You are on page 1of 20

826

INTRODUCTION
Chapter 90: STATE
827
no part of which can have a separate life. As
"occurs \vith life in the physical organism," he
'writes, "life is present in every cell" and
"separated from that life, every cell dies. This
is the same as the ideality of every single class,
power, and Corporation as soon as they have
the impulse to subsist and be independent. It
is with them as \vith the belly in the organism.
It, too, asserts its independence, but at the same
time its independence is set aside and it is sac'"
rificed and absorbed into the \vhole."
But the state is not merely a living organism.
"To the mature state," says Hegel, "thought
and consciousness essentially belong.... As high
as mind stands above nature, so high does the
state stand above physical life. Man must there-
fore venerate the state as the divine on earth,
and observe that if it is difficult to comprehend
nature, it is infinitely harder to understand the
state." In saying this Hegel seems to go beyond
analogy to the assertion of a definition. "The
march of God in the world, that is what the
state is," he declares. "The basis of the state is
the power of the reason actualizing itself as
vvili. In considering the Idea of the .state, we
must not have our eyes on particular states or
on particular institutions. Instead \ve must con-
sider the Idea, this actual God, by itself."
To those who oblect that the state is finite,
Hegel replies that ,,'to hold that mind on earth,
i.e., the state, is only a finite mind, is a one-
sided view, since there is nothing irrational
about actuality. Of course, a bad state is ,,,odd-
ly and finite and nothing else. But the rational
state is inherently infinite." As simply stated by
Hegel in the Introduction to his Philosophy of
History, "the State is the Divine idea as it exists
on Earth."
THE DIVERSE CONCEPTIONS of the state raise
major issues in political theory concerning the
origin of the state and the ends it serves, in
both of which is involved the problem of the
individual's relation to the state. That probleln
is touched on in the chapter on CITIZEN, and
wherever the problem of the common good or
the general welfare is discussed. Here the ques-
tion ,,,hether the state is made for man or man
for the state, whether the state subordinates
the individual in every phase of his life or only
in those matters wherein the public welfare
CHAPTER 90: STATE
d therefore he is like a part in relation to. the
hole."
The analogical conception of the state takes a
.tFerent turn \vith Hobbes. The state is a work
art, not a creation of nature. "Nature (the
t whereby God hath made and governs the
rld)," says Hobbes, "is by the Art of man, as
many other things, so in this also, imitated
tit can make an Artificial AnimaL" The
chines men make-"engines that move them-
yes by springs and wheels as doth a watch"-
m to Hobbes to "have an artificial life." But
rt goes yet further, imitating that Rational
d most excellent work of Nature, Man. For
Art is created that great Leviathan called a
mmonwealth or State (in Latin Civitas)
'ich is but an Artificial Man; though of
ater stature and strength than the Natural,
whose protection and defense it was in-
ded; and in which the Sovereignty is an
tificial Soul, as giving life and motion to the
ole body."
abbes also speaks of the multitude being
ited in one Person" as the "generation of
t great Leviathan, or rather (to speak more
erendy) of that Mortal God, to which we
under the Immortal God, our peace and
ence." It is both divine and human, for
at which is compounded of the powers of
st men, united by consent in one person,
ural or civil" is, according to Hobbes, "the
atest of human powers."
ousseau has a number of different names
"moral and collective body" formed by
of individuals. "This public per-
he says, "formerly took the name city,
takes that of Republic or body politic;
called by its members State when passive,
when active, and Power when com-
with others like itself." But Rousseau's
ary emphasis seems to be upon the per-
ality of the State; it is a corporate person,
th moral qualities and intellectual faculties.
refers repeatedly to the State "as a persona
" and as "a moral person whose life isin the
of its members."
of these comparisons or analogies recur
theory of the state. But for Hegel
are no longer metaphors, they are the
of a literal definition. "The state is an
" says HegeL It is the organic whole
him as an organic part. For Hobbes it
body politic-that Leviathan which
members. For Rousseau it is the corporate
son, having a general \vill more
the individual will-infallible, or
fallible. When to these images of the
added the highest
which the state becomes, according to
the image of God on earth or the em.bo<jIIDlent
of Absolute Spirit-the greatness of
cannot be magnified further.
THE PASSAGES IN WHICH these rn:nrl::>nt ......
appear are among the most famous
Ii cerature of the theory of the state.
Republic, Socrates proposes that "we
into the nature of justice and
they appear in the State and C'pr'r1>n,rl 1-.:,
individual, proceeding from the
lesser. and comparing them."
ture of the state has been examined
its constituent classes and their ..I.VJ.J.':>
relations to one another, Socrates
the individual. We may assume, he
"he has the same three principles in
soul which are found in the state";
other place he adds that "there
many. forms of the soul as there
forms of the State."
vVhereas Plato analogizes the social
the state with the parts of the soul,
compares the state in relation to the
with the body in relation to its
state is by nature clearly prior to the
and to the individual," Aristotle writes,
the whole is of necessity prior to the
example, if the whole body be rlo"f- ...no.... Tl=>ri
,vill be no foot or hand, except in an
sense.... The proof that the state is a
of nature and prior to the individual is
individual, when isolated, is not "a.1+_C'1'11"T1C"1
I
s gregarious in the. same. sense other
animals are? Is he, unhke other SOCIal ani-
mals, the only political animal? Does man pat-
tern the state after his o\vn nature, or does he,
in imitation of the angels, try to live up to
a "city in the skies"--a model of rationality
or a utopian illusion? fl.ccording to the way
such questions are answered, different theories
of the state develop in the tradition of western
thought.
But it is not only the view rnan takes of his
social nature which affects his view of society or
the state. His conception of the state is also
colored by his understanding of man's place in
nature and by his understanding of man's rela-
tion to God. On one view the state is ordered
to the service of man; on another, man is
thought to be a creature of the state, and the
state is made God; on still another, man-like
Antigone in Sophocles' play-seems to be torn
between serving the state and serving God.
If man adini ts anything to be his superior, he
acknowledges his inferiority only to God or to
the state. That the idea of God and the idea
of the state compete for maximum attention in
the tradition of western thought is a significant
and readily intelligible fact. That the\vord
"sovereign," which connotes absolutesupremacy,
has both political and religious significance
throws further Iight on this rivalry. It imme-
diately suggests all the issues of church and
state, of the spiritual and the temporal po,ver,
of the city of God and the city of man.
Even without the aura of divinity, the state,
in the conception of many writers, assumes by
comparison the individual man the pro-
portions of the greatest living thing on earth.
For Plato it is the counterpart of the human
soul, many times magnified. For Aristotle it is
like an organic whole to \vhich the individual
belongs, just as his own arm or leg belongs to
THE GREAT IDEl\S
CHAPTER 90: STATE
828
takes precedence over private interests, serves
critically to test the practical significance of
different theories of the state. Here also ques-
tions concerning the relation of the family to
the state-discussed from the point of view of
the domestic community in the chapter on
FAMILy-throw light on the nature and origin
of the political community.
The \vord "community" and its synonym
"society" seem to be more inclusive in mean-
ing than "state." The family and the state are
both communities-associations of individuals
for a common purpose and sharing in a common
life. The word "state" is customarily used only
for the developed political society-\vhether a
city-state, a feudal state, or a nation-state; the
word "society" usually covers the tribal com-
munity, the village, or any community \vhich
is politically primitive and has some of the
characteristics of a large family. In addition
there are \vithin the state, at least in its modern
formation, many organized groups vvhich de-
serve the name "society"-economic corpora-
tions and other associations, religious, educa-
tional, professional, recreational; and more com-
prehensive than any particular political com-
munity are the cities of God and man which,
in Augustine's conception of them, are not to
be identified with either the Church or the
State.
Wi th the rise of the science of sociology in
our time, the idea of society has come to be
regarded as more general than that of state. But
in the tradition of the great books, particularly
those of political theory, the state seems to be
considered the epitome of human society. All
other forms of association are, for the most
part, discussed only in their relation to the
state, either as the antecedents from which the
state develops, or as the subordinate organiza-
tions which it includes, or sometimes, as in the
case of the church, a distinct but coordinate
community.
The nature of society in general and the
problem of different types of social organiza-
tion and development are not treated in the
great books except in their bearing on the
family, the church, or the state-the three
communi ties which seem to be taken as repre-
sentative or basic. Hence there is no chapter on
society or community as such. What for lllodern
sociology is a unified subject matter here divid
. b es
Into anum. er of related yet distinct ideas...:.....
the domestic community being treated in th
chapter on FAMILY, the religious community
the chapter on RELIGION, the various forms
economic organization in the chapters on ItA.-
BOR and WEALTH. In this chapter, therefore
\ve confine the specificaU;
pohucal cOinmunlty, both In Itself and in rela-
tion to these other communi ties or social groups.
CONCEIVED IN POLITICAL terms, the problems
of the state \vould seem to be inseparable from
the problems of government. Yet the ideas
state and government may be separated to the
extent that one signifies the political commu-
nity as a whole and the other the organization
of its members according to relationships Of
ruler and ruled. Furthermore, the state ma
in one sense remain the same while in another
it changes with changes in its form of govern-
ment.
Some writers, like Aristotle and I-Iegel, tend
to identify state and government. Aristotle, for
example, says that "the sameness of the state
consists chiefly in the sameness of its constitu..
tion." Others, like Locke and Rousseau, seem
to regard government as part of the state, tne
chief institution of a civil society or political
community, but definitely a means for secur-
ing the ends for which the state is formed. For
I-,ocke government is primarily the legislative
power, for Rousseau it is "the supreme adluin..
istration, the legitimate exercise of the execu-
tive po\ver," but for both it is a representa-
tive body-an organ of the whole body politic.
Insofar as the great political theorists distin-
guish problems of the external relation of states
with one another from those which concern tne
internal organization of the state, and the
lation of the state to its own members, they a
tend to distinguish state from governme
Hegel's distinction between external and in
nal sovereignty, for example, conceives
whole community as a sovereign state in r
tion to other communities and the state as
sovereign governlnent in relation to its 0
members.
Such questions of sovereignty, or more ge
erally of the relation of states to one anoth
belong to this chapter as well as to the chap
on WAR AND PEACE; but the theory of govern-
ment is for the most part treated elsewhere-in
the chapters on GOVERNMENT and CONSTITU-
"I'IoN, and in all the chapters dealing with the
special forms of government. Still other prob-
lems of government, which have a bearing on
the nature of the state, its powers, and its
limits, are dealt \vith in the chapters on JUSTICE
and LAW.
tHAT IT IS SOMEHOW natural for men to asso-
ciate politically is generally affirmed, even by
those who also think the state is artificial or
conventional. No one takes either of the possi-
1J1e extreme positions: that the state as a purely
voluntary association is without any basis at
all in man's nature and needs; or that the state,
like the bee hive and the ant mound, is purely
a production of instinct.
Saying that "man is by nature a political
animal," Aristotle goes on to remark that "man
is more of a political animal than bees or other
gregarious animals." But the difference Aris-
totle points out between man and other social
animals rnay make man the only political anilnal.
It consists in the fact that man, being "the only
animal ... endowed with the gift of speech,"
can communicate with his fello\vs concerning
"tne expedient and inexpedient, and therefore
likewise the just and the unjust." What char-
acterizes human associations, according to Aris-
totle, is that they are built upon a shared sense
of the expedient and the just. "Justice," he
writes, "is the bond of men in states."
Hobbes also distinguishes between human
and anin1al societies, but seen1S to interpret the
distinction differently "Bees and ants live socia-
lDlyonewith another," he says, "and yet have no
other direction than their particular judgments
and appetites; nor speech, whereby one of them
can signify to another what he thinks expedient
for the common benefit." Inquiring"why man-
kind cannot do the same"-thatis, live sociably
without government and lavv-Hobbes offers a
number of explanations, of which the last is
tnat "the agreement of these creatures is natu-
ral; that of men is by covenant only, which is
artificial; and therefore it is no wonder if there
be solnewhat else required (besides covenant)
to make their agreement constant and lasting,
which is common power to keep them in a\ve
829
and to direct their actions to the common
benefit."
But though Hobbes calls the state artificial
because he holds it to be the product of a con-
tract, he does not deny the natural necessity
which drives men to the creation of a COlnmon-
wealth. Man quits the state of nature, \vhich is
a '''var of every man against every nlan," to
achieve self-preservation, or at least to enjoy
the security of civil peace and the freedom from
fear of violence.
As natural as it may be for men to be "in
that condition which is called war" when "they
live without a common power to keep them all
in a\ve," it is equally natural, according to
Hobbes, for men to seek peace. "The passions
that incline men to peace are fear of death, de-
sire of such things as are necessary to comn1odi-
ous living; and a hope by their industry to ob-
tain them. And reason suggesteth convenient
articles of peace, upon which men may be
dra\vn to agreement." The commonwealth is
therefore natural, to the extent that man's
needs and passions require it and man's reason
recognizes certain natural laws for constructing
it.
The state is naturally necessary, not as the
effect of instinctive determinations, but as the
rationally determined means to an end. If the
end the state serves were not naturally sought,
or if there were any other means which reason
could devise for accomplishing that end, the
state \vould be purely conventional-and dis-
pensable. "The final cause, end, or design of
men in the introduction of that restraint upon
themselves (in which we see then11ive in com-
mon\vealths) is," according to I-Iobbes, "the
sight of their own preservation and of a more
contented life thereby. "
In this main particular Aristotle's account of
the origin of the state seems to be the same.
Though he does not attribute its formation to
a contract, and does not Inake fear the pre-
dOlninant motive, he does regard the state as
natural only because of its indispensability as a
means for achieving the ends men naturally
seek. The family is natural, Aristotle suggests,
because it is necessary for the perpetuation of
the race and "for the supply of men's everyday
wants." When Inen aim "at something more
than the supply of daily needs, the first society
THE GREAT IDEAS
CHAPTER 90: .STATE
830
to be formed is the village"-normally, an as-
sociation of families. And '\vhen several villages
are united in a single complete community,
large enough to be nearly or quite self-sufficing,
the state comes into existence, originating in
the bare needs of life, and continuing in ex-
istence for the sake of a good life. Therefore, if
the earlier forms 6f society are natural, so is
the state."
The implication seems to be that if men were
not naturally impelled to seek a better life than
the family or the tribal community can provide
-in other words, if the family or village satis-
fied all of n1an's natural needs for society-the
larger community, the state, would be neither
natural nor necessary. That man is by nature a
political animal does not,therefore, mean that
men have always and everywhere lived in states.
Aristotle refers to the man who lives apart
from society, describing the natural outcast--
"the 'tribeless, lawless, heartless one' whom
Homer denounces"-as "a lover of war." He
conceives the state as coming into being subse-
quent to more primitive forms of social life,
each type of community being successively "es-
tablished with a view to some good, for man-
kind always act in order to obtain that whIch
they think good." Since he thinks that thestate
"aims at good in a greater degree thananyothet,
and at the highest good," he praises the man
"who first founded the state" as "the greatest
of benefactors."
FOR ARISTOTLE, THEN, there seems to be no in-
consistency in saying that the state is as natural
as the family and also that it is the resultofa con-
vention, i.e., a voluntary association ofmen. Nor
does there seem to be any incol1sistency be-
tween Hobbes' view that the state is produced
by a "covenant of everyman with every man"
and his understanding of the naturalness of the
state in terms of the impulses which lead men
to enter into this contract. The same double
note appears in the account of the state's origin
\vhich Locke, Rousseau, and Kant give. The
issue raised by the contract theory thus seems to
turn on the interpretation of the original con-
vention-whether or not it has legal significance
and what obligations or limitations it imposes.
Where Hobbes, for example, interprets the
contract as creating, along with the common'"
weal th, a sovereign person having
power, Locke seems to make majority
legal consequence of the original compact.
"designed man for a sociable creature," ace
ing to Locke, "with an inclination and una
necessity to have fellowship with those of'
oV/n kind." Yet even what he calls "the
society ... benveen man and wife," Locke Sa
"is made by a voluntary compact." It rna
no difference to Locke's theory whether pol
ical societies develop by expansion fro111
family (which he takes to be the normal co
of events) or result from a voluntary associa.t
of independent men.
In either case, political as distinguishedJr
domestic society does not begin until "ev
man, by consenting with others to make
body politic under one government, puts hi
self under an obligation to everyone oft
society, to submit to the determination of
majority.... This is done by barely agreeifi
unite into one political society, which is all
compact that is, or needs be, between the
dividuals that enter into or make up ac
monwealth. And thus that which begins
actually constitutes any political society is 110
ing but the consent of any number offree
capable of a majority to unite and incorpOp
into such a society."
Ifit is "that, and that only, whichdi
could give beginning to any lawful govern
in the world," it seems to be equally
Locke that "absolute monarchy, which
men is counted the only government
world, is indeed inconsistent with
and so can be no form of civil rr,....'tT-=-t",t"\'t"V'.. dri
all."
Though Rousseau says that the
of all societies, the family, is "the only
is natural," he qualifies this by
remains natural only so long as the
need the family for their preservation.
n1embers of the fan1ily remain
after, "they continue so no longer
but voluntarily; and the family
maintained only by convention."
criterion, civil society would seem to
at least on Rousseau's own
"the obstacles in the way of their
in the stateof nature" are greater
of isolated individuals or families to
emselves, and so "the .human race:would
unless itchanged its manner of
Rousseau, furthermore, explicitly denies tha't
etransition fron1 a state of nature to a state
civil society. can be treated. as an historical
to. It is an hypothesis "calculated to explain
nature of things, [rather] than to ascertain
eir actual origin." The social contract,.which
usseau sometimes ,. calls the "firstconven-
n," is, therefore, the legal, not the historical,
igin of the state. As he formulates the com-
"each of us puts his person and all .. his
wer in common under the supreme direction
he general will, and, in our corporate capac-
,we receive each lllemberas an indivisible
rt of the whole."
Though "all the qualities of the general will"
y<"reside in the majority," so that the
will can be discovered by a maj ority
te, unanimity is required to create the sover-
11 body politic, with the right as well as the
er to compel "whoever refuses to obey the
eral \viI!." Rousseau points out that "the
of majority voting is itself something estab-
ed by convention, and presupposes
, on one occasion at least." To this extent
usseau agrees with Locke about the juridical
ificance of the original. convention or the
iversal consent which establishes a civil soci-
; and just as Locke calls absolute monarchy
onsistent with the very nature of the state,
Rousseau uses the words "republic" and
oay politic" interchangeably. "To be legiti-
he writes, "the government must be,
tone with the sovereign, but: its minister."
J:?ut Rousseau identifies government with the
rather than primarily with the legis-
ive as Locke does. He therefore denies that
original convention institutes government
\VeIl as the body politic itself-"the Saver-
n having no force other than the legislative
" In consequence, Rousseau and Locke
somewhat in their discussion of the dis-
of as distinguished from
.......... v'n.J... '"... '"... of society, or the death of the
politic. Rousseau regards no law.as irrev-
"not excluding the socialcompact it-
for if all the citizens assembled of one ac'"
break the compact, it is illlPossible to
that it would be very legitimately
831
According to Kant, "a state is the union of a
number of men under
posite of the state of nature, "in which there
is no distributive justice." It is incumbent on
men, says Kant, "to accept the principle that
it is necessary to leave the state of nature, in
which everyone follows his own inclinations,
and to form a union of all those \vho cannot
avoid coming into reciprocal communication,
and thus subject themselves in common torhe
external restraint of public compulsory laws."
Kant refers to this principle as the "postu-
late of public right" which obliges "all men to
enter into the relations of a civil state, of soci-
ety." The state thus seems to be both necessary
and voluntary; Jor .though he says that "the
act by which a people is represented asconsti-
tuting itself into a state is termed the original
contract," yet he also adds that "this is properly
only an outward mode of representing the idea
by which the rightfuiness of the process of or"
ganizing the constitution may be made con-
ceivable."
AGAINST ALL THESE notions of the original can...
tract, I-Iegel, criticizing Kant's treatment of
marriage under the concept of contract, says
that "it is equally far from the truth to ground
the nature of the state on the contractual rela-
tion, whether the state is supposed to be a con-
tract of all with all,or of all with the monarch
and the government." Contract, according to
Hegel, belongs to the sphere of "relationships
concerning private property generaIly." Hence
"the intrusion of this contractual relation ...
into the relation between the individual and
the state has been productive of the greatest
confusion in both constitutiona! law and
public life."
A contract, Hegel explains, "springs from a
person's arbitrary will, an origin which marriage
too has in common with contract. But the case
is quite different with the state; it does not lie
with an individual's arbitrary will to separate
himself from the state, because we are already
citizens of the state by birth. The rational end
of man is life in the state, and if there is no
te there, reason at once demands that one
be founded. Permission to enter a state or leave
it must be given by the state; this then is not
a matter which depends on an individual's ar-
TlfE GREAT IDEAS CHAPTER 90: STATE 832
bitrary \vill and therefore the state does not
rest on contract, for contract presupposes arbi-
trariness. It is false. to maintain that the founda-
tion of the state is somethingat the option of all
its memhers. I t is nearer the truth to say thatit
is absolutely necessary for every individual to
be a citizen."
Hegel dismisses all questions concerning his-
torical origins in general or particular as "no
concern of the Idea of the state." In the Idea
itself, its antecedents are to be found. The
family and civil society are the earlier-logical
-moments in the development of the Idea of
the State. "Civil society," Hegel writes, "is the
[state of] difference which intervenes between
the family and the state, even if its formation
follows later in time than that of the state."
The social contract theory applies only to what
he calls "civil society," by which he means the
tnodern conception of the state "as a unity
\vhich is only a partnership.... Many modern
constitutional la\vyers," Hegel goes on, "have
been able to bring within their purview no
theory of the state but this. In civil society
each member is his own end" and, "except
by contract with others, he cannot attain the
whole compass of his ends, and therefore these
others are means to the end of the particular
members."
In another place, Hegel describes civil society
as a systemof complete interdependence for the
attainment of selfish ends, "wherein the liveli-
hood, happiness, and legal status of one man is
interwoven with the livelihood, happiness, and
rights of al1." In still another, he observes that
only when the state is confused with civil soci-
ety, only when "its specific end is laid do\vn as
the security and protection of property and
personal freedom," does "the interest of the in-
dividuals as such become the ultimate end of
their association." Whence "it follows that
membership in the state is something optional.
But the state's relation to the individual is
quite different from this. Since the state is
mind objectified, it is only as one of its mem-
bers that the individual himself has objectivity,
genuine individuality, and an ethical life."
l'he unity of the state, unlike that of civil
society, is, according to Hegel, "an absolute
unmoved end in itself, in \vhich freedom comes
into its supren1e right.... This final end has
supreme right against the individual, \Vhosesh_
preme duty is to be a member of the
IT DOES NOT SEEM to be a)l inevitable corollary
of the social contract theory that the state be
conceived as serving the private interests of in-
dividuals. "The welfare of the state," I(antae-
clares, "is its o\vn highest good." It is not to be
understood merely as "the individual well-being
and happiness of the citizens of the state; for--
as Rousseau asserts-this end may perhaps be
more agreeably and more desirably attainea in
the state of nature." Kant and Locke botn
affirm a social contract, but where Kant makes
the safety of the republic itself the highest law
(salus reipublicae supre1na lex), Locke makes it
the security of the people (salus populi).
