> Defines an image 3.0 3.0
<input> Defines an input field 3.0 3.0
<ins> Defines inserted text 6.2 4.0
<isindex> Deprecated. Defines a single-line input field. Use <input> instead 3.0 3.0
<kbd> Defines keyboard text 3.0 3.0
<label> Defines a label for a form control 6.2 4.0
<legend> Defines a title in a fieldset 6.2 4.0
*+
<li> Defines a list item 3.0 3.0
<link> Defines a resource reference 4.0 3.0
<map> Defines an image map 3.0 3.0
<menu> Deprecated. Defines a menu list 3.0 3.0
<meta> Defines meta information 3.0 3.0
<noframes> Defines a noframe section 3.0 3.0
<noscript> Defines a noscript section 3.0 3.0
<object> Defines an embedded object 3.0
<ol> Defines an ordered list 3.0 3.0
<optgroup> Defines an option group 6.0 6.0
<option> Defines an option in a drop-down list 3.0 3.0
<p> Defines a paragraph 3.0 3.0
<param> Defines a parameter for an object 3.0 3.0
<pre> Defines preformatted text 3.0 3.0
<q> Defines a short quotation 6.2
<s> Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text 3.0 3.0
<samp> Defines sample computer code 3.0 3.0
<script> Defines a script 3.0 3.0
<select> Defines a selectable list 3.0 3.0
<small> Defines small text 3.0 3.0
<span> Defines a section in a document 4.0 3.0
<strike> Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text 3.0 3.0
<strong> Defines strong text 3.0 3.0
<style> Defines a style definition 4.0 3.0
<sub> Defines subscripted text 3.0 3.0
<sup> Defines superscripted text 3.0 3.0
<table> Defines a table 3.0 3.0
<tbody> Defines a table body 4.0
<td> Defines a table cell 3.0 3.0
<textarea> Defines a text area 3.0 3.0
<tfoot> Defines a table footer 4.0
<th> Defines a table header 3.0 3.0
<thead> Defines a table header 4.0
<title> Defines the document title 3.0 3.0
<tr> Defines a table row 3.0 3.0
<tt> Defines teletype text 3.0 3.0
<u> Deprecated. Defines underlined text 3.0 3.0
<ul> Defines an unordered list 3.0 3.0
<var> Defines a variable 3.0 3.0
<xmp> Deprecated. Defines preformatted text. Use <pre> instead 3.0 3.0
*,
HTML 4.0 -tan#a"# )tt"ib$tes
HTML tags can have attributes. The special attributes for each tag are listed under each tag
description. The attributes listed here are the core and language attributes that are standard for all
tags (with a few exceptions):
Co"e )tt"ib$tes
Not valid in base, head, html, meta, param, script, style, and title elements.
)tt"ib$te Aal$e =esc"i0tion
class class$rule or style$rule The class of the element
id id$name A unique id for the element
style style$definition An inline style definition
title tooltip$te%t A text to display in a tool tip
Lan&$a&e )tt"ib$tes
Not valid in base, br, frame, frameset, hr, iframe, param, and script elements.
)tt"ib$te Aal$e =esc"i0tion
dir ltr | rtl Sets the text direction
lang language$code Sets the language code
Je+boa"# )tt"ib$tes
)tt"ib$te Aal$e =esc"i0tion
accesskey character Sets a keyboard shortcut to access an
element
tabindex number Sets the tab order of an element
HTML 4.0 E*ent )tt"ib$tes
New to HTML 4.0 is the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser, like starting a
JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. Below is a list of attributes that can be inserted
into HTML tags to define event actions.
If you want to learn more about programming with these events, you should study our JavaScript
tutorial and our DHTML tutorial.
in#o5 E*ents
*-
Only valid in body and frameset elements.
)tt"ib$te Aal$e =esc"i0tion
onload script Script to be run when a document loads
onunload script Script to be run when a document unloads
'o"% Ele%ent E*ents
Only valid in form elements.
)tt"ib$te Aal$e =esc"i0tion
onchange script Script to be run when the element changes
onsubmit script Script to be run when the form is submitted
onreset script Script to be run when the form is reset
onselect script Script to be run when the element is selected
onblur script Script to be run when the element loses focus
onfocus script Script to be run when the element gets focus
Je+boa"# E*ents
Not valid in base, bdo, br, frame, frameset, head, html, iframe, meta, param, script, style, and title
elements.
)tt"ib$te Aal$e =esc"i0tion
onkeydown script What to do when key is pressed
onkeypress script What to do when key is pressed and released
onkeyup script What to do when key is released
Mo$se E*ents
Not valid in base, bdo, br, frame, frameset, head, html, iframe, meta, param, script, style, title
elements.
)tt"ib$te Aal$e =esc"i0tion
onclick script What to do on a mouse click
ondblclick script What to do on a mouse double-click
onmousedown script What to do when mouse button is pressed
onmousemove script What to do when mouse pointer moves
onmouseout script What to do when mouse pointer moves out of an element
onmouseover script What to do when mouse pointer moves over an element
onmouseup script What to do when mouse button is released
HTML 7-B!T )-C!! /efe"ence
*.
