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1 Introduction: The Twin Mysteries of Mass.......................................

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The Quality of Inertia..................................................
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Straight-Line Motion............................................
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Forces in Combination...........................................
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The Independence of the Effects of Perpendicular Forces on Strai
ght-Line Motion.................................................................
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Inertial Frames of Reference and Relative Motion................
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The Attraction of Masses................................................
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The Force of Gravity: Falling...................................
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The Attractive Force of Gravity.................................
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Gravity and Distance............................................
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Newton?s Universal Law of Gravitation...........................
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Gravitational Acceleration......................................
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Gravitation and the Laws of Motion..............................
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Gravity, Inertia, and Curvilinear Motion in Space.......................
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Reference...............................................................
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2 Galileo's Great Discovery: How Things Fall....................................
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The Distance a Thing Falls..............................................
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The Meaning of Constant Acceleration....................................
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Graphing Velocity and Time in Uniformly Accelerated Motion......
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If Galileo Only Knew Calculus: A Quick Look at Instantaneous Vel
ocity...........................................................................
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Using Limits to Find the Acceleration of a Freely-Falling Body..
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A Summary of Galilean Equations.........................................
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Notes on Using the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy to D
erive the Galilean Distance Equation............................................
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Reference...............................................................
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3 Christian Huygens' Remarkable Pendulum........................................
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Of Planes and Pendulums: A Historical Sketch............................
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How Gravitational Acceleration Was Measured with a Pendulum.............
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Determining How Far a Body Falls in One Second from the Length o
f a Pendulum....................................................................
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Deriving an Equation for the (Approximate) Period of a Pendulum.........
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The Pendulum?s Satisfying Coincidence with Circular Motion..............
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References..............................................................
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4 The Geometry of the Solar System: Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion...........
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The Basic Geometry of the Ellipse.......................................
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Determining the Eccentricity of the Moon?s Orbit................
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Deriving Kepler?s Law of Areas..................................
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Determining the Semi-major Axis of the Asteroid Ceres...........
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How Conic Sections May Be Generated by One Equation.............
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Graphing the Orbit of Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 Using Rectang
ular Coordinates................................................................
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References..............................................................
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5 How the Moon Falls Toward the Earth (but Keeps Missing It)....................
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The Facts of Inertia: Newton?s First Law................................
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What Is Centripetal Acceleration........................................
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Comparing Centripetal Accelerations in Different Orbits.................
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Proving Principia?s Proposition IV: The Proportionality of Centr
ipetal Forces in Circular Orbits................................................
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Determining if Newton?s Centripetal Acceleration for Circular Orbits Is
Consistent with the Galileo?s Distance-Time Squared Rule for Falling Bodies....1
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Deriving Galileo?s Equation Geometrically from Newton?s Equation for Cen
tripetal Acceleration..........................................................1
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Reflections Upon Centripetal Acceleration...............................
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Inertial (?Centrifugal?) Force..........................................
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A Useful Notation for Circular Motion...................................
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References..............................................................
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6 Newton's Moon Test............................................................
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Summary of Newton?s Moon Test...........................................
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The First Part of the Test..............................................
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The Second Part of the Test.............................................
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The Third Part of the Test..............................................
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The Fourth Part of the Test.............................................
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Newton?s Demonstration that ?The Moon Gravitates Towards the Ear
th..............................................................................
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A Simple Confirmation of the Inverse Square Law Between Earth an
d Moon Using Modern Data........................................................
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A Geometric Approximation of the Moon?s Period (and Other Diversions)...
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A Pendulum in Space.....................................................
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References..............................................................
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7 Newton Demonstrates How an Inverse Square Law Could Explain Planetary Motions.
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Clearing the Mathematical Path to the Inverse Square Law................