"The reason why men enter into society is
the preservation of their property, " writes
Locke. The property of the individual is in-
secure in a state of nature; to avoid this insecu-
rity "men unite into societies that they Inay
have the united strength of the whole society
to secure and defend their properties." When
Locke says that the chief end of civil society is
"the preservation of property," he does not
refer solely to economic goods, but to all the
goods to ,vhich he thinks man has a natural
right-"his life, liberty, and estate." Men
would not quit the state of nature, he writes,
"were it not to preserve their lives, liberties
and fortunes, and by stated rules of right ana
property to secure their peace and quiet."
In the light of Locke's conception of "prop-
erty," his position resembles Hobbes' statement
of the end which men seek in forming a com"
monwealth: "to live peaceably amongst them-
selves and be protected against other men" ana
to get "themselves out from that miserable con-
di tion of war" in which life is "soli tary, poor,
nasty, brutish, and short."
It seems to be in a different sense of property
that Rousseau holds that "the foundation or
the social compact is property; and its first
condition, that everyone should be maintainea
in the peaceful possession of what belongs to
him." Restricting "property" to economic po -
sessions, Rousseau asks, "Are not all the adva
tages of society for the rich and powerful.
Society, he observes, "provides a powerful pr
tection for the immense possessions of the ricll,
nd hardly leaves the poor man in quiet posses-
ion of the cottage he builds with his own
ands."
This and Adam Smith's statement that" civil
government, so far is for the
security of property, IS In reahty Insututed for
he defence of the rich against the poor, or of
hose\vho have some property against those
who have none at all," seem to anticipate the
view of the state as the bulwark of
property rights and an. instrument of class op-
pression. If the the
maintenance of economIC Inequahues IS the
sole purpose of the state, then the ultimate
resolution of the class war in favor of a classless
society will, in the opinion of Marx and Engels,
be accompanied by what they call "the wither-
ing away of the state"-an atrophy from loss of
function.
But even in a classless society, the state would
not cease to function if its end were to secure
not merely the individual's weal th, but his
whole well.. being. Then, however, we must face
another question-whether the happiness of
the individual is the end of the state. Plato, for
example, seems to answer this question in op-
posite ways.
In the Protagoras, it is said that "the desire
ror self-preservation gathered men into cities."
This is part of the Promethean legend of the
origin of civilization. As told by Aeschylus-
and in a similar account of early history by
Lucretius-the story intimates that men con-
tract to live together for protection against
violence and to enjoy a better life-the fruits
or civil society or civilization.
But in the Republic, Socrates says that, in
constructing the ideal state, the aim is "not the
disproportionate happiness of anyone class, but
the greatest happiness of the whole." To the
objection of Adeimantus that the citizens may
be miserable in such a state, Socrates replies
that we must consider ,vhether ''\ve would look
to their greatest happiness individually, or
whether this principle of happiness does not
rather reside in the State as a whole." Later Soc-
rates reminds Glaucon, Vv-ho wonders whether
the members of the guardian (or ruling) class
will not be unhappy, that we are "fashioning
the State with a view to the greatest happiness,
not of any particular class, but of the whole."
833
Aristotle crItICIzes Socrates for depriving
even the guardians of happiness and for saying
that "the legislator ought to make the whole
state happy." In his own view, "the whole can-
not be happy unless most, or all, or some of its
parts enjoy happiness. In this respect, happiness
is not like the even principle in numbers, which
may exist only in the whole, but in neither of
the parts." When Aristotle asserts that "the
state exists for the sake of a good life," he
seems to have the happiness of individuals in
mind, for he excludes slaves and brute animals
from membership in the state on the .ground
that they can have "no share in happiness or in
a life of free choice."
But Aristotle also seems to give the state pre-
eminence over the individual. "Even if the end
is the same for a single man and for a state," he
\vrites, "that of the state seems at all events
something greater and more complete, \vhether
to attain or to preserve." This does not seem to
him inconsistent with thinking that that "form
of government is best in which every man,
whoever he is, can act best and live happily."
Nor is Hegel reluctant to embrace both
horns of the dilemma. Civil society rather than
the state in its perfect realization seems to be
devoted to the "attainment of selfish ends,"
such as individual happiness. But Hegel also
says it is "perfectly true" that "the end of the
state is the happiness of the citizens.... If all
is not well \vith thein, if their subjective aims
are not satisfied, if they do not find that the
state as such is the means to their satisfaction,
then the footing of the state is itself insecure."
THE FOREGOING CONSIDERATIONS of the nature,
origin, and end of political society enter into
the various conceptions of the ideal state which
appear in the tradition of western thought.
They also have a bearing on the division of
social classes in the state, on the duties of the
statesman or prince, and the principles of state"
craft-the art or science of the ruler. Finally,
they have implications for the relation of states
to one another and for the different historic
formations of the state.
All the modern writers who make some dis"
tinction between the state of nature and the
state of civil society seem to agree that inde'"
pendent or sovereign states in their relation to
THE GREAT IDEAS
OUTLINE OF TOPICS
The general theory of the state 84
2a. Definitions of the state or political community: its form and purpose
(1) Comparison of the state and the soul: the conception of the state as a living
organism; the body politic
(2) The state as a corporate person
8
4
1
(3) The progressive realization of the state as the process of history: the state as
the divine idea as it exists on earth; the national spirit
835
tions to either, are discussed in the chapter on
WAR AND PEACE. I-Iere it seems appropriate to
conclude with that vision of the world state
which appears early in the tradition of the
great books. It is conceived not as a .world-
,,vide federal union, but as a universal or un-
limited community in \vhich all men are citi-
zens together even as they belong to one human
brotherhood.
"If our intellectual part is common," argues
the philosophical Roman Emperor, Marcus
Aurelius, "the reason also, in respect of which
we are rational beings, is common; if this is so,
common also is the reason which commands us
what to do, and what not to do; if this is so,
there is a common law also; if this is so, we are
fellow-citizens; if this is so, we are members of
some political community; if this is so, the
world is in a manner a state."
Centuries later Dante, in the first book of his
De Monarchia, recaptures this ancient vision
of the world state. Because "a plurality of
authorities is disorder," authority must be
single; and therefore,_ Dante argues, '\vorld
government is necessary ... for the well- being
of the vvorld." It must be conceived as gov-
erning "mankind on the basis of \vhat all have
in common." By that "common law, it leads
all toward peace."
CHAPTER 90 : STATE
our own day Kant alone seems to con-
the possibility of a ,vorld state through
union. The "cosmopolitical ideal," he
is "a universal union of states analogous to
by vvhich a nation becomes a state." The
reason \vhich obliges men to quit
state of nature and form a civil union ap--
to states as well. "The natural state of
as well as of individual men," Kant
"is a state which it is a duty to pass out
order to enter into a legal state." But the
is impracticable in I(ant's opinion-again
of the supposed limits of government
respect to extended territories and popu-
PAGE
The nature of human society
8
3
8
Ia. Comparison of human and animal gregariousness: human and animal societies
lb. Comparison of the family and the state in origin, structure, and governn1ent
8
39
Ie. Associations intermediate between the family and the state: the village or tribal
community; civil society as the stage betvveen family and state
Id. Social groups other than the family or the state: religious, charitable, educational,
and economic organizations; the .corporation
the too great extension of such a union
over vast regions, any government of
consequently the protection of its in-
members, must at last become impos-
" Kant therefore proposes as an alterna--
a "permanent congress of nations," but
whi.ch, being "a voluntary combination of
... would be dissolvable at any time"-
league or confederacy, and not such a
union "as is embodied in the United
of America, founded upon a political
LI.L.LJ\.. ... ... ''-' ...... and therefore indissoluble."
further implications of Kant's proposal,
alternative it replaces, and Hegel's objec-
a combination of
larger community. His reason
essence of the state lies in its __
Consequently, "the besJ: limit of
of a state is the largest number
for the purposes of life, and can be taken in
single view"; and the territory needi>be
larger than one which enables the populati
be "most entirely self-sufficing."
The moderns, in contrast, propose the
pansion of the political community by the a
gamation of separate political uniis. Mo
quieu, for example, suggests. that by eute
into a "confederate republic," a number
smallstates can obtain the securitywhichl'1
of them has by itself. "If a republic be sm
he \vrites, "it is destroyed by a foreign for
it be large, it is ruined by an internal impe
tion." A confederate republic, he thinks,
all the internal advantages of a republican;
gether wi th the external force of a monarch
government.... This form of governrne
Montesquieu continues, "is a convention
which several petty states agree to be
lllelTIbers of a larger one, which they iute
establish. It is a kind of assemblage of soci
that constitute a new one, capable of increa
by means of further associations, till they
rive at such a degree of power as to be able
provide for the security of the
It is not security against external aggress'
but internal peace, which leads Roussea.
propose an association more extensive than
thing Montesquieu seems to have in min
confederation of all the states of Europe.
he does not see beyond Europe to all theis
of the world. He regards "the great city (')
world" as something less than a political so
with civil laws, for he speaks of it as "the
politic whose general will is always thela
nature."
Nor are the American Federalists, Hamil
Madison, and Jay, able, at the end of the
century, to envisage the unlimi ted extensi
the principIe of federal union. They to
themselves with arguing for the possibU'
so extensive a union as the projectedU
States of America, against those whoq
"the observations of Montesquieu au the I!
si ty of a contracted territory for a Repub
Government."
834
one another are in a state of nature. Identify--
ing the state of nature\vith the state of war,
Hobbes remarks that "though there had never
been any time, wherein particular men were
in a condition of war one against another, yet
in all times,. kings and persons. of sovereign
authority" are "in the state and posture of
gladiators vvhich is the posture of war."
Similarly, to the question, "Where are or
ever were there any men in a state of nature ?"
Locke replies, "all princes and rulers of inde--
pendent governments all through the vvorldare
in a state of nature." Because "bodies politic"
remain "in a state ofnature among themselves,"
they experience, according to Rousseau, "all
the inconveniences which had obliged individ--
uals to forsake it." With the same intent,
Montesquieu observes that "princes who live
not among themselves under civil law are not
free; they are governed by force; they. may
continually force or be forced."
In Kant's opinion, "states, viewed as nations
in their external relations to one another-like
la\vless savages-are naturally in a non-juridical
condi tian," and he adds that" thisnatural con--
dition is a state of war." Similarly, Hegel
writes that "since the sovereignty of a state is
the principle of its relations to others, states are
to that extent in a state of nature in relation to
each other."
On any of the theories concerning the origin
of the state, it maybe asked why political
ety cannot be enlarged to include all mankind.
If, for example, in Aristotle's view, the state is
a union of villages, as the village is a union of
families, why may not a further expansion of
political society be brought about by a union
of states?
The question is not simply one of geograph--
ical limits or extent of population. 1
1
he mod--
ern national state, though normally larger than
the ancient city-state, remains an individual
state and in the same external relationship to
other states. Even the expansion of a city-state
like Rome, at the greatest extent of its imperial
domain, does not exemplify the principle of the
world-state unless it is proposed that the polit--
ical unification of mankind be brought about
by conquest and maintained by despotism.
Though Aristotle describes the state as
formed by a combination of villages, he does
4. The physical foundations of society: the geographical and biological conditions of the
state
4a. The territorial extent of the state: its importance relative to different forms of
government
4b. The influence of climate and geography on political institutions and political
economy
4C. The ?iversity, and distribution of populations: the causes and effects of
theIr Increase or decrease
5. The social structure or stratification of the state
sa. The political.distinction between ruling and subject classes, and between citizens
and denIzens
Sb. The family as a member of the state: its autonoiny and its subordination
sc. The classes or sub-groups arising from the division of labor or distinctions of
birth: the social hierarchy
Sd. The conflict of classes within the state
(r) The opposition of social groups: the treatment of national racial and re-
ligious minori ties ' ,
(2) The clash of economic interests and political factions: the class war
se. The classless society
2b. The state as a part or the whole of society
2C. The source or .f?rinciple of the state's sovereignty: the sovereignty of the prince;
the sovereIgnty of the people
2d. The aspect of the state : differentiation of states according to their
economIC systems
2e. The political structure of the state: its determination by the form of government
2/ The of state or the human person: the welfare of the state and the
happIness of Its members
2g. Church and state: the relation of the city of God to the city of man
3. The origin, preservation, and dissolution of the state
3a. The development of the state from other communities
3b. The state as natural or conventional or both
(r) Man as by nature a political animal: the hlunan need for civil society
(2) Natural law and the formation of the state
3C. The condition of.man in. the state of nature and in the state of civil society: the
state of war In relatIon to the state of nature
3d. The social contract as the origin of civil society or the state: universal consent
as the basis of the constitution or government of the state
3e.Love and justice as the bond of men in states: friendship and patriotism
3.f. Fear and dependence as the cause of social cohesion: protection and security
3g. The and continuity of a state: the dissolution of the body politic or civil
socIety
862
861
860
837
PAGE
The relation of states to one another
9
a
. Commerce and trade between states: commercial rivalries and trade agreements;
free trade and tariffs
9
b
. Social and cultural barriers between states: the antagonism of diverse customs
and ideas
gc. I-Ionor and justice among states
9
d
. The sovereignty of independent states: the distinction between sovereignty
of the state at home and abroad; internal and external sovereIgnty
ge. \Var and peace bet\veen states
(1) The military problem of the state: preparation for conquest or defense
(2) Treaties between states: alliances, leagues, confederacies, or hegemonies
91 Colonization and imperialism: the economic and political factors in empire
I-Iistoric formations of the state: the rise and decline of different types of states
loa. The city-state
lob. The ilnperial state
lOCo The feudal state
Iod. The national state
loe. The federal state: confederacies and federal unions
lof The ideal of a world state
CHAPTER 90: STATEJ
affecting the quality of states
7
a
. \Vealth and political \velfare
7
b
. The importance of the arts and sciences in political life
7
C
The state's concern with religion and morals: the cultivation of the virtues
7
d
. The educational task of the state: the trained intelligence of the citizens
The offices of state: the statesman, king, or prince
8a. The duties of public office and the responsibilities of office holders: the relation
of the statesman or king to the people he represents or rules
8b. The qualities or virtues necessary for the good statesman or king
8c. The education or training of the statesman or prince
8d. Statecraft: the art or science of governing; political prudence
(I) The employment of the military arts
(2) The occasions and uses of rhetoric
(3) The role or function of experts in the service of the state
8e. The advantages and disadvantages of participation in political life
The ideal or best state: the contrast between the ideal state and the best that is his-
torically real or practicable
6a. The political institutions of the ideal state
6b. The social and economic arrangements of the ideal state
THE GREAT IDEAS 836
THE GREAT IDEAS
REFERENCES
1. The nature of human society
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 316c-319c; BK v,
356c; 363b-365d / Laws, BK III, 664a-666e
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK VIII, CH 12 [II6I
b
ll-
1
5]
413d-414a / Politics, BK I, CH 1-2 445a-446d;
BK II, CH 1-2 455b,d-456c; BK III, CH I
[I274b32-I275a3] 471b; CH 3 [I276bI-I2]
473b-e; CH 4 [I276bI7-35] 473c-d; CH 6
[I278bI5-29] 475d-476a
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 23 128c-d;
BK II, CH 20, 165a-d
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK II, SECT I 256b,d;
BK IV, SECT 4 264a; BK v, SECT 16 271e-d;
BK VII, SECT 13 280c; SECT 55 283b-e; BK
VIII, SECT 34 288a-b; BK IX, SECT 9 292b-d;
SECT 23 293c; BK XI, SECT 8 303a-b
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK II, CH 21 161b-
162d; BK XII, CH 27 35ge-360a,c; BK XIX, CH
5 513d-514b; CH 13-17 519a-523a; CH 21
524a-525b; CH 24 528b-c
19 AQUINAS: SU1nma Theologica, PART I, Q 9
6
,
A 4 512d-513c
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q94,
A 2 221d-223a; Q96, A 4, ANS 233a-d; Q 100,
A2, ANS 252b-253a
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, VIII [94-
148] 118a-c
Ie. Associations intermediate between the
family and the state: the. village or tribal
community; civil society as the stage be-
tween family and state
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK IV, 132a-b; 154b-
158d
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK II,
391c-d
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 316e-319a / Laws,BK
I, 641a-b; BK III, 664a-666c
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK I, CH 2 [I252bI0-30]
445d-446a
14 PLUTARCH: Theseus, 9a-d / Romulus, 22b
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 85d-86a
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH VIII, SECT 102
48a-b; SECT 105--112 48e-51b; CH x, SECT 133
55b
37 FIELDING: Tom fones, 267a-c
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK XVIII,
126d-134d passim
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 34ge-d / Social Con-
tract, BK III, 411c-d
39 SMITH: Wealth ofNations, BK V, 309c-311c
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 91h-d; 95b-96e;
412c-413b
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 223e-224a
42 KANT: Science ofRight, 434a; 452a-b
43 MILL: Representative Government, 352b-353a
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 157
57d; par 172 61a; par 181-256 63e-80a esp
par 181 63c-d, par 188 65c-d, par 256 79d-80a;
ADDITIONS, 20 119d-120b; 109 134c; 116-117
135c-136a; I46140b-c; 157142b-e/Philosophy
of History, INTRO, 172b-d; 194c-195a; PART I,
237b-e; 245d-247b;PART II, 260c-261a; PART
III, 287a-d
49 DARWIN: Descent ofMan, 581a-b
50 MARX: Capital, 174d-175e
50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 419b
[fn 2]
54 FREUD: Group Psychology, 686c;.687d; /
Civilization and Its Discontents, 782c
Id. Social groups other than the family or the
state: religious, chal-itable,. educational,
and economic organizations; the cor-
poration
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK II, 56d-57b
14 PLUTARCH: Numa Pompilius, S8e
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, III [97-
120] 110b-c; XI-XII 122a-125a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 117b-122b;
PART III, 198a-d; PART IV, 269b
CHAPTER 90: STATE 839
87a-89b / par 303 101c-102a; par 349 I11d-112a; ADDI-
TIONS, 47 124a-b; 113 135a-b; 157 142b-c /
Philosophy of History, INTRO, I72b-d-; PART I,
211a-212e; 246d-247b;PART III, 288c-289d
49 DARWIN: Descent ofMan, 308b-d
54 FREUD: Group Psychology, 664b-d; 686e-
689a / Civilization and Its Discontents, 781d-
782d
Comparison of the family and the state in
origin, structure, and government
5 ARISTOPHANES: Lysistrata [486-59] S89a-
590d
7 PLATO: Crito, 216d-217d I Republic, BK V,
360d;.365d / Statesman, 581a-c /Laws, BK I,
641a-642b; BK III, 664a-666c esp666b-e;
670d-671a
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethcs, UK V, CH 6 [II34
b8
- 17]
382b-c; BK VI, CH 8 [II4Ib28-II42aIl] 390d-
391a; BK VIII, CH 10 [II60
b
23]-CH II [II6I
b
IO]
413a-d; CH 12 [1 162
a
16-18l414c / Politics, BK
I, CH 1-2 445a-446d; CH 7 [I255bI6-20] 449b;
CH II [I259a33]-CH 12 [I259bI6] 453d-4S4a;
BK II, CH 2 455d-456e; CH 5 [I263b30-35] 459a;
BK III, CH 6 [1278b30-1279a2] 476a-b; CH 14
[I285b29-33] 484a
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 36a-b
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK XIX,. Cll 12,
517e-d; CH 14-17 520a-523a
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART r, Q 92,
A I, REP 2 488d-489d
oAQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q90,
A3, REP 3 207a-c; Ql0S, A4, REP 5318b-321a
3 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 67d-68a; 86a;
PART II, 99b-d; lOgc-111b; 121a; 155b
BACON: Advancement o.fLearning, 34a
LOCKE: Civil Government,. (;H I, SECT 2 25c;
eH VI-VII 36a-46c; eH VI:II, SECT 105-112
48e-51b; CH XIV, SECT r62 63a; CH XV 64c-
65d passim
STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 216b; 410a-411a
8 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK I, 3b; BK
IV, 13b; BK XVI, 118b-c; BK XIX, 140a-c
8 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 357a-b / Political
Economy, 367a-368c; 377a I Social Contract,
:13K I,387d-388a; BK III, 411c;.d; 414c
GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 412c-413b
GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 82b-83e
HEGEL: Phlosophy of Right, PART III, par 170
60d; par 203 68a-c; par 2S6-25779d-BOb;
to Id
13 VIRGIL: Georgics, IV [149-227]
Aeneid, BK I [418-44] 114b-115a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 54c; PART II,
100a-c
25 Essays, 228b-229a
26 SHAKESPEARE: HenlY V, ACT I, SC II [175-220]
535d-536b
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH VII, SECT/8-80
42b-43a
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART IV 135a-184a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws, BK I, Id-2a; 2d
43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 469c-d
MELVILLE: Moby Dick, 282a-284a
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 304b-310d esp
308a-d, 310a-d; 321b
1 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK XI,
BK XV, 634a; EPILOGUE II, 683b-684a
4 FREUD: Group Psychology, 669a-b; 684d-
686e I Civilization and Its Discontents, 791d-
792a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 99a-101a
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 20c-d
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 35-37 43
436a
35 LOCKE: Toleration, 4e-d / Civil Governm
CH VII 42b-46c; CH IX, SECT 128 54b-c
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws, BK XI, 69a
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 369b-37
Social Contract, BK II, 395a
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 96a; 194a-b;
42 KANT: Science of. Right, 402c; 433d.. 43
435c-436b
43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 460a-e
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick, 237a-b
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, EPILOGUE II, 6
686b
54 FREUD: Group Psychology 664a-696a,c
664b-674a, 677a-678d, 684b-689b
la. Comparison of human and animal gre
ousness: human and animal
9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK I,
[487b35-488aI4] 8d-9a; BK IX, CH I [608
37] 134b; CH 2 136a-b; CH 40 149a-15
Ethics, BK VIII, CH 12 [II62
a
I6-
2
5] 41
Politics, BK I, CH 2 [I253a7-I8] 446b-c;B
CH 9 [I28o
a
3I-34] 477d-478a
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK IX, SECT 9
2
To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which are the volume and page
numbers of the passages referred to. For example, in 4 HOMER: Iliad, BK II [
26
5-
28
3] 12d, the
number 4 is the number of the volume in the set; the nun1ber 12d indicates that the pas-
sage is in section d of page 12.
PAGE SECTIONS: When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the
upper and lower halves of the page. For example, in 53 JAMES: Psychology, 116a-119b, the passage
begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends in the lower half of page 119 When the text is
printed in two columns, the letters a and b refer to the upper and lower halves of the left-
hand side of the page, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of
the page. For example, in 7 PLATO: Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half
of the left-hand side of page 163 and ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page
16
4.
AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS: One or more of the main divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH,
SECT) are sometimes included in the reference; line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer-
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK II [265-283] 12d.
BIBLE REFERENCES: The references are to book, chapter, and verse. When the King James
and Douay versions differ in title of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows; e.g., OLD TESTA;.
MENT: Nehemiah, 7:45-(D) II Esdras, 7:4
6
.
SYMBOLS: The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially
relevant parts of a whole reference; "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit-
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited.
For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface.
838
840
2a. Definitions of the state or political com-
munity: its form and purpose
7 PLATO: RepubHc,BK I-II, 301e-319a; BK IV,
342a-344a; BK V, 356e; 363b-365d / Laws, BK
IV, 678b-e; BK IX, 754a-b; BK XII, 795b-e
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I, CH 2 339b-d I Politics,
BK I, CH I [I252aI-6] 44Sa; CH 2 [I252b27-
I253a39] 446a-d; BK II, CH I [I260
b
37]-CH 2
[I26IbISJ 455b,d-456c; CH 5 [I263b30-1264a
10] 459a-b; BK III, CH I [I274b32-40] 471b;
CH 3 [I27
6a
7]-CH 4 [I27
6b
35] 473a-d; CH 6
[I278bI5-29] 475d-476a;cH 9 [I28o
a
3I-
I28I
a
2] 477d-478e; CH 12 [I282bI5-18] 480e;
BK VII, CH 8 532e-533a
13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK VI [847-853] 233b-234a
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK II, CH 21 161b-
162d; BK IV, CH 4 190d; BK XIX, CH 21-24
524a-528e
20 AQUINAS: Sum1na Theologica, PART I-II, Q 90,
A 2 206b-207a; Q 96, A I 230d-231c; Q 100, A
2252b-253a
23 [fOBBES: Leviathan, INTRO, 47a-b; PART I,
71d-73a; 97e-d; PART II, 99a-l04d; 116c-d;
148b; 153a
27 SHAKESPEARE: Jroilus and Cressida, ACT I, SC
III [75--137] l08d-lOge
30 BACON: Advancelnent ofLearning, 34a
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 37, SCHOL 2
435b-436a
35 LOCKE: Toleration, 3a; 16e-17a / Civil Govern-
CHAPTER 90: STATE
841
14 PLUTARCH: Tiberius Gracchus, 678b-d
15 TACITUS: Histories, BK I, 197a-e
20 AQUINAS: SU1nnta Theologica, PART I-II, Q 90,
A .3 207a-e; Q 96, A 6, ANS 235a-d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 71d-73a; 97c-d;
PART II, 100e-10Se; l09b-e;117e-d; 130d;
149d-150b
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH VIII, SECT 95-99
46e-47e; CH IX, SECT 127 54a-b; CH X, SECT
132 5Sa-b; CH XI, SECT 135 55d-56b; SECT 141
S8a-b; CH XIII, SECT 149 59b-d; CH XIV, SECT
163 63a-b; CH XV, SECT 171 65a-b; CH XVI,
SECT 179 66d-67a; CH XVII, SECT 198 70d-
71a; CH XIX, SECT 243 BId
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK I, 3b-e; BK
II, 4b; 7e-d; BK XV, 10ge
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 323d / Social Contract,
BK I, 392a-393b; BK II, 395a-d; 396d-397a;
399b-400e; BK III, 406b,d-409a; 424a-b
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 51e-d; 100d;
241b
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 74e-d
42 KANT: Science of Right, 436e; 437e-d; 439a-
441d; 445a-e; 448b-d; 4S0a-b; 451e-d
43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: [1-25] 1a-b;
[43-47] 2a; [19-121] 3a-b
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: PREAMBLE 11a,e;
AMENDMENTS, IX-X 17d-18a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 22, 84d-85a; NUMBER
33, 108b-e; NUMBER 39, 126b-128b; NUMBER
46, NUMBER 49, 15ge; NUMBER 84,
252b-e
43 MILL: Liberty, 267d-26ge / Representative
Government, 344d; 355b-d
46 fIEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 275
92a-b; par 279 93a-94d; par 320-321 106e-d;
ADDITIONS, 167 145e I Philosophy of History,
PART II, 272b-273a; PART IV, 355e-d; 365a-
366b
51 TOLSTOY: TVar and Peace, EPILOGUE II, 680b-
684a passiln
2d. The economic aspect of the state: differen-
tiation of states according to their eco-
nomic systems
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK I, 350d-
351a; 352e-d
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 316e-31ge; BK III,
341c-d; BK V, 364c-365d / Laws, BK V, 692d-
697a
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK I, CH II [I259a23-36]
453e-d; BK II, CH I [I26ob37-126Ia8] 455b,d;
CH 5 458a-460a; CH 6 [I265a28-bI8] 460e-
461a; CH 7 461d-463e; CH 8 [I267b30-36]
463c-d; [I268
a
I6-
b
4] 464a-b; CH 9 [I27oaI5-
b6] 466b-e; BK III, CH 9 [I280
b
I6-32] 478b-e;
BK V, CH 9 [I309bI4-13IOa2] 511d-S12b; BK
VI, CH 4 522a-523b; CH 8 [I32IbI2-34] 525b-e;
BK VII, CH 8'-10 532e-534d
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus 32a-48d / Solon 64b,d-
77a,e I Tiberius Gracchus 671b,d-681a,e I
Caius Gracchus 681b,d.. 689a,e
za(2) The state as a corporate person
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 97e-d; PART II,
100e-I01a; 101d-102e; 104a-b; 117b-120e;
122b-e; 130b-d; 132a-b
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH VIII, SECT 95-
9946e-47e
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 368d-369a /
Social Contract, BK I, 392a; 392e-393b; BK II,
395a-b; 396d-397a; BK III, 406b,d-409a pas-
sin1, esp 406b,d-407a; 412e; 418a-e; 41ge-420a
42 KANT: Science of Right, 452b; 454b-c
.46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III 55a-
114a,c; ADDITIONS, 191 150a-c
2a(3) The progressive realization of the state
as the process of history: the state as the
divine idea as it exists on earth; the na-
tional spirit
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par
256- 259 79d-82a; par 270 B4d-8ge; par 340-
360 110b-114a,e esp par 349 111d-112a; AD-
DITIONS, 19-20 11ge-120b; 152 141e-d; 164
144e-145a / Philosophy of History, INTRa,
170e-178a esp 171b, 176d-177a; 180e-182e;
203b-206a,e; PART I, 230a-231b; 257e-258d;
PART II, 266a-267a; 271e-d; PART Ill, 287a-
288b; PART IV, 327d-32Ba; 333b-e; 351d-
354a; 357b-c
b. The state as a part or the whole of society
7 PLATO: Republic, BK V, 364e-365d / Laws,
BK XI, 77&
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK VIII, CH 9 [II60
a
8-30]
412b-e / Politics, BK VII, CH 8 [I328b2-22]
532d-533a; BK VIII, cH I [I337a28-30] 542b
18 AUGUSTINE: City ofGod, BK XIX, CH 17 522b-
523a
19 AQUINAS: Sum1na Theologica, PART I-II, Q 21,
A 4, REP 3 719d-720a,e
20 AQUINAS: SU1n1na Ineologica, PART I-II, Q
96, A 4, ANS 233a-d; PART Q 10, A 10
434e-435e; Q 12, A 2 443b-444b
35 LOCKE: Toleration, 2d-3e; 7e; 16a-e / Civil
Governn1ent, CH XI, SECT 138-14 57b-58a
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 299b-d
43 MILL: Liberty, 271e-d; 272d-273d; 302d-
312a; 320e-d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, ADDITIONS, 162
143b-144c / Philosophy of History, INTRO,
174a-d; 175d-176e; 177b-178a; 182d-183a;
PART IV, 316a-d; 333b-e
2c" The source or principle of the state's sov-
ereignty: the sovereignty of the prince;
the sovereignty of the people
OLD TESTAMENT:]udges, 8:22-23/ I Samuel, 8-
CD) I Kngs, 8/ II Samuel, 2:4-(D) II Kings,
2:4
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK III, CH I [I275a22-b2I]
472a-e; CH 3 [I276a4o_bI] 473b; BK IV, CH 9
[1294b
34
-
39
] 494d
THE GREAT IDEi\S 2 to 2aEl
(1. The nat/Ire of human society. Id. Social ment, CH VII4'6sE4c7T 87-9
0
44a-45a; ClI "n
h h h
SECT 95-99 c- e; CH IX 53c-54d; Cli
groups ot. er t. an t. e family or the state: SECT 13.3 55b; CH XI 55b-58b passiln, e'X
s
'
religious, charitable, educational, and eco- n
SECT 136 56c-d; CH XIX, SECT 217 75a; SE 1""
nomic organizations; the corporatio11.) 222 75d-76c qf' . Cl'
35 LOCKE: Toleration, 4b-e 38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaw", BK I,3b-c; BI\:
36 S\\TIFT: Gulliver, PART III, 106a-b XI, 69a-e
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirz't ofLauJs, BK XX, 149a-e; 38 ROUSSEAU: Political Econol'ny, 368d-369a'
BK XXI, 170d; BK XXIII, 199b-200a,e 370b-e; 374b-e; 380d-381a; 381c-382b I sociai
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 369b-370a Contract, BK I, 391b-393b; BK II, 395a-b'
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK I, 28b-d; 51a- 396d-398b; BK III, 417d '
56b; BK v, 343b,d-346b; 357e 40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 91b; 96a
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 191e-200a esp 42 KANT: Science ofRight, 408c-40ge; 435a-436 .
191e, 194a-195c, 198d-199a; 299b-304d esp 438d-439a c,
29ge-d; 668d-670b 43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 29, lOla; NUMBER 4r
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 389b-390b 132e; NUMBER 43, 14ld; NUMBER 51, 164c-d
42 KANT: Science ofRight, 442c-d; 444a-c 46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofRight, PART III, par 256-
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 201 258 79d-81e; par 260 82a-83a; par 267 84b-
68a; par 229 75b; par 235 76a; par 249-256 par 270 84d-89c; ADDITIONS, 161'-162
78e-80a; par 264 84a; par 288-289 97a-d; par 144e / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 170c-
302-303 101a-102a; par 308 102e-103a; AD- 178a; PART I, 230a-e; PART IV, 321a
DITIONS, 151 141b-e; 174 146d-147b / Philoso- 54 FREUD: Civilz'zation and Its Discontents, 780b-o.
phyof History, PART IV, 335a-336e; 340d-
341e; 342e-d 2.a(l) Comparison of the state and the soul: the
50 MARX: Capital, 149c-150a conception of the state as a living organ-
50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist l-vfanifesto, 423c-d ism; the body politic
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK v, 198b-203a; 7 PLATO: Republic, BK II-IV, 316a-356a; BK v,
EPILOGUE II, 685d-686a 363b-364b; BK VIII 401d-416a esp 402b-c t
54 FREUD: Group Psychology, 670b-e; 674b-676d Laws, BK III, 669d-670b; BK XII, 794b-796d
2. The general theory ofthe state 9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK I, CH 5 [I254a24-b41
447d-448a; CH 13 [I260a4-20] 454e-d; BK III,
CH 4 [I277
a
5-13] 474a; BK IV, CH 4 [I29ob2I-
40] 489d-490a; [I29Ia.24-33] 490e; BK VII,
CH 8 [I328a2I-b5] 532e-d
14 PLUTARCH: Coriolanus, 177a-b / Agesilaus,
495e-d I Phocion, 605a-b / Agis, 648b,d-
649b / Aratus, 834d
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK III, CH 10, 1720
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, INTRO, 47a-b; PART II,
107d; 116e-d; 117b; 122b-124,b; 126b-a;
148b-153a
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 504e-505d
27 SHAKESPEARE: Coriolanus, ACT I, SC
167] 352a-353a
28 FIARVEY: Aiotion ofthe Heart, 267a- b
32 11ILTON: Areopagitica, 407b
35 LOCKE: Civil GOl/ern1nent, CH XIX, SECT 212
74a-b
36 SVVIFT: Gulliver, PART III, 112a--115b
36 STERNE: Tristran1 Shandy, 215b-216b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit oj" Latus, BK x, 61b,d-
62a
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Econo111v, 368d-369a
Social Contract, BK Ill, 407a-; 418a-e; 419
420a
42 KANT: ]udge11zent, 547b-e
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 30, 10th
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 26
84d; par 271 8ge; par 278 92c-93a; ADDITIO
157 142b-e; 161 143a-b; 168 145c-d I Philo
phy of History, INTRO, 174d; 188a-b; PART
222a-c; PART III, 302d-303c; PART IV, 321a
THE GREAT IDEAS
CHAPTER 90:.. STATE
842
(2. The general theory of the state. 2d. The eco-
nomic aspect of the state: differentiation of
states according to their economic systems.)
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 94d-95a; PART
II, 124b-126d; 156c-157a
35 LOCKE: Toleration, 16a-c / Civil Governlnent,
CH v, SECT 38 33b-c; SECT 45 34d-35a; CH VI,
SECT 72-73 40d-41a; CH VIII, SECT 117 52b;
SECT I20-121 52d-53h; CH XI, SECT 138-14
57b-58a
36 STERNE: Tristrarn Shandy, 215b-216b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK IV, 16a-
17b; BK V, 19a-21d;23a-25c; 27d-28a; 29b-
30a; BK VII, 44a-4Ba; BK XIV, 105a; BK XV,
109a-b; 110d-112d; BK XX, 147a-d; BK XX-
XXI, 151b-153d; BK XXII, 174a-b; 183b-184b
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Econ0111Y, 377b-385a,c /
Social Contract, BK II, 405c-d; BK III, .. 415b
417c; 421c-d
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK III 163a-181a,c
esp 165a-166b, 176a-181a,c; BK IV 182a-300d
esp 182a-b, 18Ba-190b, 193a, 195a,225d
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 21c-22c
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 11-13 53b-60a passim;
NUMBER 21, 79b-80c; NUMBER 30, 10Ib;
NUMBER 35 I12a-114c; NUMBER 54170a-172b
passim
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 299
99c-100b
50 MARX: Capital, 163a-c; 171d-176a esp 174c-
175c; 275c-278a,c passim
50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 416c-d
54 FREUD: New Introductory Lectures, 882c-884c
2e. The political structure of the state: its
determination by the form of govern-
ment
7 PLATO: Republic, BK VIII 401d-416a / States-
man, S98b-604b
9 ARISTOTLE: Poltics, BK I, CH I 445a-b; BK II,
CH I 455b,d; BK III, CH 3 473a-c; CH 6 [I278b6-
14] 475d; CH 13 [I283b5-7] 481c; CH 17 486c..
487a; BK IV, CH 3-4 488d-491d esp CH 4
[I290b2I-129IbI3] 489d-490d; CH 11-12 495b-
497b; BK V, CH 9 [I309bI4-I310a2] 51Id-S12b;
BK VII, CH 8 532c-533a / Rhetoric, BK I, CH 4
[1360aI7-36] 600c-d; CH 8 608a-c
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK IV, 72a-b
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, lOla-b; 104d-
lOSc; 117b-124b; 138b; 151c-152a; PART III,
228a-b
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH VIII, SECT 95-99
46c-47c; CH X, SECT 132-CH XI, SECT 134
55a-d; CH XIX, SECT 211-212 73d-74b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws, BK I-II, 2d-4a;
BK XI, 69d-70a
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 359a-d / Social Con-
tract, BK III, 406b,d-409a; 423a-424d
42 KANT: Science ofRight, 436b-c; 441b-c; 450a-
452a
43 MILL: Representative Government, 327b,d-332d
2et
46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofRight, PART III, par
27490c-92a; par 276 92'b; ADDITIONS
145b-c; 170 145d-146a; 178 147d-148a; ,
losophy of History, INTRO, 173a-175c; PART I
364d-365c
21. The primacy of the state or the human p
son: the welfare of the state and theb
er
..
piness of its members
5 .A...ESCHYLUS: Seven Against Thebes 27a-39a c
esp [1011-1084] 38b-39a,c '
5 SOPHOCLES.: Antigone 13Ia-142d esp [r62-
2
ro)
132c-d / Ajax [r047-1090] 152a-b / PhiloCletes
182a-195a,c
5 EURIPIDES: Phoenician Maidens [834-10
385c-387b / Iphigenia at Aulis 425a-439cl
[1255-1275] 436c, [1368-1401] 437c-d
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK I, 6c-7a
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK II, 397d.-
398c; 402b-404a; BK VI, 520a-d
7 PLATO: Crito 213a-219a,c esp 216d-219a C l
Republic, BK I, 302c-306a; BK
350b-d; BK V, 364c-365d; BK VI, 379d-380
BK VII, 3,90b-391b; 401a- b / Statesman, 60
601b I Laws, BK III, 672d-676C;BK V, 692c-
693a; BK IX, 754a-b; BK XI, 776c; 777d-7780
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics,BK I, CH 2 [ I094b8
339c-d; BK V, CHI [II29bI5-I8] 377a I BaZi..
tics, BK I, CH 2 [I253aI9-29] 446C;BK II,
[I264bI6-25] 459d-460a; BK III, CH 4 4
475a; CH 6 475d-476c; CH 12 [I282b15
480c; BK VII, CH 1-3 527a-530a; CH 8532
533a; CH 13 536b-537b; BK VIII, CH 1 [133
28-30] 542b
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 19 125b-12
BK II, CH 10 148c-150a
12 AURELIUS: Aleditations, BK v, SECT I 26Bb,
SECT 6 269b-d; SECT 16 271c-d; SECT
272b; BK VI, SECT 14 274d-275a; SEG1:'
279c; BK IX, SECT 23 293c I
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus 32a-48d esp 44d-45c
Numa Pompilius, 51c-52b / Solon, 71d. /
mosthenes, 699c-700a
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK II, CH 21
162d; BK XIX, CH 17 522b-523a; CH 21 5
525a
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q
A 5, ANS 313b-314c; Q 96, A 4 S12a.-
PART I-II, Q 21, A 3 718d-719c; A 4,R
719d-720a,c
20 AQUINAS: Sumn'la Theologica, PART I-II, Q
A 2 206b-207a; A 3, REP 3 207a-c; Q 92,
ANS and REP I,J-4 213c-214c; Q 94, A 2,
221d-223a; Q 96, A3, ANS and REP 3 232b-2
A 4, ANS 233a-d; Q 98, A I, ANS 239b-2
Q 100, A2, ANS 252b-253a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 93d-94a; PAR
104a-b; 113d-115a
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 48a-51a passim; 3
388c; 486b-489b
26 SHAKESPEARE: Henry V, ACT r, SC II [18.3
535d-536a
27 SHAKESPEARE: Troilusand Cressida,AcT I, SC
III [78-134] 109a-c / Coriolanus,AcT I, sc I
[67-167] 352a-353a
30 BAC.oN Learning,71a-76a
pass1m
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 37, SCHOL 2
43Sb-436a
32 IvlILTON: Samson Agonistes [843-87] 358a-b
35 LOCKE: Toleraton, lIb; 15d; 16d-17b / Civil
Government, CH VIII, SECT 95-99 46c-47c
38 Spirit of Laws, BK IV, 16c;
BK V, 18d-l9d; BK XI, 69a-c; BK XII, 92h-c;
BK XXIII, 199c; BK XXVI, 221c-222a
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 368d-369a;
372a-b; 374a-375b; 376a-b /Social Contract,
BK I, 391d; 392b-393b; 393d-394d; BK II,
396b-399a; BK III, 421c-423a
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 114b-d / Fund. Prin.
Metaphysic of Morals, 272d-273b / Science of
Right, 438d-439b
43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: [I-IS] la-b
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: PREAMBLE l1a,c;
AMENDMENTS, I-X 17a-18a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 43, 143b-c; NUMBER 45,
147c-148a
43 MILL: Liberty, 267b,d-274a; 293b-323a,c esp
297a, 322d-323a,c / Representative Govern-
ment, 337b; 338b-c; 392b-396d / Utilitarian-
453a-454a;460a-461c; 464d-476a,c pas-
SIm
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PARTIn, par I8S
64b-d; par 187 65a-c; par 236 76a-c; par 258,
BOc-d; par 260-261 82a-83d; par 270 84d-89c;
par 288-289 97a-d; par 294 98b-d;par 323
107a; par 328 108b-c; par 337109d-110a; AD-
DITIONS, 47 124a-b; 116-118 135c-136b; 127
137b; 143 139d-I40a; 145 140b; 154-156
142a-b; 158 142d; 162 143b-144c; 177 147d;
189 149d / Philosophy of History, INTRO,
164b; 166b; 170c-172b; 192c-193a; PART II,
271c-d; 276a; PART III, 289b-d; 298c-299a;
PART IV, 320c-321a; 365b-c; 366c-367a;367d-
368a
50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 429c
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BKVI, 238c-243d;
260a-262a; BK XI, 50Sa-511b; 513d-521c esp
513d-515a; 527b-532a,c esp 527b-528b; BK
XII, 537b-538a; BK XIII, 577b-c; EPILOGUE I,
670d-671c
54 FREUD: War and Death, 757b-c / Civilization
and Its Discontents, 799b-d
. Church and state: the relation of the city of
God to the city of man-
OLD TESTAMENT: fudges, 8:22-23 / I Samuel, 8;
10:18-19,24; 12:12-14,17-19; I3-(D) I Kings,
8; 10:18-19,24; 12:12-14,17-19; 13 / II Chron-
icles, 19:II-(D) II ParaHpomenon, 19:11 /
Psalms, 2; 48:1-8; 72:8-11;<87; 127:I--2-(D)
Psalms, 2; 47:1-9;71 :8-11; 86; 126:1-2/ Isaiah,
43: I 5-(D) Isaias, 43:15 / Daniel, 2:44; 4:
17,2S'32-(D) Daniel, 2:44; 4: 14,22,29
843
ApOCRYPHA: Rest of Esther, 14:3-(D) OT,
Esther, 14:3 / Wisd01n of Solomon, 6:1-4-
(D) OT, Book of Wisdom, 6:2-5 / II Mac-
cabees, 7:3o-(D) OT, II Alachabees, 7:30
NE\V TESTAMENT: Matthew, 17:24-27; 22:15--22
-(D) lvfatthetv, 17:23-26; 22:15-22 / Mark,
12 :13-17 / Luke, 20 :21-26 / fohn, 18 :3.3-37 /
Acts, 5:27-29/ ROlnans, 13 :1-8 / I Corinthians,
IS:24-25 / Ephesians, 2:19/ I Tirnothy, 2:1-3
/ Titus, 3:1 / Hebrews, 13:14/1 Peter,2:13-17
7 PLATO: Laws, BK X, 757d-761b;769d-771b
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK VIII, CH9 [1160
a
rg-29]
412b-c / Politics, BK III, CH 14 [128Sa3-7]
483a-b; [1285b20-23] 484a; BK v, CH II
[I3I4b36-1315a4] 517d; BK VI, CH 7 [132Ia35-
bI] 525a; CH 8 [1322bI9-29J 526c; BK VII, CH 8
[I 328b2-22] 532d-533a; CH 9' [1329a26-34]
533d; CH 10 [I33oa8-I41534c; CH 12 [I33Ialg-
28] 535d;[I33Ib4-7] 536a
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I,CH 30 138a,c;
BK II, CH 5, 143d-144a; BK IV, CH 3224b-d
13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK XII [I75-1941358b-359a;
[829-842] 376a-b
14 PLUTARCH: Numa Pompilius, .52d-53a; 57b
/ Thelnistocles, 92a-c / Camillus, 114c-I16a /
Fabius, 142d-143a / Marcellus, 247c-248b /
Cleomenes, 659d-660a
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK III, 59d-60c
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK III, par 15 17a-b
/ City of God, BK I, PREF-CH 6 129a-132d; BK
IV, CH 33-34 206c-207a,c; BK V, CH 15-16
220d-221b; CH 25 228b-c;BK XI, CH 1322b,d-
323a; BK XV-XVIII 397b,d-507a,c esp UK XV,
CH 1-5 397b,d-400c, BK XVII, CH 1-3 449a-
451c, BK XVIII, CH I-:-2472b,d'-473d; BK XIX,
CH 5 513d-514b; CH II 516d-517b; CH 14
520a-d; CH 17 522b-523a; CH 19-26 523b-
529a
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologicai PART I-II, Q96,
A 4 233a-d; Q 100, A 2, ANS 252b-253a; PART
II-II, Q 10, AA 10-II 434c-436b; QII, A 3
440b-441a; Q 12, A 2443b-444b
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, II [10-27] 2d;
XXXIV [1-69] 51b-52a; PURGATORY, VI [58-
151] 61b-62c; XIII [85-96] 72d; XVI [52-129]
77b-78a; xxxn[100]-XXXIII [78] 103c-105a;
PARADISE, VI [I-III] 113c-114d
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH XI 16d-17d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 80d-81a; 82b-
83a; 83d-84c; PART II, 111b-112c; 151a-c;
155d-156b; 163c-d; PART III, 165a-167c; 171c-
172a; 177c-180a; 187c-188a; 191h; 193c-d;
198a-246a,c; PART IV, 248a-249b;
266a-c; 273c-274a; 27Sa-278d
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 306b-d
26 SHAKESPEARE: 1st Henry VI, ACT I, SC III
5b-6c; ACT III, SC I [1-145] 14b-15d / King
John 376a-405a,c esp ACT III, SC I 386a-389d,
ACT V, SC I [1-24] 399b-c, sc II 400a-401d /
2nd Henry IV, ACT I, SC I [187-215] 470a-b;
ACT IV, sc 1 [1-96] 487b-488b; sc II [1--42)
489d-490a / Henry V, ACT I, SC I 533a-d
THE GREAT IDEAS CHAPTER 90: STATE
844
(2. The ge1zeral theory of the state. 2g. Church
and state: the relation oj the city of God to
the city of man.)