HTML $ses stan#a"# 7-B!T )-C!! 5,en t"ans%ittin& #ata o*e" t,e eb.
7-B!T )-C!! "e0"esents 228 #iffe"ent c,a"acte" *al$es C0-227D.
7-B!T P"intable )-C!! C,a"acte"s
/es$lt =esc"i0tion Entit+ 7$%be"
space &#32;
! exclamation mark &#33;
" quotation mark &#34;
# number sign &#35;
$ dollar sign &#36;
% percent sign &#37;
& ampersand &#38;
' apostrophe &#39;
( left parenthesis &#40;
) right parenthesis &#41;
* asterisk &#42;
+ plus sign &#43;
, comma &#44;
- hyphen &#45;
. period &#46;
/ slash &#47;
0 digit 0 &#48;
1 digit 1 &#49;
2 digit 2 &#50;
3 digit 3 &#51;
4 digit 4 &#52;
5 digit 5 &#53;
6 digit 6 &#54;
7 digit 7 &#55;
8 digit 8 &#56;
9 digit 9 &#57;
: colon &#58;
; semicolon &#59;
< less-than &#60;
= equals-to &#61;
> greater-than &#62;
? question mark &#63;
@ at sign &#64;
A uppercase A &#65;
B uppercase B &#66;
*/
C uppercase C &#67;
D uppercase D &#68;
E uppercase E &#69;
F uppercase F &#70;
G uppercase G &#71;
H uppercase H &#72;
I uppercase I &#73;
J uppercase J &#74;
K uppercase K &#75;
L uppercase L &#76;
M uppercase M &#77;
N uppercase N &#78;
O uppercase O &#79;
P uppercase P &#80;
Q uppercase Q &#81;
R uppercase R &#82;
S uppercase S &#83;
T uppercase T &#84;
U uppercase U &#85;
V uppercase V &#86;
W uppercase W &#87;
X uppercase X &#88;
Y uppercase Y &#89;
Z uppercase Z &#90;
[ left square bracket &#91;
\ backslash &#92;
] right square bracket &#93;
^ caret &#94;
_ underscore &#95;
` grave accent &#96;
a lowercase a &#97;
b lowercase b &#98;
c lowercase c &#99;
d lowercase d &#100;
e lowercase e &#101;
f lowercase f &#102;
g lowercase g &#103;
h lowercase h &#104;
i lowercase i &#105;
j lowercase j &#106;
k lowercase k &#107;
l lowercase l &#108;
+0
m lowercase m &#109;
n lowercase n &#110;
o lowercase o &#111;
p lowercase p &#112;
q lowercase q &#113;
r lowercase r &#114;
s lowercase s &#115;
t lowercase t &#116;
u lowercase u &#117;
v lowercase v &#118;
w lowercase w &#119;
x lowercase x &#120;
y lowercase y &#121;
z lowercase z &#122;
{ left curly brace &#123;
| vertical bar &#124;
} right curly brace &#125;
~ tilde &#126;
7-B!T )-C!! =e*ice Cont"ol C,a"acte"s
ASCII device control characters were originally designed to control hardware devices like printers
and tape drives. These characters have nothing to do inside any HTML document.
/es$lt =esc"i0tion Entit+ 7$%be"
NUL null character &#00;
SOH start of header &#01;
STX start of text &#02;
ETX end of text &#03;
EOT end of transmission &#04;
ENQ enquiry &#05;
ACK acknowledge &#06;
BEL bell (ring) &#07;
BS backspace &#08;
HT horizontal tab &#09;
LF line feed &#10;
VT vertical tab &#11;
FF form feed &#12;
CR carriage return &#13;
SO shift out &#14;
SI shift in &#15;
DLE data link escape &#16;
DC1 device control 1 &#17;
+(
DC2 device control 2 &#18;
DC3 device control 3 &#19;
DC4 device control 4 &#20;
NAK negative acknowledge &#21;
SYN synchronize &#22;
ETB end transmission block &#23;
CAN cancel &#24;
EM end of medium &#25;
SUB substitute &#26;
ESC escape &#27;
FS file separator &#28;
GS group separator &#29;
RS record separator &#30;
US unit separator &#31;
DEL delete (rubout) &#127;
HTTP -tat$s Messa&es
,en a b"o5se" "e8$ests a se"*ice f"o% a 5eb se"*e", an e""o" %i&,t occ$".
