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Harold II Godwinson

1022 – October 1066


William Shakespeare was the last Anglo-Saxon King of
Frances Jane (1564–1616), England before the Norman Con-
"Fanny" Crosby `The Bard of Avon', English poet quest. Harold reigned from 5 Janu-
(1820-1915) and playwright wrote the famous ary 1066, until his death at the Bat-
Known as an American hymn writer 154 Sonnets and numerous highly tle of Hastings on 14 October of that
and poetess, Fanny Crosby wrote successful oft quoted dramatic same year, fighting the Norman
over 9,000 hymns during her life. works including the tragedy of the invaders, led by William the Con-
Prince of Denmark, Hamlet; queror.

Ralph Vaughan Williams Sir Edward William Elgar, John Bunyan


October 1872 – August 1958 1st Baronet, November 1628 – August 1688
was an English composer of sym- June 1857 – February 1934 was an English Christian writer and
phonies, chamber music, opera, was an English composer. preacher, famous for writing
choral music, and film scores. He was appointed Master of the The Pilgrim's Progress.
King's Musick in 1924.
The Battle of Hastings
14 October 1066
the decisive Norman victory in the
Norman Conquest of England.
Richard I of Normandy It was fought between the Norman
28 August 933—November 20 996 army of William the Conqueror, and
was the Duke of Normandy from the English army led by Harold
942 to 996; he is considered the first Battle of Stamford Bridge Godwinson.
to actually have held that title. He 25th September 1066
was called Richard the Fearless

William II Henry I
1056 – 2 August 1100 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135
the third son of William I "the Con- was the fourth son of William I the
William I queror" of England, was King of Conqueror. He was called
1027/1028–1087 England from 1087 until 1100, with Beauclerc for his scholarly interests
better known as powers also over Normandy, and and Lion of Justice for refinements
William the Conqueror, was Duke influence in Scotland. William is which he brought about in the ad-
of Normandy from 1035 and King commonly known as William ministrative and legislative machin-
of England from late 1066 to his Rufus, perhaps because of his red- ery of the time.
death. faced appearance.
Stephen Empress Matilda,
often known as Stephen of Blois February 1102 – September 1167
Charlemagne 1096 – 25 October 1154 was the daughter and heir of King
April 2, 742—814 was a grandson of William the Henry I of England. Her brother
King of the Franks and Emperor of Conqueror. He was the last Norman died young in the White ship disas-
the Holy Roman Empire. King of England, from 1135 to his ter, leaving Matilda as the last heir
death, and also the from the paternal line of her grand-
Count of Boulogne jure uxoris. father William the Conqueror.

Richard I
Henry II 8 September, 1157 – 6 April, 1199
called Curtmantle was King of England from 6 July,
5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189 1189 until his death in 1199.
Henry was the first of the House of Thomas Becket He was known as Cœur de Lion or,
Plantagenet to rule England and was 1118– 29 December 1170 Richard the Lionheart, even be-
the great-grandson of William the was Archbishop of Canterbury from fore his accession, because of his
Conqueror. Henry was the first to 1162 to his death. reputation as a great military leader
use the title "King of England" (as and warrior.
Magna Carta Henry III
also called October 1207 – November 1272
John Magna Carta Libertatum was the son and successor of John
December 1166 – October 1216 (the Great Charter of Freedoms), as King of England, reigning for
King of England, is an English legal charter, fifty-six years from 1216 to his
reigned from 6 April 1199 until his originally issued in the year 1215. death. His contemporaries knew him
death. as Henry of Winchester.

Simon de Montfort, Edward II


6th Earl of Leicester Edward I 25 April 1284 – 21 September
May 23, 1208 – August 4, 1265 June 1239 – July 1307 1327
was a French-English nobleman, also known as called Edward of Carnarvon, was
notable as the principal leader of the Edward Longshanks, was King of King of England from 1307 until he
baronial opposition to King Henry England from 1272 to 1307. The was deposed in January 1327. Inter-
III of England. After the rebellion of first son of Henry III, Edward was spersed between the strong reigns of
1263 and 1264, de Montfort became involved early in the political in- his father Edward I and son Edward
de facto ruler of England and called trigues of his father's reign, which III, the reign of Edward II was dis-
the first directly elected parliament included an outright rebellion by the astrous for England, marked by
in medieval Europe. English Barons. incompetence, political squabbling,
The Crusades
1095 and 1291
Hārūn al-Rashīd were a series of religiously- Godfrey of Bouillon
763–809 sanctioned military campaigns 1060 – 18 July 1100
He ruled from 786 to 809, and his waged by much of Latin Christian was a medieval knight who was one
time was marked by scientific, cul- Europe, particularly the Franks of of the leaders of the First Crusade
tural and religious prosperity. Art France and the Holy Roman Empire. from 1096 until his death. After the
and music also flourished signifi- The specific crusades to restore fall of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey
cantly during his reign. He estab- Christian control of the Holy Land became the first ruler of the King-
lished the library Bayt al-Hikma were fought over a period of nearly dom of Jerusalem, although he did
("House of Wisdom"). 200 years. not use the title "king."

The Santa Fe Trail


1821 – 1880
a 19th century transportation route
through central North America that
Eric the Red connected Missouri with Santa Fe,
950?-1003 or 1004? Leif Ericsson the Lucky New Mexico.
was a Viking explorer who was the 980?-1020? First used in 1821 by William
first European in Greenland. was a Viking explorer who was Becknell, it served as a vital com-
He sailed from Iceland in 982 and possibly the first European to sail to mercial and military highway until
led a group of colonists to North America. Ericsson sailed the introduction of the railroad to
Greenland in 986. around the year 1000. Santa Fe in 1880.
Raffaello Sanzio
“Raphael” Alfred the Great
1483-1520 A.D. 849 – 26 October 899
16th-century was king of the Anglo-Saxon king-
Italian painter and architect Walter John de la Mare dom of Wessex from 871 to 899.
whose style reflected the High 25 April 1873 – 22 June 1956 Alfred is noted for his defense of the
Renaissance. A great master of was an English poet, short story Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of southern
the period, he is best known for writer and novelist, probably best England against the Vikings, be-
his religious works, frescos, remembered for his works for chil- coming the only English king to be
and portraiture. dren and "The Listeners". given the epithet "the Great".

Kansas Abraham Lincoln


Anselm of Canterbury January 29, 1861 Feb. 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865
1033 – 21 April 1109 is a state located in the Midwestern the 16th President of the United
a Benedictine monk, an Italian me- United States. States, serving from March 1861
dieval philosopher, theologian, and It is named after the Kansas River until his assassination in April 1865.
church official who held the office which flows through it, which in He successfully led his country
of Archbishop of Canterbury from turn was named after the Kansa through its greatest internal crisis,
1093 to 1109. tribe, who inhabited the area. the American Civil War, preserving
the Union and ending slavery.
Joan of Arc
1412– 30 May 1431
is a national heroine of France and
Laura Elizabeth Ingalls Wilder a Catholic saint. A peasant girl born
Feb.7, 1867 – Feb.10, 1957 in eastern France, she led the French
was an American author who wrote army to several important victories
the Little House series of children's during the Hundred Years' War,
books based on her childhood in a claiming divine guidance, and was
pioneer family. indirectly responsible for the
coronation of Charles VII.