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Cost of Equipment Delivered

Evaporators
Crystallizer
Pumps
Filter Press
Ejectors
Exchangers
Total

$
$
$
$
$
$
$

2,760,480.00
82,620.00
108,345.60
3,942.00
36,352.80
407,602.80
2,991,740.40

Capital Cost Factors


Equipment Delivered
Installation
Piping
Structural Foundations
Electrical
Instruments
Battery-Limits building and services
Site Preparation
Auxilaries
Field Expense
Engineering
Contractor's fees, overhead, profit
Contingency
Total Fixed Capital Investment

Factor Assumed
1
0.39
0.31
0.1
0.1
0.13
0.39
0.1
0.55
0.34
0.32
0.18
0.36
4.27

Cost
Percent Total
$ 2,991,740.40
23%
$ 1,166,778.76
9%
$
927,439.52
7%
$
299,174.04
2%
$
299,174.04
2%
$
388,926.25
3%
$ 1,166,778.76
9%
$
299,174.04
2%
$ 1,645,457.22
13%
$ 1,017,191.74
8%
$
957,356.93
7%
$
538,513.27
4%
$ 1,077,026.54
8%
$ 12,774,731.51
100%

Heat Transfer Calculations


Liquid Viscosity (cp)
Overall Heat transfer Coefficient Ullrich pg 142
Overall Heat transfer Coefficient fouling
Vapour Rate (lb/h)
Brine Rate (lb/h)

Evaporator #1
0.335
704.9
600
16266
38583

Evaporator #2
0.4057
616.8
525.0106398
15297.33333
22851.53667

CASE 1
Crystallizer
0.4685389
969.25
825.0106398
593.55
488.703

Thermodynamic Values
Heat capacity of Brine (Btu/lbF)
Heat capacity of Superheated Steam (Btu/lbF)
Latent Heat of Vapour (Btu/lb)
Heat Capacity of Steam Condensate (Btu/lbF)

0.8788
0.4717
913.1
1.025

0.9626
N/A
985.25
1.003

0.743035
0.4717
985.25
1.025

400
297.8
292.8
372.2
187.1
193.4

N/A
193.4
188.4
N/A
162.9
162.9

400
297.8
292.8
381
164.32
171.16

213612.5
688238.7
14852484.6
83363.3
15837699.0

N/A
N/A
15071697.7
76716.1
15148413.79

2483.8
25114.0
584795.1
3041.9
587837.0813

LMTD
Th1
Tc1
Th2
Tc2
Tm3
Th4
Tc4
LMTD1
LMTD2
MTD3
LMTD4

212.9
178.8
178.8
104.4
104.4
104.4
99.4
195.3542254
138.2801477
104.4
101.8795518

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
30.5
30.5
25.5
N/A
N/a
30.5
27.9254364

235.68
209.84
209.84
126.64
126.64
126.64
121.64
222.5099904
164.7534801
126.64
124.1232161

Area
A1
A2
A3
A4
Total Area

1.822437029
8.295221788
237.1086303
1.363755018
248.5900441

N/A
N/A
941.2266807
5.232612737
946.4592935

0.013530098
0.184765755
5.597231911
0.029705619
5.825233384

Temperatures
Superheated Vapour
Tsat Vapour
T sub-cooled Vapour
T vapour @ Brine Sat
Sub-cooled Brine
Tsat Brine
Duties
Q1 (heat steam to Tsat)
Q2 (For Steam De-superheating)
Q3 (Vapour Condensing)
Q4 (Steam Sub-cooling)
Total Duty (Btu/hr)

Callendria Sizing
Density of Liquid (lb/ft3)
Density of Vapour (lb/ft3)

Evaporator #1 Evaporator #2
60.96109
63.2
0.0258
0.01352

k - Constant (m/s)
k - (ft/s)
Allowable Vapour Velocity (ft/s)

0.1
0.32808399
15.94445306

0.1
0.32808399
22.42894125

Cross Sectional Area


Volumetric Flow Rate (ft^3/s)
Area
Diameter (ft)

169.1252
10.60714967
3.674975159

322.6067
14.38350105
4.279444161

Vessel Liquid Height


Residence Time (min)
Flowrate from Bottoms (ft^3/min)
Volume of Liquid
Liquid Height (ft)