T,is is a list of HTTP stat$s %essa&es t,at %i&,t be "et$"ne#3
2663 !nfo"%ation
Messa&e3 =esc"i0tion3
100 Continue Only a part of the request has been received by the server,
but as long as it has not been rejected, the client should
continue with the request
101 Switching Protocols The server switches protocol
2663 -$ccessf$l
Messa&e3 =esc"i0tion3
200 OK The request is OK
201 Created The request is complete, and a new resource is created
202 Accepted The request is accepted for processing, but the processing
is not complete
203 Non-authoritative Information
204 No Content
205 Reset Content
206 Partial Content
+)
3663 /e#i"ection
Messa&e3 =esc"i0tion3
300 Multiple Choices A link list. The user can select a link and go to that location.
Maximum five addresses
301 Moved Permanently The requested page has moved to a new url
302 Found The requested page has moved temporarily to a new url
303 See Other The requested page can be found under a different url
304 Not Modified
305 Use Proxy
306 Unused This code was used in a previous version. It is no longer
used, but the code is reserved
307 Temporary Redirect The requested page has moved temporarily to a new url
4663 Client E""o"
Messa&e3 =esc"i0tion3
400 Bad Request The server did not understand the request
401 Unauthorized The requested page needs a username and a password
402 Payment Required &ou can not use this code yet
403 Forbidden Access is forbidden to the requested page
404 Not Found The server can not find the requested page
405 Method Not Allowed The method specified in the request is not allowed
406 Not Acceptable The server can only generate a response that is not
accepted by the client
407 Proxy Authentication Required You must authenticate with a proxy server before this
request can be served
408 Request Timeout The request took longer than the server was prepared to
wait
409 Conflict The request could not be completed because of a conflict
410 Gone The requested page is no longer available
411 Length Required The "Content-Length" is not defined. The server will not
accept the request without it
412 Precondition Failed The precondition given in the request evaluated to false by
the server
413 Request Entity Too Large The server will not accept the request, because the request
entity is too large
414 Request-url Too Long The server will not accept the request, because the url is
too long. Occurs when you convert a "post" request to a
"get" request with a long query information
415 Unsupported Media Type The server will not accept the request, because the media
+&
type is not supported
416
417 Expectation Failed
K663 -e"*e" E""o"
Messa&e3 =esc"i0tion3
500 Internal Server Error The request was not completed. The server met an
unexpected condition
501 Not Implemented The request was not completed. The server did not support
the functionality required
502 Bad Gateway The request was not completed. The server received an
invalid response from the upstream server
503 Service Unavailable The request was not completed. The server is temporarily
overloading or down
504 Gateway Timeout The gateway has timed out
505 HTTP Version Not Supported The server does not support the "http protocol" version
+*
HTML 4.02 1$ic( List
HTML 1$ic( List f"o% 3-c,ools. P"int it, fol# it, an# 0$t it in +o$" 0oc(et.
HTML Basic =oc$%ent
<html>
<head>
<title>Document name goes here</title>
</head>
<body>
Visible text goes here
</body>
</html>
Hea#in& Ele%ents
<h1>Largest Heading</h1>
<h2> . . . </h2>
<h3> . . . </h3>
<h4> . . . </h4>
<h5> . . . </h5>
<h6>Smallest Heading</h6>
Te6t Ele%ents
<p>This is a paragraph</p>
<br> (line break)
<hr> (horizontal rule)
<pre>This text is preformatted</pre>
Lo&ical -t+les
<em>This text is emphasized</em>
<strong>This text is strong</strong>
<code>This is some computer code</code>
P,+sical -t+les
<b>This text is bold</b>
<i>This text is italic</i>
Lin(s, )nc,o"s, an# !%a&e Ele%ents
++
<a href="http://www.w3schools.com/">This is a Link</a>
<a href="http://www.w3schools.com/"><img src="URL" alt="Alternate Text"></a>
<a href="mailto:someone@microsoft.com">Send e-mail</a>
A named anchor:
<a name="tips">Useful Tips Section</a>
<a href="#tips">Jump to the Useful Tips Section</a>
.no"#e"e# list
<ul>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Next item</li>
</ul>
O"#e"e# list
<ol>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Next item</li>
</ol>
=efinition list
<dl>
<dt>First term</dt>
<dd>Definition</dd>
<dt>Next term</dt>
<dd>Definition</dd>
</dl>
Tables
<table border="1">
<tr>
<th>someheader</th>
<th>someheader</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>sometext</td>
<td>sometext</td>
</tr>
</table>
'"a%es
<frameset cols="25%,75%">
<frame src="page1.htm">
<frame src="page2.htm">
</frameset>
'o"%s
<form action="http://www.somewhere.com/somepage.asp" method="post/get">
+,
<input type="text" name="lastname" value="Nixon" size="30" maxlength="50">
<input type="password">
<input type="checkbox" checked="checked">
<input type="radio" checked="checked">
<input type="submit">
<input type="reset">
<input type="hidden">
<select>
<option>Apples
<option selected>Bananas
<option>Cherries
</select>
<textarea name="Comment" rows="60" cols="20"></textarea>
</form>
Entities
&lt; is the same as <
&gt; is the same as >
&#169; is the same as
Ot,e" Ele%ents
<!-- This is a comment -->
<blockquote>
Text quoted from some source.
</blockquote>
<address>
Address 1<br>
Address 2<br>
City<br>
</address>
-o$"ce 3 ,tt0399555.53sc,ools.co%9,t%l9,t%lL8$ic(.as0
TH1 1ND.
+-