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And Conversely..................................................
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Summary of Above Corollaries to Proposition IV..................
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A Small Lesson..................................................
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Of Circles and Ellipses.........................................
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Evidence from Distant Worlds: The Moons of Jupiter and Saturn Obey Keple
r?s Third Law, and Therefore the Inverse Square Law............................1
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The Motion of Jupiter?s Satellites as a Test for the Universalit
y of the Inverse Square Law.....................................................
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Finding the Keplerian Proportionality Constant in the Jovian Satellite S
ystem..........................................................................1
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Using a Modern Jovian Proportionality Constant to Find the Perio
dic Time of Jupiter?s Inner Satellite Amalthea..................................
...157
Applying the Proportionality Constant in Kepler?s Third Law for
the Earth?Moon System to Find the Distance to a Geosynchronous Satellite........
...159
References..............................................................
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8 Newton's Master Stroke: The Universal Law of Gravitation......................
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Working with Forces: Deriving the Inverse Square Law from Newton?s Secon
d Law..........................................................................1
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Constructing Newton?s Gravity Equation..................................
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Reflections upon the Equilibrium of Gravitational and Inertial (Centrifu
gal) Forces of a Mass in Orbit.................................................1
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Kepler?s Third Law as Modified by Newton................................
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Why, After Newton, It Became Evident that Kepler?s Proportions Are Not S
trictly Satisfied for Large Secondary Masses...................................1
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The Strict Proportionality of Kepler?s Third Law................
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The Deviation from Strict Keplerian Proportionality.............
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Comparing Periods with and Without the Secondary Mass...........
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Example: The Significant Consequences of Disregarding the Mass o
f Jupiter.......................................................................

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Reference...............................................................
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9 Gravity on This and Other Worlds..............................................
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How Planetary Radius and Density Affect g...............................
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All the Mass of a Body May Be Regarded as Concentrated in a Single Point
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The Earth Spins.........................................................
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Observed g and True g...................................................
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Newton?s Analysis of the Effect of the Earth?s Spin on Its Gravitational
Pull..........................................................................1
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The Earth Is Not a Perfect Sphere.......................................
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Finding the True Value of g at the Equator......................
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Using g to Derive Velocities in Circular Orbits.........................
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Using g to Derive Periods in Circular Orbits............................
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Comparing Velocities and Periods at Increasing Distances from Earth.....
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Calculating the Lunar g: Gravitational Acceleration on the Surface of th
e Moon.........................................................................2
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Calculating the Solar g: Gravitational Acceleration of the Sun..........
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References..............................................................
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10 A Binary System Close to Home: How the Moon and Earth Orbit Each Other.......
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Locating the Center of Mass.............................................
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Finding the Earth?Moon Barycenter...............................
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Deriving Equations for Velocities Around the Center of Mass in Circular
Binary Orbits..................................................................2
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Calculating the Orbital Velocities of the Earth and Moon Around
Their Center of Mass............................................................
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The Relations Between Masses, Accelerations and Period in Circular Binar

y Orbits.......................................................................2
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Reference...............................................................
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11 Using Kepler's Third Law to Find the Masses of Stars and Planets.............
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The Once Unknown Mass of Pluto..........................................
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Using Kepler?s Third Law to Find Mass...................................
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Ratios of Ratios, All Is Ratios: The Historical Use of Kepler?s Third La
w to Determine Mass by Proportions.............................................2
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How Newton Estimated Planetary Masses...................................
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Newton?s Calculation of the Mass of Jupiter.....................
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?Weighing? Jupiter the Modern Way.......................................
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Calculating the Combined Masses of Quaoar and Its Satellite Weyw
ot..............................................................................
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Manipulating Units to Simplify Equations................................
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Reducing Kepler?s Third Law to Its Simplest Form................
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Finding the Combined Masses of Sirius and Its Companion.........
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Determining the Individual Masses in the Double Star System Alph
a Centauri......................................................................
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What Is the Mass of Our Galaxy? (And Observations on Dark Matter).......
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References..............................................................
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12 Motion in Elliptical Orbits..................................................
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Velocity Along the Apsides of Elliptical Orbits.........................
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The Orbital Velocities of Earth Around the Sun..........................
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Comparing Circular and Elliptical Orbits................................
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Angular Velocity in Circular and Elliptical Orbits......................
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Gravitation and Elliptical Orbits.......................................


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The Orbital Velocities of Mars..........................................
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Kepler Revisited........................................................
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Finding the Velocity of an Artificial Satellite in Earth Orbit When Just
Its Perigee and Apogee Are Known..............................................2
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Deriving Apsidal Velocities in an Elliptical Orbit from the Laws of Cons
ervation of Energy and Momentum................................................2
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The Gaussian Constant in Celestial Mechanics............................
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Using the Gaussian Constant to Find Heliocentric Periods........
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Applying the Gaussian Constant to Find Heliocentric Orbital Velo
cities..........................................................................
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Simple Computation of Apsidal Velocities of Objects in Heliocent
ric Orbits......................................................................
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Exploring Sedna?s Orbit.........................................
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13 The Energy and Geometry of Orbits............................................
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The Total Energy in a Circular Orbit....................................
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The Total Energy in an Elliptical Orbit.................................
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Velocity Anywhere Along the Elliptical Orbit............................
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The Very Particular Parabolic Orbit and the Velocity of Escape..........
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Hyperbolic Trajectories.................................................
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Summary of Orbital Energy Relationships.................................
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Determining the Velocity of a Near Earth Asteroid Which Passed b
y Earth.........................................................................
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Newton, Halley and the Great Comet of 1680......................
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References..............................................................
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14 Introduction to Spaceflight..................................................