5
6.247
31.235
2.944711913

5
1.8848
9.424
0.655195141

3.2808399
0.5

3.2808399
0.5

6.725551813

4.436035041

Disengaging Height
Demister Length (ft)
Height of Separator Section
Costing
Area (m^2)
Cp
Fma
Cpa
Delivery, Freight Tax (8%)
Cost of Delivered Equipment
Number of evaporators
Total Cost of Evaporators, Delivered

23.09476087
87.92890774
0.541181657
14000
57000
9000
9
9
9
126000
513000
81000
10080
41040
6480
$ 136,080.00 $ 554,040.00 $
87,480.00
4
4
$ 2,760,480.00

CASE 2
Crystallizer
0.4605492
969.25
825.0106398
531.833243
688.63909

CASE 5
Crystallizer
0.4685389
969.25
825.0106398
593.55
488.702569

0.7828
0.4717
985.25
1.025

0.743035
0.4717
985.25
1.025

400
297.8
292.8
381
163.98
168.24

400
297.8
292.8
381
164.32
171.16

2296.4
22502.7
523988.7
2725.6
526714.348

2483.762095
25113.98489
584795.1375
3041.94375
587837.0813

236.02
212.76
212.76
129.56
129.56
129.56
124.56
224.1889305
167.7349435
129.56
127.0436019

235.68
209.84
209.84
126.64
126.64
126.64
121.64
222.5099904
164.7534801
126.64
124.1232161

0.012415905
0.162611293
4.902204618
0.026005009
5.103236824

0.013530098
0.184765755
5.597231911
0.029705619
5.825233384

V k

L V
V

Perry's and Kirk-Othmer

0.474106011
0.541181657
8500
9000
9
9
76500
81000
6120
6480
$
82,620.00 $
87,480.00

Q
V

4 A

Centrifugal radial pumps were chosen because:


- they are typically less costly
- also require less maintenance and less space
Liquid:
Viscosity (cP)
Vapour Pressure (Psia)
Density (lb/ft^3)
Specific Gravity
Q Flow Rate (gpm)

Evaporator Recycle Water


0.392
5
63.197
1.01228576
59

Suction head
height of liquid (ft)
head of liquid height
Vessel Pressure (ft)
hfs (ft)
Suction Head

10
10.1228576
11.40982167
2.31
19.22267927

Discharge Head
Discharge Pressure (psia)
discharge head
vessel height (ft)
receiver vessel head (ft)
frictional losses (ft)
Discharge Head

13.5
30.80651851
13
13.15971488
2.31
46.27623339

Total Dynamic Head


Delta P
Fluid Power (hp)
Efficiency of pump
Shaft Power (hp)
Shaft Power (kW)

27.05355412
11.85537991
0.408090674
0.6
0.680151123
0.507188605

Costing
Cp
Fma
Fp
Cpa
Delivery, Freight Tax (8%)
Cost of Delivered Equipment

3000
3.3
1
9900
792
10,692.00

For 4 Recycle Pumps

42,768.00

Total Pump Costs

108,345.60

CASE 1
Distillate from Evap 1 to Evap 2 5 psia step-up pump
Product Charge Pump
0.325
0.411
0.365
10
5
10
60.961
61.05
60.73
0.976469646
0.977895243
0.972769502
59
93.62
189.8

$
$

Recycle Pump
0.468798
5
67.6432937
1.083506226
1.995

10
9.76469646
23.65664933
2.31
31.11134579

10
9.778952427
11.81108108
2.31
19.28003351

10
9.727695018
23.74663264
2.31
31.16432765

10
10.83506226
10.65983722
2.31
19.18489948

10
23.65664933
20
19.52939292
2.31
45.49604225

10
23.62216216
0
0
2.31
25.93216216

63.5
150.7911172
0
0
2.31
153.1011172

10
21.31967444
4.263934889
4.62
2.31
28.24967444

14.38469646
6.080614485
0.209309367
0.6
0.348848945
0.260136613

6.652128654
2.816054097
0.153815044
1.6
0.096134402
0.071687411

121.9367896
51.34908661
5.686147397
2.6
2.186979768
1.630830533

9.06477496
4.251835545
0.004948898
3.6
0.001374694
0.001025109

2300
3.3
1
7590
607.2
8,197.20 $
32,788.80

2000
3.3
1
6600
528
7,128.00 $

7200
3.3
1
23760
1900.8
25,660.80 $

1000
3.3
1
3300
264
3,564.00

CASE 1
Filter Press Pump
0.5962182
5
76.9288832
1.232242243
0.179

CASE 2
Recycle Pump
Filter Press Pump
0.4514054
1.063177
5
5
72.2548614
72.2548614
1.157374041
1.157374041
2.296
0.297