27 SHAKESPEARE: Henry VIII 549a-585a,e esp
ACT III, SC II 568b-573d
30 BACON: Advance1nent of Learning, 27e
32 MILTON: New Forcers of Conscience 68a-b /
Lord Gen. Cromwell 69a-b / Paradise Lost,
BK XII [485-551] 329b-331a / Areopagitica,
386b-388a
35 LocKE: Toleration, 2d-21c esp 2d-3a, 7e,
13a-b, 16b, 20d-21c
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK II, 7e-8c;
BK v, 27d; BK XII, 85e-86a; BK XVIII, 134c-d;
BK XIX, 144e-145a; BK XXIII, 196c-197e;BK
XXIV-XXV 200a-214a,c; BK XXVI, 214b,d-
215a; 218a-219d; BK XXX, 284d-285e; BK
XXXI, 298b-308e
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 327a-e; 358d-359a /
Social Contract, BK II, 401e-402a; BK IV, 435a-
43ge
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK I, 56b-57a; BK
IV, 232b; BK V, 343b,d-356d; 357e
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 13b-d; 197a-b;
22ge-230a; 233d; 289b,d-294a;
passim, esp 299b-d, 303e; 328e-330a,e; 349c-
351d; 382a-383b; 390e-393d passim, esp
392c; 443d-446b esp 444e-445b; 451d-
453a; 457b,d-460b passim; 582e; 611d-612a;
623d-624b; 631d-632a; 642c-643a; 863c
[11 68]
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 147d-148e; 195a;
199c-202d; 204b-207a esp 205d-206b; 212d-
213d; 214e-215e; 252e-d; 352b-353b; 360b-
361h; 381d-383e; 417b-418d; 557e-562b esp
560d-561e; 567e-569d; 582e-589d esp 586a-c,
588b-589d
42 KANT: Science of Right, 442e-d; 444a-e
43 ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: III 5b
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE VI [591-
599] 16d; AMENDMENTS, I 17a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 52, 165e; NUMBER 57,
177b
43 MILL: Liberty, 279a-d; 290e-291a / Representa-
tive Government, 341a-e; 437d-438b
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 189c-d; 251e; 314e-315b;
445b-e
46 I-IEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 270
84d-8ge; ADDITIONS, 162 143b-144c / Philoso-
phy of History, INTRO, 175e-177b; 192e-d;
205d-206a,c; PART I, 216b-217e; 245d-247b;
PART III, 308b-e; 309d-310e; 311b-d; PART
IV, 316a-d; 321b-322a;325d-326b; 331b-d;
333b-e; 336e-337d; 345e-346e; 350b-e; 351b-
354a; 365b-c
47 GOETHE: Faust, PART II [1,977-11,34] 267a-
268b
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK IX, 354b-e;
374d-377b; BK X, 435c-436e; BKXIII, 572d;
574a
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers KaramazotJ,BK II,
28d-32a; BK V, 127b-137e passim
2g to 3b
3. The origin, preservation, and dissolution
the state 0
3a. The of the state from othe
COmmunItIes l'
6 THUCYDIDES:
391c-d
7 PLATO: Lau
1
s, BK III, 666a-e
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK VIII, CH 12 [II62a.
16
_ 1
/
R r . 19J
414c OIUCS, BK I, ClI 2 [I252b9-1253a 1
445d-446b I
J
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [IOII_
1027] 74b-c
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 6
A 4 512d-513c 9 ,
20 AQUINAS: Sumnza Theologica, PART I-II, Q 9
A 2 221d-223a h
35 LOCKE: Civil Governlnent, CH VIn 46d-53e
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 410a-b
38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK III, 411e-d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 18t
63e-d; par 258, 80d; par 349 I11d-112a t
Philosophy of History, PART II, 260b-261a;
PART III, 287a-d
3b. The state as natural or conventional or both
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 316e-319a / Laws, HI<:
III, 663d-666c; BK X, 760a-761d
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK I, CH 2 445b-446d'
BK III, CH 6 [I278bI5-29] 475d-476a '
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK IV, SECT 4 264a;
BK VII, SECT 13 280e; BK VIII, SECT 34 288a-o;
BK IX, SECT 9 292b-d; BK X, SECT 6 297a-o
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q 95,
A 4, ANS 229b-230c
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, INTRO, 47a-b; PART II,
lOOa-c; 10Ia-b; 113c
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 462d-463a
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 35-37 4330-
436a esp PROP 37, SCIIOL 2 435b-436a
33 PASCAL: Pensees, 304 227b-228a I
35 LOCKE : Civil Governrllent, CH II, SECT 14-15
28b-e; CH VII, SECT 8]'-89 44a-d; CH VIII
46e-53e; CH XIX, SECT 211 73d-74a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK I, lc-2d
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 358b-c / Political Econ-
omy, 367b/ Social Contract, BK I, 387b,d-392a;
BK II, 399b-c; BK III, 419c-d; 423a-e; 4240
42 KANT: Science ofRight, 412e-413a; 433c-434c
435a-436b; 437e-d; 450d-451a
43 MILL: Liberty, 302d-303a
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Rig/lt, PART I, par "A5
31d-32b; PART III, par 203 68a-e; par 280
94d-95a; ADDITIONS, 47 124a-b / Philosap
o.fHistory, INTRO, 164b-c
54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 7800-
3b(1) Man as by nature a political animal: tit
human need for civil society
7 PLATO: Protagoras, 44a-45a / Republic, BK
316c
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK VIII, CH 12 [1162
8
16-
(2) to 3d
414e; BK IX, CH 9 [II69bI8-22] 423b / Politics,
BK I, CII 2 [I252b27-1253a39] 446a-d; BK III,
CH 6 [I278bI5-29] 475d-476a
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CII 23 128e-d
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK II, SECT I 256b,d;
BK IV, SECT 4 264a; SECT 29 266a; BK VII,
SECT 13 280e; SECT 55 283b-e; BK VIII, SECT
34 288a-b; SECT 56 290e; SECT 59 290d; BK
IX, SECT 9 292b-d; SECT 23 293e; BK x, SECT
6 297a-b; BK XI, SECT 8 303a-b; BK XII, SECT
30310a-b
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK XII, CH 27 35ge-
360a,e; BK XIX, CH 5 513d-514b; CH 17 522b-
523a
19 AQUINAS: SZt1nn1a Theologica, PART I, Q96, A4
512d-S13c
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q 94,
A2 221d-223a; Q96, A4, ANS 233a-d
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, VIn [91-
148] 117d-118e
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 84e-86b; 93d-94a;
PART II, 99a-lOOe; CONCLUSION, 279a-e
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 454a
30 BACON: Advancement ofLearning, 20e-d
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 18, SCHOL
429a-d; PROP 35, COROL 1-2 433e-d
35LocKE:Civi/ Government, eH II, SECT 13-15
28a-e; CH VII, SECT 77 42b
36 SWIFT: Gullit
1
er, PART IV, 159a-163b esp
160a-b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws,BK I, Id-3a
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 330d-331d; 362e-d /
Social Contract, BK I, 387d-388e; BK II,
397a-b
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 6, 39a-b; NUMBER 10,
50b-e; NUMBER IS, 65b-d; NUMBER 17,69c;
NUMBER 34, lIOe-d; NUMBER 49, 160a; NUM-
BER 55, 174e-d
43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 460a-461e; 46ge-d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 183
64a; par 188-195 65e-67a; ADDITIONS, 47
124a-b / Philosophy ofHistory, PART IV, 361e-d
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 310a-d; 321b
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, UK V,
127b-137c passiln
54 FREUD: Group Psychology, 684d / Civilization
and Its Discontents, 787a-e; 791b-c
b(2) Natural law and the formation of the
state
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 86c-87b; 91a-96b;
PART II, 99a-d; 131a
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 37, SCHOL 2
435b-436a
35 LOCKE: Civil Governlnent, CH I-IX 25a-54d
passim, esp CII IX 53e-54d; CH XI, SECT 136
56e-d
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws, BK I, la-2d
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 329a-334a,e esp 330a-
331c
42 KANT: Science of Right, 433c-434e
43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: [I-IS] la-b
845
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 43, 143b-e
46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofHistory, PART IV, 361e-d
3c. The condition of lnan in the state of na-
ture and in the state of civil society: the
state of war in relation to the state of
nature
7 PLATO: Protagoras, 44a-4Sa / Laws, BK I, 641a
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK I, CH 2 [I253a30-39]
446d
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK III, 51b
18 AUGUSTINR:Cityaf God,BK XIX, CH 12, 517d-
518c
19 "AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 96, A
4512d-513e
23 HOBBES: Leviathan,PART I, 84c-87b; 90b-d;
94b-c; 96a-b; PART II, 99a-b; 131a-e; 138c
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 93b-94a
30 BACON: Advancement ofLearning, 20e-d
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 37, SCHOL 2
435b-436a
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH esp
CH II-III 25d-29d, CH IX 53c-54d; CH XI, SECT
136-137 56c-57b; CH XII, SECT 145-146 58d-
59a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK I, 2b-3a;
BK VIII, 52a
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 329a-334a,e; 342e-
345c; 354a-b; 355b-e; 362a-366d / Political
Economy, 374a-b / Social Contract, BK I, 389d-
390a; 391b; 393b-e; BK II, 398a-b; 399b-c
39 SMITH: Wealth ofNations, BK V, 309a-311e
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 86d-87b; 237c-d
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 222b-e / Science of Right,
405d-406e; 408e-40ge; 433e-434d; 435e-436b;
450d-451a; 452a-d
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 51, 164e-d
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 204d-205b
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 187
65a-:e; par 194 66e-d; par 333-334 109b-c /
Philosophy of llistory, INTRO, 171e-172b;
199b-c; PART IV, 317d-318a
3d. The social contract as the origin of civil
society or the state: universal consent as
the basis of the constitution or govern-
ment of the state
7 PLATO: Crito, 216d-219a,e / Republic, BK II,
311b-e / Laws, BK III, 666b-667d / Seventh
Letter,807a-b
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK II, CH 9 [I27ob20-22]
466d; BK IV, ClI 9 [I294b3+-39] 494d
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK V [1011-
1027] 74b-e
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK IV, CH 4 190d;
BK XIX, CH 21 524a-525h; CH 24 528b-e
20 AQUINAS: Stt1nma Theologica, PART I-II, Q
90, A 3 207a-e; Q 97, A 3 237b-238b; Q 105, A
2, ANS 309d-3I6a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 97e-d; PART II,
100c-l02c; 109b-e; 113c; 133b; PART III,
200a-b
THE GREAT IDEAS CHAPTER 90: STATE 846
(3. The origin, preservation, and dissolution of
the state. 3d. The social contract as the
origin oj civil society or the state: universal
consent as the basisrif the constitution or
government of the state.)
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 37, SCHOL 2
43Sb-436a
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH II, SECT 14-15
28b-e; CH VII, SECT 87-CH VIII, SECT 122 44a
S3e; CH x, SECT 132 SSa-b; CH XI, SECT 134
SSb-d; SECT 141 S8a-b; eli XV, SECT 171
6Sa-b; CH XVI, SECT 175 65d; SECT 192 6ge-d;
CH XIX 73d-81d passim, esp SECT2II 73d74a,
SECT 243 BId
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK IX, 58b,d
60a
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 353c-3S5b; 358b-d /
Political Economy, 367b; 370b-e / Social
tract, BK I 387b,d-394d esp 391b..;392a; BK II,
400a-e; BK III, 423a-424d
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 403b-e
42 KANT: Science of Right, 412e-413a; 434b-e;
43Sa-436e; 437e-d; 450d-452a
43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: la-b
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 1, 29a-b; NUMBER 22,
84d-8Sa; NUMBER 38, 121b-c; NUMBER 44,
144d-145a
43 MILL: Liberty, 302d-303a / Representative
Government, 327b,d-332d passim
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART I, par 75
31d-32b; PART III, par 258,
TIONS, 47 124a-b; 116 135e-d
3e. Love and justice as the bond of men in
states: friendship and patriotism
5 SOPHOCLES: Antigone [332-375] 134a-b
5 EURIPIDES: Suppliants [286-364] 260d-261e /
Phoenican Alaidens [528-567] 382e-d; [991-
IOI8J 387a-b
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK VII, 225d-226b;
255c-d; BK VIII, 273d
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK II,
397d-398e; 402b-404a; BK VI, 513d-S14b;
534b-e
7 PLATO: Protagoras, 44a-45a / Symposium,
152b-d; lS4a-b / Republic, BK I, 308b-309b;
BK IV, 346a-356a; BK V, 360d-365d / Laws,
BK IV, 678d-679a; BK V, 692b-e; 694d; BK VI,
701a / Seventh Letter, 814b-e
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK VIII, Cli I [II55a22-28]
406d; CH 9-12 411d-414d passin1; BK IX, CH 6
420e-421a / Politics, BK. I, CH 2 [1253a29-39]
446d; BK II, CH 4 [I262a25-b23] 457b-d; CH 5
[I263a23-b27] 458b-d; BK III, CH 9 [I280
a
32-
128I
a
2] 477d-478e; BK IV, CH II [r295br-34]
495e-496a
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK III, SECT II 262a-b
14 PLUTARCH: Romulus, 20e..,21a / Lycurgus,
36a-b; 44d-45e/ Pelopidas, 238d-239d/ Dion,
784d-785a
15 TACITUS: Histories, BK IV, 284c-285a
3e
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK II, CH 21
162d; BK IV, CH 4 190d; BK XIX, ClI 21
525a; CH 23-24, 528a-e
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, XI [13-9
0
]
16a; XXXII-XXXIV 47e-52d; PURGATOR
[58-:-151] 61b-62e; fv 75b-76d
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 75e
31 SPINOZA: Ethcs, PART IV, APPENDIX, x
448ad
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH VIII, SEc
49b-d / Human Understanding, BK I, C
SECT 2 104a-b
36 S\VIFT: Gulliver, PART IV, 165b-166a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, xxiia..,d;
18d-19d
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 323bd / Rot
Economy, 373c-374a; 376a-b / Social
tract, BK III, 421e-422a
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 4d
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 14, 62a-d; NUMBER.
6ge-70d; NUMBER 27, 95e-d; NUMBE
100a-b; NUMBER 46, 150e-151a
43 MILL: Representatve Government, 343a;
425b; 428b-e / Utilitarianism, 460
464d-476a,e passim, esp 469c-d, 473d-"l7
46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofRight, PART III, par
269 84b-d; par 289 97b-d; par 325
ADDITIONS, 160-161 142d-143b / Philoso
History, INTRO, 172b-d; PART III, 30De-
PART IV, 318a; 320e-321a; 334b-e; 365'1)
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 310c-d
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK IX, 38"le"3
BK XI, 474a-b; 475b-476e
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov,
158b-159a
54 FREUD: Group Psychology, 672a-678
674a, 678a-e; 68Sd-686e /Ego and Id, 7
/ Civilization and Its Discontents, 780c;
791e
3f. Fear and dependence as the cause of s
cohesion: protection and securitY'
5 AESCHYLUS: Eumenides [681-710] 880..,0
5 SOPHOCLES: Antigone [162-210] 132ed t'
[147-19] 152a-b
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK II,
404a
7 PLATO: Protagoras, 44a-45b / Republic,
311b-e; 316c-319a
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK III, CH 6 [I278bI
475d-476a; CH 9 [I280a32-I28Ia2] 4770-
BK V, CH 8 [1308a25-30] 510b-e
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK vI
1027] 74b-e
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God., BK I, Cli 30
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH IX, 15b-c;
24a-d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 77a; 77e; 8
86d-87b; 90b-d; PART II, 99a-101a;
116e-d
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 37,S
435b-436a
.4b
LOCKE: Toleration, 16a-c / Civil Government,
eII II, SECT 13-15 28a-e; CH VIII, SECT 95
46c-d; CH IX 53e-54d; CH XI, SECT 136- 137
56c-57b
STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 262a
MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK I, 2b-d
ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 354e-355a /Political
Economy, 370b-e; 374a-375h; 381e-382b /
Social Contract,BK I, 391b..:c; BK II, 398a-d;
BK III, 417d
SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK V, 309a':'311e
oGIBBON: Decline and Fall, 91h
2 KANT: Science of Right,
3FEDERALIST: NUMBER 15,65b-c;NUMBER29,
lOla; NUMBER 51, 163b-e
3 MILL: Representative Government, 422b /
Vtilaarianum, 471a-b
HEGEL: Philosophy ofRight, PART III, par 261,
83d / Philosophy of History, PART II, 283b-e;
PART III, 285a-b; 287a-288b; 289b-d;
30le; PART IV, 328b-330b; 342b-d;
DARWIN: Descent of Man, 321b-e
DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK v,
127b-137e passim
FREUD: New Introductory Lectures, 884a
GFhe identity and continuitY' of a state: the
dissolution of the bodY' politic or civil
society
ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK III, CH 3 473a-e
TACITUS: Histories, BK I, 212b
HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 116e-d; 148e-
153a; 154b-e; CONCLUSION, 280c-281a
MONTAIGNE: Essays, 464e-465e
LOCKE: Civil Government, CH XVI, SECT 175
65d; CH XIX 73d-81d passim, esp SECT 211
73d-74a
MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws, BK X, 62d
ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 374b / Social
Contract, BK I, 392d; BK II, 395b; BK III, 407e;
"lOBe; 418a-420a
2 KANT: Science of Right, 450d-451b
3 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: [41-47] 2a
3 ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: XII 9b
CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE VI [578-
582] 16d
FEDERALIST: NUMBER 43, 142d-143a; NUMBER
84,2S4b-e
HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 269
84d; par 272, 90b-e; par 347 111b-e;
TIONS, 161 143a-b
MARX: Capital, 175e
he phY'sical foundations of societY': the
geographical and biological conditions
of the state
The territorial extent of the state: its im-
portance relative to different forms of
government
PLATO: Republic, BK II, 318e-319a; BK IV,
3"l3d-344a / Laws, BK V, 691d
847
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK II, CH 6 [I265alo-r8]
460b-e; BK III, CH 3 473a-e; BK IV, CH 4
[129IaI9-2I] 490b-e; .CH 15 [I299a32-bIO]
SOOa-b; BK VI, CH 4 [r3I9a20-:-b2] 522d-523a;
BK VII, CH 5 530d-531b
14 PLUTARCH: Numa Pompilius, 58a-h / Solon,
72d
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK III, 58a-b / Histories,
BK II, 224d
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK III, CH 10 172d-
173e
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, eH v, SECT 38
33b-e; SECT 45 34d-35a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK IV, 17a-b;
BK VIII, 56b-57e; BK IX, 58b,d-59b; BK XI,
83e-d; BK XVII, 124e-d
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 323b-e / Political
Economy, 3BOa-b / Social Contract,BK I,
394b-e; BK II, 403a404e; BK III, 411a; 412a-b;
413a-d; 417b-e; 422d-423a
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, Ib-3e; Bb-11d;
33d..,34a,e
42 KANT: Science of Right, 455c-456a
43 ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: IX [262-274]
7d-8a
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE IV,
SECT 316b
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER I, 30d-31a; NUMBER 2,
31e-d; NUMBER 7, 41d-42d; NUMBER 9, 47c
48d; NUMBER 10, 51e-53a; NUMBER 13'-14
59a-62d passim, esp NUMBER 14, 60b-d;
NUMBER 28, 97e-98b; NUMBER 37, 120b-d;
NUMBER 4.3, 140d-141a; NUMBER 51, 164d
165a; NUMBER 63, 192d-193a; NUMBER 84,
253d-254b
43 MILL: Liberty, 273b-e / Representative Govern
ment, 330a-e; 352a-3S3a; 432b-c
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 296
99a-b / Philosophy ofHistory, PART I, 243e-d;
PART II, 273d-274a;PART IV,
4b. The influence of climate and geography on
political institutions and political econ-
omy
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK IX, 314a,c
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK I,
349b-d; 352e-d; 372e-d
7 PLATO: Laws, BK IV, 677a-e; BK V, 696d-697a
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK II, CH 10 [I27Ib30-38]
468a; [I272a4o_b2] 468d; [I272bI7-20] 469a;
BK V, CH 3 [I303b8-I8] 505a-b; BK VII, CH 5
[I326b26]-CH 7 [I327
b
32] 530d-532a; CH I I
[I33oa34-bI7] 53Sa-b
10 HIPPOCRATES: Airs, Waters, Places, par 16
15d-16a
14 PLUTARCH: Solon, 72d / Themistocles, 96b-e
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 224a-b; 295b-296b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK I,3e-d; BK
VII, 46e-47a; BK XIV 102b,d-108d; BK XV,
111a-e; BK XVI, 116a-120a; BK XVII-XVIII 122a
134d; BK XIX, 138b-c; 140e-d; 143d-144b; BK
XXI, 153a-1S4a
THE GREAT IDEAS
849
Sc. The classes or sub-groups arising from the
division of labor or distinctions of birth:
the social hierarchy
6 I-IERODOTUS: History, BK II, 59b-e; 84d-85b
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II-IV, 316a-350a esp BK
II, 316e-319c; BK V, 358d-360d; BK VIII, 413a-c
/ Timaeus, 442b; 445e / Crziias, 480a-481b /
Laws, BK V, 695a-e; BK VII, 722d; BK VIII,
740d-741a; BK XI, 774a-775a
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK II, CH 2 [I26Ia24-b6]
456a-b; CH 5 [I264al]-CH 6 [1265a9] 459a-
460b; CH 8 [1267b30-36] 463e-d;
464a-b; BK III, CH 4-5 473e-475d; BK IV, CH 3
[1289b27-129oaI2] 488d-489a; CH 4 [I290b21-
1291b29] 489d-491a; CH 12 [1296b20-34] 496d-
497a; BK VII, CH 8-10 532e-534d / Athenan
Consttiulion, CH 7 555e-556a
14 PLUTARCH: Theseus, 9a-d / Romulus, 20e-21a
/ Nurna Pompilius, 57d-58e
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, XVI 130a-
132a
22 CHAUCER: Prologue 159a-174a / Parson's Tale,
par 64-67, 530b-532a
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 131b-132a; 411a-d
26 SHAKESPEARE: 2nd Henry VI, ACT IV 56a-64d
esp sc II 57d-59d
27 SHAKESPEARE: Troilus and Cressida, ACT I,
sc III [75-136] 108d-10ge
29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART II, 221d-
222d
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART I, 30a-31a; PART IV,
154b-155b; 158a-b
37 FIELDING: Tom jones, 134a-b; 297d-298a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK II, 5b-e;
BK III, 11e-12a; BK XV, 111a-112a; BK XX,
151b-152a; BK XXII, 184a-b
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 365d-366a / Political
Economy, 381e-382b / Social Contract, BK III,
422a; BK IV, 428b-430a
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK I, 6d-8b; 51a-
62a passitn; 109d-110d; BK III, 169c-170b;
BK IV, 269d-271a; BK v, 301a-309a,e passim;
309a-311e; 382a-383b; 391b-392a
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 89d; 144a-b;
242a-e; 497a-501d passim
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 73b; 81e-d; 317b-
318b; 389b-e; 404e-d; 452d-456a,e esp 452d;
571a-S72e
42 KANT: Science of Right, 436d-437e; 444e-445e
/ judgement, 586a-e
43 ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: VI [82-93]
6a-b
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE I, SECT
9 [289-295], SECT 10 [30-33] 14a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 35, 113a-114a; NUMBER
36, 114e-115a; NUMBER 84, 252a
;h. The family as a menlber of the state: its
autonomy and its subordination
5 AESCHYLUS: Seven Against Thebes [1011-1084]
38b-39a,e
5 SOPHOCLES: Antigone 131a-142d
5 EURIPIDES: Iphigenia at Aulis [1255-1275]
436c; [1368-1401] 437e-d
5 ARISTOPHANES: Ecclesiazusae [611-65] 622a-e
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK IV, 139a-b; BK VII,
223e-d
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK II, 398e-d
7 PLATO: Republic, BK v,360d-365d / Statesman,
608a-d / Laws, BK III, 665d-666e; BK VI,
707b-708e; BK VII, 721d; BK XI, 775d-781e
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK X, CH 9 [1180
a
25-
bI
3]
435a-b / Politics, BK I, CH 2 [1253aI9-29] 446e;
CH 13 [1260b8-19] 455e;BK II, CH 2-3 455d-
457a; CH 9 [1269bI3-I27ob6] 465d-466e; BK
III, CH 9 [I280b30-I28Ia2] 478e
14 PLUTARCH: Romulus, 21a-26b / Lycurgus,
39a-41a / Numa Pompilius, 58d / Lycurgus-
Numa, 62d-64a / Cato the Younger, 629a-e
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK II, 32b-d; BK III, 51a;
51d-52a; BK XV, 162b-e
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK XIX, CH 16 521d-
522a
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q 90,
A 3, REP 3 207a-e; Q 95, A I, ANS 226e-227e;
Q 104, A 4, ANS 306d-307e; Q 105, A 4 318b-
321a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 121a; 155b
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 344a-e
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH VI 36a-42a; CH
VII, SECT 83 43b-e; CH XVI, SECT 180-183 67b-
68b; SECT 188-192 69a-d
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART I, 29b-31a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK IV, 13b;
BK V, 22d-23a; BK XIX, 140a-e; BK XXIII,
189b-c; 192d-199b; BK XXVI, 216e
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 327e-d; 364d-365b /
Political Economy, 376b-377a; 377d-378a /
Social Contract, BK IV, 439b,d [fn 2]
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 175e-d
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 73e; 82b-83e; 88d..