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Using a Hohmann Transfer to Achieve a Geostationary Orbit...............
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Designing an Orbit for a Lunar Mission..................................
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Planning a Mission to Mars..............................................
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Calculating the Velocity Needed for the Trip to Mars....................
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Using the Energy Equations to Define the Orbit to Mars..................
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Summary of Some Key Energy-Derived Equations....................
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Notes on the Apollo 11 Moon Mission.....................................
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Reference...............................................................
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15 Getting Oriented: The Sun, the Earth and the Ecliptic Plane..................
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Visualizing the Heliocentric Elements of an Elliptical Orbit............
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Schematic of Selected Elements of the Orbits of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn
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The Heliocentric Longitude of a Body....................................
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Summary of the Elements of the Heliocentric Orbit.......................
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Method for Determining Earth?s Heliocentric Longitude...................
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Finding the Earth?s Heliocentric Longitude at Close Encounter wi
th Asteroid 2010 TD54...........................................................
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Calculating the Mean Anomaly and Heliocentric Longitude of the Near Eart
h Asteroid 2010 TD54...........................................................3
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Graphing the Inner Orbit of Comet West C/1975 V1-A......................
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References..............................................................
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16 An Introduction to Kepler's Problem: Finding the True Anomaly of an Orbiting
Body.......................................................................349
The True Anomaly Is the Body?s Actual Position in Orbit.................
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The Limitations of Using Mean Daily Motion to Find Position in an Ellipt

ical Orbit.....................................................................3
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Kepler?s Auxiliary Circle: Determining the True Anomaly from the Eccentr
ic Anomaly.....................................................................3
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Kepler?s Equation: Finding the Eccentric Anomaly from the Mean Anomaly..
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Determining the Eccentric Anomaly of Near Earth Asteroid 2010 TD
54 at the Time of Its Closest Approach to Earth.................................
...353
Finding the True Anomaly of Near Earth Asteroid 2010 TD54 at the
Time of Its Closest Approach to Earth..........................................
...355
Asteroid 2007 WD5?s Passed by Mars: How Close Did It Come.......
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...359
References..............................................................
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17 What Causes the Tides........................................................
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Calculating the Differential Gravitational Forces Exerted by the Moon on
the Earth.....................................................................3
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Deriving a General Equation for Determining Tidal Forces................
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Visualizing Tidal Pull by Comparing Theoretical and Actual Orbital Veloc
ities at Opposite Points on Earth..............................................3
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Estimating the Lifting Force of the Moon................................
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References..............................................................
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18 Moons, Rings, and the Ripping Force of Tides.................................
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Deriving an Equation for the Roche Limit and Applying It to the Earth?Mo
on System......................................................................3
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Finding the Roche Limit for Saturn and Its Innermost Satellite Pan......
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Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9?s Fatal Encounter with Jupiter...................
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How Comet Lovejoy C/2011 W3 Barely Survived the Solar Furnace...........
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References..............................................................
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19 Hovering in Space: Those Mysterious Lagrangian Points........................
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Deriving Equations for Finding the L1 and L2 Points in the Earth?Sun Sys
tem............................................................................4
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Determining the Accelerations on a Satellite at the Sun?Earth L1 Point..

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Calculating the Heliocentric Orbital Velocities of a Spacecraft at the S
un?Earth L1 and L2 Points......................................................4
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Where the Fictional ?Counter-Earth? Would Be: The L3 Point in the Earth?
Sun System.....................................................................4
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Space Station Parking Spot for Lunar Exploration: Determining the L1 Poi
nt in the Earth?Moon System....................................................4
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The Equilateral L4 and L5 Lagrangian Points in the Earth?Moon System....
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References..............................................................
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Appendix: Solutions to Problems.................................................
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Index...........................................................................
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