CASE 4
Disposal Pump
0.392
5
63.197
1.01228576
2.256

10
12.32242243
9.373156999
2.31
19.38557942

10
11.57374041
9.979487692
2.31
19.2432281

10
11.57374041
9.979487692
2.31
19.2432281

10
10.1228576
11.40982167
2.31
19.22267927

40.5
75.92257169
0
0
2.31
78.23257169

10
19.95897538
3.991795077
4.62
2.31
26.88897538

40.5
80.8338503
0
0
2.31
83.1438503

13.5
30.80651851
0
0
2.31
33.11651851

58.84699227
31.39123364
0.003278314
4.6
0.000712677
0.000531443

7.645747278
3.830731353
0.005131481
5.6
0.000916336
0.000683312

63.9006222
32.01598327
0.005547694
6.6
0.00084056
0.000626805

13.89383924
6.088543555
0.008013859
7.6
0.001054455
0.000786307

1000
3.3
1
3300
264
3,564.00 $

1000
3.3
1
3300
264
3,564.00 $

1000
3.3
1
3300
264
3,564.00 $

1000
3.3
1
3300
264
3,564.00

CASE 5
Recycle Pump
Disposal Pump
0.468798
0.5962182
5
5
67.6432937
76.9288832
1.083506226
1.232242243
1.995
0.179
0
0
0
0
10
10
10.83506226
12.32242243
s
SS
fs
10.65983722
9.373156999
Assume 1 lb pressure drop
2.31
2.31
19.18489948
19.38557942
0
0
0
0
10
13.5
21.31967444
75.92257169
d
sd
fd
4.263934889
0
4.62
0
2.31
2.31
28.24967444
78.23257169 at design flowrate
0
0
9.06477496
58.84699227
4.251835545
31.39123364
0.004948898
0.003278314
3.6
4.6
0.001374694
0.000712677
d
s
0.001025109
0.000531443
0
0
0
0
1000
1000 Ullrich pg 390
3.3
3.3
1
1
3300
3300
264
264
$
3,564.00 $
3,564.00

H h h

10 ft

10 ft

Recycle Pump

Filter Press Costs


CASE 1

CASE 2

qt (ft3/s)

3.99E-04

6.62E-04

qt (m3/s)

1.13E-05

1.87E-05

0.00075
0.0151

0.00075
0.0250

0.10

0.10

0.30

0.30

qt *A
A (m2)
Feed wt % solids
Assume 100% solid collection
Final wt % solids

Cp
Fma
Cpa
Delivery, Freight Tax (8%)
Cost of Delivered Equipment

500
500
7.3
7.3
3650
3650
292
292
$ 3,942.00 $ 3,942.00

Ulrich: qt from 5E-4*A to 1E-3*A, used middle value

Ulrich pg. 395

A to 1E-3*A, used middle value

mvapinTOT (lb/hr)

Ulrich Cost Estimation

rp

m i RT 1 p
M p1

ln

1863

p2
p1
97% Case

psteam (psi)

1 effect
4 trains
188.5

1/2 effects
4 trains
188.5

2/2 effects
4 trains
188.5

1/2 effects
4 trains
188.5

2/2 effects
4 trains
188.5

pvapin (psi)

10

10

pvapout (psi)

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

Tsteam (F)

440

440

440

440

440

157

188

157

188

157

0.0265

0.0531

0.0265

0.0531

0.0265

Compression Ratio (posteamout/povapin)

2.7

1.35

2.70

1.35

2.70

Area Ratio (from Perry's Fig. 10-102)


Entrainment Ratio (wb/wa)

30
0.6

45
2.2

32
0.64

45
2.20

32
0.64

corrected wb/wa

1.004

3.366

1.071412

3.365659

1.071412

mvapin (kg/s)
R (kJ/kmol.K)
Tvapin (K)
M (kg/kmol)
wfrp (kW)

0.0783
8.314
342
18.02
33.2

0.0548
8.314
360
18.02
3.7

0.0235
8.314
342
18.02
10.0

0.0548
8.314
360
18.02
3.7

0.0235
8.314
342
18.02
10.0

1050
3.3
3465
277.2
$ 3,742.20

1500
3.3
4950
396
$ 5,346.00

1050
3.3
3465
277.2
$ 3,742.20

1500
3.3
4950
396
$ 5,346.00

387

522

387

522

Tvapin (F)
Pressure Ratio (povapin/posteam)