89a; 92e
42 KANT: Science ofRight, 420b-421e
43 MILL: Libertv, 317e-319d
44 BOSWELL:johnson, 280e-281a; 304a-b; 355b-d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 166
59d-60a; par 174 61b; par 180 62e-63e; par
238-239 76c-d; par 255-256 79d-80a; ADDI-
TIONS, 127 137b; 146-147 140b-e / Philosophy
ofHistory, INTRO, 172b-d; PART I, 246d-247a;
PART II, 277e; PART III, 288e-289b
5;b to 5c CHAPTER 90: STATE
43 CoNsnTUTIoN OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE I, SECT 8 50 MARX: Capital, 241a-d
[204-206] 13b 50 1rfARX-ENGELS: Comnlunist Manifesto, 427b-
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 42, 138d-13ge; NUMBER 428a
43, 142b-e; NUMBER 54, 171a-b 54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 783d-
43 MILL: Representative Government, 34Se-346a; 784a
366a-370a;380e-389b passim
46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofHistory, PART II, 273e
Sa. The political distinction between ruling
and subject classes, and between citizens
and denizens
5 SOPHOCLES: Ajax [1226-1.315] 153e-154b
5 ARISTOPHANES: Frogs [686-705] 572a-b
6 HERODOTUS: lfistory, BK I, 28e-29a
7 PLATO: Republic, BK III-IV, 339b-350a / Latus,
BK VIII, 742e-:-d; BK XI, 774d-775a
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK I, CH 13 [1259b33-
1260
a
20] 454b-d; BK II, CH 5 [I264aII-b25]
459b-460a; CH 6 [I265bI8-2I] 461a; BK III, en:
1-5 471b,d-475d passim; BK IV, CH 4 489b-
491d; BK VII, CH 2 [1324
aI
4-17] 528a; CH 4-
[I326aI7-24] 530b; CH 6 [1327b7-14] 531d; en:
8-9532e-533d / Athenian Constitution, CH
555e-556a '
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 46e-47a / Lycurgus-
Numa, 62b-e
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK XI, 106a-107b
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q98,
A 6, REP 2 244c-245b; Q 104, A 4 306d-307c;
Q 105, A 3, REP 2 316a-318b
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 108d-109a
35 LOCKE: Civil Governrnent, CH II, SECT 9 27a-b
CH VIII, SECT 122 53b-e
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws, BK XV, 109a-b
110a; 112e-d; 114e-115b
38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK I, 392b [fn
BK III, 420b-e; BK IV, 426b-e; 427e; 428
430a
39 SMITH: Wealth ofNations, BK IV,
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 14a-15e passi
16e-17d; 147a-b
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 81d-82b; 404d
42 KANT: Science of Right, 436d-437e
43 ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: IV [17-.3
5b-e
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall,
90e-d; 239a-d; 486e
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 108d-109a; 221b-c'
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 229d-230a
43 DECLARATION OF [48-SI]2a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 2, 31d; NUMBER 10
52a-53a; 13, 59h-e;
170a-172b passim; NUMBER 55, 172b-173c'
56 174d-176d; NUMBER 58
passim
43 MILL: Liberty, 319b-d / Representative Govern_
111ent, 424c-428a passim
44 BOSvVELL: Johnson, 172b-c; 373c-374a
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 243
77b-e / Philosophy ofHistory, PART II, 263b-d'
PART III, 286b; PART IV, 318e-319b '
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 275d-277c; 3230-
327a; 383b-384d; 391d-394a,e
50 MARX: Capital, 172b-e; 249a-250a; 312e-313a;
317e-319a; 348a-350d; 360a-364a
50 MARX-ENGELS: Com1nunist Alanifesto, 421c-d
S. The social structure or stratification of the
state
(4. The physical foundations of society: the geo-
graphical and biological conditions of the
state. 4b.The influence of climate a11d
geography on. political institutions and
political economy.)
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 325b / Social Contract,
BK II, 404b-e; 405e-d; BK III, 415b-417e; 422e
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BKI, 8b-10b; BK
III, 173b-e
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 83e-d; 87d-91b esp
90c-91b;236e-237a;396b-398apassiln;567a-d;
655d-657e
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 220b-22Sa passim,
esp 221b-222d, 224b; 338b-e; 341e-343b pas-
sim; 3S5e-d; 427b-428a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 2, 31e-d; NUMBER 5,
38a; NUMBER 8, 46a-47a; NUMBER II, 55b-
56b; NUMBER 12, 57b-58b; NUMBER 24, 88e-
89a; NUMBER 25, 89d-90a; NUMBER38, 124e-d;
NUMBER 41, 133e; 134d-135a
43 Mlt:L: RepresentatitJe Government, 424e-428a
passim
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 247
78a-b / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 190b-
201a,e esp 194b-196a; PART I, 243d-244e;
248e-249d; 251e-252d; PART II, 259d-260a;
261a; 263d-264a; PART III,286b
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 323a-b
50 MARX: Capital, 253b-255a
4c. The size, diversity, and distribution of pop-
ulations: the causes and effects of their
increase or decrease
6 HERODOTUS: I-listory, BK I, 22d-23a
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK I,
349b-d;BK II, 391e-392a; 399b-401b
7 PLATO: Republic, BK IV, 343d-344a / Laws,
BK III, 663d-667a; BK V, 691d; 693a-e
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK IX, CH 10 [II7
ob2
9-34]
424e / Politics, BK II, CH 6 [I265aIO-I8] 460b-e;
[I265a38-bI7] 460d-461a; CH 9 [I27oaIS-_b6]
466b-e; BK III, CH 15 [I286
b
g.-22] 484d-485a;
BK IV, CH 6 [I292b4I-I293RII] 492e; CH II
[I296a6-I3] 496b; CH 13 [I297b22-28] 498a;
BK V, CH 3 [1303a25-b4] 504d-505a; BK VI,
CH 6 [1320b39-132Ia4] 524e; BK VII, CH 4
530a-d; CH 6 531b-d esp [I327aI2-17] 531b
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 138b-139a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 157a
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 330b-d
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH XIII, SECT 157-
15861e-62b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK VII,. 46e-
47a; BK XVIII, 127a-b; BK XXIII 187b,d-200a,e
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 365e-366b / Political
Economy, 367d; 378b / Social Contract, BK II,
404a-e; BK III, 407c-408b; 413d; 417b-418a;
420b-e; 422d-423a; BK IV, 428b-c
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK I, 33e-34b;
71a-d; BK III, 163a-165b; BK IV, 243b,d-244a;
BK v,384b-d
848
5d. The conflict of classes within the state
5d(1) The opposition of social groups: the
treatment of national, rac;al, and re-
ligious minorities
7 PLATO: Laws, BK I, 641c-642b; BK IV, 678d-
679a; BK VIII, 742c-d; BK XI, 774d-775a; BK
XII, 790a-d
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK III, CH 5 [I277
b
34-
1278a7] 475a-b; BK V, CH 3 [I303a25-b4] 504d-
505a; BK VII, CH 10 [I33oa25-33] 534d
14 PLUTARCH: Theseus, 9c / Romulus, 2la-27c /
Numa Pompilius 49a-61d esp 58c
22 CHAUCER: Prioress's Tale [13,418-620] 392a..
39Sb esp [13,418-424] 392a / Second Nun's
Tale 463b-47lb esp [15,826-16,021] 467b-471b
23 HOBBEs: Leviathan, PART II, 108d-lOga
26 SHAKESPEARE: Merchant of Venice, ACT I, SC
III [106-143] 410c-4lla
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART III, PROP 46 410c
32 MILTON: Sonnets, XV 66b
35 LocKE: Toleration la-22d
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART I, 21b-23a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws, BK XXIV, 206c
38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK IV, 428b-c
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 12a-b; 13b-14a;
B3a-b; 147a-b; 179d-180a; 206b,d-234a,c :esp
207b-21la, 229c-232b; 290b-291c; 348d-
851
32 MILTON": Areopagitica, 393a-b
38 RoussEAu: Inequality, 323a-b I Social Con:.
tract, BK II,402b-403a; 405a-c
39 SMITH: Wealth ofNations, BK IV, 20lb-c
42 KANT: Pure Reason, ll4b-d / Science of Right,
455c-458a,c / fudgeinent, 586a-
587a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 37-38 ll7d-125a pas-
silU; NUMBER 41, 132b-c; NUMBER 65, 200b-c;
NUMBER 85, 257a-c; 258d-259a
43 :LvhLL: Representative Government, 327b,d-
355b esp 341c-d, 344d-345a, b ; 368c-
d; 380c-381a
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par I8S
64b-d; par 273 90c-92a / Philosophy ofHistory,
INTRa, 173a-175c; PART I, 251h; PART in,
300c-d
50 MARX-ENGELS: Comlnunist Manifesto, 432d-
433d
6a. The political institutions of the ideal. state
5 ARISTOPHANES: Ecclesiazusae 61Sa-628d
6 THUCYDIDES: PeloponnesianWar, BK II, 396c-
397d
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II-IV, 3l6a-350a /
Statesman, 598b-604b / Laws 640a-799a,c esp
BK III, 669d-672b, BK IV, 679c-682c, BK v,
692c-693a, BK VI, 697a-706c, BK VIII, 733b-
734a, BK IX, 754a-b, BK XII 784b-799a,c / Sev-
enth Letter, 806d-807b
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics,. BK II, CH I [I26o
b
28-36]
455b; CH 2 [I26Ia24-bI5] 456a-c; CH 5 [I264
b
7-2 5] 459d-460a; CH 6 [1265b26-I266a30]
46lb-d; cH8 463c-465b; BK IV, CH II 495b-
496d
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 34d-35d; 45c-46a
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART F-II, Q
105, A I 307d-309d
27 SHAKESPEARE: Tempest, ACT II, SC I [143-184]
532d-533b
37 FIELDING: Tom fones, 268c-269b
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 323a-325b / Social
Contract, BK III, 410d-4l1C;BK IV, 427d
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 114b-d / Science ofRight,
450b-45ld; 455c-456a
43 MILL: Representative Govern1nent, 338a; 341d-
350a; 369b-389b
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 185
64b-d / Philosophy of l-listory, INTRO, 174a-
l75c; PART I, 251b; PART III, 300c-d; PART IV,
365c-366a
50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 428d
6b. The social and economic arrangements of
the ideal state
5 ARISTOPHANES: Birds 542a-563d / Ecclesiazu-
sae 615a-628d / Plutus 629a-642d
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 316c-3l9a; BK III-IV,
339b-344a; BK V, 356b-365d; BK VII, 40lc-d
/ Timaeus, 442d I Critias, 481a-485c / Laws
640a-799a,c esp BK I, 645b-652d, BK II,
655b-663d, BK IV, 677a-678c, BK Y, 691b-
CHAPTER 90:STATE
prJ 6b
39 SMITH: lVealth of Nations, BK I, 28a-d;109d-
110d; BK III, 170c-173b; l75b-179a; BK IV,
269d-271a;BK Y, 309a-3l1cesp 309a-c; 420b-
421a
40 GIBBON: D(c!iue and Fall, 144a-d .
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 570d-572d passim;
574b-S82c; 588a-589a;
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 10 49c-53a:; NUMBER 51,
164a-16Sa; NUMBER 6o, 185b-186c; NUMBER
85,256b-c
43 1vfrLL: Liberty, 289c-290a; 309b-c / Representa-
tiveGovernment,34Sc-346a; 366a.-370a; 376a-c;
387c-d; 392b-399d passim
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right; PART III, pari36
76a-c; par 304 102a / Philosophy of History,
PART I, 2S0a-c; PART II, 263b-d; 275b-276a;
283c-d; PART III, 294c-297b;PART IV, 335a-
336c; 356c-357a
SO MARX: Capital, 6d-7d; 9a-c; 63b-c; l13c;
127c-146c esp 131a, 134c-d, 144a-146c;
275a-c; 295a; 317b-c; passim, esp
356c-361d, 366a-368b; 377c-378d
SO MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto 4l5a-
434d esp 416c-d, 4l9b,d-420a, 422c, 423b-
424d, 42Sc, 429b-c, 434c-d
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK x, 410c-42lc
,S4 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 787d /
Nelv Introductory Lectures, 882c-d; 884a
Se. The classless society
SO MARX: Capital, 9c
SO MARX-ENGELS: ComrllunistManifesto,416c-d;
429b-c
6. The ideal or best state: the contrast between
the ideal state and the best that is his-
torically real or practicable
6 THUCYDIDES: PeloponnesianWar, BK n,395d-
399a
7 PLATO: Republic 295a-441a,c esp RK V-VI,
368c-383a, BK VII, 401c-d / Timaeus, 442b-
443b / Statesman, 598b-604b / Laws 640a-
799a,c esp BK v, 692c-693a, 696a-b, BK VII,
722d-723c, BK IX, 754a-b / Seventh Letter,
807b
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK V, CH 7 [II35
a2
-4]
382d / Politics, BK II, CH I [I260
b
26]-CH 9
[I269
a
33] 455b,d-465c; BK IV, CH I 487a-
488b; CH 2 [1289a30-35] 488b; CH 7 [1293
bI
-
21] 493a-b; CH II 495b-496d esp [I295a25-bI]
495b-c; BK VII-VIII 527a-548a,c esp BK VII,
CH 4 [I32 5
b
34';--39] 530a
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK IX, SECT 29
294a-b
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus 32a-48d esp 48b-c /
Numa Pompilius 49a-61d / Lycurgus-Numa
61b,d-64a,c
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH XV, 22b
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 164a,c
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 462c-465c
30 BACON: Advancen1ent of Learning, 94d-95a I
New Atlantis 199a-214d
.sd(2) The clash of economic interests and po-
litieal factions: the class war
5 EURIPIDES: Suppliants 260b-c
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK VI, 202c-203b; 13K
VII, 243b-c
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK III,
423a-c; 434c-438c esp 436d-437d; BK IV,
459a-c; 463a-469b; BK V, 482d-483a; 502d;
504a-b; BK VI, S20a-d; BK VIII 564a-593a,c
7 PLATO: Republic, BK IV, 343c-d; BK VIII, 405c-
406b / Laws, BK V, 69Sa-c
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK II, CH 7 461d-463c
passim; BK III, CH 10 [I28IaII-29]
BK IV, CH 3-4 488d-491d; CH 11-12 4950-
497b; BK V, CH 3-8 S03d-511c; CH 9 [I309bLf-
I310aII] S11d-512b; BK VI, CH 7 [I32IaS-27]
524c-525a / Athenian Constitution,cHI'741
553a-S72a passim, esp CH 2-6 S53a-555c;cH
29-41 566b-572a I
14 PLUTARCH: Solon, 68d-71c;75c-76d / Corio-
lanus, 176b-177b; 179c-184c / Agis 648b,d..
656d / Cleomenes, 657a-663c / Tiberius
Gracchus 671b,d-681a,c / CaiusGraccnus
681b,d-689a,c / Cicero, 708a-713b
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK VI, 97b / Histories, BK II,
224d-225a
21 DANTE: Divine Conzedy, HELL, VI [58-75] 9a;
X [34-93] 14a-c; XXVIII 41b-43a; PURGATORY,
VI [58-I51l61b-62c
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH IX, 14c-d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, l2lb-122b
26 SHAKESPEARE: 2nd Henry VI, AOq- IV Soa"
64d
27 SHAKESPEARE: Coriolanus, ACT I, SC I 351a-
354d / Pericles, ACT II, SC I [30-56] 427c-d
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART I, 21b-23a;PART II, 60
80a-b;PART IV, l54b-155b
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 375b-d; 38
382b / Social Contract, BKII, 396b-d;BK

THE GREAT .IDEAS 5d to Sa
36la,c esp 352c...354d, 35G})..
383a-b; 390c-39ld; 607b-60Ba; 6l7a-
622b-d; 638d-639a; 643c-d
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 138d; 285d-288
404d; 480d-48la
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE ARTICLE I, SECT 9
[260-266] 13d; ARTICLE VI [597-599] 16d;
AMENDMENTS, I 17a; XV 19b
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 42, 137b-c; NUMBER
52, 165c; NUMBER 54 170a-172b; NUMBER 57
177b '
43 MILL: Liberty, 270c-271a; 278a-282a; 307d-
312a passim / Representative Government
366c-d; 424c-428a / Utilitarianism,
476a
46 HEGEL: Phz7osophy ofRight, PART III, par 270
86d-87b [fn I] / Philosophy of History, INTR.O'
172d-173a; PART II, 276d-277a; PART lIz'
287d-288b '
54 FREUD: War and Death, 755d-756a / Civiliza-
tion and Its Discontents, 788c
(5. The social structure or stratification of the
state. 5c. The classes or sub-groups arising
from the division of labor or distinctions of
birth: the social hierarchy.)
43 Liberty, 270a-b / Representative Govern-
ment, 385a-d; 392b-399d passim, esp 398a-d
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 124d-126a; 127b-c; 140b-
141a; 211b-c; 247c-d; 299a-b; 383b; 470b-c
46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofRight, PART III, par 201-
206 68a-69b; par 255 79d; par 288 97a-b;
par 295 98d-99a; par 303 101c-l02a; par 305
102b; par 308 102c-l03a; par 326 107d-108a;
ADDITIONS, 127-13 137b-d; lSI 141b-c; 189
149d / Philosophy of History, INTRO, l81d-
182a; 193b-c; PART I, 222a-223c; 237b-c;
250a-c; PART II, 275b-276a; PART III, 287d-
288b, 294c-297b; PART IV, 335a-336c; 356c-
357a
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 324a-c; 578b-c
50 MARX: Capital, 95d-96b [fn 2]; 164a-180d esp
165a-b, 165d-166a, 171a-c, 173b, 176b-d,
178c-179c; 218c-219d; 239d-240c; 303d; 317c-
321b esp 317c-319b, 319d-321b; 355a-364a
passim, esp 364a; 366a-b; 368c-369a
50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 419b
[fn I]; 419d-420b; 422c-424c; 430b-c
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK I, la-lIb; BK V,
204a-206c; BK VII, 278c; 281a-284a; BK IX,
347d-350d passim; 384c-388a,c; BK x, 403a-
405a; BK XI, 503a-505a; EPILOGUE II, 685d..