Cp ($)
Fma
Cpa ($) = Cp * FBM
Delivery, Freight Tax (8%)
Cost of Delivered Equipment

2500
3.3
8250
660
8,910.00

msteamin (lb/hr)

1855

msteaminTOTAL (lb/hr)

1855

Total Ejector Cost

$ 36,352.80

909

909

Distillate Condenser
Evaporator
product
Subcooling(2)
Mass flow rate d (lb/hr)
Cp 2d (BTU/lb.F)
Td2 in (F)
Td2 in (C)
Td2 out (F)
Td2 out (C)
Q2d (BTU/hr)
Q2w (BTU/hr)
Mass flow rate w (lb/hr)
Cp 2w (BTU/lb.F)
Tw2 out (F)
Tw2 out (C)
Tw2 in (F)
Tw2 in (C)

Condensing (1)
Cp 1w (BTU/lb.F)
Tw1 in (F)
Tw1 in (C)
Tw1 out (F)
Tw1 out (C)
Q1w (BTU/hr)
Q1d (BTU/hr)
Total Duty (BTU/hr)

14796.3333
1.008
162.9
72.72
157.1
69.50
86513.8651

Crystallizer
Case 2
Case 5

Case 1

593.55
565.33
1.008
1.008
171.16
166.45
77.31
74.69
157.15
157.15
69.53
69.53
8384.6613 5300.56792

593.55
1.00830073
171.16
77.3111111
157.15
69.5277778
8384.66133

-86513.8651 -8384.6613 -5300.5679 -8384.6613


320000
12550
11200
12550
1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02
120
120
120
120
48.89
48.89
48.89 48.8888889
119.734945
119.345 119.536015
119.345
48.74
48.52
48.63 48.5249997

1.014
1.02
1.02
1.02
72
72
72
72
22.22
22.22
22.22 22.2222222
119.734945
119.345 119.536015
119.345
48.7416363
48.525 48.6311193 48.5249997
-15489035 -606063.34 -543051.43 -606063.34
15489035

606063.34 543051.432 606063.339

15575548.9

614448

548352

614448

u1 (BTU/sq.ft.k.hr)
u2 (BTU/sq.ft.k.hr)

380.4
285.3

380.4
285.3

380.4
285.3

380.4
285.3

MTD Correction Factor


R2
S2
FT2 (from graph)

21.88
0.01
0.98

21.39
0.01
1.00

20.04
0.01
1.00

21.39
0.01
1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

50.50
23.98
23.98
20.61

55.09
28.79
28.79
20.64

52.47
26.06
26.06
20.64

55.09
28.79
28.79
20.64

FT1 (constant)
Approach Temperature
Th1 (C)
Tc1 (C)
Th2 (C)
Tc2 (C)

Log Mean Temperature

Tlm1 (C)
Tlm2 (C)
A1 (ft2)
A2 (ft2)
Total Area (m2)
Cp ($)
Fma
Fp
Cpa
Delivery, Freight Tax (8%)
Number of exchangers
Cost of Delivered Equipment

35.61
22.25

40.52
24.49

37.74
23.25

40.52
24.49

1143.45
13.90
107.56

39.31
1.20
3.77

37.83
0.80
3.59

39.31
1.20
3.77

11000
2400
2300
2400
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.3
1
1
1
1
$ 80,300.0 $ 17,520.0 $ 16,790.0 $ 17,520.0
6,424.00
1,401.60
1,343.20
1,401.60
4
1
1
1
$ 346,896.0 $ 18,921.6 $ 18,133.2 $ 18,921.6

1.08
1.07

F
200
210
212
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360

Cp
BTU/lb.F
1.005
1.007
1.008
1.01
1.012
1.013
1.015
1.02
1.022
1.025
1.032
1.035
1.04
1.042
1.047
1.052
1.062
1.07

160 164.155
161.80
1.0081 1.008301 1.008178
119.8675 119.6725 119.768
1.009716 1.00974 1.009728
95.86747 119.345 119.536
1.013761 1.009779 1.009756

y = 2E-06x2 - 0.0006x + 1.0529

1.06
1.05
1.04
1.03
1.02
1.01
1
0

100

200

300

Series1
Poly. (Series1)