686a
54 FREUD: New Introductory Lectures, 882c-d
850
THE GREAT IDEAS
CHAPTER 90: STATE
852
(6. The ideal or hest state: the contrast hetween
the ideal state and the best that is histori-
cally real or practicable. 6b. The social
and economic arrangements oj the ideal
state.)
697a, BK VI, 706d-713e, BK VII, 717b-728b,
BK VIII 731d-743a, BK XI 771b-784b
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK II, CH 1-8 455b,d-
465b; BK VII, CH 8-12 532c-536b
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 36a-47a / Numa Pom-
pilius, 58a-e
25 11oNTAIGNE: Essays, 93d-94a
27 SHAKESPEARE: Tempest, ACT II, SC I [146-
175] 533a-b
46 I-IEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 299
9ge-100b
50 MARX: Capital, 292d; 377e-378d
50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 425b-
42ge esp 428d-42ge; 432b-433d passim
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK VI,
158b-159a
54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 787d-
788b / New Introductory Lectures, 883d-884c
7. Factors affecting the quality of states
7a. Wealth and political welfare
5 ARISTOPHANES: Plutus 629a-642d esp [415-
618] 633d-636d
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian TVar, BK I, 350b-
352e; BK II, 397b-e; BK VIII, 569d
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 316e-319a esp 318e-
319a; BK III-IV, 339b-344a esp 341e-344a;
BK V, 364e-365d; BK VIII, 405e-408a / Critias,
485b-e / Laws, BK III, 665b; BK IV, 677a-e;
BK v, 687d..,688a; 694a-695e; BK VIII, 733b-d
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK II, CH 7 [I267aI8-36]
462d-463a; BK VII, CH 4 [I325b33-I326a4]
530a; CH 6 [I327a25-3I] 531b-e; CH 8 532e-
533a
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 36a-37b;.47d / Lycur-
gus-Numa, 62b-e / Coriolanus, 180b-d /
Aristides-Marcus Cato, 291b-292b / Agis,
649b-e
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK II, 31a-b; BK III, 57b-58d
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK I, CH 30-33
147b-149a
21 DANTE: Divine Co11zedy, HELL, VII [I-6o] ge-
lOa; XVI [64-78] 23a-b; PURGATORY, xX [34-
96] 83e-84a
23 I-IoBBEs: Leviathan, PART IV, 267e-268b
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART II, 73b-76b; PART IV,
154b-155b
38 tv10NTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLatu's, BK v, 19a-21d;
23a-25e; BK VII, 44a-48a; BK XIII, 96c; BK XX,
146b-147d; BK XXI, 153e-d; 154b
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 325d; 327e-32Ba;
365e-366b / Political Economy, 375b-d; 377b-
385a,e / Social Contract, BK II, 405e-d; BK III,
411a-b; 415b-417c; 421e-d
7 to
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK I, 27b-3U:j.
33e-35c
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 22b-23b; B8d-89d'.
456d-457a,e; 498a-501d; 642a-e '
43 FEDERALIST: 79b-BOa
44 BOSWELL: johnson, 210d-211b
46 of Right, ADDITIONS, Hi3
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 324a-d
50 MARX: Capital, 292d; 319b-321b
7b. The importance of the arts and sciences in
political life
5 ARISTOPHANES: Acharnians [497-508] 460cJ.-
461a; [628-658] 462b-d / Wasps [19-159]
519d-520e / Birds [94-1 57] 554a-555d t
Frogs 564a-582a,e esp [1008-198] 5760.
577e, [1411'-1533] 581a-582a,c
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II-III, 320e-339a; BK IV,
344b-345a; BK VII 388a-401d; BK x 427c-
441a,e esp 432d-434e I Statesman, 604e-608cJ.
/ Laws, BK II 653a-663d; BK III, 675e-6760-
BK VII, 713e-730d '
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK VIn 542a-548a,c
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 43b-44b
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK I, CH 31-33
147d-149a; BK II, CH 8-14 153d-157e; BK IV
CH 26-27 202a-203e / Christian Doctrine,
II, CH 25 649b-d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 164e
30 BACON: New Atlantis 199a-214d
214d
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT I, DIV 5,
453a-b
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART III, I04b-107a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK IV,
18d; BK XXIII, 191a.. e
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 365d-366b
39 SMITH: Wealth of Natons, BK I, Sd-6a; BK v,
308e-309a,c; 337d-33ge; 347b-d I
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 23b-24a,e; 88d;
158d-159a; 633b-e
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 298a-300c;
326b-328a,e esp 327d-328a,e; 451d; 527d-
528a,e
42 KANT: Fund. Prine Metaphysic ofMorals, 2530
/ judgenzcnt, 586a-587a
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE I, SECT
8 [214-217] 13b
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 43, 139d-140a
44 BOSWELL: johnson, l80d-18la
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 185a..
186a; PART I, 217e-218a; PART II, 277d-278a;
PART IV, 346e-348a
54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 778a
779d
'c. The state's concern with religion and mor-
als: the cultivation of the virtues
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK VII, 232d-233
BK IX, 294a-c
to 7d
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK I, 370a-e;
BK II, 396b-d; 399a
7 PLATO: Apology, 206a-207b / Gorgias, 287e-
290b / Republic, BK 316a-356a /
Tintaeus, 442b-443b / Critias, 485b-e / States-
man, 605d-608d / Laws, BK III, 669b-670e;
BK IV, 682e-683d; BK v, 687d-688a; BK VIII,
73Id-732e; 735b-738e; BK X 757d-771b; BK
XII, 794a-799a,e / Seventh Letter, 80Ib-e;
806b-e
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK V, CH2 [II30bI8-29]
378a-b; BK x, CH 9 [II79B33-II80aI3] 434a-d /
Politics, ilK II, CH 5 [I263b36-1264aI] 459a;
[I264a26-32] 45ge; CH 7 [I266b27-I267aI7]
462b-d; [I267a36-b9] 463b; BK V, CH 9 [13106
13-36] 512b-e; BK VII, CH 1-3 527a-530a;
CH 8 532e-533a; BK VII, CH I3-BK VIII, CH 7
536b-548a,c
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus 32a-48desp 44d-45e /
IVuma Pompilius 49a-61d esp 52d-53a / Lycur-
gus-Numa 61b,d-64a,e / Solon 64b,d-77a,e /
Marcellus,
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK III, 60d-61a
18 AUGUSTINE: .City of God, BK I-V 129a-230a,c;
BK XIX, CH 23-24 525e-528e
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q 92,
AA 1-2 213c-215a,e; Q 95, A I 226e-227e; Q 96,
AA 2-3 231e-233a
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, VI [58-
151] 61b-62e; XVI [52-129] 77b-78a; PARADISE,
XV [97]-XVI [154] 129b-132a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 154b-155e
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 74b-e
35 LOCKE: Toleration, 15d / Human Understand-
ing, BK I, CH II, SECT 6 105b-e
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SE'CT XI, DIV
II3-I14,502d-503b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws, xxiia-d; BK III,
9b-11d; BK IV-V, 13b,d-19d; BK V, 21b-23b;
BK VI, 40a-b; BK XIX, 135d-142a; BK XXIII,
196e-197e; BK XXIV 200a-208a,e
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 327a-328a / Political
Economy, 372a-377b / Social Contract, BK IV,
435a-43ge
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK V, 337d-338e;
346e-347d
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 100e-101b; 291d-
292d; 601b-d
42 KANT: judgeJnent, 509d-510a
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: AMENDMENTS,
XVIII 19c-d; XXI 20b-c
43 MILL: Liberty, 302d-323a,e passim / Repre...
sentative Government,332d-341d passilTI
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 178b-e; 182e
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 175e-
177b; PART I, 228d-229b; PART II, 279d-
281b; PART IV, 346a-c; 350b-e
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 325b-327b
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK II, 28d-
32a; BK v, 127b-137e passim; BK VI, 164a-
170d passim
853
7d. The educational task ofthe state: the trained
intelligence of the citizens
5 EURIPIDES: Suppliants [399-462] 261d-262b;
[857-917] 266a-b
5 ARISTOPHANES: Frogs [1008-1098] 576b-577e
6THUCYDIDES: Pelopoiznesian War, BK I, 370a-e;
BK II, 397b-e
7 PLATO: Protagoras, 43a-47e / Crito 213a-
219a,e / Republic, BK II-IV, 316a-356a; BK V,
366a-c; BK VI, 380d-381a; BK VI-VII, 383b-
401d / Statesman, 607b-608d / Laws, BK I-II
640a-663d esp BK I, 644b-645e; BK III, 675e-
676b; BK VII 713e-73Id; BK VIII, 732b-735a
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I, CH 2 [I094lt28-bII]
33ge-d; CH 9 [I099b29-32] 345b; BK V, CH 2
[II.30bI8-29] 378a-b; BK X, CH 9 434a-436a,e
esp [II79a33-II80aI3] 434a-d / Politics, BK II,
CH 5 [I263b36-I264BI] 459a; [I 264a26-32]
45ge; CH 6 [I264b37-39] 460b; CH 7 [I266b27-
35] 462b-e; BK III,CH 4 [I277aI4-b291474a-
475a; BK IV, CH 9 [I294bI9-24] 494e; BK V, CH
9 [I3IOaI2-35] 512b-e; BK VII, CH 13-BK VIII,
CH 7 536b-548a,e / Athenian Constitution, CH
42572b-d
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 33c-34a; 39a-45b I
Lycurgus-Numa 61b,d-64a,e / Solon 64b,d-
77a,e passim / Agesilaus, 480b,d-481a
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, VIII [115-
148] 118b-e
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 114b-115a; 150e-
I51a; 153a-155e; PART IV, 273a-e
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK I,
66a; BK II, 81d-83b
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 60e-62a
30 BACON: Advancement of Learring, 23a; 79c-
80a
32 MILTON: Areopagitica, 384b-385b; 398a-b
35 HUME: Hunlan Understanding, SECT I, DIV 5,
453a-b
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART II, 76b-80b
38. MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK IV 13b,d-
18d
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 365d-366b / Political
Economy, 372a-377b / Social Contract, BK II,
402b-403a
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK V, 303b-305e;
337d-338c; 340e-343d; 347e-d
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 6b; 669a-670b
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 347a,e
42 KANT: ]udge1nent, 586a-587a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 27, 95e-d; NUMBER 84,
253d-254b
43 MILL: Liberty, 283a-e; 317d-323a,e / Repre-
sentative Governn1ent, 330a-b; 332d-341d pas-
sim, esp 339a-340e; 349a-350a; 381b-387d
passim; 418b-d; 420b-d; 424b-e
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 187
65a-c; par 239 76d; par 315 104e; ADDITIONS,
98 133a; 147 140e; 166 145b-e; 183 148d-149a
/ Philosophy of History, PART II, 271d-272d
CHAPTER 90: STATE 855
(D) II Kings, 23:3 / I Kings, 3:5-28; 4:29-34- 21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, XII [100:--139]
(D) III Kings, .3:5-28 ; 4:29-34/ II Chronicles, 17b-d; XXVII [55-132] 40a-41a;PURGATORY,
1:7-12-(D) II Paralipomenon, 1:7-12 / VI [58-151] 6lb-62c; VII [61-136]
Psalms, 72-(D) Psalms, 71 / Proverbs, 8:15-16; VIII [19-139] 65c-d; X [70-93] 68a-b; XVI
16:10,12-13;17=7; 20:26-28; 24:5-6; 25:2-5; [85-129] 77d-78a; xx [34-96] 83c-84a;
28:15-16; 29:2,4,12,14; 31:4-5 / Ecclesiastes, DISE, XIII [91-108] 126b-c; XVIII [70]-XX [78]
10:16-17 / Isaiah, 16:5; 32:1-(D) Isaias, 16:5; 134b-137c
32:1/ Jeremiah, 23:3-6-(D)Jeremias,23:3-6/ 23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH XV-XVIII 22b-26a
Ezekiel, 45:9-(D) Ezechiel, 45:9 24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel,BK III,
POCRYPHA: Wisdom of Solomon, 1:1; 6; 9-(D) 132a-133b
aT, Bool( ofWisdol'n, 1:1; 6; 9/ Ecclesiasticus, 25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 381a-388c; 436c,.438b;
4I:I7-18-(D) OT, Ecclesiasticus, 10: 451d-453b
, 1-3; 41:21-22 / I Maccabees, aT, 26 SHAKESPEARE: Richard II, ACT II, SC 1 327c-
I Machabees, 14 331a; ACT III, SC IV [29-66] 340c-d / 1st Henry
5 AESCHYLUS: Persians [623-680] 21c-22a; IV, ACT III, SC II [39-161] 453b-454c / 2nd
[852-908J 24b-d Henry IV, ACT IV, SC v 494b-496d / Henry V,
5 SOPHOCLES: Antigone [162-210] 132c-d;[633- ACT I, SC 1533a-d
765] 27 SHAKESPEARE: Measure for Measure, ACT I,
5 ARISTOPHANES: Knights 470a-487a,c esp [147- sc I-III 174a-177d; ACT III, SC II [275-296]
222] 471d-472c / Peace [601-692] 532d-534a / 192b / Macbeth, ACT IV, SC III 303b-306b /
Ecclesiazusae [173-247] 617a-d; [441-459] Coriolanus 351a-392a,c esp ACT III, sc II
6l9d-620a [1-92] 373c-374c, ACT IV, SC VII [28-57] 384c-d
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK V, 164d-165a 29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART II, 331a-336a
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War,BK I, 383d- 30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 1b-2c; 4c-
384a; BK II, 404a-d; BK III, 425a-c; BK VI, 7c; 20d-25c; 94b-95b
513a-514b 32 MILTON: Lord Gen. Cromwell 69a-b / Sr
7 PLATO: Gorgias, 285a-292a /Republic, BK II, Henry Vane 69b / Paradise Lost, BK II [430-
319c-320c; BK III, 339b-340b; BK v-vI,368c- 456] 120b-121a
383c / Timaeus, 442b-d / Statesman, 604c- 35 LOCKE: Civil Government,cH VIII, SECT 15--
608d / Laws, BK IV, 679c-682c; BK XII, I1248c-51b
796b-d / Seventh Letter, 801b-802c; 804b- 36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART I, 28b-29b; PART III,
80Sa; 806b-c; 807a-b 112a-1I3b
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK VI,CH 5 [114ob4-II] 38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK V, 22a-b;
389b; CH 8 [II4Ib23-1142all] / BK VI, 40a-b; BK XXI, 170a; BKXXVIII, 259b;
Politics, BK I, Cll I [I252a7-17] 445a-b; CH 13 BK XXIX, 262a-b
454a-455a,c esp 454b-d; 38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 327a / Social Contract,
BK II, CH 5 [I264b7-25] 459d-460a; CH 9 [I27ob BK III, 414c-d
7-I27IaI8] 466d-467b; CH II 40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 31d-32c; 61d-64c
469d-470b; BKIII, CH 4 473c:-475a;cH 12-13 passim; 74a-b; 142b-c;255b,d-257a passim;
480c-483a; CH 17 486c-487a; BK IV, CH 4 284a-b; 338d-344a,c esp 338d-339c, 343c-
[I29Ia34-b7] 490c-d; BK V, CH 9 [1309a33- 344a; 430a.,d; 448c-449c; 534c; 577a-d
b14] 511c-d; BK VII, CH 2 528a-529a; CH9 41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 67d-68b; 103d-
[1329a3-17] 533b-c; CH 14 [I332bIJ-""I333aI7] l04c; 504c-50Sa; 577d-579a
537b-538a 42 KANT: Judgement, 504a-b
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK I 253a-256d; BK 43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE I, SECT2
III, SECT 5 26la; BK VI, SECT 30 276d- [11-16] lIb; SECT 3 [67-72] 12a; ARTICLE II,
277a SECT I [375-382] 14d
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 45c-46a / Numa Pompil- 43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 2, 32b-33b; NUMBER
ius 49a-61d esp 60a-b / Pericles I2Ia-141a,c 52, 165c; NUMBER 57, 176d-177a; NUMBER 62,
/ Coriolanus, l80d-181b / Alcibiades-Corio- 188d-189a; NUMBER 68, 206b-c; NUMBER 72,
lanus 193a-195a,c / Aristides 262b,d-276a,c 217d; NUMBER 75, 223c-d
esp 263d-267a, 273d-275c / Marcus Cato 43 MILL: Representative Government, 336c-338c
276b,d-290d esp 279c, 282a I Aristides- passim; 341d-344d; 353b-354b; 363b-366a;
Marcus Cato 290b,d-292d / Lysander-Sulla, 398d-399d; 406d; 407d-408d
387d-388a / Lucullus, 419a-b / Nicias, 423d- 44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 178a-b; 374a-c
430d / Crassus-Nicias 455b,d-457d / Phocion 46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 292
604b,d-619d / Cato the Younger 620a-648a,c g8a / Philosophy of History, PART II, 275d-
/ Cleomenes, 661a-d / Cicero, 706c; 717a-b / 276d; 281c.:282d; PART IV, 360b-c; 361d-362a;
Dion 781b,d-802a,c / Aratus, 829b-d 366b; 368b
5 Histories, BK II, 215c 51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK I, 9c'-lOd; BK X,
8 AUGUSTINE: City of God, 13K XIV, CH 28 465c-467a; BK XIV, 611a-c; EPILOGUE I,
397a-d; BK XIX, CH 16 521d-522a 645a-646c
8b. The qualities or virtues necessary for
good statesman or king
OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 41 :33,39-4/ Ex
18:21-26 / Leviticus, 19:15 / Deuteron
1:13; 16:18; 17:14-20 / I Samuel, 15:10-
(D) I Kings, IS :10-35 / II Samuel, 23
THE GREAT IDEAS
23 HOBBES: Lemathan, PART II, 153a-15ge
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 7a-d; 24a-25c;315e
327d.:329d; 38Ia-388e passim; 436e-438b'
26 SHAKESPEARE: 2nd Henry IV, ACT IV, sc
494b-496d /-Henry ]1, ACT I, SC I 533i:l
ACT IV,SC I [87-215]
27 SHAKESPEARE: King Lear, ACT III, SC-IV [2
36] 264c -/ Coriolanus, ACT II, SCIII36
369a
29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote,
348c; 352b-356d; 360d-364a
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 74d-75a
New Atlantis, 208a-c
32 MILTON: Sr Henry Vane 69b / Paradise Eo
BK II [43-456] 120b-121a
35 _LOCKE: Toleration, 3a / Civil Government,
VII, SECT 90-9444d-46c;CH VIII, SECT 105-
48c-5Ib; CH XIV 62b-64c; CH XIX, SECT 2
222 75d-76c
36 SWIFT: Gulliver,PART IV, 157b-158a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK VI, 40a-
43c-d; BK XII, 93d-94a; 94c-95b
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 367a-36
372c-373c / Socz'al Contract, BK I, 3B8a;
III, 412c-414d; BK IV, 427b; 427d
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK IV, 194');).
I99c-d; 284d
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 26d-27a; 50
243a-245b; 288b-289a; 338d-339c;342a-
343b-c; 437b-438a; 577a-578c; 639d-64
passim
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 95a-c; 102d-l
320d-321b; 505a; 563d-564b; 586c-587b
42 KANT: Science ofRight, 434a; 444c-445a
43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE:[25:'"98] 1
3a
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE I-I
l1a-16a passim; ARTICLE IV, SECT 3 16
ARTICLE V16c; AMENDMENTS, XVII 19b-e
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 19, 74a-c; NUMBER
76b-d; NUMBER 22, 83b-d; 35,11
114c; NUMBER 53, I68b-169d passim; NUM,
56-57 174d-179b; NUMBER 64, 196d; NuM
70, 212c-214a; NUMBER 71, 214d-215a
43 MILL: Liberty, 298d-299a; 302b-c / Repre
ative Government, 341d-344d; 353b; 39
399d; 401a-406a passim; 410d-411b
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 86a-b
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par
98d-99a; par 2979gb; par 303 101c-1
par 35-311 l02b-104a; ADDITIONS,
147b-c; 181 148b-c / Philosophy of Hz's
INTRO, 173a-c; PART IV, 361d-362a
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK I, 9c-lOd; B
465c-467a; BK XI, 507a; BK XIV, 611a-c
(7. Factors ,affecting the quality oj states. 7d.
The educational task of the --state: the
trainedintelligence of the citizens.)