400

Cooler to Filter Press


Crystallizer
1.08

Cooler
Mass flow rate d (lb/hr)
Cp d (BTU/lb.F)
Td out (F)
Td out (C)
Td in (F)
Td in (C)
Qd (BTU/hr)

172.16
1.027
166.405
74.67
86
30.00
14215.955

Q2w (BTU/hr)
Mass flow rate w (lb/hr)
Cp w (BTU/lb.F)
Tw in (F)
Tw in (C)
Tw out (F)
Tw out (C)

-14215.955
2125
1.04
72
22.22
77
25.00

Total Duty (BTU/hr)


u (BTU/sq.ft.k.hr)

F
200
210
212
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360

14215.955
285.3

MTD Correction Factor


R2
S2
FT2 (from graph)

16.081
0.0529633
0.98

Approach Temperature
Th (C)
Tc (C)

5.00
52.45

Log Mean Temperature


Tlm (C)
20.187134

Area (ft2)

1.07

2.5186831

Cp ($)
2000
Fma
7.3
Fp
1
Cpa
$ 14,600.0
Delivery, Freight Tax (8%) 1,168.00
Number of exchangers
1
Cost of Delivered Equipment
$ 15,768.0

52.33
1.026977
23.61
1.039848

Cp
BTU/lb.F
1.005
1.007
1.008
1.01
1.012
1.013
1.015
1.02
1.022
1.025
1.032
1.035
1.04
1.042
1.047
1.052
1.062
1.07

1.06
1.05
1.04
1.03
1.02
1.01
1
0

1.08
1.07

y = 2E-06x2 - 0.0006x + 1.0529

1.06
1.05
Series1

1.04

Poly. (Series1)

1.03
1.02
1.01
1
0

100

200

300

400

Non-Condensable Condenser
Evaporator
Subcooling(2)
Mass flow rate d (lb/hr)
Cp 2d (BTU/lb.F)
Td2 in (F)
Td2 in (C)
Td2 out (F)
Td2 out (C)
Q2d (BTU/hr)

1863
1.015
212.69
100.38
207.69
97.61
9456.081937

Q2w (BTU/hr)
Mass flow rate w (lb/hr)
Cp 2w (BTU/lb.F)
Tw2 out (F)
Tw2 out (C)
Tw2 in (F)
Tw2 in (C)

-9456.081937
40000
1.02
120
48.89
119.7682333
48.76

Condensing (1)
Cp 1w (BTU/lb.F)
Tw1 out (F)
Tw1 out (C)
Tw1 in (F)
Tw1 in (C)
Q1w (BTU/hr)

1.013
118.96
48.31
73.69385056
23.16325031
-1834184.375

Q1d (BTU/hr)

1834184.375

Superheated
Mass flow rate d (lb/hr)
Cp 2d (BTU/lb.F)
Td in (F)
Td in (C)
Td out (F)
Td out (C)
Qd (BTU/hr)

1863
0.456
294.04
145.58
212.69
100.38
69109.1028

Qw (BTU/hr)
Mass flow rate w (lb/hr)
Cp w (BTU/lb.F)
Tw in (F)
Tw in (C)
Tw out (F)
Tw out (C)

-69109.1028
40000
1.02
72
22.22
73.69385056
23.16

Total Duty (BTU/hr)

1912749.56

210.19
1.015146
96.32693
1.013662

u (BTU/sq.ft.k.hr)
u1 (BTU/sq.ft.k.hr)
u2 (BTU/sq.ft.k.hr)

42.00
380.4
285.3

MTD Correction Factor


R2
S2
FT2 (from graph)

21.57341713
0.002494213
0.999

FT1 (constant)

R
S
FT (from graph)

48.02666893
0.007628583
0.999

Approach Temperature
Th (C)
Tc (C)
Th1 (C)
Tc1 (C)
Th2 (C)
Tc2 (C)

123.36
77.22
77.22
52.07
52.07
48.72

Log Mean Temperature


Tlm1 (C)
Tlm1 (C)
Tlm2 (C)

98.49350573
63.82253487
50.37581957

A (ft2)
A1 (ft2)
A2 (ft2)
Total Area (m2)

16.72294958
75.54894986
0.658600175
8.636663534

Cp ($)
Fma
Fp
Cpa
Delivery, Freight Tax (8%)
Number of exchangers
Cost of Delivered Equipment

3400
7.3
1
24,820.0
1,985.60
1
26,805.6