49 DAR'VIN: Descent of Man, 328c-d
50 MARX: Capital, 237d-240d
54 FREUD: Sexual Enlightenment ofChildren, 122c
854
8. The offices of state: the statesman, king, or
prince
8a. The duties ofpublic office and therespon-
sibilities of office holders: the relation
of the statesman or kingto the people he
represents or rules
OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 4I:44/Deuteronomy,
17 :14-20 / I Samuel, 8:II-I8-CD) I Kings,
/ I Kings, III Kings, 3:7-9
/ II ,Chronz'cles, _- I :7-I2-(D) II Paralipom-
enon,I :7-12 jPsalms, 72--(D} Psalms, 71 /
Proverbs, 16:12-15; 25:2; 28;15; 29:2,4,12,14
/ Isaiah, 22:20-22-(D} Isaias, 22:20-22 /
Jeremiah, 23 :3-6-(D) Jerelnias, 23:3-6
ApOCRYPHA: I Maccabees, 14-(D) aT, I Macha-
bees, 14
5 AESCHYLUS: Suppliant Maidens [354-523] 5b-
7c / Seven Against Thebes [1-77] 27a.. 28a
5 SOPHOCLES: Oedipus the King [572-63]
104c-105a / Antigone [162-210] 132c.. d; [633-
765] 136c-137d
5 EURIPIDES : Suppliants [286-358] 260d-261c
5 ARISTOPHANES: Knights 470a-487a,c
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK II,
397b-c; 402a-404d; BK III, 427a-c; BK VI, 513a
7 PLATO: Republic, BK I, 301b-306b; BKIII,
339b-341d; BK VII, 390b-391b; 401a-b /
Statesman, 604c-608d / Laws, BK VI, 697a-
705c passim; - BK XII, 794a-799a,c / --Seventh
Letter, 806d-807b; 814b-c
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK I, CH II [I259a23-36]
453c-d; BK III, CH 4 [I277aI4-b33l474a-475a;
CH 6 [I278b30-1279a2I] 476a-c; CH 17 486c-
487a; BK IV, CH 4 490c-d; BK VI,
CH 4 [I318b39:--I3I9a4] 522c; CH 8 525b-526d;
BK VII, CH 2 528a-529a; CH 4 [I326bI3-15]
530d; CH 9 [I329
a
3-39] 533b-d; CH 14 [I33
2b
13-1333aI7] 537b-538a
14 PLUTARCH: Numa Pompilius, 51c-52c /Marcus
Cato 276b,d-290d / Crassus-Nicias, 455d-
4S6d / Agesilaus, 486d-487b / Cato the
Younger 620a-648a,c esp 626d-627b, 632b-c /
Agis, 648b,d-649b / Tiberius Gracchus,
678b-d / Demosthenes, 699c-700a
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK III, 57b-58d; 61c-62a;
BK XII, 112a-c
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK XIX, CH 6 514b-
515a; CH I5-16 521a-522a
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q
90, A 3, ANS 207a-c
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, XVI
[52-129] 77b-78a
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH XIV-XIX 21b-30a
8d(3) The role or function of experts in the
service of the state
7 PLATO: Protagoras, 43b-d I Gorgias, 287d-
288a I Republic, BK II, 316c-319c; BK V, 369c-
370a; BK VI, 373c-375b; BK VII, 390h-391b I
Statesman, 598b-608d
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK III, CH II [I28IQ39-
I282Q4I] 479b-480b; BK V, CH 9 [I30 9
a
33-
b8
]
511c-d
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 36, 115a-c
43 NhLL: Liberty, 320c-323a,c I Representative
Government, 355b-362c; 363b-366a; 408a-
417c passim
46 I-IEGEL: Philosophy ofRight, PART III, par 289-
297 97b-99b passim; par 301
ADDITIONS, 135 138c I Philosophy of History,
PART I, 2l3b-214d
Be. The advantages and disadvantages of par-
ticipation in political life
6 11ERODOTUS: History, BK I, 23b-d
7 PLATO: Apology, 207b-208a I Republic, BK I,
305d-306b; BK VI, 379d-380b; BK VII, 390b-
391h
CHAPTER 90: STATE 857
292b I Statesman, 604d-605a I Laws, BK IVt
684e-686b; BK x, 760a-761a
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK X, CH 9 [II80
b
28-II8I
a
18] 435d-436a I Politics, BK IV, CH 4 [I292Q4-38]
491b-d passim; BK V, CH 5 [130587-I5J 506d /
Rhetoric, BK I, CH I [I354b23-34] 593d-594a;
CH 3-8598b-608c; BK II, CH I [I377
bI
4-
I37SilI 9] 622b,d-623a; BK III, Cli 16 [I4I 7
bI
3-
17] 671d; CH 17 [14I7b35-I4I8b23] 672b-
673b
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 129b-130b I Alcibiades,
159a-b I Phocion, 605a-d I Cata the Younger,
621c I Dernosthenes 691b,d-704a,e I Cicero
704a-723d I Demosthenes-Cicero 724a-725d
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK I, lOd-llb; 12c-13d; BK
XIII, 126a-b I Histories, BK IV, 290a-d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 106a-b; 127d-
128b; 128d; 129b-d; 157c-d; 158d-159a
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 147b-148a
26 SHAKESPEARE: Julius Caesar, ACT III, SC 1
[226-2 53J 582d-583a; sc II 583c-586c
27 SHAKESPEARE: Coriolanus, ACT III, SC II
[51-92 J 374a-c
30 BACON: Advancen1ent ofLearning, Id-2b; 23a-
26a
32 MILTON: Areopagitica, 383a
36 STERNE: Tristrarn Shandy, 290a- b
38 11oNTESQUIEU: Spirit of LatlJs, BK XII, 89c-
90c; BK XXIX, 266b-c
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 64a-c; 284b;
343a-b; 384d-385b
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER I, 29d-30c; NUMBER 26,
93d-94a; NUMBER 58, I81b-c
43 MILL: Representative Government, 361b-362c
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 374a-d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of llistory, INTRO, 153d-
154a; PART II, 273d-274a
8d(2) The occasions and uses of rhetoric
4 HOMER: Iliad, BK II [278-393] 12d-13d
5 EURIPIDES: Suppliants [399-42 5] 261d-262a /
Orestes [852-956] 402d-403d
5 ARISTOPHANES: Peace [601-656] 532d-533c
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK v, 180e-d; BK VIII,
264a-c
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK I, 384c..
386e; BK II, 395d-399a; 402b-404a; BK III,
425a-d; 427a-c; BK VI, 511h-5I6a; 517d-520d;
BK VII, 559d-560b
7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 129d-130c I Gorgias, 288b-
cl(2) to Be
7 PLATO: Republic, BK 11, 319a-c; BK V, 367b-
368c I Statesman, 605a-d
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK X, CH 7 [I I 77b2--25]
432a-c I Politics, BK II, CH 9 [I27IQ38-4I]
467c; BK IV, CH 4 [r29Ia7-33] 490b-c; BK V,
clI 9 [I309a33-b8] 511c-d; BK VII, CH 2 [I32
4t\
24-I 3 2 SQI 5] 528b-529a; CH 5 [I326b38-1327a7!
531a; CH 9 [I32 9
a
3-39] 533b-d; CH 14 [1333
29-1334aII] .
14 PLUTARCH: Thenustocles 88a-l02a,c I Pertcles,
130d-141a,c / Fabius 141a-154a,c ( Aemilius
Paulus, 214d I Caius Marius 332b,d-354a,c I
Ci,non 389b,d-399d I Lucullus 400a-42Ia,c I
pon1pev499a-538a,c I Alexander 540b,d-576d
/ Ca;sar 577a-604d / Phocion, 607b-d I
Antonv 748a-779d
23 lvfACIi'IAVELLI: Prince, CH III-VIII 3c-14e pas-
sim; CH x 16a-d; CH XII-XIV 17d-22a; CH XX
30a-31c; CH XXVI, 37a-c
23 HOBBES: Let1iathan, PART II, 159a-c
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 327d-329d
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART II, 77a-78b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK v, 31d-
32b; BK x, 65d-68a; BK XI, 74b-d; BK XIII,
IOOd-lOla
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 380a-d
39 SMITH: fVealth. of Nations, BK V, 305c-
309a,c
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 4b-5c; 42b,d-43b;
47e-d; SOb-c; 56a; 63a-64b; 86a-d; 118d-
119a; 168b-171b esp 170c-d; 245d-248d;
284a-c; 365b-378d esp 373c-374a; 563a-567a;
639a
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 126d-131d esp
128a; 311d-312a; 321b-323a; S09a-d
42 KANT: Science of Right, 453d-454c / Judge-
ment, 504a-b
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE II,
SECT 2 [49-413] 15a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 20, 76b-d; NUMBER 29,
99b-IOOa; NUMBER 74, 221c-d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART II, 281d-
282d; PART IV, 359a-b; 366b
51 TOLSTOY: iVar and Peace, BK II, 81c-93d; BK
III, 138d; 144c; 146d; 153d-155a; BK V,
209a-c; BK IX, 342a-35Sc; BK X, 389a-391c;
404a-b; 430b-432c; 444a-450a; BK XII, 533a-
537b esp 535d-537b; BK XIII, 563a-57Sa; BK
XIV, 610d-6Ila; BK XV, 626d-630a
Sd(l) The employment of the military arts
5 AESCHYLUS: Persians [652-680] 21d-22a; [85
176] 24b-26d / Setlen Against Thebes [1-7
27a-28a
5 EURIPIDES: Suppliants [72.3--73] 264d
6 HERODOTUS: 11istory, BK I, 6a-b; 41c-42
46a-48a; BK IV, 14ib-c; BK VII, 225a-226
244a-245a; 257d-258d; BK VIn 260a-28
passinl
6 THUCYDIDES: Pelop0nnesian lar, BK
369a-3'70d; 371b-372d; 384d-386b; BK
389d-39Ib; BK VI, S14d-516a; 517d-520
528b-c; BK VIn 564a--S93a,c passim
856 ,THE GREAT IDEl\S 8e to 8d
(S. The offices of state: the statesman, king, or Statesman 580a-608d esp S8Se-d, 604e-60
prince.) I Laws, BK IV, 679a-c
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I, eH 1-2 339a-d;
VI, eH 7 390a-b; CH 8 [II4I,b.i. _
28] 390d I POllilCS, II, CH 12
BK III, CH II [1281a39-I282841] 479b-480b:
BK IV, CH I 487a-488b '
12 AURELIUS: Afeditations, BK I, SECT I
254b-e 4
14 PLUTARCH: R01nulus- Thesetu, 30e-d I Po
cola, 80d-82a I Poplicola-Solon, 87b-d
Camillus, 102b,d I Pericles 121a-141a e es
137b-138b I Fabius, 143b-d; 145d-146a
Alcibiades 15Sb,d-174d passim, esp 167e-168
I Aristides 262b,d-276a,e esp 263d-267a, 2730-
275e I Agesilaus, 482a-e I Phocion, 604b,d_
605d I Cato the Younger, 625b-627b / .Agis
648b,d-649b I Caius and Tiberius
Agis and Cleomenes 689b,d-691a,e
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK IV, 72a-b
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK V, CH 12, 217d-
218a
20 AQUINAS: Sunl1na Theologica, PART Q 104,
A 4, ANS 306d-307c
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince la-37d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 112d; 128d-1290'
158c-d; 164c '
26 SHAKESPEARE: Richard II, ACT III, SC IV
[29-66] 340c-d
30 BACON: Advance1nent of Learning, 4c-7c; 81d-
95b passim
35 LOCKE: Toleration, 9b
36 SWIFT: Gullit/er, PART II, 78a-b; PART III
112a-115b; PART IV, IS7a-I58a '
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK VI, 40a-o;
43c-d; BK XII, 93c-95b; BK XIX, 137c-139c;
BK XXIX, 262a-b
38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK Ill, 413a
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 48a; 142c-144a;
15Sa-d; 157e; 284a-c; 288b-289a I
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 176c-177c
43 MILL: Representative Governn1ent, 33Ib-'
356b-359a
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART II, 275
276a; PART IV, 361d-362a
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, EK II, 65d-66d; 13
VI, 238c-243d; 260a-262a
53 JAMES: Psychology, 201a
Be. The education or training of the statesman
or prince
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II-III, 320c-341d; BK v,
366a-c; BK VI-VII, 383b-401d I Timaeus,
442c-d I Laws, BK III, 672d-676b; BK XII,
794a-799a,c I Seventh Letter, 801c-802d
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK X, CH 9 [II80
b
29-
II8Ib2SJ I Politics, BK III, CH 4
[I277aI4-b33] 474a-475a; CH 18 [I288a34-b3]
487a,c; BK VII, CH 14 [I332bI3-I333aI7] 537b-
538a; BK VIII, CH 4 [I338b25-38] 544a-b
12 AURELIUS : Meditations, BK I 253a-256d
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 122d-I23c I Alcibiades,
156c-158b I Agesilaus, 480b,d-48Ia I Alex-
ander, 542d-544a I Cato the Younger, 625b-
626a I Dion, 781b,d-788b
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK II, 34c-d; BK XII, 111d;
BK XIII, 125d-126a; BK XIV, 153d-155a /
Histories, BK IV, 267c
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince la-37d esp CH XIV-XIX
21b-30a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, INTRO, 47b-d; PART II,
164a,c
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK I,
18b-19d; 26d-30c
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 437b-c
26 SHAKESPEARE: 1st Henry IV, ACT I, SC II
[II9-240J 436c-437d; ACT III, sc II [93-161]
453d-454c I Henry V, ACT I, SC I [22-68J 533b-c
29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART II, 332c-
336a; 362a-c
30 BACON: Advancen1ent ofLearning,4e-7e; 23a-b
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART II, 73a-76b
38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK III, 414b
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 32a; 62a-c; 86c;
245b-c; 260a-b; 275c-276a; 284a-c; 430a;
534a-c; 669b
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, lSb-e; 508c-509d
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 27, 95c-d; NUMBER 35,
114b-c; NUMBER 53, 168b-169d passim;
NUMBER 56, 175d-176d; NUMBER 62, 190b-d
43 MILL: Representative Governtnent, 356h-359a;
407d-408d; 415a-417c passim
46 I-IEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 296
99a-b; ADDITIONS, 169 145d; 171 146b-c I
Philosophy of History, INTRO, 15Sb-d; PART I,
212d-213d; 243b-c; PART II, 281d; PART IV,
368b
8d. Statecraft: the art or science of governing;
political prudence
5 AESCHYLUS: Persians [623--680] 21e-22a;
[852-"908] 24b-d
5 ARISTOPHANES: Knights 470a-487a,c esp [147-
222] 471d-472c I Lysistrata 583a-S99a,c esp
[486--59] 589a-590d I Ecclesiazusae 615a-
628d esp [17.3-247] 617a-d
7 PLATO: Euthyde1nus, 75c-76b / lv/eno, 188b-
190a,c I Republic, BK VI-VII, 383b-401d /
THE GREAT IDEAS
CHAPTER.90: STATE
858
(8. The offices of state: the statesman, king, or
prince. Be. The advantages and .disad-
vantages of participation in political life.)
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK X, CH 7 431d-432c /
Politics, BK I, CH 2 [1252b27-12S3a39] 446a-d;
BKIII, CH 6 [I278bIS-29] 475d-476a; BK VII,
CH 1-3 527a-530a
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK III [59-86]
30d-31b; [995-1002] 42d-43a; BK v [1117-
1135] 75d
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 19 125b-
126c; BK III,CH 22 195a-201a
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK v, SECT 22 272b;
BK XI, SECT 21 305d-306a
14 PLUTARCH: Numa Pompilius, 50a-52c
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, VIII [91-
148] 117d-118c
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 77a; 84c-86b; 86d-
87b; PART II, 104h-d; 112b-C;PART IV,
267c-d
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 46d; 107a-112d; 354a.-b;
381a-388c; 480b-482b; 486b-497b esp 486b-
48gb
26 SHAKESPEARE: As You Like It, ACT II, SC I
603c-604b
27 SHAKESPEARE: Timon ofAthens, ACT IV 409c-
416d esp sc I 409c-d
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 73 446c-447a
33 PASCAL: Pensees, 6173a
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH II, SECT IS 28c;
CH VII,SECT 90-94 44d-46c; CH IX 53c-54d
passim; CH XV, SECT 171 65a-b
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 359a-366d / Political
Economy, 381c-382b / Social Contract, BK I,
391b-394d esp 393b-c; BK II, 398a-b
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK v, 309a-c
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 521d
43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: [7-23] la-b
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 37, 119a; NUMBER 51,
164c-d
43 MILL:. Utilitarianis1n, 460a-461e
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 261c-d
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick, 237a
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK v, 206d-207b;
216a; BK VI, 238c-243d; 260a-262a
54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 780b-
781d; 788d-789b / New Introductory Lectures,
853a-b
9. The relation of states to one another
9a. Commerce and trade between states: com-
mercial rivalries and trade agreements;
free trade and tariffs
5 ARISTOPHANES: Acharnians [719-999] 463c-
466d
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK IV, 158b-c
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK I, 350d-
351a; 365b; 384b
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 316c-318a / Laws, BK
XII, 788d-789a
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK I, CH 9
451a-b; BK III, CH 9 [I280
a
36--
b
3]
CH 6 531b-d / Rhetoric, BK !, CH 4
600b-c
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II,
124c-d
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK
9gb; BK XIX, 143c-144c; BK XX,
BK XX-XXI, 152a-173d; BK XXII,
38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK II,
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK III,
BK IV, 182b-192c; 197b-200a;
209a-213d; 231d-232b; 233d-236a;
266d; BK V, 319b-c
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall,
656a-658b
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, ..JJi"T'L.-..JI.)II:
343a; 355c-d; 427c-d
42 KANT: Judgement, 504a-b
43 .ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION:
5b-c; VI [Ioo-r06] 6b; IX [173-185]
285] 8a
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.:
8 [201-203] 13b; SECT 9 [276- 282]
10 [34-313] 14a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 4, 35c-36a;
38b-c; NUMBER 7, 42d-43c; NUMBER
56b passim; NUMBER 22, 80d-81c;
112a-113a; NUMBER 41, 135b-c;
137d-138c; NUMBER 44, 145b-c
44 BOS\VELL: Johnson, 281b-c
46 HEGEL: Philosophy
247 78a-b; par 339
tory, PART I, 243d-244c; PART IV,
50 MARX: Capital, 66c-68a,c;
223a; 372c-375c passim
50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist lVUl1UjreS!IO,
421a-c; 428a-b
9b. Social and cultural barriers between
the antagonism of diverse ",u.':,ll.V.l,u\:t
ideas
5 AESCHYLUS: Suppliant Maidens
12c-13b
5 EURIPIDES: Suppliants [399-597]
Iphigenia at Aulis [I399-140r] 437d
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK I, 2a;
II, 57d-58a; BK IV, 137a-138c; l'+lJIQ-II'+J:a.
V, 163d-164a; BK VII, 216b-d;
253b-254a; BK VIII, 264c;
291c-292a; 298a-302c; 305d-306a;
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War,
350b-d; 366b-c; 370a-c; BK VIII,
7 PLATO: Cratylus, 106b-c
357d-358a; 367b-368c /
583b
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK I,
445d; CH 6 [125Sa28-37]
CH 14 [128SaI7-29] 483b-c;
[I327bI9-38] 531d-532a
10 HIPPOCRATES: Airs, Waters,
15d-16a; par 23 18a-c
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 46b-c / Themistocles,
99a-c ,I Marcellus, 254e-256b / Marcus Cato,
287d-288c / Flamininus, 303a-310d
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK II, 23d-24a
18AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK XIX, CH 7 515a-e
/ Christian Doctrine, BK III, CH 14 663c-d
22 CHAUCER: Tale of Man of Law [4638-4644]
238a
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 44b-e; 46b-47a; 91d-
98b; 477d-478a
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART IV, 149b-150b
3.8 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws, BK XV, 110a-c;
BK XIX, 139c-140a; BK XXIV, 207a
'8 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 355b-c
1 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 224b; 423d-424a
NUMBER II, 55d-56b
Liberty, 300a-302c passim / Representa-
Government, 424c-428a passim; 436b-439c
Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 351
/ Philosophy ofHistory, PART II, 277d-
BK V,
War and Death, 755c-757a; 761a-c;
766e / Civilization and Its Discontents, 788b-e
and justice among states
TESTAMENT: II Samuel, lo-(D). lIKings,
10 / I Chronicles, 19-(D) I Paralipomenon, 19
),.uQ'.... Suppliant Maidens [911-965] 12e-
HERODOTUS: History, BK I, la-2b; BK v, 177d-
l80a; BK VI, 201c-d; BK VII, 237d-239a;
242c-d; BK VIII, 287a-d; BK IX, 289a-c
THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK I,
355b-c; 358b-360c; 368a-d; 378c-380a;
386b-c; BK II, 396b-399a passim; 403c-404a;
BK III, 426b-428d; 429b-434c; BK IV, 461d-
468a-469b;. BK V, 504c-508a; BK VII,
I-II, Q
BK. I,
Troilus and. Cressida, ACT II,
II [II3-213] 114d-115d
859
35 LOCKE: Human Understandz'ng, BK I, CHII,
SECT 10 l06d
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART II, 76b-78b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Latv';, BK x, 61 b,d-
6Sc
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 355b-c /Political
Economy, 369a-b
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 48a; 404a.;.b;535d-
536b
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 532d-533a
42 KANT: Science of Right, 452c-455c
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE I, SECT
8 [220-222] I3h; ARTICLE III, SECT 2[469-492]
15c-d
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 3, NUMBER 7,
44a-b; NUMBER IS, 63b-d; NUMBER 22, 84b;
NUMBER 30, 102c-d; NUMBER 43, 142d-143a;
143d-144a; NUMBER 62, 190d-191a; NUMBER
80, 235b-c; NUMBER 81, 240b-c;NUMBER 83,
248b-e
43 MILL: Representative Government, 434c-435c
passim
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 86c-d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right,PART III,par 336
l09d; par 338 110a-b
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick, 292a-295a
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK V, 228c-d; 230b;
232a;.233b
54 FREUD: War and Death,. 756c-757e
9d. The sovereignty of independent states: the
distinction between the sovereignty of
the state at home and abroad; internal
and external sovereignty
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 86a; PART II,
114b-c; 121b-c; 159c
27 SHAKESPEARE: Cymbeline, ACT III, SC I
463c-464c; sc v [1--27] 468d-469b
35 LOCKE: Civil Government,cHII, SECT 14
28b-c; CH XII, SECT 145-148 58d-59b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK XXVI,
223c-224a
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 355b-c / Politi-
cal Economy, 368c-d; 369a-b / Social Con-
tract, BK I, 392a-393d; BK III, 406b,d-
409a
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 427b-c
42 Science of Right, 435a-b; 452a-458a,c
passlm
43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: [1-6] 1a;
[19-119] 3a-b
43 ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: II Sa-b
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 32 10Sc-107b; NUMBER
39, 126b-128b; NUMBER 75, 223b-e; NUMBER
81, 240d-241a
43 MILL: Representative Government, 344d;
355b-d; 428b-433b
46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofRight, PART III, par 275....
279 92a-94d; par321-322 106c-107a; par 329-
331 10Be-10ga; ADDITIONS, 153 141d; 191
lS0a-c; 194 150c-d / Philosophy of History,
PART IV, 364d-365a
THE GREAT IDEA,S CHAPTER 90: STATE 860
ge. War and peace between states
ge(1) The military problem of the state: prepa-
ration for conquest or defense
5 A.ESCHYLUS: Seven Against Thebes [1-77] 27a-
28a
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK I, 41e-d; 46a-48a;
BK IV, 132a-b; 144b-148d; 158d-159d; BK VI,
206d-208d; BK VII-IX 214a-314a,e passim
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK I 349a-
386d passim; BK II, 389a-e; 396d-397a; 402b-
404d; BK IV, 469d-471a; BK VI, 518a-520d;
529b-534d
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 318e-31ge; BK IV,
343b-d; BK V, 357d-358b; 366a-368d / LauJs,
BK I, 640d-641a; BK IV, 677d-678e; BK VI,
701b-702a; BK VIII, 732b-735a; BK XII, 784d-
786b
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK X, ClI 7 [II77b4-25]
432a-e / Politics, BK II, CH 6 [I265aI9-27]
460e; CH 7 [I267aI7-361462d-463a; BK IV, CH
4 [I29
Ia
7-33] 490b-e; BK VI, CH 7 [132Ia5-27]
524e-525a; BK VII, CH 2 [I324b2-1325aI5]
528e-529a; CH 4 [I326a23-24] 530b; CH 5
[I326b381-cH 6 [I327bI7] 531a-d; CH I I
535a-d / Rhetoric, BK I, CH 4 [1359b33-1360a
12] 600a-b
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus 32a-48d esp 41a-45e /
Numa Pompilius, 59d-60b / Themistocles 88a-
102a,e
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK I, 16b-21b; BKII, 23d-
29d; BK III, 49d-50a; 52d-53d; 54b-56e; 62d-
63b; BK IV, 64d-65a; 69d-70e; 76a-77c; 82d-
83b; BK VI, 94d-96b; 97a-98a; BK XI, 102b-
103a; l04a-105e; BK XII, 112a-125e passim;
BK XIII, 134a-136e; 13ge-141a; BK XIV, 147b-
148b; 148d-151b; BK XV, 157d-162a; 163e-
165a / Histories, BK III, 253e-254e; BK IV,
269b-278e; 283b-292b; BK V, 294e-d; 297a-
302a
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH XII-XIV 17d-22a;
CH XX 30a-31c; CH XXI, 32a-d; CH XXIV 34e-
3Sa
23 floBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 76d; 86a; PART II,
103b-e; 114b-e; 15ge
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK III,
127b,d-130a
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 299d-300c; 330b-331a
26 SHAKESPEARE: lienry V 532a-567a,e. esp ACT
I, SC II [234-310] 536b-537b, ACT II, SC IV
541d-S43b, ACT III, SC III S4Sd-S46b, ACT IV
5S1a-561d
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH XII, SECT 145-
148 S8d-59b
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART II, 77b-78b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK VIII, 52d-
53a; BK IX-X, 58b,d-62b; BK XIII, 100d-101a
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 3:24e; 3550 / Political
Econolny, 380a-d / Social Contract, BK I,
389d-390d; BK II, 403e-404a
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK IV, 187e-190b;
BK v, 30:la.;309a,e; 342e-343e
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 4b-8b
42b,d; 86b-d; 245d-248b; 495a-497a;
560d; 633b-e
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 212e; ..,_.L u,.-_-" " ..... ,
SOga-d
42 KANT: Science of Right,
Judgement, 586e-d
43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE:
3a-b
43 ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: III
6a-9a
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S. :
1Ia,e; ARTICLE I, SECT 8
[220-2 53] 13b-e; SECT 10
MENTS, II-III 17b; V 17b-e
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 2, 31d-32a;
3Sd-37a; NUMBER 8 44c-47a; NUMBER
56b passim; NUMBER 22, 81e-d;
29 85a-I01a; NUMBER 30, l02d-103a;
31, I04b; NUMBER 34, lI0a-111b;
132a-136b passin1; NUMBER 43, 141d;
44, 144a-b
43 MILL: Representative Government,
426b; 428b-431a 43Sb-d
46 HEGEL:
107d-108a; par 334
ADDITIONS, 163 144e /
PART I, 242d-243b; PART III,
PART IV, 325a-b; 343d-344a;
51 TOLSTOY: rVar and Peace, BK I,
VIII, 308b-30ge; BK IX, 344b-355e;
588a-58ge; BK XV, 629b-630a
ge(2) Treaties between states:
leagues, confederacies, or
OLD TESTAMENT: Joshua, 9-(D)
ApOCRYPHA: I Maccabees, 8 esp
OT, I Machabees, 8 esp
5 ARISTOPHANES: Acharnians
457b / Lysistrata [980-1321]
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK I, 6a-b;
IV, I44b-146a; BK V, I7Sb-e; 180e-d;
193b; BK VII, 239a-242d;
BK VIII, 286b-287d; BK IX,
311a
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian TVar, BK
3S3d; 356d-360d; 366d-371a;
II, 394e-395a; BK III,
432e-d; BK IV, 461b-462d;
477a; BK v, 486d-496d;
529a-534c; BK VIII, 568a-e;
579a
7 PLATO: Critias, 485a-b / Latvs, BK
668d
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK III, CH 9 I Y .... XA'.. .., AI __.... 1
478a-b; CH 13 [I284a38-b3] 482e
14 PLUTARCH: Romulus, 21a-24d /
131a / Nicias, 427b-428e / Aratus,
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH XXI, 32a-d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 121b-c
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel,
36d-38a
SHAKESPEARE: 2nd Henry VI, ACT I, SC I
[1-103] 33b,d-34d / Henry V, ACT V, SC II
S63b-567a,c
LOCKE: Civil Government, CH V, SECT 45 34d-
3Sa; CH XII, SECT 145-146 58d-S9a
MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of LauJs, BK IX, 58b,d-
60a; BK X, 63d-64a; BK XXVI, 223e-d
ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 32Se-d
GIBBON: Declne and Fall, 103e-d; 119a-e;
lS0d-152e esp 151d-152e; 378b-381a; 491d-
492b
GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 48d-4ge; 428a-d;
S03a-c
KANT: Science of Right, 452e-d; 454d-455b
OF CONFEDERATION: 5a-9d esp III
NUMBER 5, 38b-d; NUMBER 6,
41e; NUMBER 7, 44b-e; NUMBER 15, 64e-65a;
NUMBER 16 66e-68d passim; NUMBER 18-20
7Ia-78b passim; NUMBER 43, 143b-d; NUMBER
44, 144a-b; NUMBER 64 195b-198a; NUMBER
223b-c
Representative Gdvernn1ent,. 428b-431a
Philosophy ofRig/it, PART IU'"par 332-
333109a-c; par 336-337 109d-110a; ADDITIONS,
153 141d; 188 149b-c / Philosophy of History,
PART II, 278e-279b; PART IV, 357e-3S8b; 3Sge-
360a
TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK II, 85e-86a; BK
208d-209a; 230b; 234a,e; BK VIII, 309b;
IX, 346a-355e
:.Cio!c)oiza1tio1n and imperialism: the economic
and political factors in empire
Persians [852-908] 24b-d
ARISTOPHANES: Wasps [655-724] 51Se-516d /
Peace [601-656] 532d-533e / Lysistrata [572-
590e-d
History, BK I, 22d-23a; BK III,
114b-e; BK IV, 150h152c; BK VI, 189d; 193b-
BK VII, 215e-216d
THUCYDIDES: Pelopol1nesian War, BK I, 355d-
3S6a; 358a; 359b-360a; 363a-b; 368a-d; BK II,
403b-c; BK III 417a-446a,e passim; BK V, S04e-
S08a; BK VI, 511e-516b; 529b-d; 530d-531b
PLATO: Republic, BK II, 318e-319a / Laws, BK
IV 677a-686c esp 678c-679a; BK V, 693e
ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK II,CH 10 [I27Ib20-38]
468a; 469a; BK III, CH 13 [I284a
BK VII, CH 2 [1324b2-I325aI5]
CH [I327bI9-32] 531d-532a
BK VI [847-853] 233b-234a
TACITUS: Histories, BK I, 191d-192a; BK IV,
........'UL.l.:JJ.J.l... JtJ. City of God, BK III, CH 10 172d-
CH 14 175b-176d; BK V, CH 12, 216d-
218a; BK XIX, cn 7 51Sa-e; CH 21, 524e-d
MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH III-V 3e-8e; CH VIII,
14b-e
861
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 119a-e; 126d-
127a
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK III,
131b,d-133b
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 330b-331a; 440b-443d
35 LOCKE: Civil Governrnent, CH XVI 65d-70c
passim
36 SWIFT: GulHver, PART I, 23a-25b; PART II,
75a-b
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK X, 61b,d-
68d; BK XI, 83e-84e; BK XV, 110a-d; BK XIX,
143e-144e; BK XXI, 170b-173d
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 324a / Political Econ-
omy, 380a-b / Social Contract,BK I, 389d-
390d; 394a-b; BK II, 403e-404a; BK IV, 435a-
436a
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK IV, 239a-279b;
288b-e
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 14d-15e; 18a; 20b-
23d passim; 134d-13Sb; 420b-d; 522c-523a,e;
632d
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 216e-d
42 KANT: Science of Right, 413d; 456c-457a
43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: 1a-3b
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 4, 35b-36a
43 MILL: Representative Governlnent, 353e; 431d-
432b; 433b-442d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART III, par 248
78b-e; ADDITIONS, 150 141a-b / Philosophy of
History, PART I, 242d-243d; PART II, 261b-d;
263b-d; PART III, 297a-300a
50 MARX: Capital, 77a-b; 221d-222b; 372e-374a;
379a-383d
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK VIII, 308b-e
10. Historic formations of the state: the rise
and decline of different types of states
lOa. The city-state
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK I, 11d-15e
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK I, 349b-
3S3d; BK II, 391e-392a; 395d-399a; BK VI,
509a-510e
7 PLATO: Latus, BK III 663d-677a passim
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK II, CH 9-12 465b-471d
/ Athenian Constitution, CH 1-41 553a-S72a
14 PLUTARCH: Theseus, 9a-d; 13a-14e / Lycurgus
32a-48d / Solon 64b,d-77a,e / Flamininus,
303a-308a
15 TACITUS: Histories, BK V, 294c-295c
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, XVI [64-78]
23a-b; PURGATORY, XIV [16-126] 73d-75a;
PARADISE, XV [97]-XVI [154] 129b-132a
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit ofLaws, BK III, 10b-e
38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK III, 418e-d
[fn2]
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 13d-15e passim;
64d-68a,c passim; 567a-d; 630b,d-631b
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 427b-428a; 562b-
S65a; 570d-S71a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 18 71a-73e
43 MILL: Representative Governlnent, 330a-b
(10. Historic formations of the state: the rise and
decline oj different types oj states. lOa.
'The city-state.)
46 I-IEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART I, 240a-
d; PART II, 273d-274a; 275b-281b;
284a,c
863 CHAPTER gO: STATE
: Other discussions bearing on the comparison of human and animal societies, see ANIMAL Id;
LANGUAGE I; MIND ge.
Other treatments of the differences and relations between family and state, see EDUCATION
8a; FAMILY 2a-2c; GOVERNMENT Ib; MONARCHY 4a; ONE AND MANY Sd; TYRANNY 4b.
Discussions relevant to the analogy of state and soul, to the conception of the state as a
corporate person, and to the conception of the state as the historical embodiment of the
divine idea, see HISTORY 4a(3); LAW 7f ; PROGRESS 4b.
. The consideration of the various economic systems which are involved in the organization
of states, see LABOR WEALTH 6a.
The consideration of the political institutions of the state, the nature of government, the
branches of government, and the forms of government, see ARISTOCRACY I-2e; CONSTITU-
TION 1-3b, S-Sb; DEMOCRACY 1-4d; GOVERNMENT I-la, 2-2d, 3-3e(2); JUSTICE 9c; LAW
7a; NfONARCHY I-I b(2), 4-4e(4); OLIGARCHY 1-2, 4-5; TYRANNY 1-5
The consideration of the relation between church and state, and the relation between the city
of God and the city of man, see CITIZEN 7; HISTORY Sb; RELIGION 4-4b.
The problem of the natural and the conventional in the formation of the political com-
munity, and for the contrast between the state of nature and the state of civil society, see
CUSTOM AND CONVENTION I; GOVERNMENT la,S; LAW 4b; LIBERTY Ib; NATURE 2b,
sc; WAR AND PEACE I.
The theory of the social contract in relation to the idea of a constitution, see CONSTITU-
TION 6.
The problem of the identity and continuity of the state, see REVOLUTION 2a, 2C, 6b.
Other discussions of the physical foundations of society, and of its geographical or territorial
conditions, see DEMOCRACY sa; HISTORY 4a (2); MAN 7b ; MONARCHY 4c.
The motives or impulses underlying political association, see EMOTION sa; GOVERNMENT IC;
JUSTICE 9b ; LOVE 4-4b; WEALTH 7a.
The problem of the individual and the common good in the relation of man to the state, see
CITIZEN I; DUTY 10; GOOD AND EVIL Sd; HAPPINESS S-Sb; LAW Ia; LIBERTY Ie.
The political classification of men as citizens, subjects, and slaves, see CITIZEN 2b; DEMOCRACY
4a-4a(I); JUSTICE gd; LABOR 7d; LIBERTY If; SLAVERY sa-6c; TYRANNY S-Sb; and
for discussions relevant to the formation of economic or social classes wi thin the state, see
ARISTOCRACY I; DEMOCRACY 2b, Sb(4); LABOR 4b ; OLIGARCHY 1,4; OPPOSITION 4e, sa;
SLAVERY 3-3b, 4a-4c.
The conflict of classes within the state, and especially for other discussions of the class war
and the classless society, see DEMOCRACY Sb(4); LABOR 7C-7C(3); OLIGARCHY Sc; OPPOSI-
TION Sb; REVOLUTION sa-sc; WAR AND PRACE 2C; WEALTH 9h.
Other discussions relevant to the ideal state or concerned with the factors which affect the
excellence of states, see ARISTOCRACY 6; CITIZEN 5-6; DEMOCRACY 4,6; GOVERNMENT 2e;
LIBERTY Ih; MONARCHY 4d(2)-4d(3); PROGRESS 4a; RELIGION 4b; SCIENCE Ib(2); VIRTUE
AND VICE 7a-7c; WEALTH 9f.
The consideration of the duties or responsibilities, the qualities and virtues, of the statesman
or prince, see ARISTOCRACY 5; CITIZEN 3-6; CONSTITUTION 9a; DEMOCRACY Sb; DUTY 10;
EDUCATION 8d; MONARCHY 3a; VIRTUE AND VICE 7d; and for the art or science of politics
and the elements of statecraft, see ART 9c-9d; EMOTION Sci; KNOWLEDGE 8c; OPINION 7a;
PHILOSOPHY 2C; RHETORIC I c; SCIENCE 3a ; WAR AND PEACE loa.
The relation of states to one another, politically and economically, in war and peace, see
CUSTOM AND CONVENTION 7b; GOVERNMENT 5-Sa; JUSTICE 9f ; WAR AND PEACE 3a, 109,
lIe; WEALTH 4g.
OSS-REFERENCES
Iod. The national state
39 SMITH: Wealth ofNations, BK III, 170c-173a.
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 103c-d
42 KANT: Science of Right, 435a-b
43 NUMBER 37-40 117d-132a pas
Slm
43 MILL: Representative Government, 351d-352b'
424c-428b '
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART I, par 35
21a-b; PART III, par lSI 63c-d; par 322 106d_
107a; par 331 I08d-l09a; par 344-360 llla-
114a,c / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 177d
178a; PART IV, 342a-345c
50 MARX-ENGELS: Com1nunist Manifesto, 421e-
54 FREUD: War and Death, 755b-757c
IOe. The federal state: confederacies and feder
al unions
14 PLUTARCH: Philopoemen, 296a-b I Cleomenes
658a-666a / Aratus, 834c-d '
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK IX, 580,d..
60a
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, l03c-d
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 218c-219a
43 ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: 5a-9d
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: Ila-20d
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER I, 29a-b; NUMBER 2
31a-33b; NUMBER 9, 49b-c; NUMBER I4,62a-d;
NUMBER 18-20 71a-78b; NUMBER 37-40 117
132a; NUMBER 43, 143b-144a; NUMBER 4
147d-148c; NUMBER 85, 258d-259a,c
43 MILL: Representative Government,
433b
10f. The ideal of a world state
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 9, 114'O-d
BK II, CH 10, 148c-d; BK III, CH 24, 204a-o
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BKIII, SECT II 262a-b;
BK IV, SECT 3-4 263b-264a; BK VI, SECT 44
278b-c
18 AUGUSTINE: City ofGod, BK XIX, CH 7 51Sa-
CH 17, 522d
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 471a-c
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 34a
38 ROUSSEAU: lnequalty, 355b-c / Politico
Economy, 369a-b
42 KANT: Science .of Right, 455c-456a; 457
458a,c / Judgement, 586a-587a
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART I1I,par,3
109b-c
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK VI, 244d-245d.
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK
127b-137c passim; BK VI, 158b-159a;166
167b
THE GREAT IDEAS lOb to 1
ADDITIONS, 174, 147a I Philosophy
Hzstory, PART IV, 316c-d; 324b-326c; 327c
330a; 334d-33Sa
50 MARX-ENGELS: Comraunist lVfaniJesto, 419d
420d
862
1Ob.The imperial state
5 AESCHYLUS: Persians 15a-26d
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK I, 16c-20b; 30b-31a;
BK III, 109b-111b
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK I, 371b-
373c; BK II, 403b-c
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK III, CH 13 [I284a38-b3]
482c
13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK I [254-296] 110a-I1Ia;
BK VI [845-853] 233b-234a; BK VIII [608-731]
275a-278b
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles 121a-141a,c / Alcibiades
155b,d-174d / Lysander, 359c-360d / Nicias
423a-438d / .Agesilaus 480b,d-499a,c / Pom-
pey 499a-538a,c /Alexander 540b,d-576d /
Caesar 577a-604d / Antony 748a-779d /
Galba 859a-869d
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK I, 1a-2a;BK XI, l06b-d
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK IV 188b,d-
207a,c; BK v, CH 12-26 216d-230a,c
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, 11[10-27] 2d;
PARADISE, VI [I-III] 113c-114d
27 SHAKESPEARE: Antony and Cleopatra 311a.-
350d
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Lav.Js, BK x, 65d-
68a
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK V, 30Sd-308a
40 GIBBON: Decline and FaZIes}> la-34a,c, 79b-d,
523a-524a, 571a,c, 630a-633a
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall esp 3Sb-40a, 161a-
163d, 209d-220a,c,
367b,d-377c, 479b,d-S10a,c
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 19, 73c-75c
43 MILL: Representative Government, 433b-442d
46 I-IEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART I, 242b-
258d; PART II, 281b-282d;PART III,285a-
303c; 311d-314a,c; PART IV, 321d-326c
lOco The feudal state
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK XXX-XXXI
269a-315d passim
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK III, 165b-
173a
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 83b-d;619b-624c
passim, esp 619c-d
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 217d-220a,cesp
218c-219a; 403b-404d; 452d-453a,c; 570d-
571a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 17, 70a-d; NUMBER 19,
73d-74a; NUMBER 45, 148c-d
43 MILL: Representative Government,
46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofRight, PART III, par 273,
ADDITIONAL READINGS
Listed below are works not included in Great Books ofthe Western World, but relevant to the
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These works are divided into t,vo groups:
I. Works by authors represented in this collection.
II. "Vorks by authors not represented in this collection.
For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the \vorks cited,
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great
865
HSIAO. Political Pluralism
M. R. COHEN. Reason and Nature, BK III, CH 3
A. HUXLEY. Brave New World -
LASKI. The State in Theory and Practice
STURZO. The Inner Laws of Society
--. Church and State
MARITAIN. The Things That Are Not Caesar's,
I-III
--. Ransoming the Time, CH 2
BORGESE. Coramon Cause
KOHN. The Idea of Nationalisln
CASSIRER. The Myth ofthe State, PART II
KELSEN. Der soziologische und der juristische Staats-
begriff
--. General Theory of Law and State
11ERRIAM. Systematic Politics
EWING. The Individual, the State and World Govern-
ment
A. J. TOYNBEE. Cit,ilization on Trial, CH 5, 7
BORGESE et ale Preliminary Draft of a World Con-
stitution
CHAPTER 90: STATE
ANTAYANA. Reason in Society, CH 8
PPENHEIMER. The State, Its History and Devel-
opment Viewed Sociologically
EWEyand TUFTS. Ethics, PART III, CH 20-21
()REL. Rejlexions on
RANDELLO. The Old and the Young
LLOC. The Servile State
GUIT. Law in the Modern State
ALLAS. The Great Society
RETO. The Mind and Society, VOL IV
BROUSE. The Metaphysical Theory ofthe State
NIN. The State and Retlolution
VEBLEN. The Vested Interests and the State of the
Industrial Arts, CH 6
EBER. Essays in Sociology, PART II
. Politics as a Vocation
UPTMANN. The Island ofthe Great Mother
CKING. Man and the State
DCE. Politics and Morals
WEY. Reconstruction in Philosophy, CH 8
. The Public and Its Problems
BENTHAM. A Fragment on Govern1nenJ,. CH
36-48)
--. The Theory of Legislation
J. G. FICHTE. Addresses to the
IV-VIII
--.. The Science of Rights
FOURIER. Traite de l' association
LIEBER. Manual of Political Ethics
WHEWELL. The Elen1ents of Morality, BK
BK V, CH 1-6, 10-17
CALHOUN. A Disquisition on Governlnent
--. A Discourse on the Constitution
ment of the United States
THOREAU. Civil Disobedience
HAWTHORNE. The BlithedaleRomance
COMTE. System of Positive Polity,
Statics, CH 5
LOTZE. Alicrocosmos, BK VIII, CH 5
FREEMAN. History of Federal Got/ernmcnt
and Italy
BAGEHOT. Physics and Politics
BURCKHARDT. Force and Freedom, Cll 2-3
S. BUTLER. Erewhon
RUSKIN. Munera Pulveris
J. H. NEWMAN. A Letter to the Duke
L. H. MORGAN. Ancient
T. H. GREEN. The Principles
(G)
SPENCER. The Man Versus the State
TONNIES. Fundamental Concepts
NIETZSCHE. The Will to Power, BK III
W. WILSON. The State
FRAZER. The Golden Bough, PART I, CH
TREITSCHKE. Politics
BOSANQUET. The Philosophical
KROPOTKIN. Nfutual Aid, a Factor
--. The State, Its l-listoric Role
THE GREAT IDEAS 864
TACITUS. Germania
DANTE. Convivio (The Banquet), FOURTH TREATISE,
CH 4-10
--. On World-Government or De lvfonarchia
F. BACON. "Of Faction," in Essays
HOBBES. Philosophical Rudilnents Concerning Govern-
ment and Society, CH I, 5
--. The Elelnents of Law, Natural and Politic
SPINOZA. Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (Theologi-
cal-Political CH 16-19
MONTESQUIEU. Considerations on the Causes of the
Grandeur and Decadence ofthe Romans
ENGELS. The Origin of the Family, Private Property
and the State
I.
For: The special relation of an imperial state to colonies or subject peoples, see
GOVERNMENT Sb; LIBERTY 6c; 1,fONARCHY S-Sb; SLAVERY 6d; TYRANNY 6.
The general theory of sovereignty as it applies to the state in its external .&. ......., ........ .l..U'J.J..'\
other states, and as it applies to a state, or its government, in to
see DEMOCRACY 4b; GOVERNMENT Id, Ig-Ig(3), 5; LAW 6b; LIBERTY Ib;
Ia(2), 4e(3); ONE AND MANY se; TYRANNY SC.
Other discussions of confederacies and federal unions, see GOVERNMENT Sd; ONE AND
Sd-sc; REVOLUTION 6b; and for discussions bearing on the possibility of a world
CITIZEN 8; LOVE 4c ; WAR AND PEACE lId.
II.
JOHN OF SALISBURY. The Statesman's Book
Volsung Saga
Njalssaga
MARSILIUS OF PADUA. Defensor Pacis
T. lvfoRE. Utopia
LUTHER. Secular Authority
BODIN. The Six Bookes of a Commonweale
HOOKER. Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity
ALTHUSIUS. Politica Methodice Digesta Atque Ex-
emplis Sacris et Profanis Illustrata
CAMPANELLA. The City ofthe Sun
PENN. An Essay Towards the Present and Future
Peace of Europe
DEFOE. Robinson Crusoe
BURLAMAQUI. Principles of Natural and Politic Law
VATTEL. The Law of Nations
VOLTAIRE. "States-Governments," in A Philosoph-
ical Dictionary
GODWIN. An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice