History of MEXICO’s Revolutions

Recurring Cycles of “Revolution” From Pre-Colonial imes to o!ay "tatism #"tate Ca$italism % Central Planning& versus 'nti-"tatism #Private Ca$italism % Provincial Rig(ts& versus 'ctive-"tatism #Mi)e! "tate an! Private Ca$italism *it( Partial Central Planning&

By Olga Mag!alena +a,in-'n!rei

Co$yrig(te! -./- 0y +a,in
Recurring Cycles of “Revolution” From Pre-Colonial imes to o!ay "tatism ("tate Ca$italism % Central Planning) versus “'nti-"tatism #Private Ca$italism *it(out 1ational Planning&

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versus 'ctive-"tatism #Mi)e! "tate an! Private Ca$italism *it( Partial "tate Planning& By

2r Olga Mag!alena +a,in-'n!rei
(UCLA History Instructor) Acknowledgment to 2r3 Miguel Rivera-R4os
( ro!essor o! "conomics, Universid#d $#cion#l Aut%nom# de &'(ico) !or )is on*going e(tensive criti+ues #nd de,#te #,out t)e org#ni-#tion #nd contents o! t)is work. for Comments5 Corrections5 E!iting5 an! '!!itions *(ic( *e *ill fin! to 0e necessary in our Class +ectures an! 2iscussions connect6 ola,in7ucla3e!u . 2//0, 2//1, 2//2, 2/3/, 2/33, 2/32 ,y 4lg# LA5I$

" ' I"M 2EFI1E2 Me)ico is on its *ay to 0ecoming a (uge economic $o*er3 8"tatism8 occurs #nyw)ere w)en t)e 6t#te Centr#l 7overnment controls # ,ig p#rt (usu#lly over 8/9 #nd in some c#ses #ll) o! t)e n#tion#l economy (7: ). Le#ders w)o !ollow st#tist policies cl#im to oper#te in t)e n#me o! t)e ;people<. =)eoretic#lly individu#ls #re more import#nt t)#n t)e 6t#te ,ut t)e reverse is true. 6t#tism is #ccomp#nied ,y !ull or m#>or control o! politics #nd society (not e#sily +u#nti!ied), resulting in pred#tory dict#tors)ip m#king decisions t)roug) p#rti#l or !ull Central Planning. olice, milit#ry, legisl#tors, #nd >udici#l o!!ici#ls !ollow orders.
=)e m#sses #re e(pected to t#ke orders !rom t)eir supreme le#der #nd )is region#l #nd loc#l ,osses, doing so wit)out #rgument. 7overnment m#y ,e ,#sed on “"tate Ca$italism5” #s in tod#y?s C)in# #nd @ussi#. Aspects o! 6t#tism includeA control o! t#ri!!s to ;protect< t)e n#tion#l economy, permissions to !#vorite persons or l#,or unions (sindic#tos) to mono$oli,e comp#nies t)#t produce energy (oil, electricity), newsp#pers, television, #nd telep)one systems, m#int#in #ll persons under surveill#nce, etc.

6t#tist systems tend to develop “One-Party 2emocracies” or “Official Parties” to >usti!y (o!ten t)roug) !r#udulent elections #ndBor t)e purc)#sing o! votes) !or t)e purpose o! rem#ining in ;perm#nent ; control o! t)e 7overnment. CO1 E1 "

I3 C4$C" =6, :"CI$I=I4$6, &"DIC4 CA6", CLA@ICICA=I4$6 ( . 3/)
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II3 CFCL"6 ( . E3)
/3 “"tatist” ',tec Con9uest an! :overnment $rior to /;-/ -3 “"tatist” "$anis( Con9uest #/;/<-/;-/& an! :overnment after /;-/

=3 Faile! 'nti-"tate Revolutions #/>/.-/>-.& seeking Independence !rom 6p#in ?3 "t a t i s t “In! e $ e n ! e n c e ” fro m "$ai n 5 /> - / - /> - ? 5 to &#int#in 6t#t u s G ;3 C(aotic 'nti-"tatism versus "tatism5 />-;-/>;;. Includes "anta 'nna?s 31H1

territori#l losses #nd 318E restor#tion o! 6t#te control over all lan!s an! su0soil rig(ts
@3 'ctive-"tate +egal Revolution5 />;@-/>@@5 esta0lis(e! 0y Aenito BuCre, D3 "tatist Revolution un!er Ma)imilian #/>@?-/>@D& interrupts IuJre- Active 6t#te >3 'ctive-"tate Revolution un!er BuCre, an! "e0astiCn +er!o #/>@D-/>D@) <3 @I6" 4C 6=A=I6= @"K4LU=I4$ U$:"@ 4@CI@I4 :LA5, 310M*3233 <a (e 'ctive "tate6 24a, #/>D@-/>>/& <0 "tatism un!er “Presi!ent” 24a, #/>>--/<//& #nd t)e CientN!ico 7roup <c =wo Oey Books—Francisco I. Madero (1908) and Andrés Molina-Enríquez (1909) /.3 CHA4=IC A$=I*6=A=I6= @"K4LU=I4$, 3233*323M ( . EH) //3 AC=IK"*6=A=" @"K4LU=I4$ (3230*32MH)A @I6" 4C ;$"P CLA66< //a Political #/</D-/<=?&5 especi#lly under residents 4,reg%n, Calles5 Portes-:il //0 "ocial #/<=?-/<?.&6 Presi!ent +C,aro CCr!enas, w)o con!ronts t)e Porld 7re#t :epression I, 3222*32H/ //c Economic #/<?.s-/<;.s&6 residents Avil#*C#m#c)o, 'lemCn5 @ui- Cortines //! “Aalance!” #/<;>-/<@?&6 Presi!ent +E$e,-Mateos //-a /-0 /-c

6=A="*CA I=ALI6& Q :I@=F PA@, 32M8*3212 ( . 3/2)
:ustavo 2ia,-Or!a, #/<@?-/<D.& Initiates 'ut(oritarian "tatism +uis Ec(everria-'lvare, #/<D.-/<D@& initiates Economic "tatism BosF +E$e, Portillo #/<D@-/<>-&5 Petro-"tatism Gn!er t(e “:o! Presi!ent”

/=. 6HIC= =4 AC=IK"*6=A=I6&, 321E** ( . 322) /=a Carlos "alinas #/<>=-/<>> an! /<>>-/<<?&5 *(o lays 0asis for = *(o follo*6 /=0 Ernesto He!illo #/<<?--...&5 w)o turns over power !rom t)e @I to t)e A$
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/=c /=! /=!3/ /=!3/=!3=

Iicente Fo) #-...--..@&5 w)o de!e#ts t)e one*p#rty system ,ut not
its ,#sis in ,ure#ucr#cies #nd gover#nce o! more t)#n )#l! o! t)e E2 st#tes

Feli$e Cal!erEn5 -..@--./-5

#P3 /D-&

w)o implicity c#lls !or 'ctive-"tate $olicy versus +E$e,-O0ra!or, w)o seeks An#rc)y to @estore t)e 6t#tist @evolution, 2//M** 2rug rafficJers5 w)o seek An#rc)y to $eutr#li-e olice Q &ilit#ry, 2//M**

Grandes Problemas Nacionales #-..@& % Korl!’s :reat 2e$ression II5 -..>L

+I"

OF M'P" '12 FI:GRE"

Pa g e M'P 8 3. &e(ico 4n t)e Porld 7lo,e M 2. &#p o! &e(ico =od#y 0 E. Cities o! &e(ico 312 H. =)e @e#c) o! &e(ico?s :rug C#rt els, 2//2 Pa g e FI:GRE 1 3. =op Porld 7: s 2//2 Comp # r e d to 3222 #nd 3212 M3 2. How &#ny Pere OilledB;Lost< in t)e Kiolent @evolutionR 0M 1H E. :iego @iver# #nd Crid# O#)lo H. 7r#p) o! Fe#rly C)#ng e in &e(ico?s 7: , 312M* 321M )#s e o! &e(ico?s

3/M 8. &e(ico?s @e#l Coreign :e,t, 32MH* 2//1 331 M. Luis "c)ev errN # )#s >ust ,ee n in#ug ur # t e d #s 7ust #vo :N#- 4rd#32/ 0. "c)ev errN #?s Leg#l @evolution, 320/* 320M 380 1. $orm# n Borl#ug, w)o )elpe d te#c ) t)e world to !eed itsel!. 381 2. =wo Altern # tive &et)ods o! &#king Porld ro>ections, 3288* 2/8/ 382 3/. Hum# n opul#tion 7rowt), 328/* 2/8/ opul#tion reside n t ,y

308 33. &e(ico?s 7: @e#l 7rowt) @#te, 3213* 2//E

H

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300 32. Porld 7: Coll#ps e, 2//1* 2//2, @ecovery !or t)e @ic) in 2/3/ 301 3E. Porld 4il rices #nd C#pit #l Clows, 2//3* 2//2 31H 3H. Onown nu m, e r o! perso n s killed in &e(ico?s :rug P#r, 2//M* 2//2 310 38. &ont)ly "#rnings in &e(ico $#rco P#r 311 3M. C#lder% n?s ositive #nd $eg#tive :rug P#r 6corec #r d, 2//2 32/ 30. &e(ic#n :rug C#rtels #nd =)eir C#posSLiving #nd :e#d, 2//2 32E 2/2 23/ per 233 31. &#ny* rong e d Crisis 6ince 2//2 32. &e(ic#n Crude 4il roduction 2/ &e(ico?s @e#l 7: per c#pit # #s erce n t # g e o! U.6. @e#l 7: c#pit # 23. &e(ic#n He#ds o! 6t#t e 6ince Indep e n d e n c e Ma$ / Me)ico on t(e Korl! :lo0e

&e(ico is p)ysic#lly #,out t)e si-e o! tod#y?s Americ#n Pest t)#t w#s t#ken !rom it in t)e &e(ic#n*Americ#n P#r o! 31H8*31H1S6ee C)#rt 32 in t)e Booklet of Charts #ssigned !or t)is Course. By tot#l #re# (181,/// s+. miles), Me)ico is t(e /?t( largest nation in t(e 8

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*orl!, e(cluding t)e "urope#n Union (w)ic) is m#de up o! 20 independent countries, #nd e(cluding unin)#,ited dependent territories. Pit) #n popul#tion o! 333 million, Me)ico is t(e //t( most $o$ulous country. &e(ico is # !eder#tion comprising t)irty*one st#tes #nd # Ceder#l :istrict, Me)ico City, t)e country?s c#pit#l, w)ic) )#s ,ecome in e!!ect t)e E2nd st#te. 6ince 322H &e(ico )#s ,een t)e L#tin Americ#n mem,er o! t)e 4rg#ni-#tion !or "conomic Co*oper#tion #nd :evelopment (4"C:). However, in I#nu#ry 2/3/ C)ile will ,ecome t)e second L#tin Americ#n mem,er, provided t)#t its (or w)en) its investment #nd t#( policies meet 4"C: st#nd#rds. (e OEC2 is 0ase! in Paris an! its =. mem0ers must meet first*orl! stan!ar!s to 0e invite! an! eligi0le to Moin3 Me)ico is t(e only country to (ave an F ' *it( 0ot( 1'F ' #in!ee! it is a mem0er of 1'F '& an! t(e Euro$ean Gnion. 64U@C"A :r#wn upon I#mes P. Pilkie, ed. Statistical Abstract of Latin America (6ALA Kol. E1, Los AngelesA UCLA L#tin Americ#n Center u,lic#tions, 2//2) #s well #s upon )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB&e(ico #nd )ttpABB,usinesswit)l#tin#meric#.,logspot.comB2//2B32Bc)ile*is*,ecoming*oecd*mem,er*in.)tml

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Ma$ - #*as Figure /5 /@.0 "$ring -..<& M'P OF MEXICO O2'N

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Ma$ = Cities of Me)ico

6ourceA www.m e ( o nlin e.c o m B m # p s B pic sB m # p * o!* me(ico.gi!

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----Figure / o$ Korl! :2Ps3O -..< Com$are! to /<<< an! /<><
(In Billions o! 2//2 :oll#rs, U.6. 7: T U3H.E =rillion :oll#rsV &e(ico 7: U3.2 =rillion Conver t e d #t &#rket or 7overn m e n t 4!!ici#l "(c)# n g e @#te) -. . < rillion @A$O :2P W Porld UM2.E "U U31.2 /3 G"' P/ ? 3 = 2 I#p#n UH.1 = CHI$A UH.2 U.6. 7: H 7erm # n y UE.1 8 Cr#nc e UE./ M UO U2.1 0 It#ly U2.H > C'+IF3 P/3 > 1 @U66IA U3.1 2 6p#in U3.0 3/ B@A5IL U3.M 7: 33 C#n# d # U3.8 /- I12I' P /3 not e !or 3/ down 1 32 U down down down U E H M 23 3 2 0 U E 8 down U M down 8 down 2 down down U U 2 0 3E Me)i c o is Q / - (6ee &e(ico in ne(t posting) /= MEXICO P/3 19 o! U.6. 7: /? :R'1 +3'3 P/3 / R R 3H Austr#li# U3.3 38 $et) erl# n d s U3./ down R 33 U 3M In 2//2 T 1 3/ In 2//2 T 229 o! U.6. H 3 2 33 In 2//2 T 229 o! @#nk C)#n g e 32 << @#nk @A$O C)#n g e 32 >< @A$O T

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down 38 2 down

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3M 30 31 32 2/

6. O4@"A U.2 down =urkey U.1 U ol#nd U.M U Indon e si # U.8 U Belgiu m U.H down

3E 21 31

U 22 U 2H U down U

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Cigure 3 (Continu e d) W 7: 2EFI1I IO16 7: is t)e sum all goo!s an! services $ro!uce! 0y resi!ent #!omestic an! foreign& in a nation’s economy plus #ny product t#(es #nd minus #ny su,sidies not included in t)e v#lue o! t)e products. It is c#lcul#ted wit)out m#king deductions !or depreci#tion o! m#nu!#ctured #ssets or !or depletion #nd degr#d#tion o! n#tur#l resources. :#t# #re in current U.6. doll#rs. :oll#r !igures !or 7: #re converted !rom domestic currencies using single ye#r o!!ici#l e(c)#nge r#tes. E)clu!es income from informal economy an! sale of use! goo!sS also e)clu!es $ro!uction an! sale of illegal !rugsLt(ey 0een “laun!ere!” into $ro!uctive categories of t(e legal economy3 7: di!!ers !rom gross n#tion#l product (:1P), w)ic) is de!ined to include #ll !in#l goods #nd services produced ,y resources owned ,y t)#t n#tionXs residents (including !oreign residents), w)et)er loc#ted in t(e nation or else*(ere. Inclu!es income from remittances sent (ome 0y *orJers a0roa! an! foreign investment $rofits returne! to t(e country3 E)clu!es t(e informal economy5 e3g3 $ro!uction an! sale of illegal !rugs--unless t(ey (ave
3/

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0een “laun!ere!” into $ro!uctive categories of t(e legal economy3 R For Me)ico5 if t(e -..< revenues from $ro!uction an! sale of illegal !rugs *ere inclu!e! in :2P #estimate! at /.T of Me)ico’s :2P or P//> 0illion www.)#vocscope.comBme(ico*drug*c#rtels*money* consists*up*to*3/*percent*o!*gdpB )5 t(at *oul! give t(e Me)ico a total :2P of P/5=.. 0illion #an! c(ange its ranJ to Q/-5 !is$lacing In!ia3 =)is !igure is !or illeg#l drug revenues smuggled into &e(ico !rom s#les to -. million G3"3 !rug users3 2E' estimates t(e total cas( smuggle! is P=< 0illion3 On *i!es$rea! use of cas(5 see www.nytimes.comB2//2B32B2MBworldB#meric#sB2Ml#redo.)tm l #nd (!or pro,lems c#lcul#ting &e(ico?s tot#l 7: , see ;:oes 7: :istort &e(ico?s "conomic er!orm#nceR< (3221)A )ttpABBwww.>stor.orgBpssB3/M323H :#vid Lu)now, Wall Stre e t Journal , 32* 2M* /2,A +uot e s !or 2//2 t)e KHO+E"'+E price !or one kilo o! coc#in e #s !ollowsA Colom,i # P/ 5 - . . V #n# m # P- 5 = . . V &e(ico City P> 5 = . . V $FC P- ; 5 . . . V RE 'I+ price $FC P> . 5 . . . . )ttpABBonline.ws>.co mB # r ticleB6B3/ / / 3 H 2 H / 8 2 0 H 1 0/H2 8 H M / H 8 0 H M 3 H 2 E / 0 E 3 8 / M M H H . ) t ml RR 7ross roduct o! 7r#n &e(ico City in 2//8 (not comp#r#,le to ye#rs )ere) is estim#ted to )#ve m#de &e(ico City t)e 28t) l#rgest economy in t)e world, ric)er in t)#t
33

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ye#r t)#n =#iw#n #nd Ir#n. 6eeA )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB&e(icoYCity 64U@C"A Ad#pted ,y I#mes P. Pilkie !rom t)e !ollowing sources t)#t m#inly +uote CIA d#t#A 2//2A www.p)otius.comBr#nkingsBeconomyBgdpYo!!ici#lYe(c)#ngeYr#te Y2//2Y/.)tml 3222A www.n# tion m # s t e r . c o m B g r # p ) B e c oYg d p* econo m y* gdpQd # t e T 3 2 2 2 3212A www.n# tion m # s t e r . c o m B g r # p ) B e c oYg d p* econo m y* gdpQd # t e T 3 2 1 2 $ote t)#t CIA, I&C, #nd Porld B#nk d#t # #re ess e n ti #lly t)e s# m e !or 2//1 (Cr#nc e , Br#-il, 6p#in, 6wed e n di!!er ,y one r#nk in top 2/). =o comp # r e t)e t)re e series, seeA )ttpABBe n.wikipe di #.or gBwikiBListYo!Ycoun trie sY,yY7: Y(nomin #l ) C#li!orni# sourc eA )ttpABBwww.n e w s w e e k . c o m BidB2 E 2 8 0 8 3/)V #nd t)e report 2* 3M* 3/ ,y (3* 2M*

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7r#n Los Angele s (M countie s A L.A., Kentur #, 4r#ng e , 6#n Bern # din o, @iversid e, 6#n :iego) 7ross roduct s #re my roug ) esti m # t e , e(tr # p ol # tin g !rom suc) sourc e s #s www.l#incr e s e # r c ) . c o m B #llBCor ec # s t 2 / / 2 . p d ! #nd A,r#) # m Lowent ) #l, Global California: Rising to the Cos m o p olitan Challeng e (Stanford ni!ersit" #ress$ %&&'( .

CONCEPTS
32

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&uc) #n#lysis o! &e(ic#n History since 323/ )#s involved #ssessing t)e me#ning &e(ico?s ;@evolution< ,eginning in t)#t ye#r, #nd, i! t)ere w#s # re#l @evolution, w)en did endA
The Official Part y of th e Rev ol u t i o n (1 9 2 9 - 20 0 0 ) claims that it Institution alize d the Move m e n t of 1910 to rule Mexico for mor e tha n 7 dec a d e s as the “ Per m a n e n t Rev ol u t i o n Und e r On e- Part y De m o c r a c y , which since 1946 carries the na m e (PR!- Partid o Rev ol u c i o n a r i o !n"tit u c i o n a l ) # and now in 2012, claims that in the election ul! 1 st it will re $ a i n th e Pre " i d e n c y of %e&ic o In 2000, the "#I was vote d out of the "resid e n c ! and re$lac e d without civil war %! the P'(- Partid o 'cci) n (aci o n a l , which has launch e d Mexico&s “ De m o c r a t i c Rev ol u t i o n un d e r * hic h Pre " i d e n t " +ic e n t e ,o& (2 0 0 0 - 20 0 - ) an d Pre " i d e n t ,eli. e /ald er ) n (2 0 0 - - 20 1 2 ) hav e offici all y rec o $ n i 0 e d th a t th e Pre " i d e n c y of %e&i c o fin ally "h ar e " /on " ti t u t i o n a l Po * e r *ith th e /on $r e " " i o n a l an d 1udicial 2ra n c h e " of $o v e r n m e n t '%oth of which had serv e d since the dictat o r s hi$ of "orfirio (iaz, 1)76* 1911, mainl! as +ru%% e r sta m $ a,e n ci e s -. The PRD- Parti d o d e la Rev o l u c i ) n De m o c r 3 t i c a claims that the %oth the "#I and "/0 sta n d for Private Monopoly Capitalis m in favor of the elites and that onl! %! ma1in, a #evolution to em$ o w e r Stat e Capitalis m can Mexico&s $eo$l e ,ain their fare shar e of the nation al incom e (!n 20 0 - th e PRD mi" " e d *in n i n $ %e&ic o 4 " Pre " i d e n c y 2y 05 -6 of th e vot e )

!n con t r a " t to th e a2 o v e clai m " of on- goi n g .roc e " " e " of Rev ol u t i o n ,
m a n y "c h o l a r " " e e th e %e&i c a n Rev ol u t i o n a" ha vi n $ en d e d in th e follo * i n $ y e ar " 7 19 1 9 (* h e n 8a. a t a an d hi" “id e a of lan d ref or m * er e 9ille d a" ord e r e d 2y Pre " i d e n t /arran 0 a ) 19 2 0 (* h e n /arran 0 a * a " a" " a " " i n a t e d , en d i n $ m a:or an ar c h i c a l viol e n c e +!;<7 htt . 7== m e & i c a n h i " t o r y 5 o r $ = r e v o l u t i o n 5 h t m )

3E

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) 19 > 0 (af t e r %e&i c o 4 " e " c a . e from <orld De.r e " " i o n ? 1 thro u $ h “m a " " i v e di" tri 2 u t i o n of lan d into co m m u n a l farm " a" * ell a" nati o n a l i 0 a t i o n of th e for ei $ n - o* n e d rail an d oil ind u " t ri e " 2y Pre " i d e n t @30ar o /3rd e n a " ) 19 > 0 - 19 > - -19 A 2 (* h e n %e&ic o ov e r t l y "hif t e d to !ndu " t ri a l Rev o l u t i o n an d ur2 a n d e v e l o . m e n t “2 e n e f i t t i n $ th e * e a l t h y - -not th e m a " " e " of co m m u n a l farm e r " an d co m m o n * or9 e r " , a" artic u l a t e d 2y Dani e l /o"B o- +ille $ a " , 1e" C " Dilv a- Eer0o $ , Ram ) n Fet e t a , Ghom a " Fen:a m i n , et c , ) 19 A 9 (* h e n /arlo " ,u e n t e " " e e " th e Rev o l u t i o n of 19 1 0 a" ha vi n $ die d , after havin, $as s e d throu , h a,onizin, +sta , e s of dea t h - exa mi n e d in his world* famo u s novel, The Death of Arte mio Cruz '1962., which down$la !s Mexico&s 2om m e r ci al #evolution and the rise of Mexico&s Middle 2lass 19 - H , 19 H 2 , 19 9 > , 20 0 0 '!e ar s for which (onald 3od,e s and #oss 4and! im$licitl! revis e 5uent e s +sta , e s of dea t h - conce $ t in their %oo1 The End of the Revolution '2002. R;'D ;IGR'/G7 htt$677%oo1 s8 , o o ,l e 8co m 7 % o o 1 s 9id : 5 1 9 ;14 0 % )2<$rints e c : f r o n t c o v e r 19 9 > when "resid e n t =alinas a. chan , e d the 2onstitution al re>uire m e n t of 1917 so that land would no lon, er hav e to %e distri%ut e d to com m u n a l farms? %. led Mexico into 0/5T/ '@8=8* 2ana d a* Mexico 5ree Trade /,ree m e n t .? c. isolat e d the #e%ellion in 2hia$ a s %! =u%co m a n d a n t e Marcos, as articulat e d %! Michael 28 Me!er et al8 in Th e Cour s e of Mexi c a n His t o r y (2 0 0 J an d 20 1 1 ) ' min orit y vie * 2y on e "c h o l a r * o ar$ u e " th a t no Rev o l u t i o n occ u rr e d in 19 1 0 'as articulat e d %! #amA n B8 #uiz, who see s onl! a Great Reb ellion , which exist e d from 190C to 1924.

3H

, p. 38

!ronic a ll y , in tod a y 4 " %e&i c o all thr e e m a:or .oliti c a l .arti e " (PR!, P'(, PRD) ar$ u e th a t th e y ar e e a c h th e only "t a n d a r d 2 e ar e r of th e “Gru e %e&i c a n Rev ol u t i o n 5 G*o of th e .arti e " hav e “R e v o l u t i o n a" .art of th e ir na m e 7 th e PR! an d th e PRD# an d all thr e e 2a " e th e ir id e o l o $ i e " on tac9li n $ unr e " o l v e d i" " u e " from th e .re- an d .o " t - 20 th ce n t u r y Rev o l u t i o n " Gh e curr e n t $ e n e r a l id e o l o $ y of %e&i c o 4 " Pre " i d e n t " "in c e 19 H K !" 2a " e d on fram e * o r 9 of %i&e d Dta t e an d Priva t e /a.it ali " m e " t a 2 l i " h e d 2y Pre " i d e n t /arlo " Dalin a " d e Lort ari (+irtu al Pre " i d e n t 19 H 2 - 19 H H an d Pre " i d e n t 19 H H - 19 9 > ) , th e PR!4" int e ll e c t u a l an d .olitic a l lea d e r * h o " e t th e "t a n d a r d follo * e d 2y i) hi" PR! "u c c e " " o r in th e Pre " i d e n c y of %e&ic o (1 9 9 > - 20 0 0 ) # an d ii) th e P'(4" t* o Pre " i d e n t " (2 0 0 0 - 20 1 2 ) Ghe P'( no * in 20 1 2 clai m " th a t it *ill con ti n u e in th e Pre " i d e n c y 2ut Rev o l u t i o n i 0 e it" e l f to im.l a n t /ath oli c valu e " in %e&ic o a" it m o v e " to fav or Priv a t e /a.it al m or e th a n Dta t e /a.it al * hil e fin ally “* in n i n $ th e “ <ar Din c e 20 0 - Decl ar e d 2y /ald e r ) n Nar c o t r a f i c a n t e s , ;&torti o n i " t " , an d Midn a . . e r " , * h o do not * a n t a .oliti c a l Rev o l u t i o n , 2ut rath e r to nullify Polic e an d %ilitar y Po* e r " " e e 9 i n $ to *i. e ou t crimin a l acti vi t y th a t con tr o l " life in m or e th a n half of %e&i c o 4 " K2 "t a t e " !n th e m e a n t i m e , th e PRD (un til 19 H H th e lef t *in $ of th e PR!) ha " no * in 20 1 2 alli e d *ith th e PG- Parti d o d el Gra2 a: o (* hi c h * a " fou n d e d in 19 9 0 2a " e d on %aoi " t id e a l " ) # Ghe PG " e e 9 " to "h ar . l y re " tri c t th e role of Priva t e /a.it al a" it ad o . t " n e * nati o n a l i 0 a t i o n " of do m e " t i c an d for ei $ n mono. oli e " to ret u r n in 20 1 2 to Rev o l u t i o n a r y Dta t e /a.it ali " m

Alt)oug) e#c) o! t)e #,ove #ppro#c)es o!!er incredi,ly import#nt in!orm#tion #nd micro#n#lysis to !les) out our underst#nding, t)ey #ll miss t)e l#rger view t)#t, since t)e re*Coloni#l er#, &e(ico )#s undergone /= maMor Cycles of Revolution to ranging

38

, p. 3M

from "tatism to 'nti-"tatism5 eac( one causing maMor u$(eaval in t(e economic con!itions of all social classes an! t(eir $olitical status3 &e(ico !#ces do-ens o! )istoric#l o,st#cles to development, w)ic) recur #s t)e country moves !rom cycle to cycles. =)e cycles usu#lly involve c)#nge in gener#tion#l #ttitudes t)#t !#il to re#li-e t)#t resolution o! pro,lems is only )#l!*solved (i! t)#t) even #s new gener#tions w#nts to identi!y pro,lem #nd priorities #s t)ey see t)emA =)ere #re t)e do-ens o! identi!ied o,st#cles t)roug)out t)is 6c)em# #s )indering &e(ico?s #,ility to improve t)e w#y &e(ico !unctions domestic#lly #nd inter#cts wit) t)e world. =)e o,st#cles presented t)roug)out t)e ,ook #re not #ll #rticul#ted, #nd re#ders #re welcome to m#ke implicit o,st#cles e(plicit so t)#t t)ey c#n ,e #dded to t)e num,er discussed )ere, sometimes #s 28, 20, 21, E/, etc. Comp#re your own list o! o,st#cles to t)ose given in t)e 32/2 ,ook entitled )he *uge +ational #roblems, ,y Andr's &olin# "nrN+ue- #nd to t)ose pro,lems now evident now under resident C#lder%n (2//M**).
e

2EFI1I IO1"
(e "tate is t)e system o! power t)#t )olds t)e ;n#tion*6t#te< toget)er. In &e(ico it involves centr#l #ut)ority (including police #nd milit#ry) t)#t since t)e 32t) century deleg#tes some power to politic#l units in t)e country, now E3

3M

, p. 30

st#te governments3 #nd t)e Ceder#l :istrict (w)ic) is like t)e :.C. in t)e U6A). =)e &e(ic#n system )#s t)ree powers (presidency, Congress, #nd Iudici#ry) t)#t )#ve only since 2/// come to )#ve ;e+u#l< powers (#s in t)e U6A, w)ic) )#s served #s t)e gener#l ;model< !or government). &e(ico?s politic#l units )#ve t)eir own legisl#tures #nd municip#l governments (#s in t)e U6A). Alt)oug) &e(ico?s over#ll model )#s !ollowed t)#t o! t)e U6A, t)e ,ure#ucr#cy !ollows t)e Crenc) #nd 6p#nis) ;models,< ,ut t)is is c)#nging #s &e(ico now ,egins to implement t)e U.6. concept o! >ustice (;innocent until proven guilty,< t)e rig)t to con!ront #ccusers, #nd cross*e(#mine witnesses in !ront o! >udgesSsitu#tions t)#t did not previously prev#il. =oo, t)e ,#nking #nd stock m#rket systems )#ve come to mirror t)ose o! t)e U6A in order to !#cilit#te !lows o! c#pit#l. Culturall", -e.ico has been compared to /tal": /n both countries the senses of music, art, literature, and humor ha!e thri!ed, in spite of often ad!erse conditions of 0uridical and politico1economic considerations$ 2or /tal" and the 3orld, -achia!elli defined go!ernance b" deceit behind masks, a process defined for -e.ico and the World b" Octavio Paz as li!ing behind false faces, 3hich he calls 4masks$5 Cycles of a& "tatism #(ig( central government aut(ority& )#ve #ltern#ted wit) 0& 'nti-"tatism #minimal central government aut(ority), #nd wit) c& (e 'ctive "tate #me!iating 0et*een “a” an! “0”&3
3

In contr # s t to t)e n#tion #l ;6t#t e ,< gover n m e n t s #t t)e su,* n#tion #l level #re ; st a t e s ” L *it( lo* e r - ca s e “s ” 3 30

, p. 31

a& 8"tatism8 occurs #nyw)ere w)en t)e 6t#te Centr#l 7overnment, controlling # ,ig p#rt o! (usu#lly over 8/9 #nd in some c#ses #ll) o! t)e n#tion#l economy (7: ), cl#ims to oper#te in t)e n#me o! t)e ;people< to improve t)e st#nd#rd o! living. 6t#tism is #ccomp#nied ,y !ull control o! politics #nd society (not e#sily +u#nti!ied), resulting in pred#tory dict#tors)ip m#king decision t)roug) p#rti#l or !ull Central Planning. =)eoretic#lly individu#ls more import#nt t)#n t)e 6t#te ,ut t)e reverse is true. =)e m#sses #re e(pected to !ollow orders o! t)eir supreme le#der #nd )is region#l #nd loc#l ,osses, doing so wit)out #rgument. 7overnment m#y ,e ,#sed on “"tate Ca$italism”Lsee ,elow. olitic#lly 6t#tism is #ssoci#ted to # long l#sting dict#tors)ip #nd ;one* p#rty democr#cy< to ;>usti!y< control o! power, t)us reducing Congress #nd t)e Iudici#ry to # role o! ;ru,,er*st#mping< t)e ;presidents< wis)es.

Aut)orit#ri#nsm rules, #s in t)e !ollowing t)ree c#sesA (e recor! for an Official Party’s $resi!ency is (el! 0y Me)icoA w)ic) D< ye#rs (implicitly ,eginning in 3223, w)en pe#ce w#s restored to en#,le t)e re,uilding o! # destroyed n#tion). "(plicitly, )owever, &e(ico?s 4!!ici#l #rty l#sted D/ ye#rs !rom t)e time it w#s est#,lis)ed in 3222 t)roug) 2/// w)en it w#s voted out o! power. =)e 4!!ici#l #rty ,eg#n #s t)e P1R (!ounded &#rc) 3222, Parti!o 1acional Revolucionario), w)ic) ,ec#me
31

, p. 32

t)e PRM (&#rc) /<=>, Parti!o !e la RevoluciEn Me)icana), #nd w#s reorg#ni-ed #s t)e PRI (I#nu#ry /<?@5 Parti!o Revolucionario Institucional). =)e @I (now t)e Cormer 4!!ici#l #rty), )#s )ig) )opes o! reg#ining t)e presidency in 2/32, ,ut wit)out t)e )ope t)#t it c#n #g#in ,e t)e 4!!ici#l #rty ,ec#use t)e Iudici#l ower #nd =)e Legisl#tive ower )#ve g#ined co*e+u#l st#tus wit) t)e residenti#l ower. (Under t)e 4!!ici#l #rty, >udges #nd legisl#tors !ollowed t)e presidents orders.) =)e secon! longest $erio! o! one*p#rty rule w#s t)e G""R, w)ic) l#sted (implicitly, wit) ;elections< #nd intern#l p#rty purges) D? ye#rs. !rom ;3230< to 3223. "(plicitly,2 t)e @ussi#n Communist )eld power !or @D ye#rs (322H* 3223). =)e t(ir! longest $erio! o! rule is )eld ,y C(inaLits ;Communist< #rty )#s ruled for @/ years #since /<?<&5 *it( no en! in sig(t3 0& “'nti-"tatism” is # politic#l movement #imed to ,re#k t)e monopoly o! ine!!icient #nd omnipresent Centrally Planne! "tate. Anti*6t#tists )ope to give t)e prim#ry role to t)e priv#te sector, especi#lly ,y selling state-o*ne! enter$rises to $rivate in!ivi!uals an! esta0lis(ing an!Uor restoring free marJet economy. Anti*6t#tists seek to #ssure t)#t !ormer st#te #gencies (suc) #s #irlines, ports, r#ilw#ys, m#nu!#cturing industries, telep)one system), w)ic)
2

"(plicitly t)e U66@ w#s not est#,lis)ed until 322H, ,ut it w#s # !iction. =)e Union o! 6oviet 6oci#list @epu,lics w#s #n #dministr#tive #rm o! &oscowSt)e ide# t)#t it w#s # Union o! @epu,lics w#s # myt), ,ut it did g#in &oscow E votes in t)e United $#tions 7ener#l Assem,ly w)en it c#me into e(istence in 32HM**@oosevelt #nd C)urc)ill #ccepted t)e U66@, 6oviet Ukr#ine, #nd 6oviet Byelorussi# #s !ounding #nd voting mem,ers so t)#t 6t#lin wit)drew )is dem#nd !or # tot#l o! 3M votes. 6ee )ttpABBwww.!!!.orgB!reedomB/228,.#sp 32

, p. 2/

)#ve #lre#dy ,een sold in &e(ico , rem#in in priv#te )#nds. Anti*6t#tism c#n le#d to t)e #n#rc)y c#used ,y greed !or power (#s in t)e c#se o! P#ll 6treet ,ringing down t)e Porld "conomy, 2//1** ). =o ,re#k t)e power structure o! t)e old U66@ #!ter t)e implosion o! t)e U66@ in 3223, @ussi# priv#ti-ed ,ig p#rts o! its oil industry (suc) #s Fukos 4il), ,ut #!ter utin c#me to power in 2///, )e ren#tion#li-ed some it (including Fukos in 2//M).E c& “'ctive "tatism” sees t)e role o! t)e 6t#te Centr#l 7overnment #s # medi#ting one. =)e Active 6t#te serves to ,ridge 6t#tism #nd Anti*6t#tism ,y #dopting !rom ,ot) to i& own $u0lic utilities (suc) #s t)e energy sector) w)ic) t)eoretic#lly will ,e oper#ted e!!icientlyV ii& support #n e!!icient #nd productive $rivate sector #s well #s encour#ge >oint ventures ,etween t)e state #$u0lic sector& an! $rivate sectors (,e t)ey domestic or !oreign). 7overnment will ,e limited to t)e 0asic services for citi,ens (suc) #s police #nd !ire protection, educ#tion, soci#l s#!ety net, post#l service, etc.) provided t)#t t)ey incre#se t)e well ,eing o! t)e popul#tion.

E

;:uring t)e l#ter ye#rs o! t)e 6oviet Union, !#lling oil prices, p#rtly c#used ,y U.6. e()ort#tions o! 6#udi Ar#,i# to incre#se oil production, diminis)ed t)e 6oviet c#p#city to !in#nce its economy #nd empireZ. Fe#rs l#ter, during priv#ti-#tion in t)e 322/s, # new group o! olig#rc)s, un!#mili#r wit) t)e industry #nd disinclined to invest, were suddenly in t)e position o! controlling @ussi#?s oil comp#nies. Pit) declining production #nd low prices !or oil, t)e @ussi#n economy went into steep decline. Incre#ses in @ussi#n oil production, #nd wit) it @ussi#?s economic recovery, coincided wit) rising oil prices ,eginning in &#rc), 3222.< 6ee www.wilsoncenter.orgBinde(.c!mR
topicYidT3H2HQ!use#ctionTtopics.eventYsumm#ryQeventYidTH/13E2

2/

, p. 23

iii& intervene in # n#tion#l economy to recti!y pro,lems o! t)e !ree m#rket. =)is process w#s ;v#lid#ted? ,y t)e t)eories o! Britis) economist Bo(n Maynar! Veynes (311E* 32HM), w)o in t)e 32E/s #dvoc#ted t)#t governments intervene vi# !isc#l #nd monet#ry me#sures to mitig#te t)e #dverse e!!ects o! ,oom #nd ,ust economic recessions #nd t)e serious, on*going Porld 7re#t :epression I, w)ic) ,eg#n in 3222. His ide#s #re t)e ,#sis !or w)#t is known #s Oeynesi#n economy t)eory. Veynes overt(re* t(e ol!er i!eas of neoclassical economic t(eory t(at claime! free marJets *oul! automatically a!Must (!or e(#mple, ,y providing ;!ull< employment #s long #s workers !le(i,ly #d#pted to t)e need to reduce t)eir w#ge dem#nds in times o! economic crisis. ;Collowing t)e out,re#k o! Porld P#r II, 3rote )ime -aga6ine in 3222, OeynesXs ide#s concerning economic policy were #dopted ,y le#ding Pestern economies. 2uring t(e /<;.s an! /<@.s5 t(e success of Veynesian economics *as so resoun!ing t(at almost all ca$italist governments a!o$te! its $olicy recommen!ations3”H )ime concluded t)#t Oeynes ;r#dic#l ide# t)#t governments s)ould spend money t)ey donXt )#ve m#y )#ve s#ved c#pit#lism.[ VeynesWs influence *ane! in t(e /<D.s, p#rtly #s # result o! e(cessive government regul#tion t)#t )#d ,egun to #!!lict t)e Anglo*Americ#n economies ,y t)e end o! t)e 32M/s, #nd p#rtly due to criti+ues !rom suc) economists #s
H

4n Oeynes, #nd t)e #rticle !rom t)is +uote #ny m#ny ide#s !or t)is summ#ry o! Oeynesi#nism #re dr#wn, see )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBIo)nY&#yn#rdYOeynes (:eem,er 32, 2//2). 23

, p. 22

Milton Frie!man (3232*2//M) w)o, !rom )is ,#se #t t)e University o! C)ic#go, #rgued governments could not well regul#te t)e ,usiness cycle t)roug) !isc#l policy. But, t)e #dvent o! t)e world !in#nci#l crisis in 2//1 )#s c#used # return to Oeynesi#n economics t)#t )#s provided t)e t)eoretic#l underpinning !or t)e pl#ns o! suc) world le#ders #s resident 4,#m# #nd U.O. rime &inister 7ordon Brown #s t)ey seek too timidly to prevent Porld 7re#t :epression II, t)roug) w)#t I )#s c#lled t)e ;Active*6t#te.< (e conce$t of “'ctive "tate” *as first $resente! in my /<@D 0ooJ The Mexican Revolution: Federal Expenditure and Social han!e Since "#"$ #Bames K3 KilJie5 BerkeleyA University o! C#li!orni# ress, !irst edition 32M0V second edition 320/ #nd in t)e revised #nd enl#rged editions in 6p#nis) ,eginning in 3201A %a Revoluci&n Mexicana '"#"$("#)*+: Gasto Federal , ambio Social
(&'(ico, :.C.A Condo de Cultur# "con%mic#, 3201).

)ttpABBwww.pro!me(.orgBme(ico#ndt)eworldBvolume1B3winter/EB/Einde(3.)tm 4n de,#te #,out my concept o! t)e Active 6t#te, see &iguel @iver#*@Nos, ;L# osrevoluci%n &e(ic#n# y l# "stim#ci%n de I#mes Pilkie del C#m,io 6oci#lA L# revisi%n de un de,#te,[ 7conom8a /nforma (U$A&, $\mero E3H, Ce,. de 2//E), pp.
HH*82V #lsoA

www.pro!me(.orgBme(ico#ndt)eworldBvolume0BH!#ll/2BposrevolucionYme(ic#n#. )tml Cor !urt)er #n#lysis o! t)e Active 6t#te, see my [6i( Ideologic#l )#ses in &e(icoXs X erm#nent @evolutionX 6ince 323/[, in I#mes P. Pilkie, ed., Societ" and 7conom" in -e.ico (Los AngelesA UCLA L#tin Americ#n Center u,lic#tions. 322/). Bot) Active 6t#tism #nd 6t#tism will use di!!ering degrees o! “"tate Ca$italism” (#s in &e(ico, 320/*3212, w)en presidents decided to s)i!t !rom 'ctive "tatism to "tatism, n#tion#li-ing ever more #mounts o! domestic #nd
22

, p. 2E

!oreign priv#te c#pit#l on t)e t)eory t)#t t)e 6t#te )#s ;$o $eed to 6)#re< pro!its wit) t)e priv#te sector), or ,e ,#sed on t)e ide# t)#t t)e 6t#te ,e ownerB controller o! #lmost #ll c#pit#l (#s in t)e 6t#te C#pit#lism o! Communist @ussi# #nd C)in# up to 3212). 6t#te C#pit#lism m#y involve t)e s)#ring ,etween t)e 6t#te #nd #n emerging priv#te sector control o! money #nd pro!its, #s in @ussi# #nd C)in# since 3212, #nd in &e(ico ,etween 32E1 #nd 32M2 #s well #s since 3212 w)en "tatism g#ve w#y to t)e 'ctive "tate. (In C)in# #nd @ussi# tod#y t)e 6t#te s)#re is well over M/9 o! 7: , comp#red to t)e U.6. s)#re o! #,out HE9, #nd &e(ico s)#re o! #,out 209. 6t#tist (#nd some Active 6t#tist, #s in &e(ico) systems tend to develop “One-Party 2emocracies” or “Official Parties” to >usti!y (o!ten t)roug) !r#udulent elections #ndBor t)e purc)#sing o! votes) to keeping t)e 7overnment in ;perm#nent power.< 4n t)e one )#nd t)e development process re+uires # strong leg#l system #nd #,ility to redress citi-en compl#intsV on t)e ot)er )#nd, to success!ully do so re+uires #n Active 6t#te to medi#te ,etween #ut)orit#ri#nism #nd #n#rc)y. P)en development !#ils, # vicious circle t#kes pl#ceA 6t#tism in counter#cted ,y Anti*6t#tism !orces. =)is vicious circle is ,roken w)en t)e Active 6t#te emerges.

=H" &"DICA$ CA6" I$ P4@L: C4$="D=
2E

, p. 2H

&e(ico )#s )#d # strong )istory o! government "tatist Centralism d#ting ,#ck to its !ound#tions under t)e Cro*n of "$ain, 3832*3123, # )istory rein!orced ,y Porfirio 24a, (310M*3121). (ree $resi!ents #/<@;-

/<>-& soug(t to im$lant "tatism an! "tate Ca$italism5 re!ucing an! severely limiting t(e role of t(e $rivate sector. But Anti*6t#tists )ope to give t)e prim#ry role to t)e priv#te sector, especi#lly ,y selling st#te*owned enterprises (suc) #s PetrEleos Me)icanos #nd t)e )uge "tate Electrical Com$anies). =)ey seek to #ssure t)#t !ormer st#te #gencies (suc) #s #irlines, ports, r#ilw#ys, m#nu!#cturing industries, telep)one system), w)ic) )#ve #lre#dy ,een sold, rem#in in priv#te )#nds. 6t#tist 4!!ici#l #rties (in &e(ico, Cu,#, Kene-uel#, @ussi#, C)in#, etc.) speci#li-e in est#,lis)ing ; u,lic Comp#nies< run wit) !ew e(ceptions very ine!!icientlyA Pu0lic Com$anies in &e(ico )#ve me#nt “government-o*ne! entities5” # me#ning t)#t Anti*6t#tists )#ve ,een trying to overcome since 321E to give it t)e me#ning used ,y t)e ,iggest stock m#rket in t)e worldS t)#t o! t)e U6A. -n Mexico .public/ means in !eneral terms .b, and 0or the !overnment1 2hich1 via a van!uard o0 politicians and .diputados

de partido/ '2ho

represent political parties1 not citizens+ and 2ho administer a00airs on behal0 o0 the people3/

2H

, p. 28

Mexico4s hamber o0 5eputies has 6$$ members elected 0or 7(,ear terms1 7$$ are directl, elected and 8$$ are elected accordin! to the proportion o0 the votes 2on b, their part,3 These 8$$ are not elected but named b, their political part,3 5iputados de Partido do not campai!n 0or popular votes1 but do campai!n 2ithin their political to be named to represent their political part, in on!ress3 9ence the sa,in!: .Mexico is !overned b, a .parti(docrac,/1 not a democrac,3 'Proportional votin! 2as instituted in Mexico in the earl, "#*$s and has been expanded over time3+ Thus1 Mexican citizens hold parti(docrac, in lo2 esteem3 Parti( docrac, is a ma:or obstacle that prevents chan!e in Mexico1 2hich has not been able to ;eep up 2ith the e00ective chan!es in such countries as <razil =Mexico4s rival 0or leadership in %atin >merica and the ?orld3 Parti(docrac, shields Mexicos hamber o0 5eputies 0rom bein! accountable to voters3 -n @3S3 politics1 .public/ means the broad !eneral non(!overnmental populace 2hich monitors and ma;e demands upon the !overnment that is accountable to voters3 The @3S3 public holds !overnment accountable in direct election o0 candidates3 =)e word ;pu,lic< in t)e U6A #lso includes “Pu0lic Com$anies” t(at are o*ne! 0y s(are(ol!ers w)o ,uy #nd sell in t)e stock m#rkets (#s comp#red to ; riv#te Comp#nies<, w)ic) do not sell stock ,ec#use t)ey represent !#milies or sm#ll groups w)o do not w#nt to !r#gment t)eir control).
Curt)er, in t)e U6A, t)e ,ro#d gener#l pu,lic tends to dislike ;t)e government,< w)ic) is seen (#s in most countries) to ,e ,ure#ucr#tic, w#ste!ul o! time #nd money, ine!!icient, #nd 28

, p. 2M

)e#rtless, not to mention rigid (#s in t)e =6A rules #nnounced t)e d#y #!ter C)ristm#s 2//2 t)#t during t)e l#st )our o! # !lig)t into t)e U6A, #ir p#ssengers get no w#ter or @(, ,#,ies get no ,ottled milk, no toilet !or #nyone even wit) di#rr)e# or kidney pro,lems, no computer, no Ipod, no ,ooks, no !ilm in t)e c#,ins, etc.). P)y )#s t)is cr#-y ;torture< o! #ir p#ssengers ,y =6A ,een necess#ryR ]=)e #nswer involves t)e #ttempt to ;cover up< t)e U.6. government !#ilure to c#tc) t)e would*,e “crotc( 0om0er5”; Gmar C#rouk A,dulmut#ll#,. 4m#r w#s not !ully se#rc)ed #s )e ,o#rded t)e pl#ne in $igeri# nor w)en )e c)#nged pl#nes in Amsterd#m. (U.6. #ut)orities )#d !#iled to connect t)e dotsA Um#r?s !#t)er )#d denounced )im multiple times #t t)e U.6. "m,#ssy #nd in meetings wit) t)e CIA in $igeri# #s # d#ngerous &uslim, Um#r )#d ,een denied # vis# to return vi# "ngl#nd, )e ,o#rded )is !lig)ts !rom $igeri# to :etroit wit)out lugg#ge, p#id U2,1E3 cash !or )is ticket,M #nd )e c)ose # se#t over t)e wing w)ere )e s#t over t)e pl#nes? !uel t#nks to position )is "=$ ,om, so t)#t it could c#use multiple e(plosions). Curt)er, U.6. intelligence seems to )#ve !orgotten t)#t ,om,ers m#y not seek to ,low up # !lig)t during t)e l#st )our, ,ut #nytime**t)e would*,e “s(oe 0om0er” Ric(ar! Rei! on :ecem,er 22, 2//3, )#d )idden t)e )ig)ly e(plosive "=$ in )is s)oes, # pl#ce w)ic) w#s not repe#ted ,y Um#r, @eid did not try to lig)t )is s)oes during t)e l#st )our o! )is !lig)t ,ut over t)e Atl#ntic two )ours #!ter le#ving #ris. $o wonder U.6. citi-ens tend to ,elieve t)#t government #gencies #re not st#!!ed wit) o!!ici#ls w)o l#ck common sense. Bec#use o! t)e popul#r tendency to see U.6. ,ure#ucr#cy #s )opelessly )elpless (#s in t)e c#se o! t)e ;crotc) ,om,er<, #,ove), even t)e r#re U.6. government owners)ip o! e!!icient pu,lic utilities is now wrongly ignoredA =)e most !#mous e(#mple o! # success!ul pu,lic utility owned ,y t)e U.6. government is t)#t o! t)e ennessee Ialley 'ut(ority # I', w)ic) covers M st#tes ,eyond =ennessee). =KA w#s cre#ted in 32EE ,y C:@ to develop !lood control #nd electric#l energy #s well #s >o,s during t)e :epression (3222*32H3). =)e =KA used its pro!its in t)e pu,lic interest w)ile keeping consumer r#tes low. =KA origin#lly provided !or river n#vig#tion rules #nd t)e ,uilding o! d#ms #s well #s t)e gener#tion #nd distri,ution o! #ll electricity in its region, w)ere it )eld monopoly. =o survive t)e pressure on Congress to sell =KA to t)e priv#te sector, in 3222 # compromise w#s re#c)ed t)#t permits t)e priv#te comp#nies to serve #s t)e loc#l distri,utors o! =KA produced electric#l power. =KA is t)e n#tion?s l#rgest pu,lic power comp#ny. =)roug) 381 loc#lly owned distri,utors, =KA provides power to #,out 1.0 million residents o! t)e =ennessee K#lley. Beginning in t)e e#rly 321/s, U.6. resident @on#ld @e#g#n, U.O. rime &inister Margaret (atc(er, #nd Bolivi#n Presi!ent I4ctor Pa,-Estenssoro.0 set out to
8

Um#r conce#led )is ;p#ck#ged ,om,< #s # priv#te ,ody*p#rt )idden, ;n#tur#lly,< in )is crotc) Ssome o,servers pre!err to c#ll )im t)e ;penis ,om,er<, suc) # ,om, not s)owing up on t)e new !ull*,ody (*r#y m#c)ines inst#lled #t U.6. #irports in 2/3/. M 6eeA www.n #ir #l# n d . c o m B ni g e ri #B t o pic* E0E8 3 H. / . ) t ml
0

In 6p#nis )* spe #kin g countrie s, mos t pers o n s )#v e two l#st n# m e s , !#t) er?s n# m e !irst #nd mot) e r?s n# m e secon d. =)us, ; Port e s -:il” is 2M

, p. 20

dism#ntle 6t#tism (#nd its Centr#l l#nning) t)#t )#d ,een promoted in ric) #nd poor countries ,y &#r(ist*oriented le#ders #nd #c#demics w)o #rgued t)#t &#rket C#pit#lism )#d !#iled. By 3212 it w#s cle#r 6t#te C#pit#lism )#ving ,een seen to )#ve !#iled to improve li!e !or t)e m#sses, #nd t)e Cold P#r !ell #long wit) t)e millions o! )#mmer ,lows t)#t liter#lly sm#s)ed into pieces t)e Berlin P#ll #nd t)e myt) o! t)e U66@, t)us opening "#stern "urope #nd @ussi# to consumerism in w)ic) t)e ;workers< could dem#nd # telep)one, # !#( m#c)ine, #n #uto, #nd ,etter !ood #nd )ousing #s t)ey won t)e possi,ility o! moving up to t)e middle cl#ss. C)in# !ollowed in t)e 322/ ,y linking )is !uture to producing !or U.6. consumers, w)o were )elped ,y C)in#?s investments in U.6. =re#sury ,onds t)#t were turned into #nd e(p#nsion o! U.6. credit m#rkets, en#,ling millions o! persons to ,uy )omes #s well #s C)in#?s ine(pensive products. Porld consumers would #lso ,uy in t)e !ree m#rket w)#t )#d ,een pro)i,ited ,y Centr#l l#nning #s w#ste!ul products. Indeed, muc) o! w)#t C)in# l#unc)ed into t)e e(p#nding !ree m#rkets o! t)e world )#s ,een c)e#p ;>unk< including cont#min#ted goods, !oods, #nd medicines. Consumers s#idA ;Buy, ,uy, ,uyZ. And consumers did ,uy, #s did industri#lists #nd !in#nciers, t(us !riving u$ t(e $rice of ra* materials an! interest rates until consumers coul! neit(er 0uy *(at factories $ro!uce! aroun! t(e *orl! nor re$ay t(e loans taJen out to 0uy , !or e(#mple, #utos, )omes, computers, educ#tion#l degrees, #nd v#c#tions.

(y $ ( e n a t e ! ( er e #a s at GC+' Re gi s t r a r & 5 #nd to s)ow w)ic) n# m e prev #ils in com m o n use, I und e rlin e it. 6om e #re known ,y !irst n# m e , e.g. uau h t A m o c CCr! e n a s "olEr , a n o , w)ic) I put in it#lics, w)o is #lso known in t)e &e(ic#n pres s #nd )ere #s CC"3 20

, p. 21

=)e pro,lem o! rep#yment o! lo#ns simult#neously #rose !or n#tions #nd t)eir ,#nks t)#t )#d i) invested in t)e U.6. m#rkets #s well #ndBor ii) !ollowed t)e U.6. ;model< o! com,ining into p#ck#ges so*c#lled Collateri,e! 2e0t O0ligations #C2Os&, w)ic) mi(ed m#ny good mortg#ges #nd ,#d lo#ns supposedly to m#ke ;s#!e< investments !or res#le to ,uyers suc) #s retirement systems worldwide), t)e res#le o! origin#l lo#ns ,eing used to gr#nt more credit to ,orrowers ,y suc) countries #s "ngl#nd #nd t)e $ordic $#tions. Buyers o! C:4s suddenly re#li-ed t)#t t)e p#ck#ges included good lo#ns and ,#d lo#ns (t)#t )#d ,een mi(ed supposedlyl to reduce risk even #s t)ey e(p#nded credit ,y reselling t)e ,unc)ed lo#ns), #nd t)#t t)e no,ody knew )ow m#ny lo#ns were good in e#c) p#ck#ge. 4nce # growing percent#ge o! lo#ns could not ,e rep#id, t)e v#lue o! C:4s coll#psed, #long wit) t)e world economy. =)e world su,*prime mortg#ge crisis (2//0** ) )#s t#ken #t le#st P= trillion out o! t)e U.6. economy ,y t)e end o! 2//2. Curt)er t)e Bus)*C)eney duo (2//3*2//2) took out P/3; trillion out o! t)e Americ#n economy to ;p#ci!yA #nd ;re,uild< Ir#+ #nd A!g)#nist#n. ^F%>S9 FOR?>R5: Anot)er P/3; trillion will ,e needed to c#rry out 4,#m#?s surge in A!g)#nist#n #nd to p#y !or t)e long*term medic#l c#re o! U.6. troops crippled p)ysic#lly #nd ment#lly in t)ose con!licts. =)es e loss e s t)re # t e n w)#t is le!t o! t)e middle cl#ss #!ter t)e Bus)* C)en e y !in#nci#l de, # cl e._ =)e resulting U.6. #nd world !in#nci#l crisis (2//1** ) e!!ectively resulted in t)e

U.6. ;,#ilout< o! domestic and foreign banks t)roug) low or no interest ;gi!ts< to t)em wit) out #ny conditionsS#s is discussed ,elow. =oo, Bus) ,#iled out #nd t)e insur#nce gi#nt AI7, w)ic) owing to # l#ck o! #ny re#l regul#tion or ;re#l< insur#nce )#d put toget)er t)e )ig)*risk C:4s (w)ic) did not cont#in #ll ;good mortg#ges< t)#t AI7 )#d #dvertised) #nd sold t)em in 3E/ countries #round t)e world. 21

, p. 22

Un!ortun#tely t)e mortg#ges )#d origin#lly sold ,een #t low*interest ;te#ser< r#tes to millions in t)e U6A w)o eventu#lly could not m#ke t)eir mont)ly p#yments, t)us ,ecoming # m#>or contri,utor to t)e !ree-ing*up o! t)e worldwide !in#nci#l system #nd c#using # credit crisis everyw)ere. (U.6. ,#nks #re too o!ten not sure w)o owns t)e ,#d mortg#ges t)#t t)ey sold #s p#rt o! C:4s to investors #round t)e world, )ence m#king !oreclosure on )omes di!!icult #nd sometimes impossi,le #ndBor res#le # pro,lem.) L#ment#,ly, t)en, residents Bus) #nd 4,#m# did not est#,lis) #ny conditions t)#t ,#nks re*lo#n government ,#ilout money worldwide to citi-ens in need o! credit to ,uy =Ks, #utos, ,uy )omes (#nd re!in#nce e(isting )ig)*interest )ome mortg#ges). =)e ,#nks not only re!use to lo#n ,ut )#ve suddenly reduced t)e lines o! credit previously #pproved !or users o! credit c#rdsSe!!ectively ruining t)e credit o! millions w)ose CIC4 credit score !#lls #s t)ey ;#ppe#r< to )#ve ;m#(ed out< t)eir credit lines #nd #,ility to ,orrow, t)us preventing )ouse)olds #nd ,usinesses to complete t)e ,uy* produce*sell cycle, wit)out w)ic) comp#nies continue to l#yo!! workers. &oreover, t)e ,#nks )#ve r#ised interest r#tes !or l#te p#yment o! credit c#rds to # pen#lty r#te o! E89 A @ or more. (=)ere is now t)e possi,ility to opt out o! c#rds w)en t)e interest r#tes rise, ,ut t)ose w)o do so m#y )#ve t)eir mont)ly p#yments dou,led.)

(is recJless 0e(avior 0y G3"3 0anJs (as severely !amage! Me)ico’s e)$orts to t(e G"'5 w)ic) coincided wit) t)e -..> s*ine-flu crisis cause! 0y t(e G3"3 transnational com$any "mit(fiel! Farms5 #nd t)is in turn c#used t)e tourist in!ustry to colla$se. At t)e s#me time, tourism )#d #lre#dy ,een imp#cted ,y t)e rise o! Ji!na$$ings in Me)ico #nd t)e coll#ter#l loss o! li!e c#used ,y t(e 2rug Kar 0et*een cartels in
22

, p. E/

Me)ico an! t(eir 0attle *it( t(e Me)ican military seeJing to 0reaJ t(eir rising $o*er #-..@-&, #s we will see ,elow.

=)us, since t#king o!!ice in e#rly 2//2, resident 4,#m# )#s moved t)e U6A !rom Anti*6t#tism (w)ic) )#d ,een est#,lis)ed !or @epu,lic#n ,y residents ,y @on#ld @e#g#n in words i! not #ctions) to t)e current Active 6t#tism needed to s#ve t)e riv#te C#pit#lism o! P#ll 6treet !rom its e(cessive greed. residents Bus) #nd 4,#m# s#y t)#t t)ey neit)er moved tow#rd 6t#tism nor 6t#te C#pit#lism.1 Under t)e l#tter, t)e 6t#te does not est#,lis) soci#lism ,ut c#pit#lism directed ,y t)e 6t#te. residents Bus), 4,#m# #nd t)e U.6. Ceder#l @eserve )#ve spent, lent, #nd invested in ,#nks #nd comp#nies more t)#n U2 trillion doll#rs since 2//1, cert#inly t)e work o! Active 6t#tists. 6t#tist 4!!ici#l #rties tend to sei-e l#nd !rom priv#te owners, e.g., to est#,lis) ;pu,licly*owned !#rms<A 6t#lin #nd &#o est#,lis)ed Collective (6t#te) C#rms (o!ten in t)e guise o! ;cooper#tives ownedBm#n#ged ,y individu#l workers<V Hugo C)Jve- )#s est#,lis)ed st#te*run !#rms #s well #s ;community*controlled cooper#tives,< w)ic) #re controlled ,y t)e government t)roug) su,sidies.

1

Bo, :#vis et #l., ;A!ter t)e B#ilout, P#s)ingt o n?s t)e BossA U6A, Inc.S =)e 6t#t e o! C#pti#lis m,< Wall Stre e t Journal , 32* E/* /2, )ttpABBonlin e.w s>.co mB # r ticleB6B32 M 3 2 8 8 3 8 M H 0 E / M 0 M 8 . ) t m l R mod T P 6IY)pYmo s t p o pYr e # d E/

, p. E3

In Me)ico5 t)e ide# o! t)e rur#l l#nd owned ,y communities in t)e !orm o! EMi!os #Communal Farms& )#s domin#ted t)inking since time immemori#l. ;">idos< e(isted in di!!erent !orms in re*Coloni#l &e(ico #nd $ew 6p#in #s well #s 6p#in. ">idos tr#dition#lly were not controlled ,y individu#ls ,ut ,y t)e loc#l Community Council, w)ic) would set p#rt o! t)e l#nd #side !or e#c) o! two #ctivitiesA a& common use o! # sm#ll p#rt o! t)e ">ido ,y #ll !#milies !or meetings, ceremonies, educ#tion, #nd community decisions #,out 0& )ow !#rming #nd r#nc)ing #re t#ke pl#ce, #ccording to one o! t)e !ollowing two optionsA i& collective ,y t)e community, or ii& ;individu#l< use o! commun#l l#nd worked #ssigned #s plots #ssigned ,y t)e Community Council to e#c) !#mily, w)ic) c#n ,e re#ssigned to ot)er plots i! t)e Council so decides. As we see ,elow, resident +C,aro CCr!enas (32EH*32H/) pre!erred t)#t ">idos ,e worked ,y t)e ">ido mem,ers #s # group in ; Collectively-O$erate! EMi!os<, ,ut resident Plutarco El4as Calles pre!erred t)#t ">idos ,e worked in ;In!ivi!ual Family-O$erate! EMi!os< (#s did resident Aenito BuCre, (#ut)or o! t)e Constitution o! 3180) #nd resident Carlos "alinas !e :ortari (321E*322H). Bot) BuCre, an! "alinas c)#nged &e(ico?s l#ws ,y c)#nging t)e Constitutions o! t)eir time to gr#nt individu#l title to e#c) EMi!atario
E3

, p. E2

(!#rmer on #n ">ido) so t)#t could )#ve t)e option to sell, rent, or work t)eir l#nd cooper#tively wit) priv#te #nd l#nd )olders. Kit(out title to t(eir lan!s5 eMi!atarios can not $ut u$ t(eir lan! for collateral to o0tain loans5 rent5 or sell t(eir lan!s5 all illegal if t(e community councils retain t(eir tra!itional control3 (us5 eMi!os an! eMi!atrios cannot 0uy on cre!it tractors5 trucJs5 an! cars or 0orro* to “invest” in canals to c(annel *ater an! silos to store t(eir grains3 "ilos #re import#nt store crops #!ter )#rvest (w)en s#le prices #re low) #nd stor#ge #llows t)e !#rmers to w#it !or prices to rise in winter. 4t)erwise it is t)e priv#te “mi!!lemen” w)o ,uys t)eir crops c)e#ply #nd )#s t)e credit to ,uild silos #nd store t)e crops until m#rket s)ort#ges le#d to )ig)er m#rket prices, #t le#st until t)e ne(t e>ido crop )#rvests drive s#les prices down ,ec#use o! t)e new ;sudden< glut o! #gricultur#l commodities. ` ">id#t#rios )#ve long #skedA P)y is it t)#t t)e middlemen, w)o ,uy !rom us c)e#ply, m#ke #ll t)e money ,ec#use t)ey )#ve silos #nd we do notR Pe sell w)en prices #re low to t)e middlemen w)o w#it to sell ;our< crops w)en prices #re )ig). BuCre, an! "alinas use! t(eir terms in t(e $resi!ency to try to 0reaJ t(e $o*er of EMi!os5 *(ic( t(ey !eeme! to 0e living in a communistic ty$e of su0sistence farming5 $ulveri,ing t(e lan!S#rguing (correctly) t)#t popul#tion growt) is in!inite w)ile #v#il#,le l#nd is !inite.
E2

, p. EE

=)ey s#w t)e need to integr#te ">id#t#rios into t)e n#tion#l economy #s producers #nd consumers, t)us encour#ging innov#tion in poor rur#l #re#s ot)erwise dependent upon credit !rom t)e centr#l governmentScredit #lw#ys too little #nd too l#te, i! even #rriving. =)ese m#tters rel#ted to l#nd owners)ip in &e(ico )#ve gener#ted (ree “+egal” +an! Reforms-- in t(is case “reform” meaning “Revolution” in *(ic( t(e masses see t(eir life turne! u$si!e !o*n as eac( Reform eventually reac(es t(em3 In &e(ico (#nd in m#ny developing countries) t)ese ;@evolutions< in l#nd tenure )#ve ,een seen in positive terms ,y elites #nd !olk w)en e#c) ,ene!itedSseen in neg#tive terms ,y t)ose w)o did not ;,ene!it.< Usu#lly elites #nd !olk did not ,ene!it simult#neously. “Revolution” is de!ined di!!erently ,y t)e gener#l pu,lics o! &e(ico #nd t)e U6A. &e(ic#ns, living in # ;p#rti#lly developed< n#tion, )#ve tended to see c)#nge coming t)roug) “Revolution”S Americ#ns2tend to see =)e U6A is t)e only n#tion in t)e world wit) ;Americ#< in its n# m e , )enc e t)e use )er e o! t)e ter m s ;Americ#< #nd Americ# n s<. (6ome L#tin Americ#n s !eel t)#t t)ey too #re ;Americ# n s < ,ec # u s e t)ey live in Centr #l #nd 6out) Americ#, ,ut t)#t us# g e is irrelev # n t to )ow t)e world is divided into n#tions. In &e(ico (p#rt o! $ort) Americ#), t)e U6A gen er #lly is c#lled (erron e o u sly) ;$ort) Americ#,< #s i! C#n# d # does not e(ist. Indee d, in t)is epoc) o! t)e $ort) Americ# n Cree =r#de Are# ($AC=A), &e(ic#ns, C#n# di # n s, #nd Americ#n s #re #ll ;$orte # m e ri c # n o s < living und er t)e !r#m e w ork !or econo mics rel#tions !or tr#d e #nd !in#nc e (including intern # tion #l tre# ti e s t)#t gover n ,#nking, invest m e n t , #nd t#(e s).
2

EE

, p. EH

c)#nge coming t)roug) “evolution3” =)us, &e(ic#ns tend to view olitic#l @evolution #s involving long*term tr#um#tic up)e#v#l to #tt#in economic #nd soci#l c)#nge, ,ut most Americ#ns tend to view olitic#l @evolutions #s ,eing only involving s)ort*term up)e#v#ls t)#t c#n t)en enter into long*term evolution#ry soci#l #nd economic c)#nge. But w)#t is ;"volution<R As e#rly #s 32E0 t)e /nternational 7nc"clopedia of Social Science c#rried #rticles positing t)#t @evolution #nd "volution #re two sides o! t)e s#me ;coin<, evolution ,eing c#used ,y spont#neous ;&ut#tion< (t)e ,iologic#l term !or ;@evolution<). In recent times, t)e revolution in pl#nt #nd )um#n genetics )#s ,een #,le to c#use controlled ;&ut#tions< (#lw#ys t)e go#l o! t)ose undert#king +uick, s)ort*term politic#l revolutions). =)us $orm#n Borl#ug, w)o spent over !i!ty ye#rs cross*,reeding pl#nts in &e(ico to cre#te t)e Cirst #nd 6econd ;7reen @evolutions< !or t)e world, supports t)e development o! 7&4s (genetic#lly modi!ied org#nisms) #s doing e!!iciently w)#t )e previously )#d to do ine!!iciently ,y tr#ns!erring w)ole gene pools r#t)er t)#n speci!ic ones.3/ :$A rese#rc)ers into m#nipul#tion o! genes to c#use &ut#tions t)#t c#n reverse dise#se, re,uild lost nerves, tendons, #nd lim,s #s well #s
3/

6ee 1orman E3 Aorlaug (w)o won t)e 320/ $o,el ri-e !or )#ving m#de t)e Cirst 7reen Agricultur#l @evolution possi,le), ;6cience vs. Hysteri#< (Wall Street Journal, I#nu#ry 22, 2//E), !or #n e(#mple o! )is re,utt#l to some groups w)o #rgue #g#inst ;FranJenstein :MO Foo!s<S# concept t)#t Borl#ug sees #s trying to m#ke persons )ysteric#l #nd !e#r!ul. 6eeA )ttpABBonline.ws>.comB#rticleB/,,6B3/HE3208302H031M81H,//.)tml EH

, p. E8

immedi#tely s#ve lives, )#ve s)ow t)#t &ut#tions m#y t#ke centuries, dec#des, mont)s, #nd now m#de to occur wit) immedi#te spont#neity.33 Ironic#lly, Americ#ns do use suc) terms #s ;Industri#l @evolution< #nd ;In!orm#tion @evolution<, t)e !ormer t#king # century !rom 308/ to 318/. =)e In!orm#tion is o!ten only t)oug)t o! #s )#ving occurred t)roug) t)e Internet since t)e 320/s, ,ut t)is is only t)e 6econd In!orm#tion @evolution. =)e Cirst occurred during t)e spre#d in t)e 32t) century o! post#l #nd telegr#p) services #s well #s r#ilro#d communic#tion #ll o! w)ic) )#ve ,een complemented ,y suc) 2/t) century contri,utions suc) #s copying #nd !#( m#c)ines, Cede(Bovernig)t m#il #nd t)e telep)one (r#dio #nd l#nd line p)ones #s well #s t)e cell p)one revolution now sweeping t)e world.) #rts o! t)ese @evolutions took long periods to ,e success!ulV t)e Internet @evolution only dec#des, #nd t)e cell p)one )#s le#p*!rogged to ,ecome # C#st*=r#ck @evolution since 2///.32 &e(ic#ns go ,eyond t)e #,ove to use ;@evolution< ,ro#dly to cover t)e recurring #,rupt c)#nge in direction o! politic#l, economic, #nd soci#l policy, #s is seen in t)is 6c)em#.

33

Cor new #n#lysis o! )ow # spont#neous &ut#tion cre#ted t)e gene !or colon c#ncer in one !#mily coming to t)e $ew Porld in t)e 3ME/s (t)e gene t)en spre#ding to t)e world), see =)om#s H. &#ug) II, ;"#rly U.6. !#mily p#ssed down gene ,l#med !or m#ny colon c#ncer c#ses,< Los Angeles )imes, 3*8*2//1, www.l#times.comBnewsBscienceBl#*sci*colon8>#n/8,3,220/18E.story
32

6ee )ttpABBinve n tor s. # , ou t.c o mBli,r# r yBw e e klyB# # / 0 / 1 2 2. ) t m

E8

, p. EM

C+'RIFIC' IO1 /3 In t)is course we seek to !ind t)e .invisible patterns/ t)#t )elp us to underst#nd “visi0le (istory”5 *(ic( is foun! t(roug( inter!isci$linary analysis of economics5 $olitics5 sociologyUant(ro$ology5 religion5 military (istory5 $syc(o(istory5 folJlore #follo*erlore&5 Elitelore #lea!erlore&5 etc3 (us5 *e seeJ to !iscover invisi0le $atterns 0y e)amining t(e same $eo$le an! events over-an!-over again from !ifferent angles an! vantage $oints in time3 =)is 6c)em# o!!ers # +inear Overvie* to put t)e lectures into conte(t. 6ome lectures #re Line#r #nd some #re 1onlinear (Curviline#r)3 (is overvie* is not com$lete 0ut rat(er suggestive of some of t(e t(emes t(at are !evelo$e! in t(is course3 (us5 *e (ave (ere a frame*orJ from *(ic( to !elve into multi$le issues t(at are not taJen u$ (ere3 Aecause t(e em$(asis (ere is on $olitics an! socio-economic matters5 analysis may seem more negative t(an if Me)ico’s ric( culture *ere t(e focus3 -3 +ast 1ames of $ersons in +atin 'merica an! ot(er $arts of t(e *orl! usually com0ine t(e fat(ers’ last name an! t(e mot(er’s last name5 t(us Iicente +om0ar!o- ole!ano (y$(enate! (ere an! 0y t(e GC+' registrar so as not to confuse t(e fat(er’s last name as a mi!!le name& officially gives t(e fat(er’s name first an! t(e mot(er’s name secon!5 0ut eac( $erson may c(oose eit(er last name for common usage3 Iicente is often calle! “+om0ar!o” 0ut not “ ole!ano3”

II3 CNC+E"6 "CHEME ;3. FOR '1'+NHI1: NPE" OF " ' I"M (Like #ny sc)eme, t)ere #re e(ceptions to t)e !ollowing styli-#tion. In e#c) period new pro,lems #nd o,st#cles to development were identi!ied in t)eir own time ,ut eit)er ignored or only p#rtly resolved, o!ten ,ec#use t)ey were only p#rtly resolved #nd ,ec#use new gener#tions did not !ollow t)roug) on t)e ;old< w)en new ones were ,eing identi!ied. =)us, &e(ico continues to !#ce # series o! #ccumul#ting, misunderstood #ndBor p#rti#lly ;resolved< pro,lems #nd o,st#cles t)#t #re ;rediscovered< #g#in #nd #g#in. =)is outline o!!ers t)e !r#mework into w)ic) lectures will !it m#ny )istoric#l #spects #nd persons not listed )ere.)3E
3E

Cor #lter n # tiv e #nd

c)ronologi e s , see EM

www.indi#n#.eduBa>#)Bme(icoBm#pstime.)tml

, p. E0

HE CNC+E"

/3 “"tatist” ',tec Con9uest an! :overnment $rior to /;-/ . In $#)u# times, t)e A-tecs set up # system w)erein =H" le#der ruled wit)out #ny +uestions #nd cert#inly wit)out #ny democr#cy. But, communities )#d loc#l c#ci+ues (,osses) to c#rry out orders #nd #lso moder#te dem#nds #ndBor in!lict t)e c#ci+ues own dem#nds. opul#tion o! Centr#l &e(ico re#c)ed 28 million ,y 3832, # tot#l not re#c)ed #g#in until e#rly 328/. (:#t# on popul#tion given )ere represent estim#tes, depending on s#mpling ,y di!!erent #gencies e(cept !or censuses w)ic) #re sometimes more inclusive, #nd v#ry ,y met)ods, including periods o! ye#rs, se#sons o! ye#r, #nd popul#tion livingBworking in t)e U6A**o!ten m#ny millions since 323/).3H (All popul#tion d#t# presented )ere #re !romA I#mes Pilkie, Booklet of Charts on -e.ican *istor"V I#mes Pilkie, ed. Statistical Abstract of Latin America (SALA(, Kol. E1, =#,le 83E (2//2)V #nd U.$. popul#tion series. Comp#re t)e preceding to rese#rc) ,y @o,ert &cC##, w)o e(#mines di!!ering views o! popul#tion st#tistics !or &e(ico #nd delves into d#t# ,y r#ceBet)nicity #nd ,y region. 38 )
www.cid#c.orgBvnmBli,roscid#cBunder*-edilloB#pendi(*#. :.C. Cor e(# m pl e , &eyer* 6)er m # n * :eed s sugg e s t t)#t t)e tot #l w#s E/ million, w)ic) w#s not re#c) e d #g #in until e#rly 3288, #ccordin g to series in Pilkie, ed. SALA , =#,le 83H. 38 @o,ert &#c##, ;=)e eopling o! &e(ico !rom 4rigins to @evolution ^in 323/_< (3220), E0
3H

, p. E1

-3 “"tatist” "$anis( Con9uest #/;/<-/;-/& an! :overnment after /;-/. :uring t)e Coloni#l eriod (3823*3123), t)e 6p#nis) su,stituted t)eir 6t#tist

6ystem on top o! t)e de!unct system o! ;A-tec 6t#tism,< #nd t)e 6p#nis) did so under # series o! Kiceroys, w)o ruled #s t)e ;#lter ego< o! t)e !#r #w#y Oing o! 6p#in. $ew 6p#in #dministered !or t)e 6p#nis) 6t#te #ll l#nd (#nd everyt)ing under t)e sur!#ce) #s well #s #ll economic production, ,ut gr#nted rig)ts #nd licenses to # !#vored view to e(ploit t)ose rig)ts. Loc#l o!!icers moder#ted dem#nds m#de ,y t)e Crown #nd Kiceroys ,y promising to o,ey wit)out complying (;4,ede-co pero no cumplo<), #nd t)e l#tter o!ten in!licted dem#nds o! t)eir own. =own Councils e(isted ,ut (in contr#st to t)e 3E Americ#n Colonies), t)e Councils were not democr#tic #nd did not represent or #llow citi-en input ,eyond t)e key elite. opul#tion dis#strous decline c#used ,y introduction o! "urope#n dise#ses, w#rs, #nd ;ensl#vement< o! muc) o! t)e Indigenous popul#tion s#w t)e tot#l !#ll to 30 million ,y 38E2 #nd to 3.3 million in 3M/1St)e low point.3M =)e popul#tion t)en reg#ined impetus to re#c) M.3 million ,y 313/.

www.)ist.umn.eduBarmcc##Bm(poprevBc#m,ridgE.)tm
3M

In i,id, &#C## estim#tes t)#t t)e popul#tion !ell only #s low #s H to 8 million. E1

, p. E2

=3 Faile! 'nti-"tate Revolutions #/>/.-/>-.&5 *(ic( soug(t In!e$en!ence from "$ain3 Independence w#s de!e#ted ,y t)e 6p#ni#rds living in &e(ico w)o success!ully s#ved t)emselves !rom )#ving t)eir property #nd we#lt) sei-ed in t)e #nti*6p#nis) !ervor. Alt)oug) t)e 6p#ni#rds (w)o domin#ted politics, economics, #nd society) tempor#rily ;won,< t)ey )#d to live in # dec#de o! c)#otic ye#rs.

H. "tatist In!e$en!ence from "$ain5 />-/-/>-? to Maintain "tatus Xuo3 Independence w#s #c)ieved !rom 6p#in in 3123 w)en conserv#tives, w)o )#d !oug)t #g#inst independence !rom 6p#in (313/ to 312/), turned in !#vor o! Independence to s#ve t)e 6t#tist system, w)ic) w#s under #tt#ck in 6p#in itsel!. P)en $#poleon I )#d t#ken control o! 6p#in #nd pl#ced )is elder ,rot)er Iosep) Bon#p#rte on t)#t country?s t)rone (31/1*313E), #s )is #rmies p#ssed t)roug) to inv#de ortug#l, t)e 6p#nis) town councils o! 6p#in #nd t)e $ew Porld !in#lly )#d g#ined re#l import#nce w)en, ironic#lly, t)ey )#d re!used to pledge #llegi#nce to # Crenc) king. By 3132 t)e town councils o! 6p#in )#d !ormul#ted # new Anti*6t#tist Constitution, #nd w)en t)ey soug)t to implement it in 3123, t)e 6p#ni#rds in &e(ico (w)o #lso controlled Centr#l Americ#) re#li-ed t)#t t)ey t)emselves )#d to decl#re Independence !rom 6p#in in order to s#ve t)eir power ,#sed on 6t#tism. =)e popul#tion o! &e(ico in 312E stood #t M.1 million.30

30

In i,id, t)e estim#te is t)#t popul#tion w#s #,out M million.

E2

, p. H/

;3 C(aotic 'nti-"tatism versus "tatism5 />-;-/>;;. eriod is c)#r#cteri-ed ,yA Anti*6t#tists seeking :ecentr#li-#tion o! power to t)e rovinces !ersus 6t#tists in &e(ico City seeking Centr#li-#tion o! power in t)e c#pit#l city. Bot) groups success!ully drove most o! t)e educ#ted #nd tec)nic#lly skilled 6p#ni#rds out o! &e(ico, le#ving it ,y 3122 wit)out t)e e(pertise necess#ry to keep t)e country #s # !unctioning economic system. =)e result e!!ectively ,roug)t #,out c)#os #s t)e 6t#tist system coll#psed in continuing on*going ,#ttles ,etween gener#ls w)o soug)t to ,ecome t)e $#poleon o! &e(ico, e#c) #ttempting wit)out success to inst#ll # $#poleonic 6t#tist system o! # )ig)ly centr#li-ed government, w)ic) seemed stronger t)#n it turned out to ,e in !#ct.
[FLASH TO 19th-Century FRANCE,31 about which Miche !ur"in#ie write$ that "ro% 1&'( ) to 19(*, France +a$$e, throu-h no e$$ than "our ,i""erent con$titution$. three ,yna$tie$ /the 0ourbon$, the Or 1an$ an, the 0ona+arte$2. two re+ub ic$. three re3o ution$ /1&'(, 1&4& an, 1&5(2. one cou+ that wor#e, /Loui$-Na+o eon 0ona+arte6$ in 1&*12 an, two that were either %ere y atte%+te, /in 1&552 or "anta$i7e, /in 1&&92. two ci3i war$ /the 8une cri$i$ in 1&4& an, the Co%%une in 1&512. one ,i$a$trou$ ,e"eat to a na$cent !er%any /1&5(2 that e, to the %o%entary occu+ation o" %ore than one-thir, o" the country. two %a9or "inancia $can,a $, in 1&5' an, 1&9:, that $we+t away %o$t u++er- an, %i,, e-c a$$ $a3in-$. an,, "ina y, a turno"-the-century 9u,icia $can,a ) that +ro%+te, a "ar-reachin- aw in 19(* %an,atin- the $e+aration o" church an, $tate;<

31

Crederick Brown tells t)is story o! t)#t tumultuous er# in 2or the Soul of 2rance (2//2). )ttpABBonline.ws>.comB#rticleB6B3///3H2H/820H10/H/2HE/H808/223HE022H/E182.)tml

H/

, p. H3

Hopes to stop #n#rc)y ,y imposing order were d#s)ed ,y two !#cts #) t)e new @epu,lic o! &e(ico #ssumed #ll t)e de,ts o! $ew 6p#in #nd t)e country st#rted out in unst#,le povertyV #nd ,) t)e residency c)#nged )#nds EM times ,etween 31EE #nd 3188, t)e #ver#ge term l#sting #,out 0.8 mont)s. =o survive, residents )#d to re*impose import t#(es t)#t )#d ,een #,#ndoned #t Independence, est#,lis) s#les t#(es, #nd sell monopolies to t)e priv#te sector (#s t)e Crown )#d done). Import t#(es c#used t)e e(p#nsion o! smuggling #nd ,ri,ery, s#les t#(es were circumvented, #nd monopolies could not gener#te pro!its to s)#re wit) t)e government in t)e !orm o! income t#(es. =)is struggle w#s especi#lly in!luenced ,y 6t#tist Antonio L%pe- de "anta 'nna, w)o occupied t)e residency eleven times ,etween 31EE #nd 3188. As # gener#l o! t)e #rmy, )e )#d led &e(ic#n troops (#) to victory #t =#mpico in 3122 w)ere )e de!e#ted 6p#in?s #ttempt to !orce &e(ico ,#ck into coloni#l st#tusV #nd (,) to de!e#t in t)e P#r wit) =e(#s (31E8*31EM). "anta 'nna restore! "tate $o*er over all lan!s an! su0soil rig(ts in />;=5 ,ut lost )#l! o! &e(ico in )is w#r wit) t)e U6A, 31H8*31H1. He w#s in #nd out o! power so o!ten during )is 22 ye#rs # m#>or in!luence in &e(ico t)#t )e could not est#,lis) #ny long*term st#,ility or Centr#l 7overnment ower. $evert)eless, 6#nt# Ann#?s @ecentr#li-#tion o! l#nd rig)ts under t)e power o! &e(ico City m#rks t)eA

H3

, p. H2

First of

(ree “+egal”6

/<

+an! Reforms. "anta 'nna’s First +egal

+an! Reform *oul! $rovi!e t(e maMor rationale for regulation of lan! in t(e Constitution of />;D an! t(e re-inter$retation of t(at Constitution of />;D 0y t(e !ictator Porfirio 24a,3 Porfirio transferre! =-T of Me)ico’s lan! surface into (uge (acien!as3 (e "econ! +egal +an! Reform *oul! taJe $lace *it( t(e *riting of t(e Constitution of /</D5 *(ic( reiterate! "anta 'nna’s argument t(at t(e "tate controls all lan! rig(ts #inclu!ing t(ose a0ove an! 0elo* groun!& an! clarifie! t(e lan! regulations as a!o$te! 0y BuCre, in t(e Constitution of />;D to $revent t(e rise of ne* (acien!as--BuCre, (a! faile! to “outla*” t(e rise of ne* (acien!as to re$lace t(e ones (e 0roJe u$3 (e Constitution of

/</D re9uire! !istri0ution of lan! to communities5 not in!ivi!uals3 +an! collectively (el! cannot 0e $ut u$ for collateral to o0tain loans5 t(us *as !e$en!ent for cre!it on t(e government5 *(ic( (a! little or no money for agricultural cre!it3 (e (ir! +egal +an! Reform *oul! taJe $lace in /<<-5 *(en "alinas *on revision of t(e Constitution of /</D to $rovi!e for granting o*ners(i$ of title to t(e lan! currently 0eing *orJe! 0y a family5 t(us en!ing com$lete control over t(e lan! t(at (a! 0een (el! 0y Community Councils3 Furt(er5
32

6ee @os#rio K#ro Berr#, %a Re0orma >!raria en MAxico 5esde "B67: Sus Tres iclos %e!ales3 (7u#d#l#>#r#, Los bngeles, &'(icoA Universid#d de 7u#d#l#>#r#, UCLA rogr#m on &e(ico, @4C&"D, Iu#n #,los "ditor, 2//2). r%logo de I#mes P. Pilkie. +egal c(anges may not 0e fully carrie! out all5 0ut t(ey $rovi!e t(e frame*orJ of governance t(at creates rural insecurity a0out *(o o*ns *(at5 t(us !iscouraging investment in infrastructure5 irrigation5 etc3

H2

, p. HE

t(is ne* la* state! t(at alt(oug( lan! !istri0ution to EMi!os coul! continue5 it !i! not re9uire it3

@3 'ctive-"tate +egal Revolution5 />;@-/>@@5 est#,lis)ed ,y Benito BuCre, #nd )is C)ie! &inister 6e,#stiJn +er!o de =e>#d# w#s undert#ken to develop t)e @e!orm L#ws t)#t were t)en written into t)e Constitution o! 3180. Here #re t)e provisions o! t)e Constitution o! 3180A * est#,lis) civil power to t#ke registr#tion o! ,irt), m#rri#ge, #nd de#t) !rom t)e C)urc) (including t#king over t)e C)urc)?s )ospit#ls #nd orp)#n#ges, ,ut wit)out t)e !unds to do so, led to t)e closure o! m#ny #nd )e#lt)Bsoci#l dis#ster !or t)e poor), * est#,lis) # sound m#rket economy ,#sed on weig)ts #nd me#sures consistent t)roug)out &e(ico, * ,re#k up t)e Indigenous Communal Farms #EMi!os5 many (el! trust 0y t(e C(urc(& #s well #s l#rge (acien!asUlatifun!ia controlled ,y t)e C)urc) #nd #,sentee priv#te*l#nd owners) to distri,ute it to 6m#ll* #nd &edium*6i-e roperty 4wners.

L#ti!undi#BH#ciend#s #re de!ined #s (#) )uge est#tes l#rger t)#n 2,8// #cres or (,) est#tes not used ;productively<St)#t is not used #t #ll, especi#lly prior to t)e mid*twentiet) century.
HE

, p. HH

ro,lems not !oreseen ,y t)e IuJre- L#nd L#wsA

roductivity

re+uires t)e norm#l pr#ctice o! letting l#nd ;rest< in order to prevent depletion o! soil )e#lt) #nd to recover !rom )e#vy use or !#ilure to rot#te crops. 4!ten i! is di!!icult to know i! l#nd is not ,eing used or ;resting<. &#ny persons see suc) l#nd ,eing ;w#sted< unless it is divided #nd distri,uted to t)e poor, !#iling to underst#nd t)#t t)e conse+uence tends to cre#te mini!undi#.

Minifun!ia #re undersi-ed plots o! l#nd t)#t ,#rely provide su,sistence #griculture #nd l#rgely !orce in)#,it#nts to e(ist outside t)e m#rker economy. =)ey #re !#rmed continu#lly ,ec#use, i! t)e l#nd is #llowed to ;rest<, t)e occup#nts, c#nnot survive. =)e met)od o! !#rming is slas( an! 0urn agriculture, cutting #nd ,urning o! !orests or woodl#nds to cre#te !ields !or #griculture or p#sture !or livestock. =)e ,urning ruins t)e root structure #nd eventu#lly renders soils inc#p#,le o! !urt)er yields Ssometimes !or gener#tions. 6l#s) #nd ,urn ;!#rming< )#s c#used soil erosion !or centuries in &e(ico, w#sting t)e l#nd. Bec#use !ertili-ers #re pro)i,itively e(pensive, veget#,les #re too o!ten grown in ;nig)t soil< ()um#n m#nure, w)ic) tends to c#use d#ngerous intestin#l in!ections unless t)e veget#,les #re well cooked.)

HH

, p. H8

"mall (ol!ings m#y #lso eng#ge in slas( an! 0urn agriculture ,ec#use )oldings )#ve ,een too sm#ll to t#ke #dv#nt#ge o! c)#nge in tec)nology suc) t)e #dvent o! tr#ctors #s well #s pl#nt nutritionSeit)er org#nic or inorg#nic.2/

IuJre- e!!ectively ,roke t)e power o! t)e C)urc) #nd priv#te )#ciend#s (,ot) ,#sed on l#ti!undi# or )uge #re#s o! l#nd t)oug)t to ,e underused 23), ,ut t)e in#dvertent result t)#t )e #c)ieved w#s to ,egin t)e pulveri-#tion o! t)e l#nd, t)us cre#ting mini!undi# (l#nd )oldings too sm#ll to contri,ute to t)e m#rket economy t)#t )e so w#nted). =)e popul#tion o! &e(ico in 3180 stood #t 1.2 million.

D3 "tatist Revolution un!er Ma)imilian #/>@?-/>@D& ,#cked ,y Crenc) =roops, w)o sei-ed &e(ico City (31MH*31M0). "mperor Ma)imilian von H#ps,urg, invited ,y C#t)olics #nd ot)er #nti*IuJre- groups, c#me !rom "urope to re* est#,lis) &e(ico #s # mon#rc)y * t)e ide# ,eing to ;end< c)#os #nd est#,lis) 7overnment #ut)ority over t)e entire country. &#(imili#n tried to implement t)e role o! civil power ,ut #ccomplis)ed little to est#,lis) order in t)e countryside
2/

6ince t)e 320/s # de,#te )#s emerged w)ic) !#vors use o! ;pl#nt nutrition< (# positive term) #nd not ;!ertili-ers<. However t)e l#tter term includes c)emic#l types (w)ic) #re needed ,ut too o!ten used wit)out proper c#ution) #nd org#nic !ertili-ers (w)ic) #re e(pensive). 6ee )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB l#ntYnutrition #nd )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBCertili-erc@isksYo!Y!ertili-erYuse
23

Alt)oug) ;underused< l#nd m#y only ,e lying !#llow to let it rest (const#nt use will d#m#ge soil !ertility) muc) l#nd w#s not even used ,y some )#ciend#s. =)e +uestion #lw#ys )#s ,een w)et)er or not l#nd us underused or not used.

H8

, p. HM

#nd develop t)e n#tion#l in!r#structure. BuCre, central government 0ecomes a government in internal e)ile5 moving from state to state in t(e fig(t to regain central $o*er]in />@D BuCre, forces ca$ture an! e)ecute Ma)imilian3

>3 'ctive-"tate Revolution un!er BuCre, an! +er!o #/>@D-/>D@ ), seeks to implement #s well #s to continue progr#ms est#,lis)ed in t)e M t) eriod, #,ove. =)ese presidents #lso #dopt some me#sures to give t)e 6t#te # more #ctive role !or t)e n#tion, still seeking to est#,lis) st#nd#rd weig)ts #nd me#sures #nd # re#l post#l system !or t)e entire country. (=o t)is d#y, t)e &e(ic#n post#l system is considered unreli#,le #nd corruptSro,,ing #ny m#il t)#t looks v#lu#,le.) =)e r#ilw#y linking Ker#cru- #nd &e(ico City w#s !in#lly completed in 3102. It took =; years from ince$tion in 31H0 to overcome t)e di!!icult terr#in o! mount#in r#nges, deep gorges, driving r#in, #nd dise#se t)#t killed m#ny )undreds o! n#meless workers.

<3 (e Rise of "tatism un!er “Presi!ent” Porfirio 24a, #/>D@-/<//&. =)e popul#tion o! &e(ico grew !rom 3/ million in 3102 to 3E.M million in 32//.

<a3 From t(e 'ctive "tate to "tatism un!er 24a, #/>D@-/>>-&3 A rut)less Political 2ictators(i$ w#s est#,lis)ed ,y Porfirio 24a, to !#vor t)e development o! &e(ico #s # )uge enterprise loosely ,#sed on !ollowing t)e ;model< o! t)e B#rons w)o were #ccumul#ting )uge !ortunes in t)e U6A. (=)#t
HM

, p. H0

t)e U.6. B#rons were ,ecoming known #s ;@o,,er B#rons< w#s disreg#rded ,y :N#-, w)o s#w t)em #s w)#t &e(ico neededS;C#pt#ins o! Industry<.) C)#os w#s gr#du#lly ended w)en crimin#ls were deputi-ed #s police, w)o #greed to limit t)eir corruption. He w#s !#mous !or )#s mottoA Accept ;p#n o p#lo< (,re#d or t)e clu,, in "nglis)A ;t)e c#rrot or t)e stick<), en!orcement o! w)ic) w#s #ided ,y t)e e(p#nsion in &e(ico o! t)e :N#- telegr#p) network during t)e 310/s #nd r#ilw#ys ,eginning in t)e 321/s. =)is strong resident :N#- decentr#li-ed economic power to ric) region#l elitesV #nd )e enticed !oreign c#pit#l to ,uild &e(ico?s r#ilw#y in!r#structure, t)us !in#lly linking t)e country into # uni!ied n#tion #s well #s to e(port &e(ico?s miner#ls #nd #gricultur#l products. =o do t)is, ironic#lly, e.g., )e used t)e IuJrel#nd l#ws to cre#te new )#ciend#s #nd !oreign*owned mining #nd oil empires #s well #s r#ilw#y corridors o! priv#te power. Bec#use IuJre-?s l#nd l#ws to #llow t)e cre#tion #ndBor e(p#nsion o! )#ciend#s. IuJre- )#d divided l#nds to cre#te # sm#ll #nd medium l#nd*owing system ,ut did so wit)out putting #ny c#p on t)e #mount o! l#nds t)#t mig)t ,e #c+uired ,y t)e new owners. =)us :N#- did not )#ve to c)#nge t)e l#w, ,ut r#t)er simply reverse IuJre-?s priorityS:N#- encour#ged t)e growt) o! new gre#t est#tes. :N#- #nd t)e politic#l system t)#t )e #ppointed (including region#l c#udillos or ,osses #nd t)eir loc#l c#ci+ues or ,osses #dministering t)e )#rs) rules t)e m#sses) s#w t)eir role #s en#,ling t)e riv#te 6ector (#nd especi#lly
H0

, p. H1

!oreigner wit) investment c#pit#l) #s t#king t)e le#d in ,ecoming #nd or working wit) t)e U.6. ;C#pt#ins o! Industry<. P)ere#s IuJre- )#d emp)#si-ed t)e industri#l role o! medium #nd sm#ll producers, :N#- emp)#si-ed t)e role o! C#pt#ins o! Industry #nd )#cend#dos (l#nded gentry) needed to develop l#rge*sc#le #ctivities in &e(ico ,ot) !or t)e intern#l #s well #s e(port m#rket. =)e ,uilding o! # re#l r#ilw#y system m#inly directed to t)e U6A #s well #s &e(ico City w#s or!irio :N#-? w#y to get goods to m#rket #s well #s to move police #nd soldiers to put down #ny re,ellions. :N#-?s success in linking t)e country ,y telegr#p) #s well #s r#il )#d two sidesA on one )#nd it provided t)e ,#sis to regul#te order #nd progress o! commerce to gener#te we#lt) !or t)e eliteV on t)e ot)er )#nd, it sowed t)e seeds o! )is overt)rowSt)e r#ilro#ds #nd telegr#p) #llowing dissent to spre#d, especi#lly ,y t)e r#ilw#y workers w)o crossed t)e ,order running tr#in tr#vel ,etween t)e U6A #nd &e(icoSm#ny o! t)ose oper#ting t)e tr#ins were mem,ers o! t)e IPP (Intern#tion#l Porkers o! t)e Porld, w)o c#lled !or # tr#ns*,order struggle t)#t ;must go on until t)e workers o! t)e world org#ni-e #s # cl#ss, t#ke possession o! t)e me#ns o! production, #,olis) t)e w#ge system, #nd live in )#rmony wit) t)e "#rt).<22 P)en or!Nrio :i#- c#me to power in 310M, )e tot#lly opened t)e country to !oreign c#pit#l to ,uild r#ilro#ds, even o!!ering # generous su,sidy !or e#c)
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kilometer o! line t)#t w#s ,uilt. =)e r#il comp#nies not only were gr#nted t)e r#ilw#y corridors ,ut #lso #mple l#nd on ,ot) sides o! every corridorV import duties were w#ived on e+uipment #nd m#teri#ls involved in t)e pro>ect, #nd e#c) ,uilder won !ull rig)ts o! oper#tion !or 22 ye#rs. ;Immedi#tely United 6t#tes investors >umped in, winning concessions to ,uild t)e Centr#l Line !rom "l #soBCiud#d IuJre- to &e(ico City #nd t)e $#tion#l Line !rom L#redoB$uevo L#redo vi# &onterrey to &e(ico City. =)e !irst o! t)ese r#ilw#ys w#s r#pidly pus)ed sout)w#rd t)roug) t)e desert to C)i)u#)u#, =orre%n (one o! t)e !ew &e(ic#n cities #ctu#lly dcre#ted? ,y t)e r#ilro#d), 5#c#tec#s, Agu#sc#lientes, Le%n, #nd Guer't#ro to &e(ico City, # cle#r o,>ective ,eing to dc#pture? #s m#ny o! t)e mining centers #s possi,le wit)out #ny p#rticul#r reg#rd to t)e distri,ution o! t)e countryXs popul#tion. =)e !#ct t)#t t)e Centr#l @#ilw#y w#s completed #nd oper#tion#l ,y 311H not only spoke to t)e #dv#nt#geous conditions est#,lis)ed ,y its concession ,ut #lso to t)e rel#tively open terr#in t)roug) w)ic) it p#ssed.<23 @#ilw#ys pl#yed #n integr#l role in t)e Fuc#tJn Hene+uen Boom (311/s* 3238). Hene+uen (!i,rous cords #nd twine !rom sis#l, one v#riety o! t)e c#ctus
2E

Kincent H. &#lmstrem. Land of the 2ifth Sun: -e.ico in Space and )ime, e,ook, 2//2, www.d#rtmout).eduBai-#p#BLC6Y=itle92/ #ge.)tm

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pl#nt) w#s used to m#ke rope to dock s#iling s)ips #s well #s ,#iling cords to ,ind ,#les o! U.6. cotton !or e(port. Hene+uen w#s #lso used to m#ke )#mmocks, ,url#p ,#gs, etc. <03 "tatist Revolution un!er 24a, #/>>--/<//& an! t(e rise of t(e Cient4ficos 6oci#l #nd "conomic Anti*6t#tists were incre#singly #pp#lled #t :N#-?s 6t#tist politics, # situ#tion w)ic) denied even t)e elite to s)#re in t)e process o! m#king politic#l c)oices #nd decisions. or!irio :N#- never did c)#nge )is 6t#tist politic#l st#nce, ,ut did gr#du#lly s)i!t )is economic #nd soci#l progr#ms !rom Anti*6t#tism to Active 6t#tism, especi#lly #s )e ,eg#n to rely more #nd more on t)e ide#s o! )is CientN!ico ;,r#in*trust< #s t)ey #dvoc#ted pl#ns to #dv#nce &e(ico?s moderni-#tion.
“The Científicos (Spanish: "scientists" or "those scientifically oriented") were a circle of technocratic advisors to President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz. Steeped in the positivist "scientific politics", they functioned as part of his program of modernization at the start of the 20th century. Leading Científicos included: •

@#m% n Corr#l (I#nu #r y 3/, 318H * $ove m , e r 3/, 3232) w#s t)e Kice resid e n t o! &e(ico und e r or!irio :N#- !rom 32/H until t)eir depo sition in 3233. 7#,ino B#rre d # (312/]31 1 3 ), # precurs o r o! t)e grou p. A p)ysici#n #nd pro!es s or o! me dicin e, B#rred # studie d in #ris und er August e Comt e ,etw e e n 31H0 #nd 3183 #nd is widely credit e d wit) introdu cing positivis m in &e(ico . ut in c)#rg e o! !ul!illing t)e 3180 Constitu tio n Xs pro mis e o! secul#r pu,lic educ # tio n ,y t)e e#rly IuJre- gover n m e n t , B#rre d # org# ni- e d t)e $#tion #l rep #r # t o r y 6c)ool , t)e !irst secul#r sc)ool o! )ig)er le#rning in &e(ico, w)ic) open e d in 31M1 #nd ,ec# m e t)e tr#ining groun d !or m# n y o! t)e youn g e r Cient8ficos .< 2H

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Indeed to #dv#nce scienti!ic pl#nning, :N#- in 3112 #ut)ori-ed t)e cre#tion &e(ico?s n#tion#l st#tistic#l g#t)ering #gency so t)#t t)e CientN!icos could ,egin t)e !irst re#l collection o! st#tistic#l d#t# needed to underst#nd !rom w)ere t)e country w#s going, w)ere it stood, #nd w)ere #ppe#red to ,e )e#ding. =)is n#tion#l pro>ect w#s l#unc)ed, m#inly ,y &e(ico?s gi#nt in rese#rc)A Antonio PeYafiel5 w)o org#ni-ed t)e !irst consistent #nd wide recording #nd compiling o! )istoric#l st#tistics #s well #s cre#tion o! new d#t# t)#t )e included in &e(ico?s st#tistic#l reports #nd ye#r,ooks. Indeed, )e cre# t e d t)e !irst e!!ective ,#sis !or mod e r n res e # r c ) #nd pu,lic#tion o! st#tistics on &e(ico. 28 ef#!iel )#d est#,lis)ed t)e !irst L#w on 6t#tistics in 3128, t)e s#me ye#r t)#t )e #dministered t)e !irst n#tion#l popul#tion census !or &e(icoSt)e popul#tion in t)#t ye#r w#s recorded to ,e 32.M million. Cive ye#rs l#ter )is census counted 3E.M million. In 323/ ef#!iel?s census s)owed t)e &e(ic#n popul#tion to )#ve re#c)ed 38.2 million. In t)e process )e w#s re!ining )is scienti!ic met)ods used to conduct t)e censuses. =)e ;CientN!icos< were e!!ectively #lso :N#-?s ;politic#l p#rty< w)ic) >usti!ied )is socio*economic sc)emes developed under Big Coreign #nd :omestic C#pit#lists. By 3121 t)e BosF +imantour, &inister o! t)e =re#sury (H#ciend#),

28

6ee 6ergio de l# ef# y I#mes P. PilkieV La 7stad8stica 7con9mica en -:.ico: Los ;r8genes (&'(icoA 6iglo DDI y Universid#d Aut%nom# &etropolit#n#*A-c#pot-#lco, 322H). 83

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understood t)#t &e(ico?s r#ilw#y system )#d to ,e developed in t)e n#tion#l interest, not t)e priv#te sector?s n#rrow interests. He #nd t)e CientN!icos re#li-ed t)#t disorg#ni-ed routings prev#iled in &e(icoXs rail syste m . Limantour overs a w the enac t m e n t of a Gener al Railway Law requiring that any new constr uc tion would serve to comple t e a “nation al network rath e r than sponsor the building of det a c h e d lines in remo t ely sep ar a t e d parts of the country.

As a result, in the later years of the Díaz ad ministr a tion, the Mexican govern m e n t beg a n acquiring the majority of the shar e s of the Centr al and National Lines and fusing the m into a unified com p a n y called the National Railways of Mexico, so by the end of the Porfirian period the major linea m e n t s of the privat e/ p u blic Mexican rail syste m had bee n well est a blish e d -the country as a whole boas ting som e 12,000 miles of track,” writes &#lmstrem. Curt)er in 32// )e encour#ged t)e !ounding o! &e(ico?s steel industry in &onterrey, ,ut le!t it to t)e priv#te sector to develop. Bec#use or!irio )#d not en!orced IuJre-? l#ws #g#inst t)e C)urc)?s #ccumul#tion o! c#pit#l (o!ten t)roug) gr#nting t)e rig)t to go to )e#ven to t)e

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ric), w)o p#id de#rly #ndBor willed muc) o! t)eir property to t)e C)urc) upon de#t)), ,y 32// t)e C)urc) served #s &e(ico?s ,iggest ,#nker. &ost import#ntly, ,ec#use or!irio :N#- p#id down &e(ico?s

intern#tion#l de,ts, credit in &e(ico w#s sc#rce #nd costly, even !or t)e elite, #nd not #v#il#,le to ot)ers. Crom 32/8 to 32/0 !in#nci#l p#nic spilled over into &e(ico !rom (#) t)e 32/8 @usso*I#p#nese P#r w)en &e(ico su!!ered ,ec#use U.6.Bworld c#pit#l w#s diverted to Asi#,2M (,) t)e 32/M 6#n Cr#ncisco e#rt)+u#ke w)ic) disrupted t)e U.6. economy, #nd (c) t)e su,se+uent 32/0 U.6. credit s)ort#ge me#nt t)#t m#ny mem,ers o! t)e &e(ic#n elite !ound t)#t t)ey could not renew t)eir lo#ns #nd or )#d to rep#y t)em in #n #cceler#ted m#nner. H#cend#dos were especi#lly #!!ected #nd some ,eg#n to +uietly suggest #mong t)emselves t)#t per)#ps # rumored re,ellion #g#inst :N#- ,y workers could )#ve some !#vor#,le results**i! it were limited to ,urning t)e ,#nks #nd credit records, #!ter w)ic) t)e workers were to go ,#ck to t)eir sl#ve*like >o,s. P)en re#l @evolution ,roke out #g#inst )is regime in 3233, :N#- c#lled up )is #rmy, w)ic), #s it turned out, ,#rely e(istedSit w#s p#dded wit) ;p)#ntom< soldiers. =)e gener#ls )#d t)oug)t t)#t since &e(ic#ns were so cowed ,y t)e :N#- mysti+ue t)ey could ,ecome ric) simply ,y keeping t)e !unds ,udgeted !or positions o! soldiers w)o t)ey did not )ire.

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I#p#n surpris e d t)e world ,y wing t)is w#r, c)#n gin g t)e ,#l# nc e o! pow er in t)e C#r "#st. 8E

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or!irio?s @ur#l olice, w)o )#d #lso grown l#-y #nd corrupt, were no m#tc) !or t)e #ngry m#sses, w)o t)ey )#d repressed !or so long. =)ey tended to #void ,#ttles ,y deserting. <c *o Vey Men an! (eir Aooks: ONE: Andrés Molina-Enríquez (1909) Los Grandes #roblemas +acionales TWO: Franciso I. Madero (1908) )he #residential Succession of <'<&=

O1E &olin#*"nrN+ue-, s#w )is ,ook re!erred to in "nglis) #s -e.ico>s *uge (or Great( +ational #roblems$ His t)oug)t would ,e in!luenti#l in writing t)e Constitution o! 3230. ;^=)is ,ook ,y &olin#* "nrN+u e- _ w#s )ig)ly critic#l o! t)e
or!irio :N#gover n m e n t , ^it c)#r # c t e ri- e d_ t)e period #!ter 3123 #s t)e er# o! n#tion #l disint e g r # tio n. =)e ,ook )ig)lig)t e d issu e s o! s)#rp politic#l divisions, recurr e n t #rm e d con!licts, #nd periodic !oreign interv e n tio n s . ;^=)e ,ook_ !ocus e d p#rticul#rly on two #sp e c t s , l#nd re!or m, #nd t)e rig)ts o! t)e indige n o u s people #nd t)eir pl#ce in society soci#lly.Z ;A well* known +uot e !rom t)e ,ook is dl# )#cien d # no es negocio? ^t)e )#cie n d # is not # ,usin e s s _A By t)is )e me # n t t)#t t)e l#rge &e(ic#n l#nd e d est # t e s o! )is d#y (#nd stre tc )in g ,#ck to t)eir origins in t)e er# o! t)e 6p#nis ) con+u e s t ) were !or t)e mos t p#rt not pro!it* orient e d ,ut X!eud #lX ent er p ris e s , t)#t rur#l &e(ico w#s t)er e!or e only p#rti#lly c#pit #listic, i! #t #ll, #nd t)#t t)e countr y w#s ipso !#cto only imper!e c tly mod e r n.[ 20

Pilkie?s Interpretive summ#ry o! &olin#*"nrN+ue-?s +O" :R'12E" PROA+EM'" 1'CIO1'+E" I #/<.<& 21 ro,lems #n#ly-ed in ,ookA
20 21

Guot e d !rom )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBAndr'sY&olin#Y"nrN+ue=)e ,ook is #v#il#,le to downlo # d #t )ttpABBwww.c er v # n t e s virt u #l.co mB s e r vl e t B6irve4 ,r # s B / 3 H 0 3 M 8 2 3 / 3 2 H 0 E 1 H 3 2 3 2 2 3 nde(. ) t m 8H

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3. K#ried #nd ro,lem#tic )ysic#l 7eogr#p)y o! &e(ico 2. roperty @ig)ts #nd ro,lems o! @egistr#tion E. Irrig#tion ro,lems H. L#ck o! Credit ro,lem

8. opul#tion #s # ro,lem 0H8 Indigenous =ri,es 6pe#king "#c) 6pe#king 4wn L#ngu#ge or :i#lect Criollos (6p#nis) descendents, ,orn in &e(ico) eninsul#res (6p#nis) ,orn in 6p#in) &esti-os ( ersons o! &i(ed Blood #nd Culture) Hum#n 7eogr#p)y #nd :istri,ution o! Cood Use o! Alco)ol oor P#ges !or &#sses M. olitics ro,lem o! How to de!ine &e(ico #s # $#tionS&esti-#>e T Oey ro,lem o! 4vercoming )ysic#l 7eogr#p)y to :evelop Communic#tion o! 6uc) # :iverse opul#tion Living in :i!!erent Circumst#nces #nd 6pe#king 6o &#ny L#ngu#ges ro,lem o! "duc#tion !or t)e Indigenous #nd &esti-os ro,lem o! =#king opul#tion Censuses

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KO &#dero?s ,ook on )he #residential Succession of <'<& w#s to pl#y t)e role o! igniting t)e &e(ic#n @evolution in 3233 #nd le#d )im to ,ecome resident o! &e(ico !rom $ovem,er M, 3233, to Ce,ru#ry 32, 323E. Pikipedi# sums up )is )istoryA22
“Madero was born in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila; the son of one of the wealthiest families in Mexico: his grandfather had founded the Compañía Industrial de Parras, which was initially involved in vineyards, cotton, and textiles, and which moved into mining, cotton mills, ranching, banking, coal, rubber, and foundries in the later “Madero was educated at the Jesuit college in Saltillo, but this early Catholic education had little lasting impact. Instead, his father's subscription to the magazine Revue Spirit awakened in the young Madero an interest in Spiritism, an offshoot of Spiritualism. As a young man, Madero's father sent him to the École des Hautes Études Commerciales de Paris (HEC). During his time in France, Madero made a pilgrimage to the tomb of Allan Kardec, the founder of Spiritism, and became a passionate advocate of Spiritism, soon coming to believe he was a medium. Then he graduated from High school at Culver Academies, achieving high leadership positions. Following business school, Madero traveled to the University of California, Berkeley to study agricultural techniques and to improve his English. During his time there, he was influenced by the Theosophist ideas of Annie Besant, which were prominent at nearby Stanford University. “In 1893, the 20 year old Madero returned to Mexico and assumed management of the Madero family's hacienda at San Pedro, Coahuila. He installed new irrigation works, introduced American cotton, and built a soap factory and an ice factory. He also embarked on a lifelong commitment to philanthropy. His peons were well paid and received regular medical exams, he built schools, hospitals, and community kitchens, and he paid to support orphans and award scholarships. He also taught himself homeopathic medicine and offered medical treatments to peons. “On April 2, 1903, Bernardo Reyes, governor of Nuevo León, violently crushed a political demonstration, an example of the increasingly authoritarian policies of president Porfirio Díaz. Madero was deeply moved and, upon the suggestion of the spirit of his deceased brother Raúl, he decided to act. Madero responded by founding the Benito Juárez Democratic Club and ran for municipal office in 1904, though he lost the election narrowly. In addition to his political activities, Madero continued his interest in Spiritualism, publishing a number of articles under the pseudonym of Arjuna (a prince from the Bhagavad Gita). “In 1905, Madero became increasingly involved in opposition to the government of Porfirio Díaz. He organized political clubs and founded a political newspaper (El

)ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBCr#nciscoYI.Y&#derocLe#derYo!Yt)eYAnti* @eelectionY&ovement.2CY32/1."2.1/.2E32/2
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Demócrata) and a satirical periodical (El Mosco, "The Fly"). Madero's preferred candidate was again defeated by Porfirio Díaz's preferred candidate in the 1905 governmental elections. “In a 1908 interview with U.S. journalist James Creelman published in Pearson's Magazine, Porfirio Díaz said that Mexico was ready for a democracy and that the 1910 presidential election would be a free election. Madero spent the bulk of 1908 writing a book at the directions of the spirits, which now included the spirit of Benito Juárez himself. “The [resulting] book, published in late 1908, was titled La sucesión presidencial en 1910 (The Presidential Succession of 1910). The book quickly became a bestseller in Mexico. The book proclaimed that the concentration of absolute power in the hands of one man - Porfirio Díaz - for so long had made Mexico sick. Madero pointed out the irony that in 1871, Porfirio Díaz's political slogan had been "No Reelection". Madero acknowledged that Porfirio Díaz had brought peace and a measure of economic growth to Mexico. “However, Madero argued that this was counterbalanced by the dramatic loss of freedom which included the brutal treatment of the Yaqui people, the repression of workers in Cananea, excessive concessions to the United States, and an unhealthy centralization of politics around the person of the president. “Madero called for a return of the Liberal 1857 Constitution of Mexico. To achieve this, Madero proposed organizing a Democratic Party under the slogan Sufragio efectivo, no reelección ("Valid Suffrage, No Reelection"). Porfirio Díaz could either run in a free election or retire. “Madero's book was well received, and many people began to call Madero the Apostle of Democracy. Madero sold off much of his property - often at a considerable loss - in order to finance anti-reelection activities throughout Mexico. He founded the Antireelection Center in Mexico City in May 1909, and soon thereafter lent his backing to the periodical El Antireeleccionista, which was run by the young lawyer/philosopher José Vasconcelos. Madero traveled throughout Mexico giving antireelectionist speeches, and everywhere he went he was greeted by crowds of thousands. ‘The Porfirian regime reacted by placing pressure on the Madero family's banking interests, and at one point even issued a warrant for Madero's arrest on the grounds of "unlawful transaction in rubber". Madero was not arrested, though, and in April 1910, the Antireelectionist Party met and selected Madero as their nominee for President of Mexico. Madero, worried that Porfirio Díaz would not willingly relinquish office, warned his supporters of the possibility of electoral fraud and proclaimed that "Force shall be met by force. “Madero set out campaigning across the country and everywhere he was met by tens of thousands of cheering supporters. Finally, in June 1910, the Porfirian regime had him arrested in Monterrey and sent to a prison in San Luis Potosí. Approximately 5,000 other members of the Anti-Reelectionist movement were also jailed. Francisco 80

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Vázquez Gómez took over the nomination, but during Madero's time in jail, Díaz was "elected" as president with an electoral vote of 196 to 187. “Madero's father used his influence with the state governor and posted a bond to gain Madero the right to move about the city on horseback during the day. On October 4, 1910, Madero galloped away from his guards and took refuge with sympathizers in a nearby village. He was then smuggled across the U.S. border, hidden in a baggage car by sympathetic railway workers. “Madero set up shop in San Antonio, Texas, and quickly issued his Plan of San Luis Potosí, which had been written during his time in prison, partly with the help of Ramón López Velarde. The Plan proclaimed the elections of 1910 null and void, and called for an armed revolution to begin at 6 p.m. on November 20, 1910, against the illegitimate presidency/dictatorship of Díaz. At that point, Madero would declare himself provisional President of Mexico, and called for a general refusal to acknowledge the central government, restitution of land to villages and Indian communities, and freedom for political prisoners. “On November 20, 1910, Madero arrived at the border and planned to meet up with 400 men raised by his uncle Catarino to launch an attack on Ciudad Porfirio Díaz (modern-day Piedras Negras, Coahuila). However, his uncle showed up late and brought only ten men. “As such, Madero decided to postpone the revolution. Instead he and his brother Raúl (who had been given the same name as his late brother) traveled incognito to New Orleans, Louisiana. “[Not until February 1911 did Madero enter] Mexico and led 130 men in an attack on Casas Grandes, Chihuahua. He spent the next several months as the head of the Mexican Revolution. “Madero successfully imported arms from the United States, with the American government under William Howard Taft doing little to halt the flow of arms to the Mexican revolutionaries. By April, the Revolution had spread to eighteen states, including Morelos where the leader was Emiliano Zapata “On April 1, 1911, Porfirio Díaz claimed that he had heard the voice of the people of Mexico, replaced his cabinet, and agreed to restitution of the lands of the dispossessed. Madero did not believe Díaz and instead demanded the resignation of President Díaz and Vice President Ramón Corral. “Madero then attended a meeting with the other revolutionary leaders – they agreed to a fourteen-point plan which called for pay for revolutionary soldiers; the release of political prisoners; and the right of the revolutionaries to name several members of cabinet. Madero was moderate, however. “He believed that the revolutionaries should proceed cautiously so as to minimize bloodshed and should strike a deal with Díaz if possible. In May, Madero wanted a ceasefire, but his fellow revolutionaries Pascual Orozco and Francisco Villa disagreed and went ahead with an attack on Ciudad Juárez. 81

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“The revolutionaries won this battle decisively and on May 21, 1911, the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez was signed. “Under the terms of the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, Díaz and Corral agreed to resign by the end of May 1911, with Díaz's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Francisco León de la Barra, taking over as interim president solely for the purpose of calling general elections. “This first phase of the Mexican [violent] Revolution thus ended with Díaz leaving for exile in Europe at the end of May 1911. “On June 7, 1911, Madero entered Mexico City in triumph where [huge crowds shouted ‘¡Viva Madero!’…. “Before becoming president, Madero published another book, this one under the pseudonym of Bhima (one of Arjuna's brothers in the Mahābhārata) called a Spiritualist Manual.

/.3 C(aotic 'nti-"tatist Political Revolution #/<//-/</@&3 Pit) or!irio gone to #ris, c)#otic Anti*6t#tism #rose, resident &#dero soon !ound )imsel! under siege ,y region#l ,osses w)o t)oug)t )im to we#k to le#d &e(ico #nd #ll soug)t to displ#ce )im. &#dero selected 7ener#l Kictori#no Huerta to ,e )is top gener#l. Huert# used )is position to put down most re,ellions #g#inst t)e new government ,e!ore #rresting &#dero to )#ve )im ;s)ot w)ile esc#ping prison.< Huert# inst#lled )imsel! #s resident o! &e(ico (Ce,. 3E, 323E*Iul. 38, 323H) Cor det#iled #ccounts o! t)is period, see t)e re+uired re#dingA Revolution in Mexico: Cears o0 @pheaval1 "#"$("#D$5 0y Bames K3 KilJie an! 'l0ert +3 Mic(aels5 es$ecially $ages /-/-. #note*ort(y to un!erstan! t(e years /</=5 /</?5 /</;5 /</@5 /</D are t(e articles 0y +yle C3 Aro*n5 $ages @.-D- an! //--//;&
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=)e pro,lem o! ;Agr#ri#n @e!orm< (re#lly L#nd =enure @e!orm) contri,uted to &#dero?s rise #nd !#ll. 6ever#l e(#mples )elp us underst#nd. By3233 "mili#no Ha$ata w#s destroying t)e sug#r industry in t)e st#te o! &orelos, directly sout) o! &e(ico City. He soug)t to end de,t peon#ge on t)e sug#r )#ciend#s (r#t)er t)#n re+uire !#re w#ges #nd working conditions), #nd )e set out to give t)e l#nd to t)ose w)o worked it (or let t)e pe#s#nts sei-e it), t)us condemning t)e st#te o! &orelos to long*term rur#l poverty !or #ll. 5#p#t# did not re#li-e t)#t w)ere #s t)e #mount o! l#nd in !inite, t)e growt) o! popul#tion is in!inite. 5#p#t# gener#ted ;!#it)< in l#nd re!orm, !#voring t)e l#nd ,eing returned to ">id#t#rios #s well #s sm#ll #nd medium priv#te !#rmers. Bec#use &#dero )#d c#lled !or 5#p#t# to distri,ute l#nd in # leg#l m#nner (wit) e(#ct topogr#p)ic#l me#sures, w)ic) seemed impossi,le given t)e e(treme s)ort#ge o! engineers), Marte R3 :Eme,, # young engineer, volunteered to >oin t)e newly !ormed Comis%n $#cion#l Agr#ri#.E/

E/

&#rte @. 7%me- 4r#l History Interview wit) I#me s Pilkie #nd "dn# &on-%n Pilkie ,pu,lis) e d in Pilkie #nd Pilkie, 2rent e a la Re!oluci9n -e.icana: <? #rotago nis t a s de la 7tapa Constructi!a, (&'(ico, :.C.A Universid # d Aut%no m # &etropolit# n # ), H volum e s (Coordin # tin g "ditorA @#!# el @odrNgu e - C#st # f e d # ) A Kol E. L8deres: Sal!ad or Abascal, Ra m 9 n Bet e t a, -arte R$ G9m e 6 , Jacinto B$ )re!i@o (2//2).

M/

, p. M3

&#rte @. 7%me- tried to work wit) 5#p#t# in )is e!!orts #t distri,uting l#nd in 3238, ,ut to conduct serious engineering in t)e cross*!ire o! m#ny ,#ttles ,etween 5#p#t# #nd t)e !eder#l government, #nd ,etween t)e 5#p#tist# !#ctions t)emselves, w#s not possi,le. A!ter mont)s o! pro,lems in &orelos, 7%memoved in 323M to work wit) t)e ;r#dic#l? 7overnor o! Fuc#tJn 6#lv#dor Alv#r#do. Pit) Av#r#do?s dep#rture, 7%me- surveyed l#nds in t)e st#te o! C#mpec)e until 3223. @#t)er t)en c)#nging t)e conditions o! workers )eld in de,t peon#ge in Fuc#tJn, 7ener#l 6#lv#dor Alv#r#do (3238*323M) s#w t)e solution #s ,re#king up t)e )ene+uen )#ciend#s #nd distri,uting t)e l#nd to t)e !ormer de,t peons. =)ose well*intended #cts, )owever, )elped ,ring t)e )#ciend# ,oom in &e(ico to #n end,E3 yet !#iled to ,re#k up m#ny o! t)e )#ciend#s. :uring t)is period m#ny le#ders ,elieved t)#t violent politic#l #ction #lone could #c)ieve soci#l #nd economic c)#nge, ,ut in t)e end, most re#li-ed t)#t #c)ievement o! politic#l power w#s only t)e ,eginning o! # long process to e!!ect socio*economic c)#nge. In t)e me#ntime, Panc(o Iilla (!rom $ort) Center &e(ico !oug)t Ienustiano Carran,a (!rom $ort)e#st &e(ico) #nd 'lvaro O0regEn (!rom $ort)west &e(ico). C#rr#n-# (>oined ,y 4,reg%n)
E3

4t)er !#ctors #lso intervened to end t)e )ene+uen ,oom in &e(ico. =)e #dvent o! Porld P#r I cut into e(ports #s did t)e cultiv#tion o! t)e pl#nt #round t)e world (Br#-il, &#d#g#sc#r, =#n-#ni#, &#nil#), #nd t)e coming o! synt)etic rope #nd twine (especi#lly nylon). =)us, t)e )ene+uen industry ,eg#n # long, slow decline (in spite o! # mini*,oom during Porld P#r II). 6ee )ttpABBwww. m e (ico mik e. co m B s t o ri e s B ) e n e + u e n . ) t m M3

, p. M2

de!e#ted Kill# ,y 3238*323M, #nd C#rr#n-# )#d "mili#no Ha$ata #m,us)ed #nd killed in 3232.

//3 'ctive-"tate Revolution #/</D-/<@?& restored order ,y est#,lis)ing t)e Constitution o! 3230 to medi#te ,etween 6t#tists in t)e government (,#cked ,y pe#s#nt #nd worker org#ni-#tions) #nd Anti*6t#tists in t)e priv#te sector. C#rr#n-# t)en convened t)e Constitution#l Convention o! 323M*3230 to write # new leg#l !r#mework. C#rr#n-# signed t)e Constitution into l#w even t)oug)t )e w#s un)#ppy wit) some o! its provisions #nd never soug)t to en!orce most o! its provisions. In #ny c#se, en#,ling legisl#tion )#d to ,e p#ssed to implement t)e provisions #nd provide pen#lties !or !#ilure to do so #ndBor !or viol#tion o! t)e provisions, t)is process ,eing increment#l #nd t#king dec#des. 4ddly, t)e Constitution o! 3230 w#s never r#ti!ied ,e t)e deleg#tes w)o dr#!ted it (#nd w)o in #ny c#se did not include t)e !orces o! Kill# or 5#p#t#). $or w#s it #pproved ,y t)e st#te governments or voted on ,y t)e &e(ic#n popul#ce, muc) o! w)ic) still lived in unp#ci!ied #re#s. 4n t)e one )#nd, t)e Constitution reest#,lis)ed t)e Crown?s over#rc)ing policy ,y decl#ring t)#t t)e 6t#te regul#tes #ll #spects o! n#tion#l li!e #nd economy, speci!ic#lly #dopting 6#nt# Ann#?s decree o! 318E t)#t #nd #ll l#nd #nd su,*soil rig)ts ,elong to t)e n#tion. 4n t)e ot)er )#nd, t)e Constitution o! 3230 est#,lis)ed # role !or t)e priv#te sector. =)e role )#s v#ried #ccording to w)o )#s occupied t)e
M2

, p. ME

presidency. =)e resident o! &e(ico )#s t)e sole power under t)e Constitution to decide w)et)er or not to emp)#si-e t)e role o! t)e priv#te sector #t t)e e(pense o! t)e government. =)us t)e Constitution o! 3230 is very import#nt ,ec#use it involved nation alizing miner al resourc e s and prohibiting foreign busine s s m e n from app e aling to their hom e gover n m e n t s to prot ec t their proper ty. Amend e d ma ny time s, the Constitution of 1917 rem ains in force, albeit with priv a t i z a t i o n of Ejidal land (1 9 9 2 ) and min e r a l res o u r c e s (1 9 9 3 ) - - exce p t oil, gas, and electricity which rem ai n und er Stat e owners hip . Unfortun a t ely, howev er, the Constitution has prohi bi t e d re- el e c t i o n of all posts: feder al, stat e, and local. Without reelection, exp eri e n c e is lost in short- ter m periods of office in the lower of hous e of Congr e s s and ma y o r a l lev e l—t hr e e ye ar s in to o littl e tim e to do any t h i n g and th e wh ol e s a l e turn o v e r of po s i t i o n s m e a n s th e firs t ye ar is sp e n t repl a ci n g st a f f , the secon d hoping they can learn what to do, and the third in closing the books.

ME

, p. MH

Furth er, mayors are afraid to act bec a u s e the fear that they will violat e complex laws that cannot be quickly learn e d , and local gover n m e n t is usually too poor to fund a legal to offer guida n c e throug h the thicket of “nor m a tivid a d” (nor m a tiv e) rules and regulation s that see min gly block most mayor al actions. Sinc e 19 3 4 Mexic o’ s pre s i d e n t s s er v e six ye ar s , which has beco m e too long as the pac e of even t s has quicken e d in an era of ever- bett er com m u nic a tion s. Four- year periods with re- election would now offer more effective govern m e n t , but, alas, the me m or y of Porfirio Díaz’s ma ny reelections live on. (Sen a t or s serve six years, as in the USA)

Cive key Articles o! t)e Constitution domin#te &e(ico to t)e present, especi#lly #s underlined ,elowA cE re+uiring pu,lic educ#tion #nd t)#t it ,e !ree #nd secul#r, t)e C)urc) ,eing pro)i,ited !rom imp#rting prim#ry educ#tion. c20 reserving su,*soil rig)ts to t)e 6t#teV protecting sm#ll #nd medium properties !rom l#nd re!orm (,ut #llowing t)e government to c#p t)eir si-e)V

MH

, p. M8

re+uiring t)#t )#ciend#s ,e divided #nd returned to ">idos (w)ic) Benito IuJre- #nd or!irio :N#- )#d soug)t to e(tinguis). Article c20 re+uired t)#t t)e l#nds returned to t)e ">idos #nd )eld ,y t)e community wit)out t)e rig)t to sell, rent, or use !or coll#ter#l to o,t#in lo#ns). Curt)er, Article c20 pro)i,ited !oreigners !rom owning l#nd wit)in M/ miles o! t)e ,order #nd E/ miles !rom &e(ico?s co#st #s well #s pro)i,ited t)e C)urc) !rom l#nd owners)ip. C4@ CU@=H"@ @"A:I$7 O1 HE “ NPE" OF Z+'12[ OK1ER"HIP I1 MEXICO5” "EE6

)ttpABBwww.ric#r do , # r r # - # . c o m B t y p e s o!own e r s )i pin m e (ico.) m cEE permitting &e(ico?s resident on )is sole order to deport !orever #ny !oreigner wit) no rig)t to #ppe#lV c32E providing workers wit)A t)e rig)t to strike, ,e p#id !or overtime work, ,e protected i! in>ured or ,e#ring c)ildren, ,e protected !rom employment i! under #ge 32 #nd !rom nig)t work i! under 3M. c32E re+uires employers to indemni!y workers w)o lose t)eir >o,sSone

M8

, p. MM

mont) p#y !or e#c) ye#r o! work. "in!icatos #+a0or Gnions& were leg#li-ed #nd #ut)ori-ed to eng#ge in collective ,#rg#ining wit) t)eir employers #nd m#n#gers. c3E/ #ut)ori-ing t)e 6t#te to #ssume owners)ip o! #ll C)urc) properties, including t)ose used !or religious ceremoniesV to pro)i,it C)urc) o#t)s (t)us outl#wing mon#steries)V to #ut)ori-e t)e st#tes to regul#te t)e num,er o! clergy permitted to pr#ctice t)e ;religious pro!ession<V #nd, to prevent t)e clergy !rom voting, #ssem,ling !or politic#l purpose, critici-ing t)e Constitution, or cele,r#ting pu,lic #ctivities or ceremonies.

=)e premise o! t)e ;Active 6t#te< is t)#t it st#nds ,etween "(treme Anti*6t#tism (too o!ten le#ding to #n#rc)ism), #nd "(treme 6t#tism (w)ic) le#ds to dict#tors)ip).

(e 'ctive "tate any*(ere yiel!s to t(e $rivate sector in 0usiness an! in!ustry in or!er to !e!icate government activities to $rovi!e efficiently6 #/& t(e tra!itional governmental services #e3g35 $olice an! fire $rotection5 gar0age collection5 $ostal an! telegra$( systems5 etc3&5

MM

, p. M0

#-& $u0lic infrastructure #roa!s5 railroa!s5 electrical an! *ater systems5 tele$(one systems5 etc3&5 an! #=& social essential services #e3g35 t(e construction an! o$eration of $u0lic sc(ools5 clinics5 (os$itals5 or$(anages an! social *elfare $rograms for t(e $oor5 un*e! mot(ers5 an! t(e age!&3 (us5 in /</D t(e "tate moves from a $assive role to an active one as it seeJs to solve $ro0lems not resolve! 0y t(e $rivate sectorS an! t(us it su0si!i,es an!Uor invests in ne* an! nee!e! in!ustry5 often 0y $rovi!ing (ig( tariff $rotection.

=o m#ke t)e Active 6t#te !unction, "milio Portes-:il est#,lis)es in 3222 t)e “Official Party” (w)ic) )#s t)ree n#mes, #s discussed ,elow)V ,ut gr#du#lly it ,ec#me more #ut)orit#ri#n during t)e 32M/s, culmin#ting in t)e murder o! m#ny )undreds (per)#ps t)ous#nds) o! persons w)o protested #g#inst it in t)e #utumn o! 32M1 #nd during 32M2. =)us, t)e Active 6t#te w#s converted to t)e ;6t#tist @evolution< (320/*3212), discussed ,elow. Under 'ctive "tate Revolution, t)e Centr#l 7overnment ste#dily #c+uired evermore power to ;guide< n#tion#l development. =o end t)e c)#os c#used ,y roving re,el ,#nds, it #lso deputi-ed crimin#ls #s police, w)o #greed to limit t)eir corruption. As under or!irio :N#-, politic#l #nd economic power w#s decentr#li-ed to ric) region#l elites, wit) t)e resident serving #s ultim#te

M0

, p. M1

#r,iter o! disputes. =)e ide# eventu#lly c#me to encour#ge >oint economic ventures linking domestic c#pit#l wit) !oreign investment #nd tec)nology.

//a3 Political P(ase #/</D-/<=?&, # new elite took power de!e#ting sc#ttered milit#ry re,ellions to undert#ke t)e reconstruction o! t)e country?s economic in!r#structure seriously d#m#ged in t)e @evolution (t)#t o! 323/*323M, discussed #,ove) #nd le#d to t)e est#,lis)ment o! t)e 4!!ici#l #rty in 3222, m#king e(plicit w)#t )#d ,een implicit since 3223. =)e Centr#l 7overnment re,uilt (o!ten sever#l times) t)e destruction c#used ,y t)e Kiolent )#se o! t)e @evolution (3233*323M, 3232) #s well #s milit#ry re,ellions (3223*322E, 3220, 3222), est#,lis)ed rur#l educ#tion in t)e e#rly 322/s #nd t)e ,#nking #nd !in#nce systemA AanJ of Me)ico in 3228 #nd t)e 1ational AanJ for 'gricultural Cre!it in 322M**,ot) under Manuel :Eme,Mor4n. residents Alv#ro O0regEn (322/*322H) #nd Plutarco El4as-Calles (322H*3221) led t)e #ctivities to est#,lis) t)e Active 6t#te, wit) e(p#nded roles !or t)e riv#te 6ector, still critici-ed ,y intellectu#ls #nd students !or its e(cess o! power under :N#-. 4,reg%n success!ully g#ined U.6. recognition o! t)e @evolution#ry 7overnment. In 3223, 4,reg%n )#d conducted t)e !irst census since 323/. =)e census o! 3223 s)owed t)e popul#tion to ,e 3H.2 million, t)us giving m#ny >ourn#lists t)e ide# t)#t t)e demogr#p)ic ;cost< o! violence in &e(ico during
M1

, p. M2

t)ose eleven ye#rs me#nt one million persons were killed since t)e popul#tion census o! 323/. But demogr#p)ic )istori#ns do not e+u#te ;loss< wit) ;killed.< =)e c#lcul#tion o! &e(ico?s popul#tion c#lcul#ted in Cigure 2.

M2

, p. 0/

***********

Cigure 2 Ho* Many Kere Ville! or “+ost” in t(e Iiolent P(ase of t(e Me)ican Revolution\ (Persons “Ville!” 'fter '!Musting for t(ose “+ost” in Me)ico’s G$(eaval5 /</.-/<-/& opul#tion 38.2 million in 323/ -3H.E million in 3223 T .2 million (2//,/// #pp#rently ;killed<) R .3 million (3//,///) w)o !led !rom &e(ico to person#l security in t)e U6A g .M million (M//,///) c)ildren not ,orn owing to t)e !#ct t)#t would*,e p#rents were #t w#r #nd #mid ,#ttles #nd insecurity**including t)e ;sold#der#< !ig)ting wit) )er m#n. (Armies moved wit) women involved in #ctu#l !ig)ting #ndBor cooking #nd c#ring !or t)eir men #nd t)eir enc#mpments) g .3 million (3//,///) not counted in t)e census, w)ic) w#s conducted wit) severe limit#tions. =)e ye#r 3223 m#rked only t)e ,eginning o! #ttempts to st#,ili-e t)e country #nd re,uild t)e communic#tions system t)#t )#d ,een gre#tly d#m#ged. Census*t#kers were unwilling (#s were te#c)ers #nd p)ysici#ns) to go into muc) o! rur#l &e(ico, w)ic) w#s still # d#ngerous pl#ce. Curt)er, Indigenous peoples in t)e >ungles o! C)i#p#s, !or e(#mple, simply lived outside o! ;&e(ico<St)ey knew only t)e n#me o! t)eir pl#ce or region, not t)e n#me o! t)e country, #,out w)ic) m#ny )#d never even )e#rd #,out. ] 3/ million #/..5...& otal “real” ma)imum “Jille!” in military action3 64U@C"A Ad#pted !rom d#t# developed ,y @o,ert 7. 7reer.
**********

0/

, p. 03

(is estimation of t(e num0er Jille! *as calculate! 0y Ro0ert :3 :reer5 *(o ma!e a ne* analysis of t(e !ata in /<@@3 :reer foun! t(at (e coul! count t(e num0er of $ersons Jille! 0y military action !uring t(e !eca!e after /</. as only ranging from D;5... to /..5...3 =-

Underst#nding )ow we get t)e ;re#l< num,er o! de#t)s ,y milit#ry #ction )#s #lw#ys ,een too muc) !or most o,servers to )#ndle. And >ourn#lists w#nted # )ig) num,er to give # poetic ring to t)e m#gnitude o! c)#nge wroug)t ,y t)e up)e#v#l o! &e(ico ,etween 323/ #nd 3223. =)us, t)e pu,lic mind )#s come to wrongly de!ine t)e num,er ;one million loss as one million ;illed3 Myt( in t)is c#se o! ;de#t)s in ,#ttle< is more import#nt t)#n t)e “vague reality” o! &e(ico?s eleven ye#rs o! up)e#v#l, in w)ic) ,etween 08,/// #nd 3//,/// m#y )#ve ,een killed. (=r#gic#lly, m#ny persons )#d #lw#ys died in &e(ico !rom c#uses ot)er t)#n milit#ry #ctionA st#rv#tion, un#v#il#,ility o! medic#l tre#tment, inter*person#l enmity, domestic violence, etc.)

E2

6ee @o,ert 7. 7reer, X<=)e :emogr#p)ic Imp#ct o! t)e &e(ic#n @evolution, 323/S3223< (Austin, &.A. =)esis in 6ociology, 32MM), discussed ,y I#mes Pilkie in Statistics and +ational #olic" (Los AngelesA UCLA L#tin Americ#n Center u,lic#tions, 320H). Cor nine views on t)e demogr#p)ic imp#ct #!ter 323/ (including t)e view o! 7reer), see #n#lysis ,y @o,ert &#C##, -issing millions: the human cost of the -e.ican Re!olution, e*#rticle, 2//3, www.)ist.umn.eduBarmcc##BmissmillBm(rev.)tm 03

, p. 02

=)e #,ove myt) #,out t)e ;cost< to &e(ico in num,ers killed w#s import#nt !or 4!!ici#l #rty o! t)e @evolution to >usti!y )olding on to power ;perm#nently<, w)ic) ended in 2///. Alt)oug) it is # truism t)#t ;not)ing is ever re#lly perm#nent<, we need to #dd # coroll#ryA ;e(cept myt)<, w)ic) in t)is c#se o! one million persons killed lives on. Crom 322H t)roug) 32EH, t)e riv#te 6ector domin#ted t)e ;Continuing @evolution<, w)ic) w#s led ,y lut#rco "lN#s Calles (w)o usu#lly used )is mot)erXs l#st n#me [C#lles,[ not )is !#t)er?s l#st n#me ;"lN#s<). Alt)oug) )e w#s known #s ;"l Ie!e &J(imo< #nd !#vored ">idos run ,y individu#l !#milies, t)e government w#s poor in rel#tion to t)e riv#te 6ector, w)ic) w#s #,le to oper#te wit) little regul#tion.

Pit) reg#rd to t)e C(urc(5 C#lles w#s mist#kenly +uoted ,y # news reporter (w)o put words in C#lles?s mout) to get # sens#tion#l story), #nd t)ose words seemingly t)re#tened to implement provisions o! t)e Constitution t)#t )#d l#in dorm#nt. L#y (non*cleric#l) C#t)olics (encour#ged ,y muc) o! t)e clergy) re,elled in t)e Cristero Kar #/<-@-/<-<&3 =)ey !oug)t (3) #g#inst incre#sing st#te power limiting t)e C)urc)?s de !#cto ;owners)ip< o! ,uildings #nd l#nd (#nd !or priv#te sector l#nd rig)ts in t)e !#ce o! government redistri,ution o! l#nd titlesV #nd t)ey !oug)t (2) to m#int#in t)e C)urc)?s

02

, p. 0E

de!#cto control o! prim#ry educ#tion (w)ic) unconstitution#l) o! t)e country?s c)ildrenS,ot) sides spoke more in terms o! indoctrin#tion t)#n educ#tion. P)en resident*"lect 4,reg%n w#s #ss#ssin#ted ,e!ore )e could ret#ke o!!ice in 3221, C#lles le!t !or "urope to #void t)e #ppe#r#nce o! trying to ret#in power #s t)e 6trong &#n o! &e(ico, w)ic) )e eventu#lly did ,ecome. In t)e me#ntime, C#lles did not w#nt to #ppe#r to ,e involved in t)e #ss#ssin#tionS )e #nd 4,reg%n were supposed to )#ve t#ken turns, ,ut 4,reg%n w#s killed ,y # C#t)olic priest ,e!ore )e could t#ke o!!ice !or )is second term. (C#t)er &iguel ro did not know t)#t # secret #greement )#d ,een re#c)ed ,etween C)urc) #nd 6t#te to end t)e Cristero P#r, #nd, #rguing t)#t under C#t)olic doctrine t)e C)urc) )#d t)e mor#l rig)t to ;e(ecute< its enemies, )e took it upon )imsel! to s)oot 4,reg%n #t #n open*#ir lunc), t)us setting ,#ck t)e secret #ccord.) P)ile C#lles w#s in "urope, )owever, Interim resident "milio Portes:il served during # 3H*mont) interlude (/<->-/<=.) to c)#nge t)e l#ndsc#pe o! &e(ico ,y undert#king r#pid l#nd distri,ution (w)ic) )e knew t)#t C#lles opposed), ortes #nd )e did so wit) t)e )elp o! Marte R3 :Eme,S)is 6ecret#ry o! Agriculture, wit) w)om )e worked to distri,ute l#nd in =#m#ulip#s. ( ortes 7il )#d ,een 7overnor o! =#m#ulip#s, 3228*3221). Portes !i! more in (is /? mont(s t(an any Presi!ent in Me)ico’s (istory5 !or e(#mple ,y i) est#,lis)ing University #utonomy,
0E

, p. 0H

ii) developing t)e country?s !irst re#l l#,or l#w (t)#t C#lles opposed), iii) putting down # ,rie! milit#ry re,ellion led ,y 7ener#l BosF :on,alo-Esco0ar (w)o w#s supported ,y one*t)ird o! t)e o!!icer corps #nd E/,/// troops #nd w)o were t)oug)t to ,e trying to link up wit) t)e Cristeros), iv) signing t)e #ccord wit) t)e Arc),is)op o! &e(ico to end t)e Cristero P#r** t)e C)urc) !e#red t)#t unless it reinst#ted t)e m#ss, ,#ptisms, m#rri#ges, #nd ,uri#l services (suspended in 322M to !orce #n uprising or protest #g#inst t)e government) !e#red t)#t its power o! t)e m#sses would ,e lost ,ec#use t)ere )#d ,een no re#l protest #nd t)e C#t)olic rites seemed to ,e )e#ded into o,livion in &e(ico, v) !ounding t)e 4!!ici#l #rty #s t)e $@ (w)ic) m#ny >oked me#nt ; lut#rco $ecesit# @o,#r<Scontri,uting to # dr#m#tic misundert#nding o! t)e @$?s role t)#t removed C#lles to indirect oversite o! t)e &e(ic#n government), vi) )olding # new presidenti#l election to repl#ce t)e #ss#ssin#ted 4,reg%n.

Cor t)e presidenti#l ;election< o! 3222 C#lles proved )ow out o! touc) )e w#s in "urope. He )#d ,elieved, w)en )e ,roug)t Pascual Orti,-Ru0io (#n engineer #nd diplom#t) !rom )is post #s &e(ic#n Am,#ss#dor to Br#-il to ,ecome resident o! &e(ico, t)#t t)is #ct would neutr#li-e t)e intern#l politic#l struggles t)#t t)re#tened )is pl#nned role #s &e(ico?s ;6trong &#n< w)en )e returned !rom "urope in 32E/. However, t)is m#n C#lles )#d selected to ;win< t)e presidency in 3222 w#s not t)e puppet president !or w)om )e )#d )oped.
0H

, p. 08

4rti- @u,io not only re!used to !ollow C#lles? orders ,ut ,elieved t)#t )e could govern in )is own rig)t**even t)oug) )e w#s in # we#k le#der wit) no re#l politic#l support in &e(ico. B#ck in &e(ico, C#lles s#w 4rti- @u,io #s ,eing so ine!!ective t)#t )e w#s discrediting t)e concept o! C#lles ,eing &e(ico?s 6trong &#n. Hence in 32E2, t)e troug) o! t)e world depression #!ter 3222, C#lles removed 4rti-*@u,io #nd pl#ced into power 7ener#l '0elar!o Ro!r4gue,, w)o #s governor o! B#># C#li!orni# )#d turned it into #n #ttr#ction !or Americ#n tourists seeking g#m,ling #nd prostitution. 4rti- @u,io #nd @odrNgue- (#s well #s ortes 7il) )#d to cope wit) t)e #rriv#l !rom t)e U6A o! ne#rly 8//,/// &e(ic#n workers w)o were ;rep#tri#ted< to &e(ico, !orci,ly or ;volunt#rily< to esc#pe )#r#ssment, during t)e world depression.33 P)ere#s ortes*7il )#d ,ecome resident o! &e(ico #s #n independent !orce to negoti#te t)e prevention o! violence #s C#lles le!t t)e country during t)e investig#tion o! t)e #ss#ssin#tion o! 4,reg%n, 4rti- @u,io #nd @odrNgue- won t)eir >o,s ,y ,eing selected ,y t)e ;ded#-o<St)e virtu#l ;pointing o! t)e !inger< ,y C#lles. =)us 4rti- @u,io #nd @odrNgue- were ;presidents< in n#me only. In contr#st, +C,aro CCr!enas !el R4o #+C&5 w)o !rom 32EM t)roug) 32H/ would ,e t)e resident o! &e(ico, won )is post wit) support !rom #ll regions o!
EE

6ee Journal of American *istor" , www.indi# n # . e d u B a > # ) B m e (i c oB m # p s t i m e . ) t ml

08

, p. 0M

&e(ico #nd w#s elected #!ter )e tr#veled to w)#t seemed like every corner o! t)e country (C#lles w#s deported !rom &e(ico ,y resident LJ-#ro CJrden#s in 32EM.) =)e elite ,e)ind t)e Centr#l 7overnment constructed “One-Party 2emocracy” (P1R, 3222V PRM, 32E1V PRI, 32HM) under t)e “Official Party” (3222*2///). By t)e 322/s, t)is system w#s c#lled t)e PRI-:o0ierno ( @I 7overnment), #s t)e 4!!ici#l #rty c#me to ,e known, m#king no distinction ,etween t)e politic#l p#rty #nd t)e government. =)us, t)e 4!!ici#l #rty (w)ic) e(plicitly )eld t)e residency !rom 3222 t)roug) 2///) )#d t)ree n#mesA Parti!o 1acional Revolucionario #P1R&5 /<-<-/<=>S Parti!o !e la Revolucion Me)icana #PRM& /<=>-/<?@S Parti!o Revolucionario Institucional #PRI&5 /<?@--...5=? =)e $@ g#ve power to &e(ico?s region#l ,ossesSt)e st#te governors #nd gener#ls w)o controlled t)e milit#ry regions. =)e $@ #rticul#ted t)e

re#lities o! t)e 322/s, in w)ic) t)e st#te !oug)t over suc) m#tters #s (#) w)et)er l#nd re!orm s)ould cre#te commun#lly*owned !#rms (EMi!os) #s units !or individu#l plots or (,) ">idos worked collectively !or !#rming #nd r#nc)ing. EMi!os are not necessarily communal farms $er se5 0ut 0elong to t(e community5 *(ic( aut(ori,es (o* t(e lan! *ill 0e use!5 eit(er 0y
EH

6ince :ecem,er 2///, t(e PRI is t(e “Former Official Party” #PRIUFOP&5 w)ic) still )olds t)e sgover n or s )ip o! mor e t)#n )#l! o! &e(ico?s st#t e gover n m e n t s . 0M

, p. 00

in!ivi!ual families *orJing alone or grou$s of families *orJing toget(er in “communal” form3 2uring t(e /<=.s some t(oug(t t(at t(e i!ea of communes in t(e G""R *ere t(e same as communally run farms in Me)ico5 0ut t(ere is no connection3 (e communes in t(e G""R (a!

0ecome5 e)$licitly or im$licitly5 state farms un!er government o*ners(i$ an! control5 *(ic( *as not t(e case in Me)ico3
Collective ">idos s)ould not ,e con!used wit) Coo$eratives m#de !#mous in t)e Pisconsin :#iry Belt o! t)e U6A ,y individu#l producers w)o m#int#in t)eir independence e(cept in t)e (3) collective ,ulk purc)#se o! supplies #nd (2) m#rketing o! t)e products. Collective negoti#tion !or t)e purc)#se o! supplies #nd s#le o! products )#s given t)e Americ#n Coops gre#ter income.

As governor o! t)e st#te o! &ic)o#cJn (3221*32E2), +C,aro CCr!enas !el R4o #+C& est#,lis)ed )is credenti#ls #s # ;re!ormer< ,y implementing #) org#ni-#tion o! new "in!icatos #+a0or Gnionism&E8 outside t)e control o! C#lles? corrupt Union le#der Luis &oronesV ,) # new sc)ool curriculum involving t)e te#c)ing o! soci#list #nd se(u#l educ#tionV #nd (c) t)e distri,ution o! l#nds to ">id#t#rios.

E8

"in !ic a t o s #re t)e ,#sis o! "yn ! i c ali s m , # type o! economic syste m propos e d #s repl#c e m e n t !or c#pit#lism #nd st#t e c#pit#lism (some ti m e s c#lled 6t#te soci#lism). 6yndic#lism utili-es !eder # tions o! collectivist 6indic#tos to #c)ieve politic#l go#ls #s well #s economic go#ls. Cor #d)e r e n t s, 6indic#tos #re t)e pote nti#l me # n s o! ,ot) overcoming c#pit#list e(ploit# tion o! t)e workers #nd running society !#irly in t)e intere st o! t)e m#>ority. Industr y in # 6yndic#list syste m t)eor e tic #lly is #dministe r t)rou g) co* oper # tive #lli#nce s #nd mutu #l #id. Loc#l 6yndic# te s comm u nic # t e wit) ot)er 6yndic# tos t)rou g) t)eir 6ector in # politic#l p#rtySin &e(ico t)e 4!!ici#l #rty. (In 322E, e.g., 2ie g o River a !ounde d t)e "in!icato !e O0reros Fcnicos5 Pintores5 Escultores y :ra0a!ores Revolucionarios !e MF)ico.) ;An emp)#sis on industri#l org# ni- #tion w#s # distinguis)ing !e#tur e o! syndic #lism w)en it ,eg# n to ,e identi!ied #s # distinct current #t t)e ,eginning o! t)e 2/t) centur yZ, seeing tr#de unions #s simply # ste pping stone to commo n owner s)ip.< (Ad#pt e d !rom )ttpABBe n.wikipe di#.or gBwikiB6yndic #lism #nd )ttpABBwww.# ns w e r s.c o mB t opicBsyn dic #lism )

00

, p. 01

P)en C#lles ordered !rom "urope t)#t resident ortes*7il #nd 7ov. C#rden#s ce#se suc) distri,utions t)ey ,ot) re!used. =)e 7overnor openly ignored C#lles? order, #nd seemingly se#led )is !#teS)e would not receive C#lles? ded#-o to ,ecome &e(ico?s 32H/. $evert)eless, t)e dept) o! t)e world depression #nd its imp#ct upon &e(ico soon m#de C#lles re#li-e t)#t &e(ico needed # re!orm governor in power w)o could ,e comp#red to t)e e(ecutive role t)#t C:@ )#d en>oyed in t)e st#te o! $ew Fork (3222*32E2) ,e!ore )e ,ec#me t)e U.6. resident in 32EE. resident !or t)e period !rom 32EH to

//03 "ocial P(ase #/<=?-/<?.& LJ-#ro CCr!enas (+C), resident !or t)is newly est#,lis)ed si(*ye#r term (,eginning :ecem,er 3, 32EH #nd ending :ecem,er 3, 32H/) set out to give ">id#t#rios #nd !#ctory workers re#l power (,uilt upon t)e #ccomplis)ments o! Portes :il, 3221*32E/) to undert#ke full ;lan! reform”3 LC distri,uted more good l#nd t)#n #nyone ,e!ore or #!ter. =o )elp !oster #gricultur#l development ,y ">id#t#rios (w)o )#d no coll#ter#l ,ec#use until t)ey did not )#ve title to t)eir l#nd until t)e 322/s), )e !ounded t)e AanJ for EMi!o Cre!it--t(e AanJ of 'gricultural Cre!it #/<-@& (a! turne! out to 0e focuse! on $rivate cre!it 0ase! on t(e collateral of t(e title to t(eir $ro$erty3
01

, p. 02

ZF%>S9 FOR?>R56 "u0se9uently t(e EMi!al AanJ *oul! (ave to cancel all un$ai! loans 0ecause most EMi!atarios *ere too $oor to re$ay or (a! suffere! 0a!-cro$ years #e)treme *eat(er5 $ests5 lacJ of fertili,ers&3 (ose *(o (a! not $ai! coul! not 0orro* unless t(eir !e0ts *ere $erio!ically cancelle!3 EMi!atarios soon learne! t(at if t(ey !i! not $ay5 t(eir !e0ts *oul! 0e *i$e! out an! t(ey coul! get a fres( startLcertainly not an incentive to ever re$ay loans3& Be!ore LC could #ct wit) # !ree )#nd, in 32EM )e )#d to deport !rom &e(ico C#lles #nd )is openly corrupt cronies Luis Morones #nd &elc)or Ortega5 *(o o$$ose! striJes an! lan! reform 0acJe! 0y +C3 =)is deport#tion w#s c#rried out smoot)ly, t)us ending t)e strikes t)#t )#d p#r#ly-ed t)e country to support CJrden#s #g#inst C#lles. LC did t)is ,y recogni-ing Iicente +om0ar!o- ole!ano #s 6upreme Le#der o! #ll "in!icatos (L#,or Unions wit) politic#l go#l #s well #s economic go#ls), t#king power !rom t)e gr#sp o! &orones #nd 4rteg#, w)o )#d !#vored priv#te !#ctory owners since t)ey )e#ded t)e l#,or movement under C#lles (322H*3221, 32E3*32E8). =#king t)e government into directly controlling #gricultur#l production #nd consumption, CJrden#s est#,lis)ed in 32E0 (C"I&6A) t)e #gency t)#t would ,ecome o!!ici#lly known in 32M3 #s CO1'"GPO3 C4$A6U 4 w#s su,sidi-ed ,y t)e government !rom 32E0 t)roug) 3222 to p#y !#ir prices to !#rmers #nd c)#rge low prices to consumers !or ,#sic !oods. In 32E8, CJrden#s
02

, p. 1/

)#d est#,lis)ed A$:6A, $#tion#l 6ilos #nd :epositories !or 6eeds #nd 7r#ins, to prevent priv#te de#lers !rom ,uying critic#l supplies #t low prices during t)e )#rvest se#son #nd )o#rding t)em until winter s)ort#ges drive up t)e prices. In 32E2 CJrden#s est#,lis)ed C#t)er, in 32E2 )e est#,lis)ed t)e #gency t)#t would known #s 2ICO1"' to distri,ute !ood supplies #nd open stores t)roug)out #ll &e(ico. P)en LJ-#ro le!t o!!ice in :ecem,er 32H/, )e decl#red t)#t, wit) H29 o! t)e #gricultur#lly employed popul#tion )#ving received l#nd (3E9 o! &e(ico?s l#nd sur!#ce )#ving ,een distri,uted since 3230), t)#t t)e l#nd re!orm )#d ,een completed, little knowing t)#t )e )#d only set t)e ,#r !or t)e 4!!ici#l #rty #,out )ow to use !urt)er l#nd distri,ution #s t)e test o! ;revolution#ryness.< In 32E1, CJrden#s n#tion#li-ed t)e !oreign*owned petroleum industry #nd cre#ted PEMEX #s t)e st#te oil comp#ny cre#ted to #dminister #nd improve t)e ;)#ted< e(propri#ted petroleum comp#nies. LC le!t t)e "&"D L#,or Union in c)#rge o! newly n#tion#li-ed industry. 6u,se+uently #ll politics #,out "&"D )#s revolved #round )ow to implement incre#singly gre#ter control o! pro!ession#l petroleum engineers w)o )#ve # world view i! m#tters r#t)er t)#n worker control !or t)eir own interests. =)e ide# t)#t ; "&"D ,elongs to t)e &e(ic#n people is ludicrous<Sit ,elongs to t)e entrenc)ed workers, w)ose union ,ene!its !rom ;sweet*)e#rt< contr#cts #nd #,ility to overrule r#tion#le pro!ession#l decisions, t)ere,y m#king pro!ession#l m#n#gement su,servient to t)e "&"D Union w)ic) s)ould only ,e ;co*e+u#l.<
1/

, p. 13

=)e t)eory o! suc) n#tion#li-#tions me#nt t)#t pro!its could ,e gener#ted !or non*priv#te use suc) #s t)e ,uilding o! sc)ools, clinics, ro#ds, sc)ol#rs)ips, #nd )ig)er worker s#l#ries, w)ile #lso gener#ting re#son#,le t#(es to ,e p#id to t)e !eder#l government. Un!ortun#tely "&"D soon #c+uired dou,le t)e num,er o! workers needed, m#ny o! w)om were like :N#-?s #rmy #nd policeSpositions le!t v#c#nt ,ut still ,udgeted, t)us le#ving !unds to ,e used corruptly. (P)ere#s :N#- )#d # p)#ntom #rmy o! #rmy #nd police, t)e "&"D l#,or Union )#s # p)#ntom #rmy o! workers.) Until t)e mid*320/s "&"D lost )uge #mounts o! money #nd )#d to ,e su,sidi-ed. (Bec#use o! ;#ccounting< pro,lems, "&"D still is not sure w)#t it costs to produce one ,#rrel o! oil.) LJ-#ro CJrden#s w#s t)en !ree to complete n#tion#li-#tion o! most o! t)e country?s r#ilw#y system, cre#ting Ferrocarriles 1acionales !e MF)ico5 w)ic) de#lt # severe ,low to t)e )ene+uen industry in t)e Fuc#tJn (#s did CJrden#s sei-ure o! m#ny )#ciend#s !or redistri,ution to t)e workers on t)e )ene+uen pl#nt#tions) w)o no longer )#d e#sy tr#nsport !rom !ields to port. &ost import#ntly, LJ-#ro CJrden#s secretly l#unc)ed t)ree m#>or ;economic revolutions,< t)e !irst #nnounced wit) little !#n!#re so #s not to dis#ppoint )is le!tist ,#se o! supportA i& In!ustrial Revolution in Me)ico (32EH**) t)#t #rose ,y inking t)e 7overnment to t)e riv#te 6ector (e(cept PEMEX). =o #ccomplis) t)is t#sk, )e cre#ted t)e $#tion#l :evelopment

13

, p. 12

B#nk ($ACI$6A) in 32EH.EM 1'FI1"'’s second epoc) ,eg#n under resident Manuel 'vila-Camac(o in 32H3, w)o e(p#nded its investment in industry #nd in!r#structure (e.g., tr#nsport#tion, su,sidy o!

EM

Según Wikipedia, LA PRIMERA ETAPA de The National Development

Bank ( NAFINSA) fue promovido en 1934 por el e!retario de "a!ienda Marte R. Gómez , #ue dio origen a Na!ional $inan!iera% Na!ional $inan!iera e el !uarto pa o #ue e da en el !ampo de la organi&a!i'n (an!aria na!ional% Se uma al Ban!o de )*+i!o, al Ban!o Na!ional de ,r*dito -gr.!ola / al Ban!o Na!ional "ipote!ario 0r(ano / de 1(ra 2ú(li!a , / operar3 !omo toda la in titu!ione a#u. enumerada para (ien de la e!onom.a me+i!ana / para prove!ho de toda la Na!i'n4 5n e ta etapa la la(or de Na!ional $inan!iera rein!orporar a la e!onom.a privada lo (iene go(ierno / a lo antiguo mer!ado de valore indu triale % 5n 1939 la in titu!i'n logr' elevado nivele en el otorgamiento de de intervenir / (ono e enfo!', prin!ipalmente, a inmue(le ad6udi!ado al

(an!o de emi i'n% -l mi mo tiempo, de manera t.tulo finan!iero e e

paulatina empe&' a ad#uirir importan!ia !omo organi mo de fomento del al emitir, en 1937 , u primero intervenir, en el mi mo a8o, en la emi i'n de valore (an!ario

!r*dito / en la !ompraventa de valore , adem3 indu triale %

!re!ientemente en la emi i'n / !olo!a!i'n de a!!ione

Etapa Seg un d a "Promoción de a in!er"ión produc ti ! a" - prin!ipio lo o(6etivo de la d*!ada de 1949, el go(ierno e ta(le!i' el de arrollo de e en!iale de la la(or de Na!ional $inan!iera% See

la infrae tru!tura del pa. / la promo!i'n de la inver i'n produ!tiva !omo http:;;e %<ikipedia%org;<iki;Na!ional=$inan!iera=()*+i!o> ?5tapa=2rimera= %@@)ovili&a!i%,3%B3n=del=ahorro=na!ional%@@ ()ar!h @3, @919>% 12

, p. 1E

priv#te comp#nies), Avil#*C#m#c)o mist#kenly )#s received #ll t)e credit !or t)e industri#li-#tion ,oom !ostered ,y CJrden#s. ii3& :reen Revolutions in Korl! 'gricultural Pro!uctivity #/<?.--& t)#t #rose t)roug) t)e #rr#nging t)e ,#sis !or est#,lis)ing in &e(ico t)e Intern#tion#l Center !or t)e Improvement o! Corn #nd P)e#t (CIMMy ). CI&&y= w#s developed w)en Professor 1orman E3 Aorlaug #rrived in &e(ico #s p#rt o! # te#m !rom t)e U6A to est#,lis) t)e First :reen 'gricultural Revolution. Borl#ug spent 2/ ye#rs developing )ig)*+u#lity w)e#t t)#t could t)rive in &e(ico?s di!!icult conditions o! !ierce winds #nd pro,lem#tic w#ter supply #s well #s nutrition#lly depleted soils. Bec#use Borl#ug?s new w)e#t seeds #nd gr#in c#me to !ruition >ust in time )im to org#ni-e &e(ic#n e(ports to s#ve Indi# #nd #kist#n !rom !#mine in 32M0.
;A!ter Indi# g#ined independence in 32H0, t)e country couldnXt even dre#m o! !eeding its popul#tion. Importing !ood w#snXt possi,le ,ec#use Indi# l#cked t)e c#s) to p#y. Indi# relied on !ood don#ted ,y t)e U.6. government. ;In 32M0, t)en* rime &inister Indir# 7#nd)i imported 31,/// tons o! )y,rid w)e#t seeds !rom &e(ico. =)e e!!ect w#s mir#culous. =)e w)e#t )#rvest t)#t ye#r w#s so ,ounti!ul t)#t gr#in over!lowed stor#ge !#cilities. ;=)ose seeds re+uired c)emic#l !ertili-ers to m#(imi-e yield. =)e c)#llenge w#s to m#ke !ertili-ers #!!ord#,le to !#rmers w)o l#cked t)e c#s) to p#y !or even t)e ,#sicsS!ood, clot)ing #nd s)elter. ;B#ck t)en, giving c#s) or vouc)ers to millions o! !#rmers living #ll over Indi# seemed like #n impossi,le t#sk !r#ug)t wit) t)e potenti#l !or corruption. 6o t)e government p#id su,sidies to !ertili-er comp#nies, w)o

1E

, p. 1H

#greed to sell !or less t)#n t)e cost o! production, #t prices set ,y t)e government. ;=)e su,sidies were designed to m#ke up t)e di!!erence ,etween t)e production price #nd s#le priceS#nd to give t)e producers # 329 #!ter*t#( return on #ny e+uity investment.<37 ^F+'"H FORK'R2A =)is system in Indi# w#s )ig)ly productive t)roug) t)e 321/s, ,ut t)en !#iled, #s is discussed in 6ection 3E,, ,elow._

Cor t)is !e#t, Borl#ug e#rned t)e $o,el ri-e in 320/, #nd #t t)e #w#rd ceremony in 6tock)olm, )e #cknowledged t)e rese#rc) o! )is &e(ic#n @ese#rc) =e#m #t CI&&y=. =)e est#,lis)ment o! CI&&y= #rriv#l in &e(ico w#s possi,le only ,ec#use LJ-#ro CJrden#s )#d #sked Henry Kallace (U.6. Kice* resident "lect #nd !ormer U.6. 6ecret#ry o! Agriculture) !or )elp &e(ico in resolving t)e !#ilure o! t)e ">ido system to produce !ood !or its emerging ur,#n sector. CJrden#s n#med Marte R3 :Eme, #s 6ecret#ry o! Agriculture to #ssure n#tion#l !ood supply during t)e di!!icult tr#nsition in :ecem,er 32H/ to t)e residency o! Avil#*C#m#c)o. ^F%>S9 FOR?>R56 Aorlaug’s "econ! :reen 'gricultural Revolution *oul! not come until May /<<< #see Part /=05 0elo*&5 *(en (e announce! in Me)ico of (aving !ou0le! t(e amount of $rotein in corn see!s3[ iii& ourist In!ustry in Me)ico #since /<?.&, ,eing led ,y 7en. Buan 'n!reu 'lma,Cn #s t)e in#dvertent result o! +C,aro

E0

)ttpABBonline.w s>.co mB # r ticleB6B3/ / / 3 H 2 H / 8 2 0 H 1 0 / E M 3 8 2 / H 8 0 8 / 8 2 2 2 3 M 3202 E 1 H H . ) t mlRO"FP4@:6 T g r e e n g r e v o l u tio n g i n g I n di # 1H

, p. 18

1O (aving c(osen 'lma,Cn to ,e t)e 4!!ici#l #rty c#ndid#te in 32H/, #s is discussed ,elow. Curt)er, LJ-#ro CJrden#s tr#ns!ormed in 32E1 t)e 4!!ici#l #rty !rom t)e $@ (,#sed on politic#l ,osses) into t)e @& to ,#sed on [Cor$orativism[, t)#t is government ,#sed upon soci#l sectors o! rel#ted to occup#tion, in t)e style o! &ussolini (w)o m#ny L#tin Americ#n economic ideologues in t)e 322/s #nd 32E/s s#w #s )#ving cre#ted economic st#,ility in It#ly). Corpor#tivism, w)ic) )#s continued up to t)is d#y to domin#te t)e t)inking o! r#nk*#nd*!ile 6indic#to mem,ers ,ec#use t)eir le#ders ;co*govern< wit) m#n#gement. Cor e(#mple, in t)e c#se o! t)e 6ecret#ri#t o! "duc#tion, government o!!ici#ls determine policy #nd te(t,ooks,

***** Cigure E :iego @iver# #nd Crid# O#)lo

18

, p. 1M

2iego Rivera #nd Fri!a Va(lo le#d protest m#rc) ,y t)e 6indic#to o! #inters #nd 6culptors (=)is 6indic#to w#s est#,lis)ed ,y @iver# in 322E #nd )e w#s #n #ctive le#der until )is de#t) in 3280.) =)e memory lives on #nd t)is p)oto )#s ,een # sym,ol !or suc) movements #s t)e protest #g#inst t)e 4!!ici#l #rty in 32M1 #s c#n ,e seen in )ttpABBg#top#rdo.,logi#.comBtem#sBin!orme*!emospp*crimenes*de*l#*guerr#*suci#*en* me(ico.p)p ******

,ut t)e =e#c)ers Union determines w)ere te#c)ers #re #ssigned #nd w)ic) te#c)ers #re promoted. =o protect t)emselves politic#lly #nd mo,ili-e votes, #rtists >oined 6indic#tos, #s t)e p)oto o! :iego @iver# #nd Crid# O#)lo suggests (see Cigure
1M

, p. 10

E).In my view, Corpor#tivism (# politico*economic system o! state ca$italism est#,lis)ed ,y suc) dict#tors #s Mussolini5 Hitler, #nd "talin in t)e 322/s #nd 32E/s) s(oul! not 0e confuse! wit) ;Corpor#tism< t)#t is t)e ,#sis o! Kestern $rivate ca$italism5=> *(erein Pestern priv#te corpor#tions t)e con!ormity o! ,oosterism,E2 #s in 6incl#ir Lewis?s novel Babbit (3222).H/ =)e Corpor#tist system involves t)e re+uirement t)#t #ll l#rge priv#te enterprises (#nd some key medium*si-e priv#te comp#nies) >oin #ssoci#tions suc) #s C(am0ers, suc) #s t)e C)#m,ers o! Industry #nd C)#m,ers o! Commerci#l Activity. =)ese #ssoci#tions (or 7roups o! ower) did not !it wit)in t)e 4!!ici#l #rty, ,ut )old #n #dvisory role wit) # direct line to t)e resident o! &e(ico to represent t)e views o! t)eir mem,er riv#te Comp#nies #s well #s to negoti#te ,ene!its !or Corpor#tivist #ssoci#tions o! workers represented ,y t)eir "in!icatos3 =)e C)#m,ers, w)ic) represent priv#te c#pit#l, were t)eoretic#lly e(cluded !rom politics, ,ut g#ined gre#ter politic#l import#nce t)#n i! t)ey were in one o! t)e !our sectors o! t)e 4!!ici#l #rty (or since 2/// in #ny politic#l p#rty)A =)is ,ec#use o! t)eir direct #ccess to &e(ico?s supreme politic#l le#der St)e resident. =)e @& set !ort) !our sectors, w)ic) were supposed to select t)e

4!!ici#l #rty?s c#ndid#te to ,e resident #nd gener#te policy, ,ut in re#lity simply !ollowed presidenti#l ordersA
E1

E2 H/

6ome sources do con!use t)e two terms #nd one c#n see t)e con!usion c#used ,y doing so in, !or e(#mpleA )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBCorpor#tism 6ee )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBBoosterism )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBB#,,itt 10

, p. 11

/3 Peasant "ector (org#ni-ed #s # consortium o! Lig#s de C#mpesinos under t)e n#me C1C--Confe!eraciEn !e

Cam$esinos !e MF)ico) -3 In!ustrial +a0or (org#ni-ed #s # consortium o! 6indic#tos #s t)e C MLConfe!eraciEn !e ra0aMa!ores !e MF)ico&5 foun!e!

an! le! since /<=@ 0y Iicente +om0ar!o- ole!ano #I+ & =3 Po$ular "ector (e.g., pro!ession#ls, sm#llBmedium priv#te ,usiness persons, ,ure#ucr#tic 6indic#tos) ?3 Military "ector (org#ni-ed ,y r#nk)

=)e most import#nt 7roup in &e(ico (t)e :rou$ of 0anJers an! in!ustrialists) w#s le!t out o! t)e @& ,ut given #n #dvisory role to t)e resident. =)is 7roup turned out to ,e muc) more import#nt t)#n t)e #ny o! t)e !our sectors o! t)e 4!!ici#l #rty. Pit) reg#rd to t)e rig)t o! women to vote, ;LJ-#ro CJrden#s dr#!ted # ,ill to implement !em#le su!!r#ge, w)ic) w#s p#ssed ,y ,ot) t)e 6en#te #nd C)#m,er o! :eputies, w#s r#ti!ied ,y t)e st#tes, #nd only needed !orm#l decl#r#tion to ,e m#de into l#w. =)#t decl#r#tion never c#me. =)e presence o! # num,er o! street demonstr#tions ^!or #nd #g#inst_, # t)re#tened )unger strikes ,y !eminists, #nd !e#rs t)#t women would ,e unduly in!luenced ,y t)e cleric#l

11

, p. 12

vote, unnerved CJrden#s #t t)e l#st moment. 6ince t)e su!!r#ge c#mp#ign w#s not # m#ss movement, it w#s e#sy to let t)e needed decl#r#tion slip #w#y.<41 er)#ps LJ-#ro rec#lled t)e sc#nd#l o! )is )#ving o!!ered se(u#l educ#tion during )is governors)ip o! t)e st#te o! &ic)o#cJn #nd t)e !#iled #ttempt to do so during )is presidencySin t)ose c#ses pu,lic gossip cl#imed t)#t )e w#s #ttempting to prostitute women. Until t)e 328/s, m#ny men #nd even some women s#w t)e role o! women #s t)#t o! rem#ining outside t)e politic#l sp)ere. resident LJ-#ro CJrden#s s)owed )is openness to # plur#l societyA i& He tried to protect Leon =rotsky, w)o w#s welcomed in 32E0 #!ter esc#ping ii& !rom 6t#lin?s secret #gents, one o! w)om will murder )im in &e(ico City in 32H/V iii& CJrden#s met wit) @epu,lic#n 6p#ni#rds w)o continue to #rrive #!ter )#ving esc#ped !rom t)e C#scist ;victory< in 6p#in ,y 7ener#l Cr#ncisco Cr#ncoV iv& CJrden#s incre#sed government lo#ns #nd su,sidies to priv#te industry even #s )e deepened t)e role o! t)e Corpor#tivist sindic#tos to co*govern industry wit) t)e priv#te ownersV v& CJrden#s #nd )is 4!!ici#l olitic#l #rty*7overnment #llowed (!#cilit#tedR) t)e registr#tion o! # new politic#l
H3

Guot e is !rom www.wo m e ni n w o rld)is t or y.c o m B e s s # y* /M* /H.)t ml 12

, p. 2/

p#rty, t)e $rivate-sector-0ase! P'1 (,#cked ,y t)e C)urc) t)roug) its network o! p#ris) priests). In 32E2, &#nuel :Eme,-Mor4n !ounded t)e Parti!o 'cciEn 1acional (P'1) to represent t)e priv#te sector #s well #s t)e popul#tion t)#t is oriented tow#rd !ollowing t)e dictums o! t)e C#t)olic C)urc) (,ut not necess#rily t)e priests). =)e A$ origin#lly !e#red t)#t CJrden#s w#s # 6t#tist, ,ut l#ter c#me to re#li-e t)#t )e w#s not. ^F%>S9 FOR?>R5A 7#ining !orce slowly ,ut ste#dily, t)e A$ will not win its !irst governors)ip until 3211 in B#># C#li!orni# #nd its !irst residency o! &e(ico in 2///.H2_ In t)e me#ntime, 7%me-*&orNn #nd t)e A$ !#ced opposition !rom #mong some l#y C#t)olics w)o t)oug)t voting to ,e t)e useless voting ,ut t)e 4!!ici#l #rty did not re#lly count t)e votes. =)us, in 32E0 "alva!or '0ascal )#d est#,lis)ed t)e "inar9uistas &ovement to m#ke its protest #g#inst t)e ;Communist< government, #nd r#t)er t)#n trying to vote or to use t)e violence o! t)e Cristeros, A,#sc#l org#ni-ed non*violent m#rc)es o! pe#s#nts t)roug)out Pest*Centr#l &e(ico. "inar9uismo #*it(out anarc(y& soug)t to rem#ke &e(ico on t)e model o! Cr#ncisco Cr#nco

H2

:Eme,-Mor4n’s or#l )istory interviews #re in 2rente a la Re!oluci9n -e.icana 2rente a la Re!oluci9n &e(ic#n#A 30 rot#gonist#s de l# "t#p# Constructiv#, ,y t)e Pilkies, Kol. 2 (2//3), www.pro!me(.orgBme(ico#ndt)eworldBvolume0BEsummer/2B/2inde(E.)tm

2/

, p. 23

(w)ic) w#s emerging in t)e 6p#nis) Civil P#r)**Cr#nco ,#sed )is government on #n #lli#nce wit) t)e @om#n C#t)olic C)urc). :iscredited ,y 32H3 #s )is !ollowers tired o! pe#ce!ully m#rc)ing #nd m#rc)ing wit)out #ny results, A,#sc#l le!t !or B#># C#li!orni# w)ere )e est#,lis)ed Coloni# &#rN# Au(ili#dor# to prove )is cl#im t)#t, wit) 7od?s )elp, )e could m#ke t)e dry dessert ,loom wit) !ood. His colony t)ere would completely !#il in 32HMV #nd )e #nd )is !ollowers )#d to ,e s#ved, ironic#lly ,y LJ-#ro CJrden#s, w)o #!ter le#ving t)e presidency in 32H/ would serve #s &e(ico?s &inister o! :e!ense during Porld P#r II. &e#nw)ile #s resident, LJ-#ro CJrden#s invested government

!unds in priv#te comp#nies to spur new industry. "ven ,e!ore )e le!t o!!ice, )e priv#tely #dmitted t)e economic !#ilure o! most o! t)e ">ido system. =o smoot) t)e tr#nsition to Avil#*C#m#c)o, w)o ;won< t)e election o! 32H/, LJ-#ro CJrden#s n#med &#rte @. 7%me- 6ecret#ry o! Agriculture to sp#n )is government to t)#t o! &AC, #nd t)e U.6. 7overnment sent to t)e in#ugur#tion Henry Kallace to #ssure #ll &e(ico t)#t, on t)e eve o! Porld P#r II, t)e U6A recogni-ed t)e victory o! t)e 4!!ici#l #rty

c#ndid#te, t)us !orest#lling # milit#ry revolution led ,y t)e losing c#ndid#te. =)e loser in t)e residenti#l "lection o! 32H/ w#s 7ener#l Iu#n

Andreu 'lma,Cn, w)o )#d ,uilt t)e ro#ds o! $ort)*"#st &e(ico #nd t)e @#ilro#d !rom t)e ;&#inl#nd &e(ico< to t)e eninsul# o! Fuc#tJn. (He
23

, p. 22

w#s ,#cked in )is c#mp#ign !or t)e presidency ,y 2iego Rivera, w)o s#w t)e LC #nd ;)is< 4!!ici#l #rty #s )#ving ,ecome ;6t#linist in control o! 6t#te power.) Alm#-Jn did not rise in #rms wit) )is troops w)en )e lost t)e rigged election o! 32H/ (#s )#d ,een t)e tr#dition !or ;strongmen<), ,ut r#t)er )e ;retire!” to 'ca$ulco to initiate t(e Me)ican ourist In!ustry3 He re#li-ed t)#t Ac#pulco w#s t)e !uture o! tourism, especi#lly #ttr#cting Hollywood types w)o could not go on v#c#tion to "urope #!ter Porld P#r II ,eg#n. H#ving ,roken wit) t)e 4!!ici#l #rty, )owever, Alm#-Jn w#s le!t out o! t)e 4!!ici#l History o! &e(ico, in w)ic) resident &iguel AlemJn is t)e )ero in t)e story o! )ow t)e tourist industry w#s est#,lis)ed. In t)e me#ntime, LJ-#ro est#,lis)ed t)e country?s soci#l security system, w)ic) would ,ecome I&66 (Instituto &e(ic#no de 6eguro 6oci#l) under )is successor. Avil#*C#m#c)o )#s mist#kenly received #ll o! t)e credit !or t)e est#,lis)ment o! I&66. ZC+'RIFIC' IO16 In &e(ico, I&66 covers (i) retirement !or most #t #ge M8 #nd (ii) )e#lt) 2ithout a!e limit !or #ll contri,uting workers #nd t)eir !#milies. (In contr#st, U.6. &edic#re is sep#r#te !rom U.6. 6oci#l 6ecurity #nd ,ot) #re limited ,ec#use t)ey only ,egin !or most at a!e *6.)
Porker dis#,ility is cover e d (poorly) in ,ot) countries #!ter minimu m period o! work )istory._

22

, p. 2E

=)e popul#tion o! &e(ico grew !rom 3M.M million in 32E/ to 32.0 million in 32H/, t)is growt) encour#ge ,y resident CJrden#s ,ec#use )e s#w &e(ico #s l#cking t)e popul#tion to ,ecome consumers o! &e(ic#n industri#l production. Indeed, &e(ico?s popul#tion did not re#c) its re* Coloni#l level o! 28 million until 328/ (#s s)own in Booklet of Charts, C)#rt E). //c. Economic P(ase #/<?.s-/<;.s residents Manuel 'vila-Camac(o (&AC, 32H/*32HM) #nd Miguel 'lemCn (32HM*3282) #lso overs#w t)e &e(ico?s Industri#l @evolution #nd its ;"conomic &ir#cle< (3283*321/), w)ic) s#w low in!l#tion #s well #s )ig) 7: growt) (#ver#ging @3?T ye#rly) under residents '!olfo Rui,Cortines (3282*3281) #nd '!olfo +E$e,-Mateos #AL&, 3281*32MH). Cigure H s)ows restor#tion o! economic growt) st#,ility t)#t )#d ,een lost wit) t)e !#ll o! :N#-. =o #ssure politic#l st#,ility, during Porld P#r II, &AC spe#r)e#ded t)e est#,lis)ment o! t)e +a* of "ocial 2issolution in 32H3. Initi#lly t)is new L#w w#s #ime d #g#inst t)e ;!#scist< tend e n ci e s o! t)e time, ,ut it w#s not revoke d until t)re e dec # d e s l#ter #nd w#s !re+u e n tly used #g#inst le!tists #nd ot)er disside n t s, w)o were, suppo s e dly trying to [dissolve[ society). In 32H0 t)e strings on l#,or unions were tig)t e n e d , #s t)e &inistry
2E

, p. 2H

o! L#,or w#s gr#nt e d t)e rig)t to re!us e to #cc e p t t)e legitim# cy o! elect e d union o!!ici#ls* *w)ic), in !#ct, g#v e t)e &inistry t)e power to #ppoint [suit# ,l e[ perso n s #s union le#d er s inste # d o! elect e d ones.
HE

****** Insert Cigure H

HE

6ee Pekka Valtonen, “ olitic#l :iscours e , t)e 6t#t e #nd t)e riv#t e 6ector in &e(ico, 32H/* 3212< Artikkelit Lokakuu (2///)Y www.)elsinki.!iB)u mBi, e r oB( # m # n B # r tic ulosB 2 / / /Y/ 8Bv #lto n e n . ) t ml 2H

, p. 28

=)ose w)o resist e d t)e imposition o! 4!!ici#l

#rty

suc) dictu m s #s t)e one t)#t g#ve t)e gover n m e n t !ull control over t)e l#,or sector could ,e #nd were c)#rg e d wit) viol#ting t)e L#w o! 6oci#l :issolution. Indee d t)is L#w would prove to ,e use!ul to t)e 4!!ici#l #rty during t)e Cold P#r, esp e ci #lly #!ter Cidel C#stro c#m e to power in Cu,# ,eginning I#nu#ry 3, 3282. =)e politic#l situ#tion in &e(ico w#s ;t)re#tened< ,y events in Cu,#, w)ic) ,ec#me # counter*model to t)#t o! t)e @I ,ec#use comp#rison to &e(ico w#s inevit#,le. 4n t)e one )#nd, one p#rt o! t)e &e(ic#n government )#d )elped Cidel l#unc) )is inv#sion o! Cu,# !rom &e(ico in 328M, ,ut on t)e ot)er )#nd t)e +uestion ,ec#me ;could t)e @I ,e suppl#nted ,y # ;)idden< &e(ic#n ;Communist< 7roupR =)e Le!t in &e(ico did cl#im t)#t t)e Cu,#n model me#nt true @evolution comp#red to t)e @I, w)ic) only #dministered ;&e(ico?s de#d @evolution.< =)e role o! Communism in &e(ico, t)e ideology o! t)e protest movements t#king pl#ce t)ere !rom 3281 t)roug) 32M1, #nd t)e di!!icult logic o! &e(ico?s rel#tions)ip wit) U.6.*Cu,# rel#tions)ip complic#ted t)e ideologic#l #nd economic situ#tion o! &e(ico, especi#lly in lig)t o! t)e pro!oundly di!!erent views t)e two n#tions )#d o! t)e Cold P#r. ;=)e Cold P#r world,< writes Iuli# 6lo#n, ;w#s governed ,y t)e ,ipol#rity est#,lis)ed #nd en!orced ,y t)e United 6t#tes #nd t)e 6oviet Union. Pit)in t)is conte(t, t)e superpowers eng#ged in # glo,#l struggle !or not)ing less t)#n dt)e soul o! m#nkind,? e#c) #dv#ncing t)eir own #gend#s !or t)e ,etterment o! #ll. Cor t)e United 6t#tes t)e route to progress l#y in moderni-#tion t)roug) democr#tic c#pit#lism, involving ,ringing t)e world?s poorer n#tions into t)e intern#tion#l economy #nd
28

, p. 2M

elev#ting t)e living conditions o! t)eir people. Conversely t)e 6oviet Union simil#rly #dv#nced improvements in t)e m#teri#l +u#lity o! li!e !or t)e world?s poor, ,ut t)roug) t)e communist system. =)us, ,ot) superpowers )#d essenti#lly t)e s#me ,ro#d #gend#, ,ut di#metric#lly opposed ideologies governing )ow to #c)ieve it. ; r#ctic#lly, )owever, t)eir met)ods !or re#c)ing t)is go#l were not so !#r #p#rt, ,ot) involving t)e #ssertion o! t)eir milit#ry #nd economic power over t)e world?s we#ker #nd poorer n#tions. ;&e(ico w#s one suc) n#tion. Cor t)e United 6t#tes t)e Cold P#r w#s # glo,#l struggle #g#inst communism #s em,odied ,y t)e tot#lit#ri#n 6oviet st#te. =)e United 6t#tes government #nd # signi!ic#nt portion o! its citi-enry considered communism #n evil !orce in t)e world, one t)#t must ,e com,#ted wit) #ll #v#il#,le ideologic#l, milit#ry, #nd !in#nci#l me#ns. &e(ic#ns, #nd L#tin Americ#ns in gener#l, on t)e ot)er )#nd took # muc) less critic#l view o! communism #nd were less likely to #ssoci#te #ll t)ings communist wit) t)e 6oviet Union. As # result, ^&#ny_ &e(ic#ns viewed t)e Cold P#r not #s # principled crus#de, ,ut #s #n e(#mple o! #ggression ,y ^two_ imperi#list st#tes w)ose !in#nci#l #nd milit#ry power #llowed t)em to domin#te less developed countries._<44 Indeed, !or ,ot) t)e U6A #nd U66@ &e(ico City ,ec#me t)e intern#tion#l spy c#pit#l o! t)e Americ#s to ;listen< to e#c) ot)er?s r#dio tr#!!ic covering milit#ry #ctivities in t)e Americ#s #nd Cu,#?s milit#ry tr#!!ic #,out it intelligence #nd counter*intelligence. As t)e spy c#pit#l, &e(ico City ,ec#me t)e )ome in t)e Americ#s !or government#l spies !or every m#>or country in t)e Porld, #ll seeking to spy upon e#c) ot)er #s well #s t)eir county?s ;enemies<.
HH

6ee Iuli# 6lo#n, ;C#rniv#li-ing t)e Cold P#r,< 7uropean Journal of American Studies (2//2) )ttpABBe>#s.revues.orgBdocument0820.)tml 2M

, p. 20

^F%>S9 FOR?>R5A Be!ore Lee H#rvey 4sw#ld (# !ormer U.6. milit#ry s)#rps)ooter) #ss#ssin#ted resident Oennedy in 32ME, )e visited t)e @ussi#n "m,#ssy in &e(ico City. 4ddly enoug), ,y t)en 4sw#ld )#d not only tried during # two*ye#r st#y in @ussi# to o,t#in citi-ens)ip t)ere, ,ut )#d t)re#tened #t t)e U.6. Consul#te in &oscow to renounce )is U.6. citi-ens)ip. Alt)oug) @ussi# re>ected )is #pplic#tion to ,e # citi-en, t)e +uestion #rises #,out )is possi,le role #s ;dou,le #gent< or per)#ps ;triple #gent< #nd !or w)omR (He lived in @ussi# !rom 4cto,er 3282 to &#y 32M2, employed !or sever#l ye#rs in &insk #t #n electronics !#ctory #s # l#t)e oper#tor, #nd #lso receiving # su,sidy !rom t)e 6oviet @ed Cross) U.6. intelligence w#s ;o!!ici#lly< #s con!used #,out 4sw#ld?s visit to t)e @ussi#n "m,#ssy #s t)ey were w)en t)ey sent t)e CBI to investig#te Americ#n citi-ens !or supposedly )#ving openly (#nd leg#lly) visited t)e 6oviet "m,#ssy in &e(ico CitySt)e CBI )#d in!orm#nts #t #ll universities in &e(ico City #nd 2H*)our !ilm surveill#nce o! ;open visits<, ,ut ,ec#use so m#ny in!orm#nts g#ve erroneous in!orm#tion to g#in ,onuses, t)e CBI never could ,e sure t)#t i! it )#d ,een #,le to !ilm ;#ll persons< w)o )#d supposedly ;met wit) t)e 6oviets.< Ironic#lly, #t t)#t time t)e CBI w#s oper#ting illeg#lly in &e(ico (CBI worked in t)e U6A, CIA outside U6A), #nd w)en t)e U.6. Iustice :ep#rtment !ound out, t)e CBI )#d to dep#rt !rom &e(ico._

@I residents &AC, AlemJn, #nd A@C ,e!ore #nd during t)e Cold P#r #ut)ori-ed #nd encour#ged t)e rise o! >oint U.6.*&e(ic#n priv#te comp#nies, w)o
20

, p. 21

were protected #g#inst n#tion#li-#tion ,y #ccepting # represent#tive o! t)e @I #s mem,er o! t)e priv#te comp#ny?s ,o#rd, muc) to t)e constern#tion o! m#ny #nti* Americ#n intellectu#ls in &e(ico. &e(ico?s riv#te 6ector, )owever, used its privileged rel#tions)ip to &e(ico?s residents in t)e country?s Corpor#tivism system, to g#in #n

#lli#nce wit) t)e 6t#te #nd its power!ul &inistry o! 7o,ern#ci%n !rom 32H3 t)roug) 320/. In t)e l#tter ye#r, Meanwhile, Preside n t Avila- Cam a c h o had authorize d in 1942 the Mexico to coop er a t e with the U.S. Emerg e n c y Farm Labor Progra m ( Brac er o Pro gr a m ) allowing Mexicans to

perfor m contr ac t work in the United Stat e s for a fixed period. Over the next 22 years of the progr a m’ s existe n c e , mor e than 4.6 million labor contr ac t s were officially issue d with ma ny worker s traveling to the USA outside the U.S. law, which was laxly enforc e d. This eas e d intern al pres s ur e s in Mexico, wher e the rural sector could not acco m m o d a t e

millions of workers on worn- out and erod e d lands; and it sent workers to the USA inste a d of to Mexico City wher e by she e r num b e r s they would have driven down the industrial wage level.

21

, p. 22

In 32HH &AC est#,lis)ed t)e 6t#te Comp#ny to Buy, @egul#te, #nd :istri,ute &ilk, w)ic) in 32MH would ,e ren#med ;Lec)e C4$A6U 4.< =)e n#me w#s s)ortened to LIC4$6A in 322H #nd continues in oper#tion tod#y, #l,eit wit) t)e 6t#te s)#re o! owners)ip !#lling !rom 3//9 to m#>ority to #t le#st 839 6t#te owned. Bec#use &e(ico )#s )#d pro,lems in producing enoug) milk, it )#s imported powered milk !rom #,ro#d #nd reconstituted it wit) puri!ied w#ter to distri,ute in li+uid !orm, selling #t su,sidi-ed price. 45 Beginning in t)e 32H/s, t)e 6t#te developed # complic#ted in!r#structure to #ssist C4$A6U 4 ,uying #nd distri,uting milk #nd !ood to t)e poorSsome o! it #t very little or no price to #llevi#te povertySespeci#lly in m#rgin#l ur,#n #nd isol#ted rur#l #re#s. &AC?s &inister o! 7o,ern#ci%n (Intern#l olitic#l Control) w#s

&iguel AlemJn, w)o took o!!ice wit) t)e ide# o! e(p#nding industri#li-#tion in &e(ico. =o est#,lis) t)e c)#nge o! government, )e re!ormed t)e 4!!ici#l #rty in 32HM ,y removing t)e &ilit#ry 6ector, m#king it su,servient to t)e resident r#t)er t)#n one o! t)e ;pill#rs< o! t)e Corpor#tivist politic#l system. He ren#med #s t)e @I ( #rtido @evolucion#rio Institucion#l). =)e c)#nge o! n#me !rom #rtido de l# @evoluci%n &e(ic#n# ( @&) to #rtido @evolucion#rio Institucion#l ( @I) signi!ied t)#t ;t)e politic#l elite w#nted to m#ke it cryst#l cle#r t)#t st#,ility w#s t)e n#me o! t)e g#me**so t)#t even
H8

6ee )ttpABBwww.licons#.go,.m(B 22

, p. 3//

revolutions could ,e institution#li-ed, no m#tter t)e conceptu#l contr#diction. =)e corpor#tist p#rty structure, wit) its l#,or (C=&) #nd pe#s#nt (C$C) sections, w#s #,le to cont#in !eelings o! dis#ppointment or diss#tis!#ction !rom erupting in #ny collective, m#ss*,#sed w#ys, ,y giving e#c) sector # sense t)#t its speci!ic needs were ,eing )e#rd #nd t#ken c#re o! #t le#st to #n e(tent. Inst#nces o! open con!lict did occur**like t)e pe#s#nt c#mp#ign o! @u,'n I#r#millo in &orelos in 328E ()e #nd )is !#mily w#s !in#lly #ss#ssin#ted ,y t)e #rmy in 32M2) * ,ut t)ey did not esc#l#te to t)e point o! seriously s)#king t)e power structures. Cor sure, it is to ,e #dmitted, t)e mission o! t)e @I could not )#ve ,een so success!ul wit)out # consider#,le m#ss supportSw)ic) is, no dou,t, #lso one o! t)e e(pl#n#tions !or t)e longevity o! its grip o! t)e power.<HM At t)e s#me time, AlemJn moved to #ppoint to government posts university*educ#ted le#ders w)o )eld # B.A. or B.6. degree (Licenci#tur#, w)ic) re+uired # t)esis)St)us ,ringing to power t)e new :ru$o !e los +icencia!os< (L#wyers, t)e title ,eing #,,revi#ted #s ;Lic?, #nd some engineers**Ingenieros**)olding B.6. degrees) =)us, Lic. AlemJn s)i!ted #w#y !rom t)e policies o! presidents t)roug) 7en. CJrden#s #nd 7ener#l Avil#* C#m#c)o. (us5 t(e +a*yers #/<?@-/<@?& re$lace! t(e :enerals #/<//-/<?@& *(o (a! re$lace! 24a,’s
HM

Crom ekk# K#ltonen, www.)elsinki.!iB)u mBi, e r oB( # m # n B # r tic ulosB 2 / / /Y/ 8Bv #lto n e n . ) t ml 3//

, p. 3/3

Cient4ficos #/>>?-/<//& as t(e 0asis for lea!ers(i$3 AlemJn downpl#yed l#nd re!orm to ,uild d#ms #nd distri,ute w#ter t)roug)out &e(ico. He knew t)#t &e(ico )#d little w#ter !or irrig#ting crops. P#ter !lowing !rom t)e &ississippi @iver #lone ,eing gre#ter t)#n t)#t o! #ll &e(icoXs rivers com,ined. &ore t)#n 089 o! &e(icoXs territory is unsuit#,le !or #griculture ,ec#use o! t)e poor soil #nd #rid clim#te. Also, !or AlemJn t)e ,uilding o! d#ms could gener#te muc) need electricity !or t)e moderni-#tion o! t)e country. Under AlemJn?s economic sc)eme o! investment, ="L&"D w#s !ounded in 32H0 w)en # group o! government*protected &e(ic#n investors ,oug)t 6wedis) "ricssonXs &e(ic#n ,r#nc). In 328/ t)e s#me investors ,oug)t t)e &e(ic#n ,r#nc) o! t)e I== Corpor#tion t)us ,ecoming t)e only telep)one provider in t)e countryS# priv#te monopoly.H0 Un!ortun#tely ="L&"D service virtu#lly coll#psed, #nd it ,ec#me impossi,le to o,t#in or rep#ir # telep)one wit)out ,ri,ing ="L&"D employees. "ven wit) # p)one, to o,t#in # connection #nd t)en one to t)e correct num,er could t#ke up to one )our. =o c)#nge service !rom one person to #not)er #t t)e s#me #ddress would necessit#te cutting o!! service #nd w#iting !or up to !ive ye#rs, )ence occup#nts #t #ddresses c)#nged ,ut t)e p)one rem#ined under t)e origin#l owner?s n#me, rendering telep)one directories tot#lly useless.
H0

6ee )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB="L&"D 3/3

, p. 3/2

=o est#,lis) # 6t#te*owned industry to produce trucks #t ;re#son#,le cost,< AlemJn !ounded :iesel $#cion#l (:I$A). By 32ME resident L%pe&#teos would oversee #n e(p#nsion o! :I$A to #ssem,le ,uses in &e(ico !or @en#ult, l#ter #ssem,ling #nd distri,uting #utos !or @en#ult #s well. By 321/, resident L%pe- ortillo would oversee :I$A m#nu!#cturing #ndBor #ssem,ling38,/// trucks # ye#r. But ,y t)is time, ,ure#ucr#tic costs #nd ine!!iciencies would ,e completely unre#son#,le.H1 In t)e me#ntime, in /<?< # new !#cet o! t)e :reen Revolution would get underw#y to improve &e(ico?s 0asic foo!Lt(e tortilla. Ro0erto :on,Cle,-Aarrera !ounded &A6"CA to m#nu!#cture tortill# !lower wit) vit#mins #nd miner#l !or s)ipment to t)e !#r regions o! &e(ico w)ere its long*s)el! li!e permitted )im to )elp reduce t)e grueling pro,lem !#ced ,y womenA grinding #nd processing corn to m#ke tortill#s t)e )#rd w#ySwit) )um#n own swe#t. =oo, 7on-Jle- B#rrer# w#s success!ul in towns #nd cities w)ere ;!res)< tortill# doug) w#s (#nd is) m#de in un)ygienic conditions wit) !ilt)y t#p w#ter #nd ine!!icient primitive e+uipment. $ot only did (#nd does) t)#t ;!res) met)od< use e(cess w#ter #nd electricity ,ut t)e w#ste d#m#ges sewer systems. (e 'lemCn government *as concerne! t(at a $rivate entre$reneur suc( as :on,Cle,-Aarrera coul! enMoy success *it(out
H1

6ee www.!undin g u niv e r s e . c o m B c o m p # n y* )istoriesBCon s o rcio* 7*7rupo* :in#* 6A*de* CK*Comp # n y* History.)t ml 3/2

, p. 3/E

maJing an alliance *it( t(e Official Party3 (&ost priv#te corpor#tions could not succeed wit)out pl#cing represent#tives o! t)e &e(ic#n government on t)eir Bo#rd o! :irectors. =)e :irectors gu#r#nteed t)#t t)e comp#ny would not ,e n#tion#li-ed #s long #s it g#ve !in#nci#l support to t)e 4!!ici#l #rty #nd # !#t !ee to t)e government directors. In #n #ttempt to ,re#k &A6"CA, now p#rt o! 7rupo &A6"CA (7@U&A), t)e government su,sidi-ed t)e est#,lis)ment in 3282 o! # ;priv#te< comp#nyS&I$6A. A ye#r l#ter &I$6A ,ec#me !ully st#te* owned under t)e n#me &IC4$6A to sell processed tortill# !lower #t !ully su,sidi-ed prices, ,ut !ortun#tely !or 7on-Jle-*B#rrer#, like most ,ure#ucr#ts t)ey did not know (or c#re) #,out )ow to run # ,usinessV !urt)er t)ey were ye#rs ,e)ind &A6"CA in tec)nology. (In 322E t)is money losing, ine!!icient oper#tion w#s priv#ti-ed ,y resident 6#lin#s, #nd ,y 2//2 it

would ,ecome # pu,licly tr#ded corpor#tion. In 2//1 #nd 2//2 it will try to c#tc) up wit) 7@U&A?s low c#r,o)ydr#te tortill#s ,y o!!ering its own )ig)* !i,er, corn*tortill# !lower to reduce t)e )ig) c#r,o)ydr#te count in tr#dition#l low*!i,er corn.)

Pit) reg#rd to t)e rig)ts o! women to vote #nd ,e voted !or, AlemJn gr#nted t)ose rig)ts !or local elections in 32H0, ,ut not to Indigenous women w)o continue to t)is d#y to !#ll under t)eir vill#ge?s ;usos y costum,res.< (Usos y costum,res #re Indigenous ;L#ws< in w)ic) men own women #nd in
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, p. 3/H

w)ic) only men c#n vote. Ultim#te decisions #re m#de ,y t)e Council o! "lders, w)o m#ke decisions w)ile into(ic#ted wit) #lco)ol**6ee Juan the Chamula ,y @ic#rdo o-#s, UC ress, 32M2). @ui- Cortines g#ve women federal voting rig)ts (#nd rig)t to run !or o!!ice) in 328E, e!!ective only #t t)e ne(t !eder#l election !or t)e n#tion#l CongressS3288. //!3 “Aalance!” P(ase #/<;>-/<@?&. In w)#t w#s )oped to ,e # tr#nsition !rom # closed @I control o! society, Adol!o +E$e, Mateos (AL&) w#s selected #s t)e !irst @I president to rise !rom # &inistry ot)er t)#n t)e &inistries o! :e!ense or 7o,ern#ci%n (Intern#l 6ecurity). He rose !rom t)e Ministry of +a0or. ;to give workers #ttention t)#t )#d ,een lost during t)e &e(ico?s Industri#l @evolution< (see 33c, #,ove), seeking to provide # ,#l#nce t)#t )#d ,een l#cking in t)e olitic#l, 6oci#l, #nd "conomic )#ses (33#, 33,, 33c) #,ove. AL& est#,lis)ed )is own ide# o! w)#t t)e Active 6t#te s)ould seek, ,ut )is r)etoric in !#vor o! l#,orers in#dvertently seemed to #ut)ori-e in 3281*32M/ gener#l strikes ,y r#ilw#y*electric#l*telep)one workers #s well #s telegr#p)ers, te#c)ers, #nd industri#l workers. =)e ,roke out during t)e interim ,etween AL&?s election #nd t#king o!!ice, complic#ting t)e c)#nge in power #nd we#kening t)e #,ility o! AL& to )elp workers ,ec#use t)e @I ,ure#ucr#cy under )is Minister of :o0ernaciEn w#s :ustavo 24a,-Or!a,
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, p. 3/8

(t)e evil en!orcer o! @I discipline), w)o used )#rs) !orce to ;restore order< (l#,or unionists would !ollow @I orders t)roug) t)eir 6indic#to or !#ce ,e#tings #nd >#il !or )#ving c#used ;6oci#l :issolution<). =)e strikes #g#inst t)e @I set o! #n intern#l de,#te #,out )ow to re#ct, #nd t)#t g#ve import#nt power to AL&?s )#rs) &inister o! 7o,ern#ci%n ()ence t)e )eir #pp#rent to t)e residency), #nd AL& !ound t)#t )is velvet glove t)#t )e )#d w#nted to e(tend )#d to ,e wit)dr#wn in !#vor o! t)e steel glove e(tended ,y )is &inister 7ust#vo 24a,-Or!a, (7:4).

2isa$$ointe! 0y t(e turn of events5 Carlos Fuentes articulate! t(e intellectual vie* t(at t(e Revolution en!e! in /<;<L(is 5eath o0 >rtemio ruz is5 in my vie*5 t(e 0est novel *ritten a0out Me)ican

(istory5 ric( in its un!erstan!ing of issues in t(e “Many Me)icos3” =o overcome )is use o! !orce #g#inst l#,or, AL& cl#imed to represent t)e ;le!t< wit)in t)e @evolution #nd m#int#ined close rel#tions wit) Cidel C#stro?s ;4ne* #rty*@evolution< in Cu,# ,eginning in 3282. =)e @I

,ene!ited !rom ,eing ;pro*guerill#< #,ro#d ,ut ;#nti*guerill# #t )ome.< &e(ico #lw#ys kept its @evolution#ry credenti#ls ,y providing # li!eline to Cu,# #g#inst t)e U.6. ,lock#de. AL& ,#l#nced t)is tilt to t)e le!t ,y inviting world le#ders to &e(ico, including residents Io)n C. Oennedy #nd C)#rles de 7#ulle.
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, p. 3/M

In t)e me#ntime, &e(ico continued to ,e t(e Cold P#r Listening osts in t)e Pestern Hemisp)ere, spies !locking to &e(ico City !rom every intelligence service in t)e world to keep t#,s on t)e U6A #nd Cu,# #nd t)e rel#tions o! ,ot) wit) &e(ico #nd #ll L#tin Americ#. =)e U.6. government w#s not ple#sed wit) AL&?s re!us#l to ,re#k diplom#tic rel#tions wit) Cu,# St)e only country in t)e )emisp)ere not to ,re#k rel#tions #nd se#l o! ine(pensive tr#ns*s)ipment o! goods in #nd out o! Cu,#. U.6. disple#sure wit) AL&?s st#nce reg#rding Cu,# )elped )is wing o! t)e @I to cl#im t)#t &e(ic#n @evolution still ,urned ,rig)tly, t)us

m#sking AL&?s !urt)er #tt#cks on org#ni-ed l#,or. L%pe- &#teos ,urnis)ed )is 6t#tist credenti#ls ,y ;n#tion#li-ing< in 32M/ t)e !oreign*owned electric#l comp#nies (w)ic) were ple#sed to ,e p#id ric)ly to le#ve &e(ico +uietly). AL& cl#imed t)#t only t)e government could do w)#t t)e priv#te comp#nies )#d not done ** e(tend t)e grid o! electricity to isol#ted rur#l #re#s. (In 32M/ only HH9 o! &e(ico?s popul#tion )#d electricity.H2) Ironic#lly, t)is pl#n worked out only in p#rt #nd resulted in t)e rise o! # new government 6t#te*owned #gency (=)e Me)ican 1ational Electrical In!ustry, especi#lly +u, y Fuer,a !el Centro), w)ic) to t)is d#y is so )ig)ly corrupt #nd ine!!icient t)#t it re+uires e(tensive su,sidies !rom t)e
H2

A >oke in &e(ico #t t)e time pl#ye d upon AL&?s words upon n#tion #li-# tionA ;?=)e electricity now ,elongs to &e(ico #nd its people?Stoo ,#d electricity )#s ,ee n cut ,y )#l! # d#y #nd we neve r know w)ic) )#l! .< Pit) time, mos t power out # g e s decline d #s did power surge s t)#t ,urn out e+uip m e n t . C!. )ttpABBwww.c! e. go ,. m( B e n BL#" mp r e s # B + u e e s c ! e B )i s t ori#B

3/M

, p. 3/0

centr#l government, not to mention employing m#ny t)ous#nds o! !#ke ;consult#nts< #nd ;workers< (c#lled ;#vi#dores<Smem,ers o! t)e ;&e(ic#n @oy#l Air Corce<8/ w)o !ly into #ll government o!!ices to collect t)eir s#l#ry #nd w)o s)ow up only on t)e p#yrollSnot t)e >o,. (=)e corruption in t)e "in!icato Me)icano !e Electricistas #"ME&--involving t)e s#le o! electricity ,y 6&" to ,ene!it t)e 6indic#to ,e)ind t)e government?s ,#ck** will not ,e #ddressed until 2//2, #s we will see ,elow.)

AL& gre#tly e(p#nded t)e role o! t)e 6t#te ,y t#(ing ="L&"D long* dist#nce c#lls in order to order to gener#te # pool o! !unds to moderni-e switc)ing e+uipment #nd lines t)roug)out &e(ico.83 =)us, ="L&"D oper#ted #s # priv#te enterprise t)#t cooper#ted wit) t)e &e(ic#n government to deliver p)one services to t)e n#tion, to # muc) more import#nt e(tent t)#n )#d ,een t)e c#se since 328/. ="L&"D w#s under !ire !or its ,#cklog in inst#lling telep)one service to ,usiness #nd )omesS m#ny ye#rs to w#it, i! no ,ri,e p#id to ="L&"D union workers #llied wit) t)e @I. ="L&"D oper#ted #s # priv#te enterprise t)#t cooper#ted wit) t)e &e(ic#n government, ,ot) cl#iming !#lsely to ,e delivering improved p)one services to t)e n#tion.

=)ere is, o! cours e, no ;@oy#l Air Corce in &e(ico.< 6ee www.!unding u niv er s e . c o m B c o m p # n y * )istoriesB=ele!ono s* de* &e(ico* 6A*de* CK*Comp # n y* History.)t ml
8/ 83

3/0

, p. 3/1

Curt)er, AL& decl#red t)e petroc)emic#l #nd mining industries to ,e o! str#tegic import#nce to t)e &e(ic#n government control. Pit) reg#rd to t)e petroc)emic#l industry,82 in 3282 AL& est#,lis)ed its development #s # priority. He #llowed t)e possi,ility o! using priv#te c#pit#l to develop t)e industry ,ec#use t)e government )#d neit)er t)e e(pertise nor !unds to do so. Alt)oug) t)e petroleum industry #s # w)ole is e(clusively controlled ,y t)e 6t#te, in pr#ctice, priv#te comp#nies #c+uire t)e n#tion#l products o! t)e !irst processes !rom "&"D or !rom #,ro#d #nd wit) t)em cre#te )undreds o! c)emic#ls w)ic) #re tr#ns!ormed into #rticles !or d#ily use. Under AL& t)e petroc)emic#l industry developed gre#tly #nd production in t)e volume o! petroc)emic#ls incre#sed 8E times, (E82 petroc)emic#l permits would ,e #w#rded ,etween t)e ye#rs o! 32M3 #nd 321E, 3ME o! w)ic) were delivered to comp#nies, #nd investment poured into &e(ico.)

Pit) reg#rd to mining,8E in 32M3 AL& c)#nged &e(ic#n l#w to re+uire t)#t no more t)#n H29 o! investment in industry could ,e !oreign, ,ut in str#tegic industries suc) #s co#l mining !oreign c#pit#l could not e(ceed EH9. All new investment )#d to ,e #pproved ,y t)e &e(ic#n government, wit) ,ure#ucr#tic del#ys running up to sever#l ye#rs #ndBor

82 8E

=)is discussion dr#ws upon Ale>#ndro L%pe-*Kel#rde5 )ttpABBwww.lvw#.com.m(BdocE.pd!

4n mining l#w in &e(ico, se eA www., #k e r n e t . c o m B $@Brdo nlyr e s B 2: HAA2AC* :18M* H"CC* 121A* :E/M:/ 8A2 8 M H B H / E 2 2 B&iningL#win&e(Bro 3.p d!

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, p. 3/2

,eing put on perm#nent )old so #s not to s#y ;no.<8H ^F%>S9 FOR?>R5A resident 6#lin#s will ,re#k t)is ,ottleneck #!ter 3212 w)en )e decrees t)#t t)e government #nswer to !oreign petitions to invest in &e(ico is #utom#tic#lly ;yes<** i! t)e government does not s#y ;no< wit)in E/ working d#ys #!ter receiving #ll petitions._ In t)e re#lm o! cultur#l control ,y t)e 6t#te, AL& cre#ted t)e $#tion#l Commission !or Cree =e(t Books, giving t)e @I # ve)icle to m#ke prop#g#nd# in t)e prim#ry sc)ools**t)is #t no cost to !#milies o! t)e students so #ccepted ,y most o! t)e popul#tion w)o resented )#ving to p#y !or priv#tely printed te(t,ooks. =)e te(t,ooks were written ,y te#c)ers tr#ined in t)e LJ-#ro CJrden#s presidenti#l er# to spre#d t)e word #,out t)e evils o! c#pit#lismS muc) to t)e constern#tion o! LC )imsel! w)o s#w t)e world in muc) more complic#ted terms #nd even invested government !unds in priv#te industryS #l,eit in # m#nner t)#t w#s not pu,licly #nnounced. =)e !ilm industry )#d #lre#dy ,ecome involved in t)e struggle ,etween t)e priv#te sector #nd t)e 6t#te, #nd t)is intensi!ied under AL&.88 P)ere#s in 32H0 resident AlemJn )#d converted t)e B#nco $#cion#l Cinom#togrJ!ic# ($#tion#l Cilm B#nk) into one ,#sed on government #nd union control #s well
8H

6ee, e.g., t)e 32M 2 secr e t me m o ,y t)e U.6. "m, # s s y in &e(ico City (w)ic) sou g) t to und e r s t # n d AL&?s ;-igs< le!t, rig)t, #nd ,#ck #g#i nA www.gwu. e d u B a n s # r c ) i vB$6A"BBB$6A"BB32HB d o c 2 8 . p d!
88

=)is #n#lysis dr#ws upon "du#rdo de l# Keg# Al!#ro, ;=)e :ecline ^#nd "nd_ o! t)e 7olden #ge o! Cine m #Z,< in Io#nn e Hers)!ield #nd :#vid @. &#ciel, eds., -e.ico>s Cine m a: A Centur" of 2ilm and 2ilm m a k e r s (Pilmingt onA 6c)ol#rly @esourc e s , 3222) #nd www.drcl# s. ) # r v # r d. e d u B r e vis t # B # r ticle sBvi e wB 1 0

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, p. 33/

#s priv#te c#pit#l wit) t)e go#l o! e(tolling t)e virtues o! c#pit#lism, AL& s)i!ted to control o! production !rom t)e priv#te sector to t)e 6indic#tos, including producers, directors, #nd writers #s well #s tec)nic#l st#!!. =)ese 6indic#to mem,ers closed t)e door to innov#tion #s well #s to new people, )ence un#void#,ly c#using decline in +u#lity (t)e writers union )#d to #pprove e#c) new script #s did t)e tec)nic#l st#!!s). =)e resulting o,vious decline in +u#lity ,roug)t to #n end &e(ico?s ;7olden Age o! Cinem#< (32H/s #nd 328/s). =)e decline o! &e(ic#n !ilms in t)e 32M/s w#s e(#cer,#ted ,y Hollywood?s drive to rec#pture &e(ic#n #nd L#tin Americ#n !ilm m#rkets lost during Porld P#r II (w)en U.6. !ilms !ocused on portr#ying t)e evils o! I#p#n, 7erm#ny, #nd It#ly). And t)e #dvent o! television #ccessi,le to t)e m#sses in t)e 328/s ,eg#n to sip)on #udiences out o! t)e !ilm t)e#ter monopoly o! Pilli#m 4. Ienkins, w)o did not well m#int#in t)e &e(ic#n t)e#ters now !ull o! t)e poorer cl#sses !or w)om )e w#s dem#nding gr#de B* #nd Cg !ilms. 6t#te*run production o! !ilms would eventu#lly ,ecome 6t#te*owned !ilm production in t)e 320/s. In t)e countryside, L%pe- &#teos reversed t)e decline in distri,ution o! ">ido l#nds t)#t )#d ,een t)e policy Avil# C#m#c)o, AlemJn, #nd @ui-* Cortines, re#c)ing #g#in #lmost t)e s#me level o! #gricultur#lly employed workers w)o were incorpor#ted into ">idos (H39) ,y LC. P)en AL& le!t o!!ice, t)e cumul#tive #mount o! l#nd sur!#ce t)#t )#d ,een distri,uted re#c)ed 20 (including t)e cumul#tive #mount o! 3E9 #t t)e time w)en LC le!t o!!ice).
33/

, p. 333

=o !#cilit#te t)e development #nd distri,ution o! seeds, in 32M/ AL& est#,lis)ed @4$A6" (t)e $#tion#l 6eed roducing Comp#ny).8M =)is

comp#ny #long wit) C4$A6U 4 worked well until t)ey were l#ter overw)elmed ,y t)e ever*e(p#nding si-e #nd scope o! #ctivity t)roug)out t)e country. Hence !ood processors would ,egin to import +u#lity gr#ins ,y t)e 320/s, 321/s, #nd 322/s. =)e rel#tively reli#,le C4$A6U 4 #nd @4$A6" oper#tions t)#t CJrden#s #nd L%pe- &#teos est#,lis)ed would !#de wit) t)e rise o! 6t#tism #!ter 320/. AL& #lso n#tion#li-ed t)e )ene+uen industry on t)e Fuc#tJn peninsul# in 32MH to ;s#ve< t)#t declining industry. He reorg#ni-ed t)e industry #s C4@:"&"D,57 ,ut #nnu#l output declined !rom 3E3,2M0 metric tons in 32MH to HH,/// in 322/, w)en it w#s priv#ti-ed ,y 6#lin#s to stem !urt)er government !in#nci#l losses #nd corruption. Cor t)e U.6. Border wit) &e(ico, AL& ,eg#n t)e pl#nning o! t)e m#+uil# industry, or pl#nts !ree o! &e(ic#n import t#(es i! t)e processed goods #re e(ported (t#(es ,eing only p#id on v#lue #dded suc) #s w#ges to

8M

4n @4$A6", see www.e n g o r mi(.co mB sYn e w sYview. # s p R news T 2 2 1 H QA@"ATBAL 80 6ee, e.g., )ttpABB!ind # r ticles .co mB p B # r ticle sB miY), 2 1 1 BisY32 2 3 / E B #iY)i, m 3 7 3 H 3 2 H 8 E E / #nd )ttpABBwww. m e (ico mik e. co m B s t o ri e s B ) e n e + u e n . ) t m 333

, p. 332

workers).81 Pit) t)e U.6. termin#tion ,y t)e Br#cero rogr#m in 32MH, AL& re#li-ed t)#t new employment would )#ve to ,e !ound !or t)e more t)#n 8/,/// workers w#iting on t)e &e(ic#n side o! t)e ,order to work in t)e U6A. AL& sent deleg#tions study t)e Asi# models #nd t)e groundwork w#s l#id !or t)e Border Industri#li-#tion rogr#m to ,e o!!ici#lly l#unc)ed in 32M8 ,y resident :i#-*4rd#-. [&#+uil#dor#[ is prim#rily used to re!er to !#ctories in &e(ic#n towns #long t)e U.6.*&e(ico ,order ,ut incre#singly is used to re!er to !#ctories #ll over L#tin Americ#. &#+uil#dor# !#ctories encomp#ss # v#riety o! industries including electronics, tr#nsport#tion, te(tile, #nd m#c)inery, #mong ot)ers. &#+uil#dor#s m#y ,e 3//9 !oreign*owned (usu#lly ,y U.6. comp#nies) in most countries. =)e use o! &#+uil#dor#s is #n e(#mple o! o!! s)oring. 4t)er countries suc) #s Hong Oong, 6ing#pore, =#iw#n, 6out) Oore#, I#p#n, #nd 7erm#n )#ve &#+uil#dor#s #s well, ,ut t)e m#>ority o! t)em #re loc#ted in &e(ico #nd #re #ssoci#ted wit) comp#nies !rom #ny country m#inly seeking #ccess to t)e U.6. m#rkets. (=)e term [m#+uil#dor#[, in t)e 6p#nis) l#ngu#ge, re!ers to t)e pr#ctice o! millers c)#rging # [m#+uil#[, or [millerXs portion[ !or processing ot)er peopleXs gr#in.)

81

6ee, e.g.A )ttpABBwww. m e d c . o r gBr o o t sY m # + u il #. p ) p , )ttpABBtrip # tl # s . co m B& # + uil# d o r # , #nd )ttpABBwww.>stor.or gB p s s B 2 / / 1 / 3 2 H 332

, p. 33E

&e(ico?s popul#tion grew !rom 28 million in 328/ to H3 million in 32MH.

/-3 "tate Ca$italism an! “2irty Kar” #/<@;-/<>-& Gn!er = Presi!ents5 w)o order t)e murder (wit) pl#usi,le deni#,ility) o! m#ny o! t)e opponents3 (is is t(e era of t(e “2irty (ree Presi!ents”6 7ust#vo 24a, Or!a, #:2O&, 32MH*320/ Luis Ec(everr4a blv#re- (+E'), 320/*320M, #nd Ios' +E$e, Portillo (BO+OPO), 320M*3212 'lt(oug( t(ese t(ree $resi!ents *ere “la*yers”5 t(ey tooJ $o*er as t(e generation of arrogant “1o-1ot(ings” (ug5; < *(o re$lace! t(e @I?s

:eneration of +a*yers #/<?@-/<@?& t(at (a! re$lace! t(e :enerals #/<///<?@&5 *(o (a! re$lace! 24a,’s Cien4tficos #/>>?-/<//&3 ;$o*$ot)ings< cl#im to know everyt )ing ,ut t)e opposit e is true, #nd t)ey o!ten turn to t)ugg e r y to ;en!orc e< t)eir ;wisdo m,< #s did t)es e t)re e ;:irty reside n t s< w)o #re in!#mo u s in &e(ic#n )istory. Cl#iming to ,e ;@evolution#ry< e#c) o! t)ese residents tried to

distri,ute more l#nd t)#n LJ-#ro CJrden#s, ,ut most o! it w#s poor l#nd #nd t)e use o! it contri,uted to !urt)er erosion o! t)e &e(ic#n countryside. By
82

;$o*$ot)ings < cl#im to know everyt )in g ,ut t)e opposit e is true, #nd t)ey o!ten turn to t)ug g e r y to ;en!orc e< t)eir ;wisdo m,< #s t)e t)re e ;:irty resid e n t s < did in &e(ico. 33E

, p. 33H

3212, dt)e 4!!ici#l

#rty cumul#tively distri,uted H29 o! &e(ico?s l#nd

sur!#ce (comp#red to :N#-?s E29) to more t)#n 0/9 o! t)e #gricultur#lly employed popul#tion. &#ny o! t)ose ">id#t#rios, )owever, )#d #,#ndoned t)eir ">idos to work #s d#y l#,orers (>orn#leros) !or # regul#r p#y c)eck wit) l#rge commerci#l #gricultur#l enterprises #ndBor le!t !or t)e U6A to work #s ,r#ceros. &#ny moved ,#ck #nd !ort) ,etween t)e two countries, depending on se#sons. (=)e num,er o! Br#ceros working in t)e U6A re#c)ed over 8 million ,etween 32H2 #nd 320/.), #ccording to t)e Booklet of Charts, ;History o! &e(ic#n Immigr#tion to U6A, C)#rt E2*C. =)e t)ree residents re!used to re#li-e t)#t most ">idos would !#il i! t)ey were not provided wit) su!!icient #gricultur#l credit (needed to prep#re #nd pl#nt crops) #nd re#l #gricultur#l e(tension (to demonstr#te new met)ods #nd m#ke #v#il#,le +u#lity seeds #s well #s !ertili-ers #nd insecticides). =)e t)ree residents did, )owever, pl#n to provide t)ous#nds o! tr#ctors !or t)e &e(ic#n countryside in order to incre#se productivity, ,ut t)e ">id#t#rios #nd d#y l#,orers (m#ny o! w)om did not )#ve ">id#l rig)ts) ,locked t)e move to tr#ctors on t)e grounds t)#t m#c)ines would put t)em out o! work.

=)e re#l pro,lem t)#t 7:4, L"A, #nd I4L4 4 !#ced w#s t)#t 4!!ici#l #rty policy d#m#ged #griculture t)#n t)roug) 6t#te su,sidies !or !ood producers, distri,utors, #nd consumers, w#sting ,illions o! doll#rs # ye#r #nd undermine !#rm productivity ,y rew#rding ine!!iciency. Cor e(#mple, =)e st#te*
33H

, p. 338

run Certili-#ntes &e(ic#nos (FER IMEX, cre#ted ,y I4L4 4 in 3201 ,y n#tion#li-ing #ll priv#te !ertili-er comp#nies), ,ec#me # government decentr#li-ed #gency (#lso c#lled # p#r#st#te #gency) wit) # monopoly on production #nd import#tion o! c)emic#l !ertili-ers #nd pesticides, w)ic) it oper#ted wit) suc) low +u#lity t)#t its products deterior#ted in t)e m#nu!#cturing #ndBor distri,ution processes. PRO1'"E (t)e $#tion#l 6eed roducing Comp#ny) gre#tly )#rmed seed +u#lity, !orcing m#ny !#rmers to smuggle seeds into &e(ico. @4$A6" did )#ve +u#lity #t t)e outset under L%pe- &#teos, ,ut its r#pid e(p#nsion under # l#-y, in!le(i,le ,ure#ucr#cy let seeds rot in ,#dly ,uilt silos w)ic) cre#ted conditions o! )ig) )umidity #nd in#,ility to prevent #tt#cks on t)e seeds ,y rodents (w)o le!t t)eir ;droppings< to cont#min#te t)e stored seeds). CO1'"GPO?s legend#ry #,ility ,eginning wit) LJ-#ro CJrden#s to ,uy +u#lity #gricultur#l goods !rom ">id#t#rios would ,e converted ,y 320/s to p#ying ,y t)e pound, )ence in t)e 320/s !#rmers #dded ever more n#ils #nd sm#ll rocks to t)eir gr#ins #s well #s ;nuts #nd ,olts !rom disc#rded m#c)ines) to incre#se weig)tSonly t)e m#nu!#cturers o! tortill#s #nd ot)er processed products seemed to c#re t)#t t)eir !ood processing e+uipment would ,e d#m#ged #nd !ood +u#lity would ,e degr#ded. Cor ye#rs o!!ici#l d#t# s)owed t)#t t)e ">idos out produced priv#te #griculture, ,ut only in t)e 321/s did it ,egin to ,ecome cle#r t)#t t)e o,verse w#s trueSpriv#te producers could only sell to C4$A6U 4 !or gu#r#nteed
338

, p. 33M

)ig) prices i! t)ey sold t)roug) ">idos, w)ic) took # percent#ge to pretend t)#t t)ey were selling to t)e government. roduction st#tistics, t)en, con!used policy m#kers w)o ,elieved t)#t t)e ">ido w#s # success. =)us, t)ey )#d to !ind out !or t)emselves w)#t LJ-#ro CJrden#s )#d known #nd )idden !rom t)e 4!!ici#l #rty in 32H/St)e ">ido )#d !#iled to produce !or t)e m#rket. Indeed even #s t)e trut) ,eg#n to ,e known, it )#d to ,e +u#s)ed to #void dispiriting t)e #rty ;=rue Believers< #nd t)e @ur#l Koters needed to keep t)e 4!!ici#l #rty in power.

=)e 4!!ici#l #rty, t)en, w#s tr#pped in its own st#tistics, w)ic) suggested t)#t !rom 32H/ to 32M8, &e(ico?s ">id#l #griculture w#s #t t)e !ore!ront o! t)e =)ird Porld, incre#sing crop output incre#sing e#c) ye#r ,y #n #ver#ge o! M.E9.

But #!ter 32M8 #gricultur#l production in &e(ico )#d dropped ste#dily, prim#rily ,ec#use o! t)e ine!!iciencies c#used ,y incre#sed st#te intervention in t)e #gr#ri#n economy, #ccording to =)om#s ". Co( #nd C)ristop)er P)#len.60

=o o!!set t)ese declines, t)e 6t#te tr#ns!ers ever more !unds to government*oper#ted !#rm*support #gencies, ;w)ic) re#c)ed more t)#n #n U2 ,illion in 3212. P)ere#s &e(ico?s #gricultur#l tr#de surplus ,e!ore 320/
M/

Cor ,#ckground, see )ttpABBwww.) e rit # g e . o r gB@ e s e # r c ) BL# tinAm e ric #B , g 0 8 E . c! m

33M

, p. 330

e#rned !oreign e(c)#nge to !in#nce 6t#te progr#ms, #!ter 320/ &e(ico used !oreign lo#ns to p#y !or money*losing government*owned enterprises #nd st#te su,sidy progr#ms, including #griculture,< #s Co( #nd P)#len tell us.

&e(ico?s !oreign de,t in U.6. doll#rs ,eg#n to rise under 7:4, #s we see in Cigure 8A

Insert Cigure 8

330

, p. 331

6t#tism )#d ,egun to e(p#nd w)en

resident CJrden#s used !oreign

,orrowing to e(p#nd st#te power, ,ut t)is met)od did not ;t#ke*o!!< until t)e t)ree =)ug residents incre#sed ,orrowing to n#tion#li-e ever more priv#te comp#nies #s well #s to * su,sidi-e t)e !#iling ">id#l sector, * ,uy t)e ;support< o! 6indic#tos in order to prevent popul#r re,ellions, * !eed t)e cost o! corruption #s greedy @I o!!ici#ls dem#nded to pro!it !rom t)e !low o! c#s) into &e(ico. In :ecem,er 32MH, t)e !oreign de,t (t)e tot#l #!ter #d>usting !or in!l#tion) stood #t U6U 2 ,illion, #nd ,y 320/ it grew to more t)#n U3M ,illion. L"A incre#sed t)is re#l de,t to over UHH ,illionV #nd t)e ;)onor< !or e(cess goes to I4L4 4, w)o t#kes t)#t #mount to U3HH ,illion ,y t)e time )e le#ves o!!ice in 3212. =o )ide t)e re#lity o! t)e contr#dictions #nd pu,lic protest cre#ted #!ter 32MH, 7:4, L"A #nd I4L4 4 secretly l#unc)ed &e(ico?s “!irty *ar”
331

, p. 332

#/<@?-/<D>&3@/ Alt)oug) con!identi#l sources report t)#t &e(ico?s police, milit#ry, #nd loc#l c#ci+ues secretly kidn#pped #nd murdered more t)#n 32,/// persons (l#,eled #s ;guerill#s),< M2 m#ny o! t)ose killed were disgruntled pe#s#nts #ndBor ur,#n intellectu#ls #nd workers merely #ttempting to develop politic#l #ltern#tives to t)e 4!!ici#l #rty. ME ^F%>S9 FOR?>R5A A!ter t)e A$ c#ptured t)e presidency vi# t)e ,#llot ,o( in 2///, resident Kicente Co( #ppointed in 2//2 # Commission to Investig#te t)e num,er killed in t)e :irty P#r. =)is Commission issued # dr#!t report in :ecem,er 2//8, w)ic) resident Co( !e#red would prevent t)e @I !rom cooper#ting wit) t)e A$ to !orm t)e legisl#tive #lli#nce necess#ry to #c)ieve legisl#tion ,eing !oug)t ,y opposition p#rties, #nd Co( re!used to pu,lis) t)e dr#!t ,ec#use t)e 6peci#l rosecutor )#d suggested it is ,i#sed #g#inst t)e government #nd incomplete ,ec#use it does not det#il t)e #,uses committed ,y re,el groups. =)e dr#!t is #v#il#,le wit) #n#lysis #nd supporting documents ,y O#te :oyleA ;2raft Re$ort 2ocuments /> Nears of W2irty KarW in Me)ico^"tate Res$onsi0le for ZVillings an! 2isa$$earances5 /<@?/<>-_.<MH =)e Commission set out to investig#te t)e de#t)s 8E2 persons known to )#ve dis#ppe#red out o! # tot#l o! over 0// persons ,elieved to
M3

6ee t)e secret !iles L/)7-#;:)he C/AAs 7"es on )latelolco C/A Sp" ;perations in -e.ico B<'CD <'D'E: +ational Securit" Archi!e 7lectronic Briefing Book +o$ %&F, +ational Securit", )ttpABBwww.gwu.eduBans#rc)ivB$6A"BBB$6A"BB2/HBinde(.)tm
M2 ME MH

&y d#tes #nd my estim#te ,#sed upon interviews wit) sources w)o must rem#in con!identi#l I,id. )ttpABBwww. g w u. e d u B a n s # r c )ivB$6A"BBB$6A"BB31/Bind e (. ) t m

332

, p. 32/

,e missing.M8 Cle#rly t)ese num,ers #re too low ,ec#use entire vill#ges were wiped out #nd t)e ;P#r< w#s !oug)t in di!!erent p#rts o! &e(ico. Iust ,e!ore le#ving o!!ice, )owever, Co( #pproved o! # revised version w)ic) w#s put on t)e internet wit)out pu,lic #nnouncement.MM_ 7:4, L"A, #nd I4L4 4 lived ,y ;code< words t)#t )#d emerged since 3222. =)us, in +uoting t)e code words ,elow, Loren-o &eyer )#s st#ted t)#t ;&e(icoXs contri,ution to politic#l t)eory Z is ,ut # !ootnote< #nd not)ing !or w)ic) to ,e proud.< Loren-o &eyer de!ines &e(ico?s re#lity t)#t #pplies to #ctu#l power in &e(ico #s involving t)e !ollowing termsA M0 Xc#udillo?A power!ul n#tion#l or region#l le#derV dc#ci+ue?A power!ul mid*level or loc#l le#derV Xt#p#doX, t)e #s yet unreve#led 4!!ici#l #rty c#ndid#te, Xded#-oX, )#nd picking o! politic#l c#ndid#tes #t #ll levels, dmordid#?A ,ri,e, including #ut)orit#ri#n p#tron#ge ,#sed on t)e c#rrot or t)e stickV =o t)is list Loren-o &eyer mig)t )#ve included (#dds B6)A Xp#l#nc#?, in!luenceV

M8

C!. ;@eport on &e(ic#n d:irty P#r? :et#ils A,use ,y &ilit#ry,< ,y 7inger =)ompson, Ce,. 2M, 2//M, www.genocidew#tc).orgB&"DIC4@eporton&e(ic#n:irtyP#r:et#ilsA,use,y&ilit#ryCe,/M.)tm
MM

6ee )ttpABBwww.gw u. e d u B a n s # r c )ivB$6A"BBB$6A"BB2/2Bind e (. ) t m #nd

;&e(ic#n @eport Cites Le#ders !or d:irty P#r,? ,y I#mes C. &cOinley, Ir., +e3 Gork )imes, $ov. 2E, 2//M, )ttpABBwww.nytimes.comB2//MB33B2EBworldB#meric#sB2Eme(ico.)tml
M0

According to Loren-o &eyer, t)e noted )istori#n w)o te#c)es #t t)e Colegio de &e(ico in &e(ico City, +uoted in www.p,s.orgBwg,)Bp#gesB!rontlineBs)owsBme(icoBre#dingsBlups)#.)tml

32/

, p. 323

dpe-gordo?, in!luenti#l, w)o is o!ten Xintoc#,leXA untouc)#,leV Xm#drinosX, godmot)ersX (Ceder#l #nd 6t#te Iudici#l olice, dcommissioned #gent*in!ormers,? #nd !#ke police), #ll o! w)om work !or #nd #g#inst t)e police. /-a3 Presi!ent 2ia, Or!a, #/<@?-/<D.& Initiates 'ut(oritarian "tatism 7:4?s period m#rked t)e s)i!t to t)e 6t#tist @evolution #s t)e popul#tion o! &e(ico grew !rom H3 million persons in 32MH to 83 million in 320/.M1 In t)e lore prop#g#ted ,y t)e 4!!ici#l #rty, 7:4 seemed to merit m#ny credits, M2 especi#lly undert#king t)e construction o! &e(ico?s &etro @#il 6ystem, # pro>ect vili!ied ,y protesters w)o dem#nded t)#t !unds !or suc) ur,#n development ,e tr#ns!erred to t)e rur#l sector. ^F%>S9 FOR?>R5A ,y t)e 322/s, 7:4?s construction o! t)e &etro will ,e seen #s # ;stroke o! genius,< wit)out w)ic) ,y t)e 2///s &e(ico City #uto tr#nsport#tion would )#ve smot)ered wit) #ir pollution t)e entire popul#tion o! t)e :.C._ 7:4 g#ined credit !rom m#ny ur,#n intellectu#ls !or seeking to industri#li-e rur#l &e(ico #nd !rom industri#lists #nd t)e rur#l sector !or )#ving ,uild 3/0 d#ms.

M1 M2

Census d#t# reported H1.2 million in 320/. See Pekka Valton e n, who favora bly sum s up GDO’s contribution s , including the prom ul g a tio n a new Labor Law with the aim of “refor min g” work- place proble m s . Segú n: www.h elsinki.fi/hu m /ib e r o/x a m a n / a r tic ulos/ 2 0 0 0_ 0 5/ v alt o n e n . h t m l 323

, p. 322

=)e #nti*nucle#r we#pon #ctivities o! 7:4 led to most n#tions o! t)e Americ#s (not#,ly e(cluding Cu,#) signing in 32M0 t)e =re#ty o! =l#telolco, in w)ic) t)ey pledge not to #c+uire suc) we#pons. (A ye#r l#ter, t)e l#-# would serve #s t)e pl#ce o! 7:4?s ,lood,#t) !or opposition to @I t)#t #lso opposed t)e )olding o! t)e 4lympics in &e(ico, sip)oning resources !rom t)e poor in rur#l &e(ico.) Curt)er, 7:4 set in motion t)e development o! t)e l# "i!er_rgica +C,aro CCr!enas en L#s =ruc)#s, &ic)o#cJn, pl#nned #s # modern steel pl#nt #)e#d o! its times, w)ere )e #lso undertook to ,uild t)e modern ort o! LJ-#ro CJrden#s.

Be)ind t)e scenes, )owever, :N#- 4rd#- #nd )is c)ie! security minister "c)everrN# initi#ted t)eir ;:irty P#r< ,y )#ving pe#s#nt le#ders #ss#ssin#ted or kidn#pped #nd killed !or protesting t)e !#ct t)#t mere l#nd wit)out modern credit #nd #gricultur#l e(tension w#s too o!ten useless. But t)e protests received little news (usu#lly no news) in t)e &e(ico City medi#, w)ic) w#s strictly controlled ,y t)e @I. (Loc#l medi# ,#rely e(isted in t)e repu,lic, #nd w#s )#rs)ly censored t)roug) murder o! >ourn#lists w)o knew too muc) !or c#ci+ues to permit.) ^F%>S9 <> E?>R5: 6ome guerrill# le#ders )#d #lw#ys ,een killed ,y loc#l police, suc) #s @u,'n Baramillo w)o )#d ,een gu#r#nteed s#!ety ,y resident L%pe- &#teos in 3281 w)en )e #,#ndoned )is ;w#r #g#inst t)e @I. But !our ye#rs #!ter l#ying down )is we#pons, in 32M2 I#r#millo w#s sei-ed #long wit) )is wi!e #nd t)ree
322

, p. 32E

c)ildren #nd #ll were murdered in cold ,lood ,y &orelos st#te police (#ided ,y # &e(ic#n #rmy o!!icer)St)is event c#using L%pe- &#teros to !eel s)#me #nd reve#led t)e resident?s l#ck o! control in m#ny #re#s o! t)e country. =)e rut)less loc#l @I c#ci+ues, w)o )#d seen )im #s c)#llenging t)eir #ut)ority since 32H8, w)en )e !irst rose #g#inst t)em, !in#lly took t)eir revenge to end even )is pe#ce!ul org#ni-#tion o! pe#s#nts to protest loc#l #,uses.0/ In 3202, t)e guerrill# le#der 7en#ro IC,9ue, will ,e killed in t)e 6t#te o! 7uerrero, eit)er ,y )is ,#d driver (known to ,e ine(pert) or w)en t)e st#te police s)ot out # tire #nd c#used )is c#r to roll over.03 KJ-+ue- )#d !ounded t)e Asoci#ci%n CNvic# 7uerrerense #nd t)e Centr#l C#mpesin# Independiente to politic#lly oppose t)e 4!!ici#l #rty. Cor t)ese re#sons )e w#s seen #s en "nemy o! t)e 6t#te #nd imprisoned, ,ut w#s !reed in mid*32M1 ,y )is te#m w)o were success!ul to ,re#k )im out o! >#il. Hence!ort), )e le!t t)e politic#l #ren# to convert )is movement into t)e cl#ndestine Asoci#ci%n CNvic# $#cion#l @evolucion#ri#, wit) w)ic) )e

0/

6ee )ttpABBr e d e s c ol # r.ilce. e d u . m( B r e d e s c ol # rB p u ,lic # cion e s B p u ,liY+u e p # s o B r u , e n> # r # m illo.)t m #nd www.)* net.orgBr e vi e w s B s ) o w p:.C..cgiRp # t ) T 2 H 3 8 8 1 8 8 3 2 2 1 0 H 03 Bot) versions #re given in 4rl#ndo 4rti-, Genaro HI6Jue6 (&'(ico, :.C.A "ditori#l :iogenes, 3202. 4rti- opens wit) t)e l#st version (w)ic) credits police) #nd closes wit) t)e !irst version (w)ic) t#kes credit !rom t)e police).

32E

, p. 32H

w#ged (in #ssoci#tion wit) Lucio C#,#f#s) # ;low intensity w#r< #g#inst t)e @I?s government milit#ry !orces.02 At le#st t)e )istory o! KJ-+ue- #nd C#,#f#s ,ec#me p#rti#lly known to t)e &e(ic#n pu,lic in t)e 32M/s #nd 320/s ,ec#use )undreds #nd )undreds (i! not t)ous#nds) o! suc) )istories did not. &ost suc) c#ses rem#ined unknown #nd uncounted, t)e police #nd milit#ry simply killing or murdering protesters #nd guerill#s, news o! suc) m#tters ,eing suppressed, w)ic) w#s e#sy in &e(ico?s er# o! rur#l li!e wit)out telep)one communic#tion #nd wit) very poor ro#ds. 7iven 7:4?s penc)#nt !or #cting wit) violence #nd #llowing o!!ici#l impunity o! #ction, it w#s e#sy !or )im to m#ke # tr#nsition to use mindless ,rute !orce #g#inst t)e opposition to t)e @IV )e w#s in!#mous !or )is mis)#ndling o! # num,er o! protests during )is termS)e !ired r#ilro#d workers #s well #s #tt#cking #nd !iring te#c)ers #nd I&66 p)ysici#ns !or striking #g#inst government corruption #nd mism#n#gement o! t)eir sectors. In 32M1 7:4 ordered t)e m#ss#cre o! ;student protesters< #t t)e l#-# o! =)ree Cultures (=l#telolco), 0E )is ide# ,eing to ;#ssure t)#t &e(ico success!ully )ost t)e 6ummer 4lympic 7#mes< (t)e !irst ever )eld in t)e =)ird Porld). :e,#te )#s ensued #s to )ow m#ny students were killed #t t)e l#-#Smost estim#tes v#rying !rom 2// to 3,8// student protesters killedSwit) E//
02

=)e )istory o! 7en#ro KJ-+ue- is not #v#il#,le in t)e "nglis) edition o! Pikepedi#, ,ut is #v#il#,le "$anis( (#nd oddly enoug) in 2utc() editions, )ttpABBes.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB7en#roYKJ-+ue-

in
0E

=)e =)ree Cultures cele,r#ted in &e(ico #re Indi#n*6p#nis)*&esti-o or &i(ed ,lood. 32H

, p. 328

,eing t)e consensus num,er.0H 7:4 #nd L"A cl#imed t)#t students opened !ire !rom ,uilding roo!tops #t t)e #rmy ,elow #t t)e l#-# o! =)ree Cultures, #nd we would not know until t)e 7overnment o! Kicente Co( (2///*2//M), w)en government?s secret !iles were opened, t)#t t)e opening s)ots were !ired ,y government secret #gents !iring !rom t)e #p#rtment o! Le#?s sister]in*l#w.08 =)e 32M1 &#ss#cre o! ;6tudents< is seen ,y m#ny #s m#rking yet #not)er t)e ;"nd o! t)e &e(ic#n @evolution,< #nd ;cert#inly t)e end o! t)e 4!!ici#l #rty.< Actu#lly, #s we know, t)e 4!!ici#l #rty did not come to #n end until 2/// Ssome E2 ye#rs l#ter. =)is reminds me o! t)e Indi#n students? revolution in 3212, in i#t# Universit#tii, w)en over 3./// students were s)ot in t)e centr#l University s+u#re, ,y Ce#usescu $icol#e?s securit#te.0M Bec#use t)e press, television, #nd r#dio were so well controlled, t)e rur#l #nd ur,#n murders were swept out o! sig)t #nd out o! mind. Hence, #s l#te #s 32M0 &e(ico w#s seen #s # ;development model !or t)e =)ird Porld.< Br#-il?s Francisco Buli`o (t)e politic#l le#der e(iled ,y Br#-il?s milit#ry dict#tors)ip)
0H

In re#lty not #ll were students. =)e c#lculus o! t)ose killed )#s oscill#ted ,etween -.. y /5;.. (#ccording to reporter C'li( CernJnde-). ,ut t)e concensus tot#l is E//. Net Vate 2oyle *riting in Proceso in -..@ coul! i!entify only ?? victims coul! 0e foun! #/. *it(out names& in Me)ican government arc(ives o$ene! 0y Presi!ent Fo)’s investigation3

www.gwu.eduBans#rc)ivB$6A"BBB$6A"BB2/3Binde(.)tm 6ee @eed Io)nson #nd &#rl# :ickerson, ;$ew Low !or H#ted Cormer Le#der ^"c)everrN#_, Los Angeles )imes, Iuly 28, 2//H. 0M @e#d 4lg# L#-in?s ,ook onlineA )ttpABBwww.scri,d.co mB d o cB 2 / E 1 E M M 0 2 B" s c # pi n g* Crom* =r#ns ylv # ni #* E/* Ce,=@A$6FLRpostYid T 2 8 E 1 H 8 0 Y 3 / 3 / E / M M 3 2 2 M E 1 3 M M c Y T Y on t)e Indi#n "(perie nc e o! revolution # r y stud e n t s . :r 4lg# L#-in
08

328

, p. 32M

decl#red, in my 4r#l History Interviews wit) )im in &e(ico City, t)#t t(e PRI is an i!eal $olitical system 0ecause it can maintain or!er *it( economic gro*t( 0ut allo* criticism 0y citi,ensSt)is only one ye#r ,e!ore o!!ici#lly*s#nctioned murders could no longer ,e )idden #!ter t)e #,ove #tt#ck on protesters (including m#ny students) #t t)e l#-# o! =)ree Cultures. =)e m#ss#cre o! 32M1 (#nd t)e l#ter m#ss#cre on Corpus C)risti :#y in 3203) !orced protesters to # di!!icult c)oiceA eit)er >oin t)e government or t)e emerging guerrill# movement. &#ny opponents o! t)e 4!!ici#l #rty went to Cu,# to tr#in #s guerrill#s #nd re*in!iltr#te &e(ico. =o !#cilit#te t)e tr#ns!er o! power !rom 7:4 to L"A, t)e l#tter insisted in 320/ t)#t #s t)e #nointed one to ,e elected in Iuly to ,ecome resident o! &e(ico on :ecem,er 3 t)#t t)e students )e )#d #rrested ()undreds, i! not t)ous#nds) ,e p#rdoned #nd t)#t t)e +a* of "ocial 2issolution ,e #,olis)ed** !in#lly. =oo, )e g#ve t)e vote to eig)teen*ye#r oldsS# student dem#nd t)#t w#s # useless one. 00 (Ironic#lly 7:4 got t)e credit, ,ut t)e tr#dition#l ide# o! t)e 4!!ici#l #rty re+uired t)#t t)e outgoing president would m#ke t)e em,#rr#ssing decisions in order so t)#t t)e new resident (in t)is c#se L"A) would )#ve #n e#sy # tr#nsition #s possi,le. =)ese tr#nsitions were ,ecoming )#rder to do #s t)e 4!!ici#l #rty )#d ,ecome more rut)less in its use o! t)e police powers o! t)e 6t#te.) ^F%>S9 FOR?>R5A A!ter 32M1 t)e c)oice o! protesters w#s
00

Ironic#lly, t)e rig)ts o! #ll citi-ens to vote were useless until 3220 w)en t)e votes o! citi-ens #ctu#lly were counted in t)e &e(ico City election !or &#yor. 32M

, p. 320

cle#rA ;Ioin t)e government #nd worked !or c)#nge !rom wit)in t)e 4!!ici#l #rty 6ystem or >oin t)e guerrill# movements. In 3202, t)e guerrill# le#der Lucio Ca0aYas w#s killed in 7uerrero st#te ,y !eder#l troops. According to WikipediaA ;C#,#f#s Z w#s # &e(ic#n sc)oolte#c)er w)o ,ec#me # revolution#ry, #l,eit not # &#r(ist one. C#,#f#s reg#rded "mili#no 5#p#t# #s )is role model #nd )e never #,#ndoned )is C)risti#n !#it)Z. He ,ec#me politic#lly #ctive w)en )e studied #t t)e 7uerrero $orm#l ^6c)ool to prep#re =e#c)ers_ #nd w#s # le#der o! t)e loc#l student union. In 32M2 )e w#s elected to t)e post o! 7ener#l 6ecret#ry o! t)e Ceder#tion o! 6oci#listic e#s#nt 6tudents o! &e(icoZ. P)en ^t)e princip#l o! #_ sc)ool in Atoy#c dem#nded t)#t #ll pupils we#r sc)ool uni!orms, C#,#f#s #rgued t)#t some !#milies were so poor t)ey could )#rdly !eed t)eir c)ildren, not to mention ,uy sc)ool uni!orms. ^=)e pro,lem resulted in # strike led ,y C#,#f#s #g#inst, #nd ended in s)ooting #nd de#t)s, !orcing )im to !lee to t)e mount#ins #nd >oin t)e group o! 7en#ro KJ-+ue- until KJ-+ue-X de#t) in 3202. ;C#,#f#s est#,lis)ed t)e dArmy o! t)e oor #nd e#s#ntXs Brig#de Ag#inst In>ustice.?_ =)ey num,ered per)#ps E// mem,ers #nd lived in t)e 7uerrero &ount#ins. He !in#nced )is group t)roug) kidn#ppings #nd ,#nk ro,,eriesZ.
320

, p. 321

;=)e &e(ic#n government sent 3M,/// soldiers to Z to )unt )im. Ci!ty o! t)em died during t)e c)#se. ;In :ecem,er 320H C#,#f#s kidn#pped @u,'n Ciguero#, governor o! 7uerrero. P)en t)e 3M,/// government troops sent to tr#ck )im down tried to rescue t)e governor, C#,#f#s committed suicide ,e!ore ,eing c#ptured. ;6ome s#y C#,#f#s did not die ,ut ended up in >#il. I! t)#t w#s t)e c#se )e pro,#,ly would )#ve ,een e(ecuted so t)#t symp#t)i-ers would ,elieve t)e re,ellion ended wit) )is de#t), ^t)us ending Ac#pulco?s crisis in tourism c#used ,y !e#r o! t)e C#,#f#s movement_. =)ere #re #lso num,ers o! legends #,out )im, including t)#t )e )#d !ive women ,odygu#rds #nd c#rried # ,#g !ull o! money t)#t )e distri,uted to t)e poor. =)ose #re most likely d=#ll =#les?V simil#r legends )#ve ,een ,uilt #round #nc)o Kill# #nd "mili#no 5#p#t#Z. ;In recent, ye#rs, C#,#f#s )#s ,ecome # le!t*wing icon in &e(ico, muc) like C)e 7uev#r# #nd 6u,com#nd#nte &#rcos. :uring recent soci#l movements, including t)e 2//M cl#s)es ,etween te#c)ers #nd t)e st#te government o! 4#(#c#. =)e !#ce o! C#,#f#s #ppe#red on ,#nners #longside t)ose o! 7uev#r# #nd Kl#dimir Lenin.< 78 _

01

Guote d !rom )ttpABB e n. wikipe di # . or gB wikiBLucioYC#, # f # s

321

, p. 322

In t)e me#ntime, t)e guerrill# le#der @#!#el 7uill'n, t)e !uture “"u0coman!ante Marcos”, tr#ined in Cu,# #nd ,ec#me # pro!essor in &e(ico City to plot re,ellion ,e!ore )e went into t)e >ungles o! C)i#p#s !rom 321H to 322H. =)ere, )e soug)t to cre#te # &#oist*type movement, #ccording to t)e m#ster!ul )istory o! t)e &e(ico?s guerill# movements written ,y Aernar! !e la :range (Le -onde, #ris) #nd Maite Rico (7l #a8s, &#drid).02 &#rcos will emerge only on I#nu#ry 3, 322H, #s we will see l#ter.

/-03 +uis Ec(everria-'lvare, #/<D.-/<D@& initiates Economic "tatism :uring L"A?s residency, t)e popul#tion incre#sed !rom 83 million in 320/ to M2 million in 320M.

Cigure M Luis "c)everrN# )#s >ust ,een in#ugur#ted #s resident ,y 7ust#vo :N#- 4rd#(Dec.1, 1970)

02

Aernar! !e la :range an! Maite Rico Mar c o s 1 %a Ge ni a l -m p o s t u r a (&'(ico, :.C.A Aguil#r, 3220)

322

, p. 3E/

64U@C"A )ttpABBwww.gwu.eduBans#rc)ivB$6A"BBB$6A"BB2/HBinde(.)tm ( icture courtesy o! Arc)ivo #roceso) ******

3E/

, p. 3E3

L"A #sked )imsel! #t t)e outset w)y t)e 7overnment s)ould s)#re pro!its wit) priv#te comp#nies. (He !#iled to re#li-e t)#t t)e riv#te 6ector gener#tes pro!its #nd t)e 7overnment gener#tes losses.)

ZF%>S9 FOR?>R5: +E'’s c(osen successor5 Presi!ent +E$e, -Portillo #BO+OPO&5 at first soug(t to $rotect t(e Private "ector5 0ut after t(ree years *ill s(ift to PE RO " ' E C'PI '+I"M5 an! 0y /<>- t(e Central :overnment *ill come to o*n nearly -5... 2ecentrali,e! 'gencies #inclu!ing /5/;; nationally-o*e! com$anies&5 almost all of *(ic( o$erate! *it( !eficits an! great inefficiency3[

=)e implicit motto o! L"A #nd I4L4 4 w#s, ;=)e 6t#te must t#ke over t)e m#>or riv#te 6ector, w)ic) uses pro!its !or priv#te purposes r#t)er t)#n

pu,lic good[. =)e sei-ed comp#nies g#ve two presidents c#pit#l t)#t t)ey tended to use not #s u,lic 6ector !unds ,ut c#s) !or t)eir own priv#te needs #nd

implicit glorious monuments o! in!r#structure to t)emselves m#ny o! w)ic) will crum,le in &e(ico City?s e#rt)+u#ke o! 3218 owing to s)oddy construction.

"c)everrN# soug)t to dist#nce )imsel! !rom )is close rel#tions)ip wit) 7:4 #nd dis#vow rumors t)#t ,ot) were on t)e p#yroll o! t)e CIA. =o emp)#si-e t)is point, )e turned #w#y !rom supporting U.6. policy in t)e U.$. #nd on most o! its world policy initi#tives.
3E3

, p. 3E2

*******
I$6"@= !igure 0 "CH"K"@@IA Leg#l @"K

*****

3E2

, p. 3EE

L"A especi#lly moved to e(p#nd &e(ico?s intern#l 6t#te power over #n ever* e(p#nding #gend#, w)ic) #lw#ys worried t)e U.6. government #nd U.6. priv#te investors doing ,usiness in &e(ico. =o e(p#nd t)e role o! t)e 6t#te in &e(ico, L"A #ttempted to set in motion # “legal revolution” wit) so m#ny new #nd unwork#,le l#ws t)#t !ew could underst#nd t)em** see Figure D3 =o c#rry out t)e Leg#l @evolution (#s well #s to +uiet opposition to t)e 4!!ici#l #rty), L"A w#s determined to pl#ce #s m#ny #c#demics #nd intellectu#ls on t)e government p#yroll #s possi,le, t)is re+uiring t)#t evermore enterprises ,e n#tion#li-ed in order to m#ke pl#ces to put )is new )ires. ro!essors were given generous gr#nts #nd )ig)er p#y to consult #,out t)e new l#ws #nd t)e ,ure#ucr#cy to m#ke t)em work #s well to keep t)em ,usy writing t)eir own studies #nd ,ooks**r#t)er t)#n politic#l tr#cts.

L"A contri,uted to t)e development o! &e(ico?s tourist industry ,y constructing t)e world*!#mous resort city o! C#nc\n ,#sed on its pristine ,e#c)es. Alt)oug) )e pro!ited ,y ,eing t)e 7od C#t)er !or development o! tourist industry #t C#nc\n (w)ere only # sm#ll vill#ge )#d e(isted), !ortun#tely )e #ssured protection o t)e cle#r w#ter #nd incredi,le color o! t)e se# w)ic) ;c)#nges su,tly t)roug)out t)e d#y !rom p#le #+u# #t d#wn to deep tur+uoise #t noon to cerule#n

3EE

, p. 3EH

,lue under t)e ,l#-ing #!ternoon sun to pink*spl#s)ed purple during t)e eleg#nt sunset.<1/ =o L"A?s discredit, )e did not end smoking in &e(ico ,ut ended !oreign domin#nce o! t)e to,#cco industry ,y cre#ting t)e "tate o0acco Com$any ( 'A'MEX) comp#ny 829 owned ,y t)e 7overnment, t)e rem#ining H19 to ,e )eld e+u#lly ,y to,#cco comp#nies #nd !#rmers.81 He e(p#nded smoking under government sponsors)ip. Un!ortun#tely !or &e(ico, L"A?s ;n#tion#li-#tion< o! ="L&"D in 3202 w#s supposed to e(tend service w)ere t)e priv#te sector )#d not, ,ut suc) ,ene!it never c#me. er)#ps ,ec#use (#) necess#ry implementing legisl#tion w#s del#yed until 320HV or (,) new government investment l#rgely went into t#pping t)e telep)one o! #nyone suspected o! v#rying !rom t)e 4!!ici#l #rty discipline. Indeed L"A >usti!ied t)e n#tion#li-#tion o! ="L&"D to )is security c#,inet #s giving t)e @I gre#ter control to prevent dissent. Crom 3202 to until its priv#ti-#tion in 322/, government*owned ="L&"D continued to m#ke it #ll ,ut impossi,le to procure # p)one line to oneXs )ome or even o!!ice wit)out p#ying )uge ,ri,es directly to t)e telep)one inst#llers, w)o worked on t)eir own r#t)er t)#n !or t)e st#te*telep)one monopoly w)ere t)ey were employed. 6ome >oked t)#t ;primitive c#pit#lism< w#s t)riving in &e(ico. In re#lity ="L&"D w#s only p#rtly n#tion#li-ed #nd w#s oper#ted !rom 3202 to 322/ #s # mi(ed pu,lic*priv#te comp#ny, wit) 839 o! t)e s)#res owned
1/ 13

6ee www.e( plor e c # n c u n . c o m Bi n!oB , e # c ) . s ) t m l 6ee )ttpABBselect.nytimes.comBgstB#,str#ct.)tmlRresTC0/23HCCEC823/0A2ECMAB301A:28CHM1018C2

3EH

, p. 3E8

,y t)e government. Alt)oug) t)e system ne#rly completely p)#sed out oper#tors, # customer t)#t re+uested # telep)one line !rom ="L&"D )#d to w#it, ;on #ver#ge, #,out t)ree ye#rs !or # )ookup. =)#t comp#red to eig)t ye#rs in Kene-uel#, ,ut >ust # !ew d#ys in t)e United 6t#tes, I#p#n, #nd most o! "urope. In #ddition, t)e )ookup !ee !or # single ,usiness line could cost U8// or more. Curt)ermore, #t #ny one time #,out 3/9 o! #ll t)e p)one lines in &e(ico were out o! service. =o m#ke m#tters worse, t)e government )#d ,een incre#sing long* dist#nce prices (t)roug) t)e t#() #t # r#pid p#ce, to t)e point w)ere t)e cost o! # c#ll )#d ,ecome pro)i,itive !or m#ny customers.<12 In !oreign policy,1E "c)everrN# tr#veled overse#s more e(tensively t)#n #ny o! )is predecessors, visiting E8 countries #nd t)e K#tic#n #nd meeting wit) MH )e#ds o! government. He est#,lis)ed diplom#tic rel#tions wit) M2 n#tions. L"A em,r#ced t)e development concept known #s ;dependency t)eory< w)ic) #rgued t)#t =)ird Porld countries could #c)ieve economic growt) #nd development only ,y cutting o!! t)eir economic #nd politic#l dependence on t)e industri#li-ed world, especi#lly t)e U6A. =o t)is end, )e est#,lis)ed in &e(ico City is Center !or =)ird Porld 6tudies. In 320E, #!ter t)e overt)row o! Allende, "c)everrN# re!used to recogni-e t)e new C)ile#n government, ,roke diplom#tic rel#tions wit) C)ile #nd
12

6ee www.!un di n g u ni v e r s e . c o m B c o m p # n y* )istorie sB=el e!o n o s* de* &e(ico* 6A*de* CK* Comp # n y* History.)t ml
1E

=)is discus sio n dr#ws uponA www.)erit # g e . o r gB@ e s e # r c ) BL#ti nAm e ric #B , g M E 1 . c! m

3E8

, p. 3EM

welcomed gre#t num,ers o! le!tist re!ugees !rom t)#t country. &#ny C)ile#n pro!essors w)o >oined t)e !#culty #t t)e $#tion#l University o! &e(ico (U$A&) c#used )#voc ,y #dvoc#ting promotions wit)in t)e University ,#sed upon ideology r#t)er t)#n #c#demic rese#rc) #nd pu,lic#tion. (&ost o! t)e C)ile#n pro!essors returned )ome, especi#lly #!ter t)e dict#tor inoc)et?s lost )is 322/ ple,e cite to rem#in in power.) 4ne o! "c)everrN#?s initi#tives w#s t)e so*c#lled C)#rter o! "conomic @ig)ts #nd :uties #pproved ,y t)e United $#tions in 320H ,y # vote o! 32/ to M, wit) 3/ #,stentions. =)e c)#rter w#s # collection o! =)ird Porld compl#ints #nd positions ,l#ming industri#li-ed countries #s t)e m#in c#use o! economic ,#ckw#rdness. Alt)oug) it #dded no new positions, t)e #doption o! t)e c)#rter ,y t)e United $#tions g#ve "c)everrN# # c#use to promote on )is trips #round t)e world

In 3208 L"A ,lundered in )is #ttempt to medi#te ,etween Isr#el #nd #lestine ,y st#ting t)#t )e #greed wit) # proposed U.$. resolution t)#t ;5ionism is r#cism.< =)e U.6. Iewis) community immedi#tely cl#mped #n em,#rgo on Iewis) investment in #nd tourism to &e(ico, w)ic) wounded &e(ico?s economy.

:iscovery o! gi#nt oil reserves in t)e 7ul! o! &e(ico w#s mism#n#ged ,y L"A, w)o soug)t to keep t)e !ind # secret !rom t)e U6A so t)#t )e could use oil #s # ,#rg#ining c)ip in )is #rguments to e(p#nd t)e rig)t !or &e(ic#n ,r#ceros to
3EM

, p. 3E0

g#in work permits !rom t)e U.6. government #nd #lso to g#in ,etter tre#tment o! &e(ic#ns living wit)out leg#l permission in t)e U6A. He !e#red t)#t t)e U6A would not respond to )is dem#nds on immigr#tion m#tters i! it knew #,out t)e oil !ind. In )is mind, L"A ,elieved t)#t t)e U.6. government would dem#nd #ccess to c)e#p oil #s its ,#rg#ining c)ip. But keeping t)e oil !ind # secret w#s #lso undermining !#it) in !oreign investors, w)o were concerned t)#t L"A?s spending spree to support )is Leg#l @evolution #nd 6t#te empowerment me#nt t)#t &e(ico )#d gone !rom t)e "r# o! :evelopment wit) 6t#,ility to #n "r# o! Inst#,ility t)#t would eventu#lly ,#nkrupt t)e country. =)e world w#tc)ed wit) s)ock #s L"A incre#sed &e(ico?s tot#l !oreign de,t in re#l terms !rom U6U3M ,illion in 320/ (t)e ye#r )e took o!!ice) to UHH ,illion (t)e ye#r )e le!t)Ssee Cigure 8, #,ove. Indeed in l#te 320M, L"A?s e(p#nsion o! !eder#l e(penditure wit)out concern !or in!l#tion, me#nt t)#t )e would )#ve to dev#lued t)e peso to 2/ per doll#r, !rom 32.8/ per doll#r t)#t )#d )eld since 328H** 22*ye#rs o! peso st#,ility c#me to #n end. =)us t)e 4!!ici#l #rty lost prestige #t )ome #nd #,ro#d. Until )is im#gin#ry world o! power coll#psed in t)e peso crisis o! 320M, L"A )#d ,elieved t)#t t)e peso could ,ecome t)e reserve currency to repl#ce t)e doll#r in world economic #!!#irs #nd t)#t )e could ,ecome 6ecret#ry 7ener#l o! t)e United $#tions. L"A?s printing o! pesos to r#ise worker w#ges ,#ck!ired,

3E0

, p. 3E1

destroying t)e sm#ll g#ins workers )#d received, #nd L"A )imsel! le!t o!!ice in discredit.

/- c 3

BosF +E$ e , Portill o #/ < D @ - /< > - & 5 Petr o- "t a t i s m Gn! e r “:o

BO+OPO” Under I4L4 4, t)e popul#tion o! &e(ico grew !rom M2 million in 320M to 0E million in 3212. =#king power in :ecem,er 320M, I4L4 4 )#d to m#>or go#lsA #a& est#,lis) t)e $#tion#l C#mily l#nning rogr#m to #ggressively reduce &e(ico?s )ig) tot#l !ertility r#te, w)ic) stood #t D3. (!rom 328/ to 320/). =)is rogr#m w#s one o! I4L4 4?s !ew re#l successes. 1H =)e c)#nge in #ttitude to )elp &e(ic#ns underst#nd t)e country w#s no longer ;under popul#ted<, t)e issue t)#t LJ-#ro C#rden#s )#d seen #s # m#>or pro,lem during )is presidency. I4L4 4?s e!!orts p#id dividends #s t)e !ertility r#te decre#sed to ?3- (!or t)e !ive*ye#r #ver#ge !rom 321/ to 3218), #nd -3; (2///*2//8).

#0& restore t)e con!idence o! t)e riv#te 6ector, w)ic) )#d !e#red investing in L"A?s ,u,,le economy.

1H

(e rate (a! stoo! at @3< in /<;;3 6ee U.$. c)#rt in !irst source, ,elowA )ttpABBglo,#lis.gvu.unu.eduBindic#torYdet#il.c!mRIndic#torI:T3E1QCountryT&D www.country*d#t#.comBcgi*,inB+ueryBr*1023.)tml www.#irnin>#.comBworl:.C.#ctsBcountriesB&e(icoB!ertilityr#te.)tm

3E1

, p. 3E2

=)us, during )is !irst E ye#rs in o!!ice, I4L4 4 set out to develop #n Alli#nce wit) t)e riv#te 6ector #nd to cre#te growt) poles in #ll corners o! t)e country ,y using t#( incentives.

But wit) Ar#, oil money !lowing into &e(ico to develop "&"D vi# $ew Fork ,#nks (w)o were p#id outr#geous commissions #nd w)o received enormous ;kick,#cks<) especi#lly during t)e l#st E ye#rs in o!!ice, I4L4 4 decided t)#t )e w#s )imsel! 7od. He s#w )imsel! #s Xuet,alcEatl, t)e A-tec?s most ;,ene!icent< 7od w)o )#d le!t #cross t)e se# to t)e "#st,18 ,ut w)o ;promised to return< w)en neededV #nd in )is m#dness o! wild e(penditure (e.g. on pipelines !or oil #nd g#s le#ding now)ere), ;7od I4L4 4<, now #rrog#nt #nd pompous, put &e(ico on t)e ro#d to ,#nkruptcyB

I4L4 4?s Petro-"tatism used t)e income !rom t)e +uintupling o! oil prices (c#used ,y two 4 "C oil em,#rgos #g#inst t)e U6A) to curt#il !urt)er t)e p#rtners)ip o! priv#te comp#nies owned >ointly since t)e 32H/s ,y U.6. #nd &e(ic#n investors #s well #s to end m#ny p#rtners)ips t)#t )#d emerged since t)e 32M/s ,etween t)e 7overnment #nd t)e riv#te 6ector.

18

Cort's victory over t)e A-tecs w#s w#s !#cilit#ted ,y t)e !#ct t)#t &octe-um# origin#lly t)oug)t in 3832 t)#t Cort's w#s Xuet,alcEatl, in A-tec myt)ology t)e !irst c)ie! o! t)e dyn#sty, w)o would return !rom t)e 4rient #nd ret#ke power. &octe-um# )#d ordered t)e co#st #t Ker#cru- to ,e w#tc)ed. 6ee )ttpABBvirtu#lology.comB#pmonte-um#B

3E2

, p. 3H/

$ACI$6A (t)e $#tion#l :evelopment B#nk) )#d gr#du#lly t#ken over p#rts o! t)e &e(ic#n steel industry.1M Altos Hornos (AH&6A, &e(ico?s !irst pl#nt d#ting !rom 32//) w#s #,sor,ed #!ter Porld P#r IIV t)e Cundidor# &onterrey w#s t#ken over ,y $ACI$6A in t)e crisis c#used ,y L"A?s dev#lu#tion o! t)e peso in 320MA #nd in 3201 I4L4 4 decided to n#tion#li-e t)e steel mill #t ort LJ-#ro CJrden#s in t)e st#te o! &ic)o#cJn (6ider\rgic# LJ-#ro CJrden#s L#s =ruc)#s). =o do t)e l#tter, )e cre#ted 6I:"@&"D #s # )olding comp#ny to #dminister it #long wit) t)e pl#nts ;owned< ,y $ACI$6A. =)e w)ole sc)eme coll#psed in I4L4 4?s dev#lu#tion o! t)e peso in 3212, ,ut priv#ti-#tion would not come until 3223.

By t)e de#t) o! I4L4 4?s cr#-y*style 6t#tism, t)e government o! &e(ico owned 3,388 enterprises**t)e gre#t m#>ority oper#ted #s ine!!icient, over*st#!!ed st#te monopolies. P)en I4L4 4 le!t o!!ice, no one knew )ow m#ny o! t)ese enterprises even e(isted. =)#t would come out in t)e intern#tion#l #udit o! &e(ico?s #ssets ,y creditors !rom #round t)e world.

IAL4 4 #stounded &e(ico t)e world ,y t#king &e(ico?s !oreign de,t !rom # rel#tively sm#ll G"P?? 0illion (w)en )e took o!!ice in 320M) to # )uge

1M

6ee www.ip#,.org.m(B/3Y#cerc#Yip#,Borigen.)tml #nd www.economi#.un#m.m(Bpu,lic#cionesBeconun#mBp:.C.sB/2B/H"milio6#crist#n.p:.C. 3H/

, p. 3H3

P/?? 0illion in /<>-. P)en t)e world oil price coll#psed in 3212, I4L4 4 could not m#ke p#yments on t)e de,t, &e(ico !ound itsel! ,#nkruptcy, w)ere upon )e n#tion#li-ed t)e priv#te ,#nks, trying to ,l#me t)em !or )is mess. =rue, customers o! t)e ,#nks (including )imsel!) )#d s)i!ted money out o! t)e country to #void t)e in!l#tion t)#t )e )#d c#used, ,ut sel!*preserv#tion w#s not illeg#l until )e m#de it soS,ut only #!ter )e )#d put )is money into property #nd ,#nks in Coron#do Be#c), C#li!orni#.

=)e dev#lu#tion o! t)e peso in 3212 m#de it costly to ,uy one U.6. doll#rA 2M.8 pesos.

$eedless to s#y, I4L4 4?s reput#tion w#s ruined in 3212, long ,e!ore revel#tions t)#t )e )#d #s resident ordered genocide in t)e ;:irty P#r.< =)us, )e would go down in )istory (#long wit) L"A) #s )#ving ,een # ;monstrous le#der< o! &e(ico.

/=3 RI"E OF 'C IIE-" ' I"M5 /<>=-/=a3 Carlos "alinas #im$licitly /<>=-/<>>S an! e)$licitly /<>>-/<<?& lay 0asis for t(e = $resi!ents *(o (ave follo*e! (im w)en t)e Active*6t#te wing o! t)e 4!!ici#l #rtly wins control o! t)e @I*7o,iernoA =)e popul#tion o! &e(ico rose !rom 08 million in 321E to 2/ million in 322H, during w)ic) time :r. C#rlos "alinas de 7ort#ri ( H:, H#rv#rd University), e!!ectively ,ecomes resident o! &e(ico !or two terms (3212*322H),
3H3

, p. 3H2

#nd ,ringing into position t)e gener#tion o! t)e “tec(nocrats”. =)is word )#s # neg#tive connot#tion in "nglis), ,ut in 6p#nis) “tFcnicos” )#s # positive one, i! l#ced wit) irony #s time )#s gone on under t)ose wit) )ig)er studies in t)e U6A. Ironic#lly, #s 6ecret#ry o! rogr#mming an! Budget (3212*3210), 6#lin#s ,uilt into t)#t ministry coordin#ted control re#c)ing into every #spect o! government t)#t g#ve )im more control over t)e economy #nd society control t)#n t)e ;nomin#l< resident Miguel !e la Ma!ri!, under w)om 767 served #nd t)e virtu#l resident. $omin#l resident Lic. !e la Ma!ri! (:ec. 3212*:ec. 3211), w)o )#d received )is &.A. !rom H#rv#rd University, now, #s resident, m#inly concerned )imsel! wit) politic#l #nd ceremoni#l m#tters. In 6#lin#s second term, )e w#s resident in )is own rig)t (:e. 3211*:ec. 322H), #nd t#ke !ull control o! politics #s well.

In 321E 6#lin#s )#d to immedi#tely !#ce t)e pro,lem o! t)e !oreign de,t. He ;solved< it w)en )e #ppointed :r. Ernesto He!illo, # young pro!essor o! economics #t "l Colegio de &'(ico, to drew upon )is e(pertise g#ined #t F#le University. H#ving written )is H: dissert#tion on &e(ico?s !oreign de,t, 5edillo c#me up t)e pl#n !or stretc)ing out t)e de,t pro,lem in order s#ve t)e riv#te 6ector, w)ic) owned millions t)#t it could not p#y to !oreign ,#nks #nd lenders, #s did t)e #utonomous #gencies, w)ic) )#d +uietly e#c) ,orrowed #,ro#d on t)e ,#sis t)#t t)eir lo#ns would ,e ,#cked ,y t)e !eder#l government o!
3H2

, p. 3HE

&e(ico. Un!ortun#tely, t)e e(tent o! t)e decentr#li-ed de,t w#s unknown to &e(ico?s &inister o! =re#sury, #nd no,ody knew t)e e(tent o! t)e pro,lem, let #lone )ow m#ny #utonomous #gencies even e(isted. =)e I&C, !oreign governments, #nd !oreign lenders dem#nded #n #udit to determine t)e de,ts #nd #ssets o! t)e Centr#l #nd :ecentr#li-ed 7overnments. $o one w#nted t)is in!orm#tion more t)#n 6#lin#s, w)o needed to know t)e e(tent o! t)e economic mess le!t ,y I4L4 4. =)us, t)e government took over #ll ;v#lid< priv#te*sector !oreign de,ts #nd some domestic de,t to negoti#te # settlement t)#t creditors only ,e rep#id over time t)roug) # government ;de,t*)olding !und<, in 321H o!!ici#lly n#med FO1'PRE , #nd eventu#lly c#lled FOA'PRO' (322/) #nd t)en IP'A (3222). ^F%>S9 FOR?>R5A I AB will ,e set up to m#n#ge t)e !#llout !rom t)e eso Crisis o! 322H*3228.10

And, un!ortun#tely !or 6#lin#s, 5edillo could not #,olis) t)e #ccumul#ted re#l !oreign de,t o! U6U 3HH ,illion in 3212, w)ic) dr#ined t)e #,ility o! &e(ico to invest in t)e country?s development. In 3211 t)e re#l !oreign de,t )#d declined to U322 ,illion, #nd in 322H rise to U6U 388 ,illion. :uring 3228, 5edillo?s !irst !ull ye#r in o!!ice #s resident, t)e re#l !oreign de,t would ,#lloon to U6U 300 ,illion. Cor

10

6ome o,servers )#ve suggested, tongue*in*c)eek, t)#t 5edillo s)ould now ,e c#lled !rom )is current post #t )e#d o! F#le?s 7lo,#li-#tion Center to #pply )is &e(ic#n de,t solution o! t)e 321/?s to t)e U.6. credit meltdown o! 2//1*2/3/. 3HE

, p. 3HH

t)e long*term series on nomin#l #nd re#l d#t# !or &e(ico?s !oreign de,t, see Cigure 8._ Fet 6#lin#s #nd )is !in#nci#l #dvisor 5edillo (working #t t)e B#nk o! &e(ico, 321E*3210V #nd =re#sury &inistry, 3210*3222) )#d s#ved priv#te c#pit#lism in &e(ico !rom going ,#nkrupt, #nd t)e >oke w#s on I4L4 4, w)o t)oug)t t)#t )e )#d once*#nd*!or*#ll wiped out t)e riv#te 6ector. But I4L4 4 did c#use )#voc #nd # ten*ye#r ,#ttle !or 6#lin#s to rig)t t)e country #!ter )e wrecked its policym#king m#c)ine w)en )e n#tion#li-ed t)e priv#te ,#nks in 3212 to #tt#ck )is ;enemies< w)o were ;guilty< o! )#ving destroyed t)e &e(ic#n economy to spite )is role #s ;7od.< I4L4 4?s in!#ntile #tt#ck on t)e riv#te 6ector is #kin to Hitler?s pl#n to !lood t)e su,w#ys to kill innocent women, c)ildren, #nd t)e #ged !or not )#ving t#ken up #rms to prevent @ussi#?s c#pture o! Berlin in 32H8. At le#st Hitler !#iled in t)#t venge#nceS I4L4 4 did succeed in )#rming &e(ico?s development . ZF%>S9 FOR?>R5: In l#te 3222, G"P / *as *ort( =5/D; pesos ,e!ore 6#lin#s could st#,ili-e in!l#tion #nd e(penditure. At t)#t point #nd #!ter # ten*ye#r ,#ttle )e w#s #,le to convert t)e e(c)#nge r#te to G"P / to =3/D $esos5 #s o! I#nu#ry 3, 322E.11_

11

6ee www.nytimes.comB3222B32B2/Btr#velBtr#vel*#dvisory*new*peso*!or*me(ico*on*>#n* 3.)tml C!. t)e I&C peso series, w)ic) converts d#t# !or its long*term series !or &e(ico #s o! 321M. 3HH

, p. 3H8

=)e need to reign government spending (#nd t)us in!l#tion) w#s complic#ted ,y t)e 3218 e#rt)+u#ke t)#t destroyed muc) o! downtown &e(ico City, le#ding to t)ous#nds o! de#t)s. ; resident< &iguel l# &#drid w#s p#r#ly-ed ,y t)e de#t) #nd destruction, #nd un#,le to #ssume #ny le#ders)ip role, w)ic) pl#ced more ,urden on 6#lin#s t)#n )e #lre#dy )#d #ssumed to strengt)en t)e n#tion#l recovery process.

=)e ,rig)t side o! t)e e#rt)+u#ke w#s t)#t !or t)e !irst time in &e(ic#n )istory t)e popul#tion )#d to #ssume le#ders)ip in its own rig)t wit)out w#iting !or orders !rom t)e government, t)e milit#ry, or t)e police. &e(ico City?s popul#tion s)i!ted !rom p#ssive civil society (w)ic) m#inly votes !or ot)ers) to #ctive Civic 6ociety. =)e Civic role )ere involved >oining wit) ot)ers to ,egin t)e rescue process, m#rs)#l w#ter ,rig#des to put out !ires #nd connect electricity to #re#s wit)out t)e #,ility to survive ot)erwise. =)e popul#ce !ormed itsel! to ;police< t)e #!!ected #re#s #g#inst looting #nd served to direct tr#!!ic #s well #s #rr#nge !or !ood supplies to ,e distri,uted.

In!l#tion #nd e(penditure pro,lems complic#ted 6#lin#s?s need to get &e(ico City !unctioning #!ter t)#t m#ssive 3218 e#rt)+u#ke.

Un!ortun#tely !or &e(ico #nd t)e U6A, 3218 w#s t)e ye#r in w)ic) ,ot) countries re#li-ed )ow serious drug violence in &e(ico )#d ,ecome. U.6. :"A
3H8

, p. 3HM

#gent Enri9ue Camarena w#s kidn#pped in ,ro#d d#ylig)t in 7u#d#l#>#r#, tortured, #nd t)en e(ecuted ,y drug de#lers.12 He )#d in!iltr#ted drug tr#!!icking rings #nd success!ully )elped ,re#k up m#ny o! t)em. He m#n#ged to keep )is !#ce out t)e newsp#pers even t)oug) )is n#me w#s well known. 4ne o! t)e groups )e w#s !ollowing m#n#ged to identi!y #nd e(ecute )im. =)e :"A, working wit) &e(ic#n police, identi!ied two &e(ic#n citi-ens #s suspects t)e C#m#ren# torture*murder c#seA i) Hum,erto alvare, -Mac(a4n, t)e p)ysici#n w)o #llegedly prolonged C#m#ren#Xs li!e so t)e torture could continue, #nd ii) Bavier ICs9ue,-Ielasco. Bec#use o! &e(ic#n leg#l ,#rriers to e(tr#dition, U.6. #gents kidn#pped #nd took t)em to t)e U6A. :espite vigorous protests !rom t)e &e(ic#n government, blv#re- w#s tried in United 6t#tes :istrict Court in Los Angeles. =)e tri#l resulted in #n #c+uitt#l. KJs+ue-*Kel#sco w#s #rrested !or )is #lleged involvement in t)e murder #nd sentenced to t)ree li!e sentences. By tending to ignore t)e illeg#l drug tr#de, elements o! t)e @I seemingly re#c)ed #ccommod#tions wit) m#ny drug lords, #nd Ra_l "alinas !e :ortari (,rot)er o! Kirtu#l resident C#rlos "alinas) would eventu#lly ,e linked to some o! t)em #s )is ;generous !riends.< B6 gives m#ny sources linking @#\l to :ocuments !rom t)e 4!!ice o! &e(ico?s Attorney 7ener#l #nd t)e $#tion#l Anti* :rug Institute reve#ling t)#t @#ul 6#lin#s )#d ties wit) drug lords in &e(ico #s

12

=)e !ollowing dr#ws upon )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB"nri+ueYC#m#ren# 3HM

, p. 3H0

e#rly #s 3210.2/

Reforma newsp#per o,t#ined copies o! two sep#r#te reports indic#ting t)#t t)e e(*presidentXs ,rot)er )#d ties wit) (i) t)e )e#ds o! t)e "inaloa Cartel’s led ,y Boa9uin 8El C(a$o8 :u,man-+oera5</ #nd (ii) t)e :ulf Cartel’s Buan :arcia-'0rego (w)ose uncle !ounded t)is c#rtel in t)e 320/ to smuggle w)iskey into &e(ico ,e!ore Iu#n moved into smuggling drugs into U6A in t)e 321/s). According to one o! t)e documents, @#\l 6#lin#s )#d gu#r#nteed protection to t)e Iu#n 7#rcN#*A,rego #t t)e time C#rlos 6#lin#s w#s c#ndid#te in 3210 to ,ecome president in )is own n#me.22

&e#nw)ile, ; resident< de l# &#drid #lien#ted t)e

@I?s ;:emocr#tic

Current< led ,y uauhtAmoc CCr!enas-"olor,ano (CC", t)e son o! LJ-#ro) #nd Por0irio Munb,--+e!o5 w)o were ;!orced< to le#ve t)e @I in 3210. =)ey

!ounded &e(ico?s :emocr#tic Cront (!orerunner o! t)e @: * see ,elow) in t)eir

2/

6ee )ttpABBwww.p,s.orgBwg,)Bp#gesB!rontlineBs)owsBicoBnewsBre!orm#.)tml

:uring t)e 321/s, "l C)#po (w)ic) me#ns ;6)orty<, in "nglis)) w#s #ir tr#!!ic coordin#tor !or Miguel angel FFli)-:allar!o (known #s ;=)e 7od!#t)er< o! #lV n#rcotr#!ic#ntes #nd #s ;+or! of t(e "Jies< (;"l 6efor de los Cielos<) ,ec#use )e w#s t)e !irst to use #ir tr#nsport o! drugs in m#>or w#y), )e#d o! t)e domin#nt drug tr#!!icking group in &e(ico #t t)#t time. A!ter C'li( 7#ll#rdoXs c#pture in 3212 ()ttpABBwww.encyclopedi#.comBdocB3 2*331H811.)tml ), "l C)#po 7u-mJn ,eg#n t#king control o! t)e org#ni-#tion #nd soon g#ined notoriety #s director o! t)e "inaloa Cartel3 6ee discussion #t /=!3-, ,elow.
91

Iu#n w#s c#ptured in 322M #nd is currently serving eleven li!e terms in # m#(imum*security !eder#l prison in Color#do. 3H0
92

, p. 3H1

struggle to de!e#t #t t)e polls 6#lin#s? c)eris)ed 6t#tism.

@I, w)ic) )#d turned #g#inst t)eir

Cu#u)t'moc CJrden#s #ctu#lly won t)e election o! 3211, #ccording to t)e vote*count trend est#,lis)ed ,e!ore t)e ;computers cr#s)ed< to reve#l t)#t t)e @I )#d lost. Cu#u)t'moc #pp#rently m#de # secret wit) de#l C#rlos 6#lin#s #,out w)ic) we know little e(cept t)#t it w#s )idden !rom Por0irio Munb,-+e!o ( resident o! t)e n#scent t)e @:), #nd t)e de#l #llowed C#rlos 6#lin#s to t#ke power. Bec#use t)e centr#l*election*computer cr#s) (w)ic) we now know w#s !#ked) prevented t)e vote count !rom ,eing veri!ied in t)e time limits est#,lis)ed ,y l#w, Cu#u)t'moc eit)er !elt t)#t )e did not w#nt to cre#te # crisis t)#t could le#d to ,loods)ed #ndBor )e m#y )#ve re#li-ed t)#t 6#lin#s w#s t)e rig)t m#n to ,egin to dism#ntle t)e e(cessive Corpor#tivist in!r#structure ,uilt into t)e @I 7overnment #nd its 6indic#tos #s well #s t)e role o! 6indic#tos in m#ny priv#te comp#nies.

Alt)oug) muc) )#s dism#ntlement )#s t#ken pl#ce since 321E, in 322H, #nd still in 2/3/, t)e Corpor#tivist system still wields m#>or power in #ll decisions o! 6t#te.

Beginning in 321E, 6#lin#s led # Counter*@evolution !rom wit)in t)e 4!!ici#l #rty o! t)e @evolution. 6#lin#s ended t)e ever*rising power o! t)e 6t#te ,y
3H1

, p. 3H2

ending e(cessive societ#l regul#tion, even #s )e #ccumul#ted centr#li-ed politic#l power !or )imsel!. A!ter )#ving recogni-ed t)e !#ilure o! 6t#tism, w)erein t)e Centr#l 7overnment #nd its decentr#li-ed #gencies )#d come to control more t)#n )#l! (per)#ps M/9) o! t)e 7: o! &e(ico #s well #s )e#vily regul#te #ll priv#te #ctivity, Anti*6t#tism w#s 6#lin#s m#>or !ocus #t !irst ,ut soon s)i!ted to Active 6t#tism** #!ter # w#ve o! selling*o!! government industries, especi#lly t)e telep)one system t)#t w#s sold !or # pitt#nce to C#rlos 6lim (w)o p#rl#yed t)#t comp#ny?s implicit we#lt) into )is person#l !ortune to ,ecome t)e ric)est person in t)e world). 3212A Cor )is own residenti#l c#mp#ign, 6#lin#s used )is intellectu#l ,#ckground, to >usti!y )is role w)ic) c#lled !or li,er#li-ing t)e economy w)ile protecting people w)o were not in # position to protect t)emselves (t)e unemploy#,le, t)e dis#,led, t)e #ged, t)e c)ildren in need, etc.)S)e c#lled t)is #ppro#c) ;"ocial +i0eralism< to distinguis) it !rom U.6. Li,er#lism #nd to #void #ny de,#te #,out t)e role o! t)e Active 6t#te #nd Anti*6t#te policy. (=)e ide# o! ;6oci#l Li,er#lism< w#s e(tensively revived in "urope #nd )#s since ,ecome # ,#sis !or t)e "urope#n Union #s decentr#li-ed Active 6t#te.)

=o implement )is ideology, 6#lin#s est#,lis)ed )is system o! ; "oli!arity.<2E =)e 1ational "oli!arity Program (PRO1'"O+) t)#t gr#nted !unds to
2E

=wo views wit) e(celle n t d#t # #reA # gen e r #lly positive #n#lysis, see www.>stor.orgBp s s B E 3 1 8 3 8 3 #nd # gen e r #lly neg # tiv e one, see www.+u e s ti #.c o m B g o o gl e 6 c ) ol #r. + s t R d o cId T 2 1 H 1 M H / 3 3H2

, p. 38/

communities !or pro>ects t)#t t)ey need (sc)ools, clinics, ,ridges, irrig#tion systems, etc.), provided t)#t t)ey do t)e work t)emselves or volunteer to )elp outside comp#nies do speci#li-ed #spect. Curt)er, community le#ders)ip will )#ve to collectively oversee e(penditures to e(p#nd t)eir civic consciousness #nd civic dem#nds upon t)e centr#l government in &e(ico City.

=)is m#rks 6#lin#?s s)i!t !rom Anti*6t#tism to reest#,lis)ing t)e ;Active 6t#te< under # di!!erent n#me.

Imme!iately after taJing office as Presi!ent in (is o*n rig(t5 "alinas recogni,es t(e election in AaMa California of Ernesto Ruffo-'$$el5 t(e first o$$osition governor--a mem0er of P'13

4n t)e crime !ront, #lt)oug) n#rcotr#!ic#nte Miguel angel FFli)-:allar!o, t)e ;7od C#t)er< #nd C#po o! t)e 7u#d#l#>#r# C#rtel w#s #rrested #nd inc#rcer#ted in 3212, )e rem#ined one o! &e(icoXs m#>or tr#!!ickers, m#int#ining )is org#ni-#tion vi# cell p)one !rom prison until )e w#s tr#ns!erred to # new m#(imum security prison in t)e 322/s. At t)#t point, )is 7u#d#l#>#r# C#rtel, ,roke up into two !#ctionsA t)e =i>u#n# C#rtel led ,y )is nep)ews (t)e Arell#no C'li( ,rot)ers), #nd t)e 6in#lo# C#rtel (run ,y !ormer lieuten#nts H'ctor Luis #lm# 6#l#-#r, AdriJn 7%me- 7on-Jle- #nd "l C)#p# Io#+uNn 7u-mJn).2H
2H

6ee )ttpABBe n.wikip e di #.or gBwikiB&iguelYC#roYGuint e r o 38/

, p. 383

4n t)e economic !ront, in 3212 6#lin#s oversa* t(e sale of :in# to # 7u#d#l#>#r# entrepreneur, w)o turned it into # money*m#king oper#tion. In 322H t)e priv#te comp#ny ,ec#me t)e l#rgest ,us m#nu!#cturer in $ort) Americ#.

In 322/ 6#lin#s reduced t)e num,er o! ;str#tegic< industries suc) #s co#l mining #nd )e permitted up to /..T foreign ca$ital investments, e(cept in t)e !ew rem#ining str#tegic industries (suc) #s petroleum, electricity, #nd #irlines). Cor #ll !oreign investment in industry )e #nnounced t)#t i! )is government did not dis#pprove or #pprove o! its pl#n wit)in E/ d#ys #!ter receiving it, t)e pl#n w#s #pproved**#utom#tic#lly.

6#lin#s re*priv#ti-ed t)e ,#nks in 3222, eig)t ye#rs two l#te to prevent t)e government*owned ,#nks !rom )#ving m#de lo#ns to @I !riends, t)en !orgiving t)e lo#ns #s ,#d de,ts. Curt)er, t)e government ,#nks )#d !#iled to invest in modern tec)nology ,eing #dopted ,#nks #round t)e world. =)ese pro,lems )#mpered 6#lin#s m#ssive s#le o! t)e @I*7overnment?s st#te*owed industries, w)ic) not only were ine!!icient ,ut losing )uge #mounts o! money.

6#lin#s )#d #lre#dy ,egun m#ssive priv#ti-#tions, suc) #s t)e government telep)one monopoly in 322/, w)ic) went to C#rlos 6lim, w)o promised to o!!er more e(tensive #nd ,etter service ,ut !orgot to s#y t)#t )e would ,y c)#rging t)e
383

, p. 382

world?s )ig)est telep)one r#tes.28 (How c#n sm#ll &e(ic#n ,usiness complete wit) t)eir counterp#rts in t)e U6A, w)o p#y )#l! t)e cost t)#t 6lim c)#rges.)

Alt)oug) 6#lin#s priv#ti-ed miner#l resources in 322E, e(cept !or "&"D, )e did not propose to priv#ti-e t)e 6t#te electric#l #gency, w)ic) in 6t#tist myt)ology is #lmost #s import#nt #s "&"D.

In 3222 6#lin#s ;priv#ti-ed< ">ido l#nds ,y enticing Congress #nd t)e st#tes legisl#tures to c)#nge t)e Constitution o! 3230 in order to ,egin gr#nting individu#l titles so t)#t ">id#t#rios could m#ke t)eir own decisions #,out t)eir l#ndSrent it, sell, put it up !or coll#ter#l to ,orrow money, or even )old it to ,e in)erited ,y t)eir !#mily (#ll )it)erto illeg#l). Kery little ">ido l#nd )#s ,een sold ,ec#use o! its poor soil, e(cept in isol#ted c#ses.

Curt)er, 6#lin#s m#de pe#ce wit) t)e C)urc) in 3222, o,t#ining congression#l #pprov#l !or its rig)t recover t)eir C)urc)es #nd own property t)#t )#d ,een n#tion#li-ed. Curt)er, t)e new 6#lin#s l#w gr#nted t)e C)urc) to rig)t to conduct religious educ#tion #nd leg#lly )old pu,lic ceremonies. Hence!ort), priests )#ve ,een considered norm#l citi-ens wit) t)e rig)t to vote. L#st, ,ut not

28

C67 en#,led 6lim to ,uy ="L&"D #t #n #rti!ici#lly low cost #nd p#y !or it over time using money e#rned ,y t)e p)one service, en#,ling 6lim to ,uild )is !ortune #nd ,ecome in t)e 23st century t)e world?s ric)est person. ;A!ter priv#ti-#tion, ="L&"D ,eg#n investing in new, modern in!r#structure, cre#ting # n#tionwide optic !i,er network, #nd o!!ering service in most o! t)e country,< #ccording to )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB="L&"D

382

, p. 38E

le#st, &e(ico reest#,lis)ed diplom#tic rel#tions wit) t)e K#tic#n #!ter 3E/ ye#rs,
2M

rel#tions )#ving ,een ,roken in 31M2.

C67 )#d ,egun priv#ti-#tion o! t)e !#iled 6t#te #gricultur#l enterprises suc) #s @4$A6" in 3212 #s well #s C"@=I&"D #nd A$:6A in 3223** @4$A6" ,eing in!#mous !or >eop#rdi-ing &e(ico?s production o! seeds (not to mention ending t)e production o! +u#lity seeds), A$:6A ,ring sc#nd#lous !or its decrepit silos #nd !ilt)y, !ungus*ridden*crop depositories, #nd C"@=I&"D ,eing critici-ed !or )#ving provided degr#ded !ertili-ers #nd pesticides too o!ten to l#te to ,e o! use. All o! t)ese #gencies w#sted su,sidies on ine!!icient oper#tions t)#t )#rmed t)e n#tion?s !ood supply #nd !ood producing e+uipment. Bure#ucr#ts #nd 6indic#to workers s)rugged t)eir s)oulders #nd s#idA ;"!!iciency, +u#lity, #nd cle#nliness #re t)e responsi,ility o! someone elseSw)o knows w)o.<

6#lin#s priv#ti-ed =ABA&"D in 322/ w)en t)e government w#s trying to stimul#te pu,lic )e#lt). However, t)e !oreign ,uyers insisted t)#t t)e government ;get rid< o! t)e )uge stockpile o! !oul +u#lity to,#cco t)#t )#d ,een #ccumul#ted over t)e ye#rs ,y =ABA&"D. =)e stockpile w#s ,#d !rom its st#rt ,ec#use t)e government p#id growers !or +u#ntity not +u#lity, #nd t)e producers )#d t#ken #dv#nt#ge to ;unlo#d< it on t)e government, #pp#rently convincing t)emselves i!
2M

“K(ile some $o*ers *ere reinstate! 0y t(e !ictator Porfirio 24a, 0efore (is overt(ro* 0y t(e revolutionaries5 Me)ican lea!ers an! t(e Po$e continue! to e)c(ange only tem$orary or c lo*er-level envoys5” #ccording to =im 7olden, ;&e(ico #nd t)e C#t)olic C)urc) @estore Cull :iplom#tic =ies,< +e3 Gork )imes, 6eptem,er 22, 3222.

38E

, p. 38H

t)#t i! t)eir sickening to,#cco did get into cig#rettes #nd cig#rs t)#t would m#tter**smokers #re going die !orm smoking #nyw#y.

4nce )#ving purc)#sing so muc) ,#d to,#cco, =ABA&"D stored it improperly. Bec#use t)e mess o! rotting to,#cco w#s too )e#vy to move (#nd w)ere could it even ,e moved w#s # +u#nd#ry), t)e government decided to ,urn t)e stinking mess, # mist#ke w)ic) cont#min#ted t)e #ir o! centr#l &e(ico !or m#ny d#ys. It w#s # re#l ;smoke*out<, >oked critics w)o l#ug)ed #nd coug)ed #t t)e s#me time. eople w)o )#d given up smoking )#d # l#st round o! unw#nted coug)s.

In t)e me#ntime, C4$A6U 4?s LIC4$6A (w)ic) sells ;milk< in ugly t#sting grey powder to ,e reconstituted usu#lly wit) uns#nit#ry t#p w#ter) w#s recre#ted #s # comp#ny wit) t)e m#>ority o! s)#res owned ,y t)e 6t#te. Crom 32HH to 322H it )#d ,een w)olly owned ,y t)e government. Pit) t)e in rise prices received ,y producer, LIC4$6A could s)i!t some su,sidies to t)e consumption side #nd encour#ge consumers not to w#ste milk supplies.

In t)e s#me m#nner #s LIC4$6A w#s reorg#ni-ed #s # mi(ed 6t#te*priv#te comp#ny in 322H, :IC4$6A !ollowed suit. Un!ortun#tely !or m#ny sm#ll :IC4$6A trucks would no longer re#c) isol#ted communities, t)e economic cost ,eing considered too )ig). $ot until 2//8, )owever, did :IC4$6A ,egin to
38H

, p. 388

moderni-e its w#re)ouses, E// oper#ting its n#tion#l network t)#t # tec)nologic#l upgr#de to communic#te wit) suppliers, trucks, #nd :IC4$6A distri,ution points to consumers #s well to prevent !ood supplies !rom e(piring.20

6#lin#s? progr#ms ended )ig) t#ri!!s #nd opened &e(ico to Cree =r#de Agreements (C=As) wit) countries #round t)e world. His !irst #nd most import#nt C=A w#s signed in 322E wit) t)e U6A #nd C#n#d# #nd n#med ;$AC=A< ($ort) Americ#n Cree =r#de Are#), w)ic) went into e!!ect I#nu#ry 3, 322H. =re#ties wit) t)e "urope#n Union #nd Centr#l Americ# !ollowed. (In 2//E &e(ico would serve #s t)e residency o! t)e n#scent 23 Asi#* #ci!ic "conomic Countries (A "C), including countries suc) #s Kietn#m w)ic) #re not #ci!ic 4ce#n countries.21

In t)e me#ntime, 6u,com#nd#nte &#rcos, )idden in C)i#p#s wit) )is &#oist*oriented guerrill# !orce n#med t)e ">'rcito 5#p#tist# de Li,er#ci%n $#cion#l ("5L$) since 321E, )#d grown !rustr#ted wit) Com#nd#nte 7ermJn, )is superior in &e(ico City. 7ermJn )#d )eld &#rcos in c)eck !or ye#rs ,y #rguing t)#t ;t)e time w#s not ripe to l#unc) t)e @evolution #g#inst t)e @I*
20

4n t)e situ#tion o! :IC4$6A #ttempts to moderni-e in 2//8 under resident Co(, see www2.g(tec)nic#l.comBport#lB)g(pp//3.#sp(R 38,0,E,4,",/, A7VC4$CV383VHV:V3/3H8V3V A7V&$UV"V28VEV8V32V&$U
21

6ee 4lg# &#gd#len# L#-Nn, La globali6aci9n se descentrali6a$ Libre mercado, 2undaciones, Sociedad C8!ica " Gobierno Ci!il en las Regiones del -undo$ (7u#d#l#>#r#, Los bngeles, &'(icoA Universid#d de 7u#d#l#>#r#, UCLA rogr#m on &e(ico, @4C&"DBP4@L:, C#s# Iu#n #,los Centro Cultur#l, 2//0). r%logo de I#mes P. Pilkie. 388

, p. 38M

7o,ierno. But $AC=A g#ve &#rcos t)e sp#rk )e needed to ignore 7ermJn?s orders #nd ,egin in C)i#p#s t)e n#tion#l uprising o! Indigenous ;Indigenous #nd oppressed peoples< to overt)row t)e @I*7o,ierno.

6u,com#nd#nte &#rcos used t)e in#ugur#tion o! $AC=A on I#nu#ry 3, 322H, #s o!!ering t)e opportunity to !in#lly ignore t)e orders o! Com#nd#nte 7ermJn. =)#t !irst d#y o! 322H, t)en, &#rcos unle#s)ed )is #tt#ck on t)e @I* 7overnment ,y c#pturing 6#n Crist%,#l de l#s C#s#s, g#ining prop#g#nd# points ,y cl#iming (!#lsely, ,ut e!!ectively) t)#t w#s )is m#in go#l w#s to protest #g#inst $AC=A. In re#lity, )e #nd Com#nd#nte s#w t)eir m#in go#l #s g#ining Indigenous #utonomy wit)in &e(ico ,y est#,lis)ing # @evolution#ry 7overnment t)#t would spre#d to #ll o! &e(ico.

=)#t t)e "5L$ )#d rem#ined )idden, #s )#d t)e :irty P#r, esc#ped t)e #ttention o! t)e ot)erwise very perceptive Mario Iargas-+losa (t)e !#mous eruvi#n novelist #nd one*time presidenti#l c#ndid#te). =)us, )e w#s #,le to procl#im in 322/ t)e @I to ,e ;+a 2icta!ura Perfecta5” ,ec#use it #llowed dissent w)ile success!ully developing t)e &e(ic#n n#tion. Like Buli`o ,e!ore )im, )e did not re#li-e t)#t t)e :irty P#r even e(isted in &e(ico w)ere#s Argentines, Br#-ili#ns, C)ile#ns, #nd Urugu#y#ns #ll knew t)e open !#ct o! :irty P#r ,eing conducted #s it took pl#ce in t)eir countries.

38M

, p. 380

6u,com#nd#nte &#rcos proved t)#t )is e(perience #s one time pro!essor o! communic#tions #t t)e University o! &e(ico City would s#ve t)e "5L$. &#rcos l#unc)ed #n Internet cam$aign to in!orm t)e world o! t)e "5L$ go#ls #nd seek protection !rom civic society #round t)e glo,e, especi#lly in t)e U6A #nd "urope. =)e result o! t)e !irst Internet c#mp#ign ,y guerrill#s #nyw)ere ,roug)t so m#ny muc) ,#d pu,licity #,out t)e c#mp#ign o! t)e &e(ic#n #rmy #g#inst t)e "5L$ t)#t 6#lin#s )#lted #tt#cks #nd permitted &#rcos to org#ni-e # m#>or p#rt o! t)e st#te o! C)i#p#s.

Civic society !rom #round t)e world wired !unds to t)e "5L$ ,#nk #ccounts in &e(icoS#not)er permission gr#nted ,y 6#lin#s. &#rcos w#s t)us !ree to org#ni-e )is own view o! utopi#n #ctivity ,#sed in communities c#lled ;c#r#coles< (sn#ils), #nd t)ey proceeded, #s &#rcos #nnounced, to org#ni-e #t # sn#il?s p#ce t)#t would in t)e end prove t)#t slow, ste#dy #ctivity c#n outs)ine !#st*p#ced development wit)out re#l )um#nity.

In !#ct &#rcos cre#ted is own prison !rom w)ic) )e l#ter negoti#ted wit) t)e Co( government to consider c)#nges in &e(ico?s Constitution o! 3230 to let t)e Indigenous people ,e # st#te wit)in t)e 6t#te, # n#tion wit)in t)e $#tion o! &e(ico. &#rcos ide#s #ppe#led to m#ny non*Indi#ns until t)ey re#li-ed t)#t t)e Indigenous l#w would ,e ,#sed on ;usos y costum,res< wit) its un!ortun#te suppression o! women?s? rig)ts #nd #r,itr#ry >ustice ,eing imposed di!!erently
380

, p. 381

#ccording to region #nd wit)out #ppe#l. Hence t)e ide# o! # sep#r#te Indi#n n#tion wit)in &e(ico p#ssed (w)ic) sur!#ces !rom time to time) #g#in !#ded into t)e ,#ckground.

&#rcos )imsel! seemed not to )#ve understood t)e re#l struggle in C)i#p#s involved t)e one ,etween rotest#nts #nd t)e C#t)olics over w)o s)ould interpret t)e true !#it) to t)e Indi#ns #nd t)e e(tent to w)ic) t)e Bi,le could ,e interpreted ,y t)e religious le#ders #nd t)eir !ollowers. Curt)er, t)e rotest#nt #ttempt to end t)e use o! #lco)ol ,y c#ci+ues to control m#le workers won over m#ny Indigenous womenV )ence t)e @om#n C#t)olic C)urc) re#li-ed t)#t i! it did not w#nt to ,e displ#ced it would )#ve to >oin t)e movement #g#inst t)e use o! #lco)ol #s # control mec)#nism, w)ic) in #ny c#se w#s (#nd is) perverting simple >ustice !rom ,eing rendered ,y #nd r#tion#l #rgument #mong ine,ri#ted tri,#l elders.

However, t)e c#ci+ues w)o pre!er to keep Indi#n m#les in # drunken stupor, )#ve supported est#,lis)ment o! t)e &e(ic#n C#t)olic C)urc) to su,vert t)e @om#n C#t)olic C)urc). Kiolence periodic#lly erupts #t 6#n Iu#n C)#mul# #s t)ese t)ree religious groups !ig)t over w)o s)ould control t)e c)urc) t)ere, #nd more t)#n 2/,/// Indi#ns )#ve )#d to !lee to ot)er #re#s to #void ,eing p)ysic#lly ,e#ten in t)is competition !our souls #nd struggle over t)e use o! #lco)ol. =)e &e(ic#n Indi#n Institute est#,lis)ed in 32H1 (,ut #,olis)ed ,y resident Co() in
381

, p. 382

2//E to est#,lis) # Commission !or t)e :evelopment o! Indigenous eoples)22 unwise re!used to t#ke # position on #lco)ol, concerned t)#t it would inter!ere in Indi#n rig)ts to m#ke tri,#l decisions w)ile under t)e )istoric use o! #lco)ol.

C67 !ound t)#t t)e &#rcos uprising on I#nu#ry 3, 322H, w#s >ust t)e ,eginning o! )is pro,lems ,ec#use two mysterious #ss#ssin#tions o! @I* 7o,ierno le#ders #dded #n un)e#rd o! dimension in )ig)*level &e(ic#n politics. In &#rc) o! 322H, C67?s c)oice o! president to succeed )im, Luis :on#ldo Colosio w#s #ss#ssin#ted, c#using # politic#l crisis.

In 6eptem,er 322H, t)e @I 6ecret#ry 7ener#l BosF Francisco Rui, Massieu (t)e ,rot)er*in*l#w o! 767), w#s #ss#ssin#ted, pro,#,ly ,y drug de#lers involved wit) C67?s ,rot)er @#\l.

^F%>S9 FOR?>R5: @#\l w#s l#ter sentenced under t)e 5edillo government to over 20 ye#rs in prison !or )is supposed p#rt in t)e #ss#ssin#tion o! Rui, Massieu.3// Bec#use @#\l?s conviction w#s driven ,y # !ever o! )#tred, ignited ,y resident 5edillo #g#inst t)e 6#lin#s cl#n to s)i!t ,l#me !rom )imsel! !or )#ving ;c#used< t)e peso crisis o! 322H, @#\l #ppe#led to &e(ico?s 6upreme Court, #nd under

22 3//

6ee )ttpABBwww.e*me(ico.go,.m(Bw,2Be&e(Be&e(YInstitutoY$#cion#lYIndigenist#Ysit 6ee )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBIos9CE9A2YCr#nciscoY@ui-Y&#ssieu 382

, p. 3M/

Co( )is conviction w#s reversed. @#\l?s ten ye#rs in prison seemed #s i! ;poetic >ustice< )#d its d#y in &e(ico._3/3

/=03 'ctive-"tatist Revolution Gn!er Presi!ent Ernesto He!illo #/<<?--...&5 *(o agrees to count t(e votes fairly an! *(en t(e PRI loses t(e Presi!ency in -...5 (e turns t(e government over to P'1’s Iicente Fo)

Under 5edillo t)e popul#tion rose !rom 2/ million in 3228 to 22 million in 2///,3/2 depending on t)e time o! ye#r w)en &e(ic#ns return to work during t)e U.6. r#iny, cold se#son.

Indeed, 6#lin#s overc#me t)e #ss#ssin#tion o! t)e @I presidenti#l c#ndid#te Luis :on#ldo Colosio in 322H ,y st#ge*m#n#ging t)e election o! "rnesto He!illo #s resident o! &e(ico, 322H*2///. 6#lin#s )imsel! seemed )e#ded to ,ecome resident o! t)e new Porld =r#de 4rg#ni-#tion (3228**), ,ut t)#t route w#s cut*o!! w)en 5edillo n#med :r. I#ime "erra Puc(e ( H:, F#le University) #s &inister o! t)e =re#sury. 6err#?s own #rrog#nt incompetence c#used #n unw#rr#nted peso p#nic ,eginning in :ecem,er 322H. 6err#, w)o t)oug)t )imsel! so import#nt #s t)e ne.t
3/3

@#\l w#s #rres t e d Ce,. 21, 3228, #nd rele# s e d !rom prison on Iune 3H, 2//8. 3/2 =)e cens u s g#v e 20.8 million. ro>ection s !rom t)e 320/ s !orec # s t t)#t, given t)e 0./ !ertility r#te, in 2/// &e(ico would surp # s s 3 E 2 million pers o n sS6 e e Pilkie, ed. 6ALA, Kol. 32 (3201), =#,le M22. 3M/

, p. 3M3

resident o! &e(ico (still si( ye#rs in t)e !uture) t)#t )e not deign to c#ll $ew Fork #nd London ,#nkers wit) weekly upd#tes t)#t #ll w#s well in &e(ic#n !in#nces**#s )is predecessor :r. edro Aspe )#d done. H#ving !ired Aspe?s entire st#!!, 6err# did not know w)ic) levers #ctu#lly worked #t =re#sury, #nd #s !oreign ,#nks pulled out c#pit#l, t)e peso coll#psed, wit) t)e re#l !oreign de,t st#nding #t U6U 388 ,illion (up !rom re#l U6U 322 ,illion w)en 6#lin#s )#d t#ken o!!ice. &e(ico w#s ;s#ved< in 3228 w)en #) 5edillo repl#ced t)e !#iled 6err# wit) :uillermo Orti, (tod#y 7overnor o! t)e B#nk o! &e(ico), #nd ,) resident Bill Clinton org#ni-ed # !in#nci#l rescue p#ck#ge3/E o! G"P ;; 0illion in re#l terms (involving U6U EE ,illion in re#l terms !rom t)e U6A #nd t)e rest !rom t)e I&C #nd C#n#d#Sde,t w)ic) w#s rep#id e#rly.) 3/H In )is memoirs, 6#lin#s writes (wit)out n#ming n#mes) #,out )#ving ,een de!e#ted ,y suc) 4!!ici#l #rty ;)#cks< (presum#,ly including 6err#), w)o ,elong to t)e &e(ic#n nomenklaturaSt)e @ussi#n collo+ui#l term !or )ig) pro!ession#l !unction#ries o! t)e government, especi#lly t)e apparatchik types w)o )old positions o! ,ure#ucr#tic or politic#l responsi,ility. &em,ers o! t)e [#pp#r#t[ #re !re+uently tr#ns!erred ,etween di!!erent #re#s o! responsi,ility, usu#lly wit) little or no #ctu#l tr#ining !or t)eir new #re#s o! responsi,ility. =)us, t)e term #pp#r#tc)ik, or [#gent o! t)e #pp#r#tus[ is usu#lly t)e ,est possi,le description o! t)e personXs pro!ession #nd occup#tion. =od#y t)is term is #lso
3/E

=)e resulting U.6. rescue o! &e(ico ,y t)e Clinton Administr#tion w#s wrongly critici-ed ,y www.)erit#ge.orgB@ese#rc)BL#tinAmeric#B,g3/3M.c!m 3/H In nomin#l terms t)e rescue p#ck#ge tot#led U8/ ,illion (o! w)ic) UE/ ,illion w#s U.6. !unding). 3M3

, p. 3M2

used in conte(ts ot)er t)#n @ussi#. Cor e(#mple, it is o!ten used to descri,e people w)o c#use ,ure#ucr#tic ,ottlenecks in ot)erwise e!!icient org#ni-#tions, especi#lly #t support services groups suc) #s critic#l in!orm#tion tec)nology (I=) services.3/8 Many o0servers of Me)ico (ave calle! t(e lea!ers since "alinas’ influence 0eginning in /<>= as t(e “:eneraciEn !e los Fcnicos”5 su0liminally recalling t(e “Cient4ficos” *(o (a! (el$e! Porfirio 24a, govern Me)ico from />>? to /<// t(e secon! $art of (is 24a,’s =? years in $o*er3 Aot( terms (ave 0een use! to !erogate t(eir roles5 alt(oug( all agree t(at t(ey *ere 0etter t(an t(e $erio! of t(e “1o-1ot(ing (ugs”5 /<@;-/<>-3 (e generations of t(e :enerals in $o*er #/<//-/<?@& an! t(e +a*yers #/<?@/<@?& (a! relie! on many tFcnicos for a!vice an! to staff t(e government5 0ut since "alinas t(ey came into $o*er3 Alt)oug) 5edillo m#de 6#lin#s t)e sc#pego#t !or 6err#?s errors, 5edillo continued t)e 6#lin#s rogr#ms o! signing ne* F 's #round t)e world #s well #s well #s developing revise! F 's to improve t)e !irst round o! C=As t)#t )#d ,een signed ,y resident 6#lin#s. resident 5edillo #) priv#ti-ed $etroc(emical in!ustriesV ,) priv#ti-ed Me)ican social security accounts in 3220V3/M
3/8

Cor !urt)er discussion, see )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB$omenkl#tur#c=)eY$ewYCl#ss #nd )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBApp#r#tc)ik 3/M =)e P#ll 6treet Iourn#l reported in 3222A ;6ince t)e implement#tion o! &e(icoXs priv#te pension system on Iuly 3, 3220, #,out 3H.8 million &e(ic#n workers )#ve opened t)eir own 3M2

, p. 3ME

c) re*priv#ti-ed t)e Me)ican 1ational Rail*ay “"ystem” in 3221, reviving #n industry t)#t )#d ,ecome mori,und #nd d#ngerously decrepit under 6t#te mism#n#gementV d) closed C4$A6U 4, w)ic) )#d ,een di!!icult to close ,y 6#lin#s ,ec#use t)e poor popul#tion (,ot) rur#l #nd ur,#n) )#d come to depend on its c)e#p !ood, reg#rdless o! +u#lityV #nd !#rmers were #,le to sell #s gu#r#nteed prices, #lso reg#rdless o! +u#lity. He!illo coul! finally close CO1'"GPO in /<<<, t)e 6t#te s)i!ting to !ocus on +u#lity o! !ood, not +u#ntity. =)e 6t#te )#d !in#lly lost #ll p#tience (#s )#d consumers) wit) t)e ,ure#ucr#tic t)icket o! mism#n#ged t)#t C4$A6U 4 )#d come to represent.3/0 In t)e end, #lt)oug) muc) !ood #rrived, it did wit) e(pired d#tesSold #nd st#le. =)us, #s C4$A6U 4 w#s closed ,y 5edillo (t)e rotten C4$A6U 4 model could not ,e sold #s no comp#ny would ,uy into its complete !#ilure), 5edillo, using my wording #nnounced in &e(ico t)e success o! ;&e(ico?s 6econd 7reen Agricultur#l @evolution !or t)e Porld.<

=)e "econ! :reen 'gricultural Revolution m#de ,y $orm#n Borl#ug (w)o m#de t)e Cirst 7reen Agricultur#l @evolution**see #rt 33,, #,ove), would
pension s#vings #ccounts.< 6ee P6I #rticle reprinted #tA )ttpABBwww.c#to.orgBpu,Ydispl#y.p)pRpu,YidT8/E2 3/0 =o underst#nd t)e incredi,le ,ure#ucr#cy cre#ted ,y C4$A6U 4, see "nri+ue C. 4c)o#, 2eeding -e.ico: )he #olitical ses of 2ood since <'<& (Pilmington, :elew#reA 6c)ol#rly @esources, 2///). 3ME

, p. 3MH

not ,e #nnounced in until &#y 3222, w)en resident 5edillo #nd I >oined Borl#ug to #nnounce in &e(ico City t)e development o! ;dou,le*protein corn< #nd recogni-e &e(ico?s role in t)e process ,egun in 32HH. Alt)oug) t)e improvement o! corn )#d ,een pl#nned #s p#rt o! t)e Cirst 7reen Agricultur#l @evolution (w)ic) did include success!ully t)e improvement o! rice in t)e )ilippines #s #n o!!*s)oot o! Borl#ug?s work in &e(ico), rese#rc) wit) corn took dec#des ,ec#use o! t)e comple(ity o! t)e pro,lem. Indeed, t)e Intern#tion#l Advisory Bo#rd t)#t )#d t#ken over CI&&y= !rom t)e &e(ic#n 7overnment decided in 3211 t)#t t)e go#l o! cre#ting Gu#lity rotein &#i-e would never ,e re#c)ed, cut o!! )is !unding, #nd closed CI&&y=, e(cept to m#int#in its Porld 6eed B#nk.

Pit) new !unding, !rom I#p#n?s 6#s#k#w# Cound#tion,3/1 Borl#ug moved )is &e(ic#n Corn @ese#rc) =e#m to 7)#n#, t)eir long*rese#rc) !in#lly coming to !ruition ,y t)e l#te 322/s. Ironic#lly, &e(ico?s ">id#t#rios )#ve ,een gl#ci#lly slow to #dopt t)e new corn seeds w)ere#s Br#-ili#n #nd C)inese !#rmer )#ve r#pidly #dopted it. (Hogs !ed dou,le*protein corn, !or e(#mple, t)en to ,e up to twice #s ,ig comp#red to t)ose !ed wit) norm#l corn.)

In 3222 He!illo invited 1orman E3 Aorlaug an! (is Me)ican Researc( eam to return to &e(ico, w)ere t)e &e(ic#n 7overnment reopened CIMMy !or t)eir continued rese#rc) to e(p#nd t)e "econ! :reen 'gricultural
3/1

6ee )ttpABBwww.worl:.C.oodpri-e.orgB,orl#ugB,orl#ug*)istory.)tm 3MH

, p. 3M8

Revolution #'g:reen&5 *(ic( originate! in Me)ico. At t)e event wit) 5edillo, )osted ,y Ro0erto :on,Cle,-Aarrera #R:A& #nd )is 7@U&A corpor#tion , I w#s invited to present my view #“ (e KilJie Iie*”) in w)ic) t)ere #re two p#r#llel str#ndsA #) Aorlaug )#s developed seeds !rom )is origin#l ,#se in &e(icoV #nd ,) R:A )#s developed super corn tortill#s wit) vit#mins #nd miner#ls !or t)e m#sses !rom )is origin#l ,#se in &e(ico.

Borl#ug #nd @7B ,ot) recogni-e t)e import#nce o! )ig)*protein, low*c#r, diets t)#t c#n prevent weig)t g#in t)#t le#ds to di#,etes. Borl#ug now seeks to impl#nt in &e(ico t)e )ig)*protein corn seeds (w)ic) #re #lre#dy pl#nted in Ara,il an! C(ina ,ut not in &e(ico) t)#t @7B needs to m#ke t)e tortill# ever more )e#lt)y.

Cor t)e 6econd Ag7reen @evolution, Aorlaug’s long se#rc) !or renew#,le seeds c#me to !ruition in t)e l#, (t)en t)e !ields) w)en )e cre#ted seeds t)#t #re resist#nt to droug)t #nd dise#se ,ut use less c)emic#l !ertili-ers, )er,icides, !ungicides, #nd pesticides. =)is w#s possi,le t)roug) t#rgeted genetic tr#ns!orm#tion o! corn seeds in t)e l#, (w)ic) t#kes weeks, not t)e dec#des o! )is work on w)e#t). P)ere#s t)e Cirst Ag7reen @evolution )#d to use unt#rgeted #nd w#ste!ul tr#ns!orm#tion o! w)ole gene pools t)roug) time consuming )y,rid pl#nt development ,y tri#l #nd error, t)e 6econd )#s ,een #,le to t#ke #dv#nt#ge o!
3M8

, p. 3MM

t#rgeted rese#rc) t)roug) computeri-ed l#, #n#lysis t)#t not #v#il#,le !or Borl#ug?s $o,el ri-e rese#rc). Cin#lly t)en, ,y t)e l#te 322/s Borl#ug developed )ig)*+u#lity, dou,le*protein seeds !or corn to en)#nce t)e st#ple !or t)e m#sses in muc) o! t)e world. wit) muc) reduced use o! !ertili-ers #nd c)emic#ls. Indi#, in t)e me#ntime, )#d eng#ged ,eginning in 3223 in overuse o! low* cost ure# w)ic) )#s limited t)e yields in production, especi#lly o! rice, t)us c#using t)e Indi#n 7reen Ag@evolution to wilt.3/2 =)is is w)#t Borl#ug )#d !e#red would )#ppen, #nd it )#d spurred )im to #dv#nce )is work on new seeds t)#t would #void t)e pro,lem o! stunted #gricultur#l growt).
Be)ind Indi#?s worsening yields is t)e governmentXs !#ilure in #gricultur#l policy, w)ic) )#s ,een tr#pped ,etween (#) t)e need to ,oost !ood production w)ile winning vote !rom !#rmers w)o constitute 0/9 o! t)e elector#te, #nd (,) t)e need to encour#ge Indi#?s !ertili-er industry. =)e government resolved t)ese competing go#ls ,y incre#sing its su,sidy o! ure# to cover #,out )#l! o! its domestic productionSt)is in spite o! t)e !#ct t)#t ure# d#m#ges t)e l#nd i! over used. P)en t)e government re#li-ed t)#t t)e su,sidy o! ure# w#s counterproductive, since 2//2 it )#s soug)t to drop t)e e(isting su,sidy system in !#vor o! # new pl#n to #llow ure#Xs price to incre#se signi!ic#ntly, t)us giving # disincentive !or !#rmers to use m#ny times t)e #mount recommended ,y scientists, t)rowing o!! t)e c)emistry o! t)e soil. As 7eet# An#nd )#s noted, ;like )um#ns, pl#nts need ,#l#nced diets to t)rive. =oo muc) ure# overs#tur#tes pl#nts wit) nitrogen wit)out replenis)ing ^!ive key^ nutrients t)#t #re vit#lly import#nt, including p)osp)orus, pot#ssium, sul!ur, m#gnesium #nd c#lcium.110 Under t)e new pl#n, t)e government will o!!er su,sidies to !ertili-er comp#nies on t)e (especi#lly on t)ese !ive key nutrients), r#t)er t)#n t)e !ertili-er products t)emselves. =)e ide# is to provide incentives to t)e !ertili-er industry #nd to !#rmers t)emselves to #pply # ,etter mi( o! nutrients. Until t)e use o! ure# is reduced, soil !ertility will continue to decline c#using evermore use o! ure# #nd evermore decline.

3/2

=)is discus sion o! Indi# #gricultur #l pro,le m s !ollow t)e #n #lysis ,y 7eet # An#nd, )ttpABBonlin e.w s>.co mB # r ticleB6B3/ / / 3 H 2 H / 8 2 0 H 1 0 / E M 3 8 2 / H 8 0 8 / 8 2 2 2 3 M 3 202E 1 H H . ) t ml 33/ I,id. 3MM

, p. 3M0

&e(ico could le#rn !rom Indi#?s policy decision, #nd ,ot) countries need to s)i!t to t)e 6econd 7reen Ag@evolution ,y c)#nging to proper use o! 7&4 seeds. Indi# )#s moved improperly #nd &e(ico is only in 2//2*2/3/ e(perimenting wit) proper use, #s #dvoc#ted ,y Borl#ug. &e#nw)ile, &e(ico, w)ic) )#s ,#rely t#ken #dv#nt#ge o! its own Cirst 7reen Agricultur#l @evolution, )#s t#ken # di!!erent t#ck ,y improving t)e supply o! !ood t)roug) its processing r#t)er t)#n its growing, #nd t)is t#ck )#s ,een led ,y R:A. R:A )#s ,een #,le to re!ine t)e met)ods o! m#king low*c#r,o)ydr#te tortill#s ,y #dding !i,er to t)e corn tortill#, t)us reducing t)e )ig) gross c#r,s to low net c#r,s to !ig)t weig)t g#in #nd di#,etes. 333 =)e low*c#r, corn tortill# is vit#l !or t)e poor w)o e#t !rom 0 to 38 tortill#s d#ily ,ec#use t)ey c#nnot #!!ord to consume e(pensive me#t, c)icken, eggs, milk, or c)eese needed !or protein to o!!set t)e c)e#p )ig) c#r, consumption. &ission C#r, B#l#nce tortill#s #re low*c#r, tortill#s t)#t #re )ig) in diet#ry !i,er. =)ey )#ve #s !ew #s H gr#ms o! net c#r,o)ydr#tes per tortill#, depending upon t)e type #nd si-e o! t)e tortill#. =)e tortill#s #re #v#il#,le in w)ole w)e#t or w)ite !lour, #nd in so!t t#co, !#>it#, #nd ,urrito si-es.

333

6ee )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB7rum#c&issionYC#r,YB#l#nceYtortill#s 3M0

, p. 3M1

In t)is process R:A )#s reduced dr#m#tic#lly t)e w#st#ge o! g#s, electricity, w#ter, !ood. (=)e industri#l process o! !ood too o!ten results in # )ig) w#st#ge !#ctor owing to ine!!icient processing.)

Aorlaug #g#in spent )#l! )is time in &e(ico #nd )#l! tr#veling t)e world seeking to e(p#nd t)e 6econd Ag7reen @evolution, w)ic) is g#ining # !oot)old in A!ric# #s well #s supporting CI&&y= #!!ili#ted rese#rc) institutes suc) #s t)e Intern#tion#l @ice @ese#rc) Institute in t)e )ilippines, w)ic) )#s genetic#lly modi!ied seed to include vit#min A. (=)#t vit#min )#s reduced t)e !ormerly )ig) r#te o! ,lindness #nd eye #!!lictions in t)e Asi#.)

R:A )#s e(p#nded )is processing pl#nts !rom &e(ico #nd t)e U6A to Centr#l Americ# #nd ,eyond to Kene-uel#, "ngl#nd, C)in#, &#l#ysi#, Holl#nd, 6p#in, #nd It#ly.332

Bot) Borl#ug #nd @7B )#ve #rgued t)#t t)e #nti*7&46 movement !#ils to recogni-e t)#t is e#sier to determine w)ic) new v#rieties o! seeds c#rry #llergies #nd )ow to remove t)em !rom t)e seeds. 6uc) is not possi,le +uickly #nd e#sily in t)e w)oles#le process o! cross*,reeding pl#nt seedsSt)e met)od pre!erred ,y t)e #nti*7&4 groups.

332

6ee )ttpABBwww.grum#.comBv"spB$uestr#s"mpBnuestr#sYempres#s.#sp 3M1

, p. 3M2

Bot) Borl#ug #nd @7B #re concerned !or t)e pro,lem o! !eeding t)e world, t)e popul#tion o! w)ic) is sc)eduled to grow e(ponenti#lly (non*line#rly) !rom M.1 ,illion now to 31 ,illion ,y 2/8/. (6ee Cigure 1.)

ZF%>S9 FOR?>R5A +e3 Gork )imes He#dline, 6eptem,er 3E, 2//1 1ORM'1 AOR+'G:5 P+'1 "CIE1 I" KHO FOG:H F'MI1E5 2IE" ' ':E <; By IU6=I$ 7ILLI6 www.nytimes.comB2//2B/2B3HB,usinessBenergy*environmentB3H,orl#ug.)tml

+orman 7$ Borlaug, the plant scientist 3ho did more than an"one else in the %&th centur" to teach the 3orld to feed itself and 3hose 3ork 3as credited 3ith sa!ing hundreds of millions of li!es, died B"esterda"E$ Kr$ Borlaug>s ad!ances in plant breeding led to spectacular success in increasing food production in Latin America and Asia and brought him international acclaim$ /n <'?&, he 3as a3arded the +obel #eace #ri6e$ *e 3as 3idel" described as the father of the broad agricultural mo!ement called the Green Re!olutionL$had a far1reaching impact on the li!es of millions of people in de!eloping countries$ *is breeding of high1"ielding crop !arieties helped to a!ert mass famines that 3ere 3idel" predicted in the <'D&s, altering the course of histor"$ Largel" because of his 3ork, countries that had been food deficient, like -e.ico and /ndia, became self1sufficient in producing cereal grains$ 4-ore than an" other single person of this age, he has helped pro!ide bread for a hungr" 3orld,5 the +obel committee said in presenting him 3ith the #eace #ri6e$ 4We ha!e made this choice in the hope that pro!iding bread 3ill also gi!e the 3orld peace$5 )he da" the a3ard 3as announced, Kr$ Borlaug, !igorous and slender at CD, 3as 3orking in a 3heat field outside -e.ico Cit" 3hen his 3ife, -argaret, dro!e up to tell him the ne3s$ 4Someone>s pulling "our leg,5 he replied, according to one of his biographers, Leon *esser$
3M2

, p. 30/

BAssured that the +obel A3ard 3as trueE, Borlaug kept on 3orking, sa"ing he 3ould celebrate later$ Criticism of )echniJues )he Green Re!olution e!entuall" came under attack from en!ironmental and social critics 3ho said it had created more difficulties than it had sol!ed$ Kr$ Borlaug responded that the real problem 3as not his agricultural techniJues, but the runa3a" population gro3th that had made them necessar"$ 4/f the 3orld population continues to increase at the same rate, 3e 3ill destro" the species,5 he declared$

********* Figure 8 Norman Borlaug, who helped teach the world to feed itself

********** Borl#ug?s concern #,out popul#tion growt) is ,#sed on c#ncell#tions
30/

, p. 303

s)own )ere in Cigures 2 #nd 3/. =)e pro,lem is t)#t t)e ,igger t)e popul#tion ,ecomes, t)e !#ster t)#t it grows #,solutely.

303

, p. 302

****** Cigure 2
TWO ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF MAKING WORLD POPULATION PROJECTIONS, 1955- 2050 1. Arith me tic Model (Lineal), projection based on past data of “small ” numbe rs of persons in the world which increase at past rate of increase Vs. 2. Geomet ric Model (Non- Linear), based on exponen tial growt h rate where the larger the quantity gets, the faster it grows http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_growth

Year

Arithm e t ical

Geometric

1955 1961 1972 1987 2000 2009 2020 2040 2050

2 779 968 031 3 080 461 502 3 862 348 766 5 022 989 632 6 085 478 778 6,800 000 000* 7 510 699 958 8 623 136 543 9 050 494 208

2 819 942 263 3 173 845 393 4 800 596 395 5 297 648 673 7 261 136 853 10 150 412 281 15 053 431 758 18 332 067 005

* Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Data Base. =ot#l !or mid* 2// 2 T M.1 ,illion perso n s , #ccor din g to )ttpABBwww.c e n s u s . g o v BipcBwwwB p o p clockw orld.)t m l

---------

302

, p. 30E

Cigure 3/ Hum#n opul#tion 7rowt), 328/*2/8/ (Crom @o,ert "ngelm#n, ;Hum#n opul#tion 7rowt)<, Scientific American, 6ummer 2//2, p. 28)

30E

, p. 30H

ZF+'"H A'CVK'R2 O KHERE KE +EF OFF I1 HE HE2I++O PRE"I2E1CN[ In t)e me#ntime, 5edillo !#ced t)e pro,lem o! one*p#rty democr#cy in &e(ico #nd its control ,y t)e 4!!ici#l #rty, w)ic) too o!ten )#d ,een #ut)orit#ri#n in n#ture (#s !rom 32MH to 3212).

5edillo?s gre#test #ccomplis)ment, in my view, w#s to work wit) opposition le#der Por0irio MuYo,-+e!o ( &L) to c)#nge t)e w#y in w)ic) &e(ico voting t#kes pl#ce.33E &L convinced 5edillo to implement remov#l o! t)e @I*7o,ierno !rom its control over t)e corrupt IFE (Ceder#l "lector#l 6ystem), t)e ne* IFE implicitly p#ving t)e w#y !or de!e#t o! t)e @I?s presidenti#l c#ndid#te in 2///. (6#lin#s )#d re!ormed t)e Instituto Ceder#l "lector#l in 322H to give m#>ority control o! IC"?s 7ener#l Council to si( non* p#rtis#n ;citi-en counselors< elected ,y # two t)irds vote in t)e C)#m,er o! :eputies.114 )

=oo, in 322M 5edillo ceded residenti#l #ut)ority to govern t)e 2istrito Fe!eral (:.C. or Ceder#l :istrict w)ic) is #lso c#lled Me)ico City) 338 to t)e new elector#l system t)#t #llowed citi-ens to vote !or t)eir Ie!e de 7o,ierno
33E

&L did )is doctor#l studies t)e University o! =oulouse, Cr#nce, ,ut did not complete )is dissert#tion owing to )is ,ecoming involved in t)e L"A government. 33H Cor # list o! import#nt leg#l re!orms ,etween 3212 #nd 2//M, see O. L#rry 6torrs, )ttpABB#ssets.opencrs.comBrptsB@622EM1Y2//M/32M.p:.C.
338

)ttpABB e s.wikip e di #. or gB wikiBHistori #Yd elY:istritoYCed e r #lY(&'(ico) c "l e m e n t o sY d elYgo ,i e r noYd elY:istritoYCed e r #l

30H

, p. 308

(#lso c#lled ,y some ;@egente< or ;&#yor<) #nd t)eir own legisl#tive #ssem,ly (As#m,le# Legisl#tiv#). As # result o! t)e !irst voting, t)e @: won control o! t)e :.C, w)ic) is virtu#lly (i! not leg#lly) &e(ico?s E2nd st#te. Indeed t)e :.C. is t)e most populous ;st#te< in &e(ico #nd t)e most import#nt in terms o! politics #nd economics. =)e new m#yor w#s Ing.33M uauhtAmoc CCr!enas "olor,ano #CC"5 son of former Presi!ent +C,aro CCr!enas&, w)o )#d implicitly ;won< ,ut e(plicitly ;lost< t)e presidenti#l election o! 3211, #nd w)o )#d cle#rly lost t)e 322H presidenti#l election.) ^F%>S9 FOR?>R5A in 2///, CC6 would !#de to t)ird pl#ce in t)e presidenti#l contest._

6ince 3220, t)e @: )#s controlled t)e Ceder#l :istrict (:istrito Ceder#l, or :.C.), w)ic) is #ctu#lly # virtu#l st#te not )e#ded ,y # governor ,ut ,y # Ie!e de 7o,ierno (!ormerly c#lled @egente or He#d o! t)e ;:ep#rtment o! t)e :.C.< #nd, more recently, &#yor). 117 =)e st#tes !e#r t)#t i! t)e :.C. were to ,ecome # !ull* !ledged st#te t)#t its power (#lre#dy )uge #s t)e c#pit#l city o! t)e country) would overw)elm #ll legisl#tive #ctivities #nd ,udget resources #t t)e e(pense o! t)e ot)er E3 st#tes. 7iven t)is politic#l struggle, t)e city is collo+ui#lly known #s ;C(ilangolan!ia” #!ter t)e loc#lsX nickn#me c(ilangos, w)ic) is used eit)er #s #
33M

;Ing.< is )e #,,revi#tion !or Ingeniero (;"ngineer< in "nglis))V CC6 )#d done gr#du#te studies #nd interns)ips in civil engineering in "urope.) In &e(ico, t)e elite must )#ve # title, especi#lly #nd even on t)e le!t to prove t)#t t)ey #re ;some,ody import#nt.< 330 =)e :.C. itsel! is divide d into 3M ;:eleg # cion e s ,< e#c) o! w)ic) )#s )#d since 3220 its own Ie!e de 7o,ierno de l# :el#g # ci%n **t)e )e # d w#s !orme rly n# m e d ,y t)e Ie!e de 7o,ierno o! t)e :.C.). Cor t)is 2//0 upd#te on t)e :.C., #nd !or #spects o! its )istory, see )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB&e(icoYCitycCeder#lY:istrict 308

, p. 30M

pe>or#tive term ,y people living outside &e(ico City or #s # proud #d>ective ,y &e(ico CityXs dwellers.

=)e +uestion rem#insA w)en will &e(ico City, now # de !#cto st#te government, g#in t)e !ull de >ure powers o! t)e ot)er &e(ic#n st#tesRSt)e :.C. )#s sent 6en#tors #nd :eputies to t)e $#tion#l Congress going ,#ck to t)e origins o! t)e $@V #nd since 3220 t)e :.C.?s ;Legisl#tive Assem,ly< (w)ic) )#s succeeded t)e previous ;Assem,ly< wit) #ppointed mem,ers) )#s MM ;represent#tives< w)o #re elected ,y popul#r vote to t)is unic#mer#l ,ody. In e!!ect, t)e :.C. Assem,ly is t)e most import#nt elected ,ody in &e(ico #!ter t)e $#tion#l Congress. =)e :.C. )#s in t)e p#st set t)e trend !or t)e n#tion #s # w)ole, ,utZ.

^F%>S9 FOR?>R5A Ag#inst t)e wis)es o! resident C#lder%n, t)e C#t)olic C)urc), #nd m#ny conserv#tive st#tes suc) #s 7u#n#>u#toA (i) In 2//0, t)e :.C #pproved s#me*se( unions ,etween two persons #nd wit) rig)t to #dopt c)ildrenSit w#s t)e second !eder#l entity in t)e country to do so #!ter t)e st#te o! Co#)uil#)V #nd
(ii)

In t)e :.C. ,ec#me t)e !irst to #llow con>ug#l visits !or )omose(u#l prisoners.

30M

, p. 300

(iii) In April 2//0, t)e Legisl#tive Assem,ly ,ec#me t)e !irst !eder#l entity to e(p#nd a0ortion in &e(ico (,eyond c#ses o! r#pe #nd economic re#sons) to permit it reg#rdless o! t)e re#son s)ould t)e mot)er re+uest it ,e!ore t)e t*elft( *eeJ o! pregn#ncy**in t)e 0acJlas( ,y t)e end o! 2//2, /D states )#ve de!ined li!e #s ,eginning #t conce$tion, e!!ectively de!ining #,ortion #s murder.
(iv) In :ecem,er 2//2, t)e Ceder#l :istrict ,ec#me t)e !irst city in

L#tin Americ#, #nd one o! very !ew in t)e world, to leg#li-e same-se) marriage._

Issues o! #,ortion #nd s#me*se( m#rri#ge were not t)e issues t)#t 5edillo !#ced in 3220, ,ut r#t)er t)e mid*presidenti#l term elections o! 3220, in w)ic) t)e @I loses control o! t)e :.C. #s well #s loses its m#>ority in t)e C)#m,er o! :eputies #nd its two*t)irds m#>ority in t)e 6en#te. =)e elections demonstr#ted t)#t t)e opposition would )#ve # new role in &e(ico. Indeed, in 3220 opposition p#rties @: #nd A$ win # m#>ority in t)e C)#m,er o! :eputies (w)en #nd i! t)ey )eld toget)er), t)e @: #nd A$ )old 8 o! E2 governors)ips ,33 1 including t)e :.C., discussed #,ove

In 2/// t)e @I lost t)e presidenti#l election, # result !oreord#ined ,y t)e independent st#tus o! t)e ne* IFE #nd t)e !#ct t)#t Porfirio MuYo,-+e!o #PM+
331

6ee O. L#rry 6torrs. 300

, p. 301

(a! left t(e PR2 to run as t(e P'RM can!i!ate& s(ifte! (is su$$ort to Fo)3 PM+ *as t(e first maMor lea!er to s(ift (is su$$ortLim$ortant 0ecause (e a0an!one! (is o*n cam$aign3

Also import#nt in t)e Co( win w#s t)e unpopul#rity o! t)e @I c#ndid#te Francisco +a0asti!a, w)o st#ted during )is c#mp#ign t)#t )e would not leg#li-e t)e m#ny t)ous#nds o! ;#utos c)ocol#te,< t)#t is ;used c#rs #nd pickup trucks smuggled into &e(ico< to meet t)e needs o! t)e poor. (=)e popul#r sector c#nnot #!!ord to ,uy new &e(ic#n c#r or even p#y !or used #utos sold in &e(ico #t )ig)er prices #nd on w)ic) one p#ys )ig) t#(es.)

'lso5 0y -... muc( of t(e Me)ican $o$ulation (a! seen t(e vi!eo of t(e /<<; m#ss#cre o! pe#ce!ul pe#s#nts ,y police #t 'guas Alancas outside o! Ac#pulco,332 pl#nned #nd c#rried out #t t)e orders o! t)e @I governor, !orce!ully reminding &e(ico o! t)e 03 ye#rs o! @I impunity.

Ironic#lly, some #ut)ors see t)e end o! t)e @evolution #s )#ving occurred in 2///. Indeed :on#ld Hodges #nd @oss 7#ndy implicitly #ccept Cuente?s view t)#t t)e end c#me wit) ;st#ges o! de#t)< ,ut do not see t)e st#ges ending in 3282 (t)e Cuentes d#te !or !in#l systemic ,re#kdown), ,ut r#t)er t)ey present t)e

332

6ee )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBAgu#sYBl#nc#sYm#ss#cre 301

, p. 302

st#ges #s ,eing 32M1, 3212, #nd 2///St)e l#st m#rking !in#l de#t) o! t)e @evolution . 6ee t)eir ,ook &e(icoA )he 7nd of the Re!olution$32/ I! only issues were so cle#r (#s Hodges #nd 7#ndy #rgue implicitly) #,out &e(ico )#ving )#d only one @evolutionZ.

/=c3 'ctive-"tatist Revolution Gn!er Presi!ent Iicente Fo) #-...--..@&5 *(o follo*s "alinas mo!el of 'ctive "tates5 even *(ile s$eaJing in 'nti-"tate terms Co( de!e#ted t)e one*p#rty system ,ut not its ,#sis in ,ure#ucr#ciesV #nd t)e @I,w)ic) continues to govern in more t)#n )#l! o! t)e E2 st#tes

Under Co( t)e popul#tion incre#ses !rom 22 million in 2/// to 332 million in 2/3/.

Alt)oug) t)e @I !ell !rom presidenti#l power in 2///, in e#rly 2//1 t)e @I w#s still t)e second most import#nt power in t)e n#tion?s 6en#te, wit) 2M9 (#nd t)ird power in t)e $#tion#l C)#m,er o! :eputies wit) 239)S t)us it is still t)e key pl#yer to provide # ;co#lition< to govern t)e country.323 &ost import#ntly, since 2//1 t)e @I still controls more t)#n 8M9 o! &e(ico?s E2 st#te governors)ips, ME9 o! t)e E2 st#te congresses, #nd E09 o! &e(ico?s municip#l governments. Alt)oug) t)e @: controls &e(ico City proper, over )#l! o! 7re#ter &e(ico City?s 2/ million

32/ 323

6ee )ttpABB,ooks.google.comB,ooksRidTCk2IP3H/,I1CQprintsecT!rontcover :r. Cern#ndo 7on-Jle- @eynoso ( ro!essor o! 6ociology, Universid#d Aut%nom# de B#># C#li!orni#), present#tion to my 7r#du#te 6emin#r #t UCLA, :ecem,er 8, 2//0. 302

, p. 31/

persons live under # @I governor.322 4! t)e &e(ic#n popul#tion, 809 live under @I governors.32E 6ince t)e @I lost t)e presidency in 2/// to t)e A$ist# Kicente Fo) (&BA #nd !ormer resident o! Coc#*Col# de &'(ico), it )#s ,ecome t)e Cormer 4!!ici#l #rty or PRIUFOP, w)ic) continues to pl#y # m#>or role in &e(ic#n politics. Co(?s pro,lem !rom t)e outset o! t#king o!!ice w#s t)#t )e )#d won )is position wit) only HE9 o! t)e vote #nd )is p#rty w#s one o! t)ree in t)e Congress, e#c) not #,le to p#ss legisl#tion wit)out g#ining # tempor#ry #lli#nce wit) t)e ot)er. =)e m#in #lli#nce t)#t emerged !or most votes w#s A$B @I, ,ut t)#t w#s #lw#ys tenuous.

As

resident

o!

&e(ico

(2///*2//M),

one of

Fo)’s

greatest

accom$lis(ments *as to (ave !efeate! t(e PRI #nd t#ke t)e presidency !rom t)e 4!!ici#l #rty in 2///S)e )imsel! sees 5edillo?s gre#test presidenti#l success #s )#ving est#,lis)ed #n independent Ceder#l "lector#l Commission (IC") #nd !or )#ving #nnounced on election nig)t t)#t t)e IC" results )#d m#de Co( resident o! &e(ico.

322

4n 7re#ter &e(ico City, see )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB7re#terY&e(icoYCityc:emogr#p)ics 32E @I 7overnor 7ov. &#rio &#rNn o! ue,l# w#s t#pe recorded ,y )is wi!e in 2//8 #s )e pl#nned )ow to kidn#p Lydi# C#c)o, # reporter investig#ting c)ild prostitution #nd se(u#l #,use o! young girls. 6ee C#c)o, Los Kemonios del 7den, )ttpABBgr#!icos.elunivers#l.com.m(B#B#udiosB#udios.)tm 31/

, p. 313

Anot)er o! )is #ccomplis)ments w#s to est#,lis) in 2//2 # Free!om of Information 'ct to provide t)e tr#nsp#rency necess#ry !or civic groups to )old t)e government #ccount#,le !or its #ctions.32H Co( #lso indicted L"A !or genocide in t)e m#ss#cres o! ;le!tists< in 32M1 (w)en )e w#s &inister o! 7o,ern#ci%n) #nd 3203 (during )is residency.) L"A spent sever#l ye#rs under )ouse #rrest ,e!ore winning )is #ppe#l t)#t t)e st#tute o! limit#tions )#d e(pired. =)e very indictment o! # !ormer resident, )owever, doomed L"A to live under sel!*imposed ;)ouse #rrest< ,ec#use !or )im to ,e seen in pu,lic me#nt )umili#tion ,y citi-ens w)o revile )im.

In 2//H Co( est#,lis)ed "eguro Po$ular (6ystem o!

opul#r He#lt)

Insur#nce). A,out t)is pl#n #nd its implement#tion, Bulio FrenJ, &inister o! He#lt) o! &e(ico, w)o developed t)e countryXs M*ye#r pro>ect to e(p#nd t)e )e#lt)c#re system spoke positively on 6eptem,er 0, 2//MA 328 ;=)is initi#tive w#s introduced to improve univers#l #ccess to )e#lt) insur#nce, medicines, #nd )e#t) c#re #nd reduce t)e num,ers living in poverty. In 2///, #n#lysis o! n#tion#l d#t# reve#led t)#t m#ny &e(ic#n !#milies su!!ered c#t#strop)ic e(penditure or were !orced ,elow t)e poverty line ,y t)e cost o! )e#lt) c#re #nd medicines. =)is w#s directly rel#ted to )e#lt) insur#nce ,eing limited to s#l#ried employees in priv#te !irms or in pu,lic*sector institutions. =o
32H

6eeA O#te :oyle, )ttpABBwww.gw u. e d u B a n s # r c )ivB$6A"BBB$6A"BBM1B

328

Guoted !rom )ttpABBwww.news*medic#l.netBRidT3221M 313

, p. 312

#ddress t)is pro,lem t)e 6eguro

opul#r sc)eme ^)#s_ m#de it possi,le !or

^millions o!_&e(ic#ns to #ccess pu,licly su,sidi-ed )e#lt) insur#nce.

;6eguro

opul#r (#nd its #ssoci#ted Cund !or

rotection #g#inst

C#t#strop)ic "(penses) includes # speci!ic p#ck#ge o! ,ene!its en#,ling people to #ccess more t)#n 28/ )e#lt) promotion #nd dise#se prevention me#sures, including outp#tient c#re #nd )ospit#l c#re !or t)e ,#sic speci#lties, #ntiretrovir#l t)er#py, intensive c#re !or new,orns, c#ncer c#re, #nd )#emodi#lysis. By t)e end o! t)is ye#r 6eguro opul#r will )#ve enrolled t)e ^pl#nned_ 22 million people,< #nd is m#king #n #ttempt to #c)ieve univers#l cover#ge ,y 2/33, un!ortun#tely wit)out enoug) doctors, )ospit#ls, medicines, #nd (*r#ys to service t)is )uge group. In 2/3/, 6eguro opul#r is #dding enrollments o! !#milies in &e(ico
32M

t)roug) p#yments ,y workers to 6eguro 6oci#l #t &e(ic#n Consul#tes, r#ising #g#in t)e num,er o! persons covered , t)e &e(ic#n )e#lt) system.

t)us

=)e re#l result, t)en, is not so positive. =)eoretic#lly t)e clinics #nd )ospit#ls o! t)e &e(ic#n 6oci#l 6ecurity 6ystem #nd t)e &inistry o! u,lic

He#lt) #re supposed to open t)eir door to t)e uninsured, ,ut given t)e !#ct t)#t t)ey #re #lre#dy overw)elmed ,y t)e insured popul#tion w)ic) )#s p#id premiums it is )#rd to !ind sp#ce #nd time !or # new popul#tion t)#t )#s not p#id
32M

6ee www.impr e . c o m B n o tici# sB 2 / 3 / B 3B 3 E B s e g u r o* popul#r* es* otr#* opcion* 3M12 2 3* 3.)t ml www.segupopul#r.s#lud.go,.m(BcontenidosBseguroYpopul#rBseguroYpopul#r.)tml 312

, p. 31E

!or )e#lt) cover#ge. Indeed, t)e ide# o! o!!ering !ree )e#lt)c#re )#s led to t)e +uestionA Is it not # counter*incentive !or persons to p#y premiumsR Curt)er, #lt)oug) t)e popul#tion )#s # rig)t to !ree medicines #nd (*r#ys, t)e &e(ic#n )e#lt) systems #re !re+uently out o! stock o! w)#t is needed most, #nd persons must purc)#se t)eir own @( or (*r#y !ilm to ,e used ,y t)e clinic or )ospit#l. =)e middle cl#ss w)ic) p#ys into t)e 6oci#l 6ecurity 6ystem tries not to use it, unless # !riend w)o is # p)ysici#n w)o works t)ere c#n cut t)roug) t)e red*t#pe #nd w#iting times. Fet !or t)e poor (t)e so*c#lled ;popul#r sector<), 6eguro opul#r is ,etter t)#n not)ing.

4n t)e !ront o! ;l#nd re!orm,< Co( )#d t)e cour#ge to re#li-e t)#t !urt)er distri,ution o! l#nd into ">idos w#s counter*productive #nd s)ould not ,e re+uired. =)us, in 2//2 )e c)#nged t)e l#nd re!orm regul#tory l#w to m#ke EMi!al !istri0utions as o$tional #nd only !or e(ception#l re#sons.

At t)e ,e)est o! @4C&"D, Co( ,roug)t to &e(ico Hern#ndo de 6oto, t)e eruvi#n e(pert in sorting out l#nd titles in countries #round t)e world. But de 6oto !ound t)#t over )#l! &e(ico?s l#nd titles #re so t#ngled in owners)ip cl#ims t)#t )e could not )elp e(pedite titles so t)#t ;owners< could pledge t)eir property #s coll#ter#l to o,t#in # lo#n.

31E

, p. 31H

Co( )#s st#ted t)#t in )is view o! si( ye#rs #s resident t)#t )e m#de ot)er m#>or g#ins,320 )#ving #c)ieved (in #ddition to t)e ot)er positive !#ctors given #,ove) more t)#nA 28 millones de me(ic#nos en situ#ci%n de po,re-# reci,en los #poyos del rogr#m# 4portunid#des. M millones de nif#s, nifos y >%venes cuent#n con un# ,ec# p#r# continu#r sus estudios. E millones de !#mili#s cumplieron el suefo de tener un# viviend# propi#.<

=)ings did not #lw#ys go #s well !or Co( #s )e w#nted. He in)erited !rom 5edillo # re#l !oreign de,t tot#l o! U6U 313 ,illion, w)ic) )e reduced to U6U 3EE ,illion. =)e A$ w#s proud o! t)is #c)ievement, w)ic) its le#ders s#w #s t#king # re#listic#lly conserv#tive #ppro#c) to t)e role o! t)e !eder#l government, t)us continuing its long #ttempt to ,re#k t)e power o! Corpor#tivism #nd its #ttempt to )old on to 6t#tist power.

7iven t)e !#ilure o! "&"D to !ind #nd develop new reserves, Co( toyed wit) t)e ide# o! inviting !oreign c#pit#l wit) t)e c#s) reserves #nd tec)nology !or deep*w#ter drilling in t)e 7ul!, w)ic) #re ,eyond &e(ico?s re#c), ,ut )e g#ve up w)en t)e "&"D sindic#tos t)re#tened to strike #nd
320

6eeA )ttpABB!o(.presidenci#.go,.m(Bvicente!o(B 31H

, p. 318

,low up production !#cilities. =)e good news, )owever, w#s t)#t Co( in)erited # country o! diverse e(ports**in 321/ oil e(ports #ccounted !or M29 o! tot#l e(portsV ,y 2/// it w#s only 09, 128 t)e word ;only< c#n #lso ,e used ironic#lly to re!lect t)e corruption o! "&"D #nd t)e!t o! millions o! oil d#ily to sell it to t)e priv#te sector.

But Co(?s critics #s slow le#rner in t)e ,#ttle to circumvent t)e Corpor#tivist ,ure#ucr#cy, w)ic) prevented )im !rom m#king e(penditure spending #ut)ori-ed !unds.

=o #void intrigue in &e(ico, Co( spent # )uge #mount o! time tr#veling t)e world,322 w)ere )e !elt ;s#!e< !rom intern#l criticism in &e(ico. "ven t)ere, Co( o!ten got into trou,le w)en )e reve#led )is low level o! cultur#l liter#cy #nd )#d to de!end )imsel! !or not knowing t)e n#me o! t)e world !#mous Argentine #ut)or Iorge Luis BorgesA [Pell, t)ey critici-ed me ,ec#use I s#id dJos: Luis Borgues,X< Co( s#idV ;,ut surely, #nyone c#n m#ke # bilingual slip o! t)e tongue[.3E/ Fet !or m#ny )e seemed muc) more liter#te t)#n )is !ellow president #nd !ellow )older o! #n &BA to t)e nort)SBus)
321 322

6ee )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB"conomyYo!Y&e(ico Co(?s me m oirs #re writte n in t)e ;I< !orm (,ut #re co* #ut) or e d ,y @o, Allyn). =)ey !ocus on )is world tr#v els #nd peopl e )e )#s come to know. =)e me m oirs cont #in !ew insig)t s )idd e n in muc) insigni!ic#nt gossip (per)#ps t)e w#y )e s#w t)e worldA Re!olution of hope: the life, faith, and dreams of a -e.ican president ($ew ForkA Kiking, 2//0)V "dition in 6p#nis)A La Re!oluci9n de la 7speran6a: La !ida, los anhelos " los suenos de un presidente.
3E/

6ee www.,#rcelon#metropolis.c#tBenBp#ge.#spRidT22QuiT12Qprev$odeTE8Qt#gIdT6ergi92/:ori#

318

, p. 31M

II, w)o #lso pretended to ,e # cow,oy. In #not)er reve#ling slip, Co( c#lled )is !riend Bus) II # ;Pinds)ield Cow,oy< ,ec#use )e seemed to ,e #!r#id o! )orses w)ile visiting t)e Co( r#nc) in &e(ico #nd pre!erred to ride t)e r#nge in # >eep.

In t)e me#ntime, Co( w#s ridiculed !or m#king )is own cow,oy ,oots into )is tr#de*m#rk sym,ol o! m#c)ismo, #nd )e m#de t)em t)e o!!ici#l gi!t to t)e world le#ders w)o )e visited. But )is us#ge o! t)#t sym,ol ,#ck!iredA ,oots #re not m#de !or riding )orse,#ck, not w#lking. Co( d#m#ged )is spine !rom we#ring t)em const#ntly, #nd in &#rc) 2//E )#d to undergo ,#ck surgery**!rom w)ic) )e )#s never !ully recovered. Alt)oug) )e stopped we#ring ,oots, ,#ck p#in did not m#ke )is di!!icult presidency #ny e#sier. =)e surgery r#ised # serious issue, w)ic) rem#ins unresolvedA3E3 Bec#use &e(icoXs constitution does not spell out w)o is in c)#rge w)en t)e &e(ic#n president c#nnot govern, t)e +uestion #rose #,out t)e need to cre#te t)e position o! vice president in &e(ico. residenti#l tr#nsition itsel! w#s di!!icult in 2//M, ,ut resolved. /=! Feli$e Cal!erEn #-..@--./-& implicity rules !or 'ctive-"tate Policy5 even t(oug( (e cam$aigne! in 'nti-"tate terms

3E3

6ee )ttpABB#irwol!.lmtonline.comBnewsB#rc)iveB/E3E/EBp#ge#3/.pd!.

31M

, p. 310

:uring t)e H ye#rs !rom 2//0*2/3/, t)e $o$ulation increase! from /.@ million to //- million, growt) a0ette! 0y t(e G3"3 closure of its 0or!er *it( Me)ico5 !e$ortation from t(e G"' of Me)icans *orJing *it(out G3"3 !ocuments or foun! guilty of even minor crimes5 an! t(e voluntarary return to Me)ico 0y t(ose *(o lost Mo0s !uring 2e$ression II in t(e G"'. Cal!erEn o! t)e A$ won t)e presidency Iuly 2, 2//M, #nd took o!!ice :ecem,er 3, #!ter # ,itterly disputed p#rti#l elector#l recount.

It w#s t)e #ppropri#te time !or A$ w#s #,le to rec#ll )ow long it )#d soug)t to prevent t)e rise o! 6t#tism since t)e #rty?s !ounding in 32E2. C#lder%n, w)o c#mp#igned in Anti*6t#te terms converted to Active 6t#te #ctions w)en )e took o!!ice.

C#lder%n ;re#li-ed< t)#t t)e vision o! &e(ico?s #ccumul#ted Grandes #roblemas +acionales (w)ic) )#d l#st ,een upd#ted #nd #tt#cked wit) verve under 6#lin#s?s Active 6t#te olicy) needed to ,e revised #nd #tt#cked #new.

C#lder%n, t)en, wit)out #nnouncing # l#n t)#t would ,ring down t)e wr#t) per)#ps #ll o! t)e m#>or interest groups in &e(ico, ,eg#n to #rticul#te t)e ,#sis !or reviving strong 'ctive "tate Policy not seen since t)e 6#lin#s 32*ye#rs in power. As we see, m#ny elements )#ve ,een #dded to )is l#n #s )e )#s m#neuvered )is w#y t)roug) t)e &e(ic#n politic#l scene, #s we see ,elow.
310

, p. 311

Cortun#tely !or C#lderon, ,y t)e time )e took o!!ice, two protest groups w)ic) once seemed to t)re#ten t)e power o! &e(ico government )#d !#ded into t)e ,#ckground, wit) only # sputter in 2//0. #i& =)e Peo$les’ Revolutionary Party ("@ , ">'rcito @evolucion#rio del ue,lo) emerges now #nd t)en !rom its )ideouts in t)e mount#ins o! 7uerrero #nd 4#(#c# (w)ere it w#s !ounded in 322M) to #pply t)e lessons le#rned ,y guerrill#s #round t)e world. (=)e "@ w#s #mong t)ose w)o w#tc)ed t)e U.6. !#ce

pro,lems in t)e ,om,ing o! oil pipelines in Ir#+). &ore t)#n 3/ m#>or ,om,ings in &e(ico in 2//0 disrupted oil #nd g#s supplies #nd stopped industri#l production w)ile pipelines #re rep#ired.

But t)en suddenly t)e ,om,ing o! t)e oil pipelines stoppedSle#ding m#ny o,serves to +uestion w)et)er t)e ,om,s were pl#ced ,y t)e "@ , 3E2 or ,y dissidents in t)e "&"D 6indic#to, w)o m#y )#ve ,een w#rding t)e government #g#inst #llowing !oreign priv#te c#pit#l to ,ecome involved in t)e e(tr#ction o! oil. (=oo, someone wit) e(#ct knowledge #,out t)e oil pipeline system )#d to )#ve set t)e ,om,s, #nd t)#t would need guid#nce !rom persons inside "&"D.) #ii& "u0coman!ante Marcos )#d won implicit recognition #s # politic#l group (not # guerrill# group) w)en in 2//3 resident Co( invited t)e "5L$ to m#rc) to &e(ico City #nd m#ke &#rcos?s c#se in Congress. =)e present#tion
3E2

In recent communi+u's, t)e "@ m#inly protests #,out dis#ppe#r#nce o! mem,ers #t t)e )#nds o! #ut) orities , t)re # t e ni n g #ction unles s t)e dis#p p e # r e d #re m#k e to re# p p e # r . 311

, p. 312

resulted in t)e rele#se o! most EH+1 prisoners #nd permitted t)em to move !reely #,out &e(ico. Indeed in 2//M, &#rcos conducted )is ;4t)er C#mp#ign< (#s Com#nd#nte 5ero) #g#inst presidenti#l c#ndid#tes C#lder%n #nd A&L4. In t)e end, )e endorsed A&L4, ,ut too l#te to m#ke # di!!erence. &#rcos still c#lls !or #n ;Indigenous $#tion< wit)in t)e &e(ic#n $#tion. But #!ter t)e presidenti#l elector#l recount, w)ic) &#rcos )#d predicted would never t#ke pl#ce, (let #lone # re#l election), )e lost relev#nce.

In terms o! t)e economy, Real :2P gro*t( rates under t)e A$ declined dr#m#tic#lly, #s t)ey )#d under t)e @I. Crom 3213 t)roug) 2///, t)e @I?s ye#rly #ver#ge )#d !#llen to -3?T. (;@e#l 7: < removes t)e e!!ect o! in!l#tion !rom t)e d#t#, w)ic) ot)erwise underst#tes p#st c)#nge #nd overst#tes current c)#nge.) &e(ico?s low 7: growt) w#s in!luenced ,y t)e 2//3 #tt#ck on t)e U6A 2B33. =)e A$?s #ver#ge @e#l 7: growt) r#te !rom 2//3 t)roug) 2//M w#s not t)e 0.89 promised, ,ut #lso only -3?T (see Cigure 33), in spite o! incre#sing remitt#nces !rom &e(ic#n workers in t)e U6A (U6U 2M ,illion in 2//M) #nd rising world oil prices (w)ic) re#c ) e d U6U 3H1 per ,#rr el in Iuly 2//0 (vs. U6U 2/ in 2///). &e(ico?s ,lend o! petroleu m sells !or 3/* 2/9 less t)#n U.6. Pest =e(#s Inter m e di # t e , w)ic) is t)e world ,enc)* m#rk price t)#t )#d re#c ) e d only U6U 3// per ,#rr el in
312

, p. 32/

2//0. In -. . < t( e G3"3 $ric e coll a $ s e ! to t( e P; . $er 00l3 ran g e 5 gr#v ely #!!ecting &e(ico?s incom e !rom oil e(port s. :uring t)e tr#nsition !rom 2//2 to 2/3/, oil )#s )over e d ne#r U1/, wit) upw#r d tend e n c y.

=)e @e#l 7: o! &e(ico?s growt) r#te re#c)ed 8.29 in 2//M (t)us winning presidenti#l votes !or C#lder%n), ,ut )#s su,se+uently !ell ,#ck to #n #ver#ge o! 2.E9 during C#lder%n?s !irst two ye#rsS2//0 #nd 2//1.3EE (6ee Cigure 33, !or gr#p)ic views.)

3EE

6ee )ttpABBwww.tr#dingeconomics.comB"conomicsB7: *7rowt).#sp(R6ym,olT&D$ 32/

, p. 323

****** Cigure 33 &e( 7:

323

, p. 322

Cigure 32 Korl! :2P Colla$ s e 5 -. / . (;"cono mic #nd Cin#nci#l Indic#tor s, 7cono mi s t , :ece m , e r 2 2/3/) -. . > - -. . < 5 Rec o v e r y for t( e Ric( in

322

, p. 32E

Cigure 3E Korl! Oil Pric e s an! Ca$it al Flo* s 5 -. . / - -. . < ( 2inancial )imes, 4ct. 3E, 2//2) ^I#n. E, 2/33, 4il rice T U6U 22 per ,#rr el_

32E

, p. 32H

In -..<5 :2P suffere! t(e *orst colla$se of any maMor country in t(e *orl!5 falling D3/T5 e)cee!ing even t(e fall of t(e Russian an! Hungarian :2Ps #-D3.T&.3EH

/=!3/ Cal!erEn Faces +E$e,-O0ra!or #'M+O&5 K(o Kants 'narc(y to Restore "tatist Revolution 'n!rFs Manuel +E$e,-O0ra!or (w)o r#n t)e ;&#in C#mp#ign< #g#inst C#lder%n in t)e residenti#l "lection o! 2//M) )#s procl#imed )imsel! to ,e t)e ;Legitim#te resident< (2//M*2/32), #nd )e still promises to l#y t)e ,#sis !or s)i!ting &e(ico ,#ck to 6t#tism. His !oreign #llies do not include t)e U6A ,ut, C)Jve- in Kene-uel#, t)e Oirc)ners in Argentin#, "vo &or#les in Bolivi#, @#!#el Corre# in "cu#dor, Lul# in Br#-il, #nd w)#t is le!t o! Cidel C#stro in Cu,#. He ;pro)i,ited< mem,ers o! t)e @:, including t)e &#yor o! &e(ico City, to )#ve #ny rel#tions wit) t)e C#lder%n Administr#tion, #lt)oug) t)e &#yor?s c)ie! #ssist#nts were #llowed to negoti#te in order to keep !eder#l su,sidies !lowing to t)e l#rgest city in &e(ico.

A&L4 considered t)e

@: to ,e ;His<

#rty o! t)e :emocr#tic

@evolution #PR2& w)ic) )e ;owned< #s ;Ie!e de Ie!es< w)en t)e p#rty ,#se
3EH

;"cono mic #nd Cin#nci#l Indic#tors ,< )he 7cono mi s t , I#n. 2, 2//2. 32H

, p. 328

decided t)#t )is re!us#l to negoti#te wit) C#lder%n #ndBor cooper#te wit) t)e C#lder%n government w#s m#king t)e @: irrelev#nt. =)e go#l in 2//2 t)en ,ec#me )ow to sideline A&L4 #nd give t)e constructively wit) t)e government. @: #ut)ority to work

In seeking prevent t)e priv#ti-ing o! "&"D or t)e &e(ic#n "lectricity Industry, A&L4 )#s re!used to consider even doing so in p#rt, even wit) t)e 6t#te m#int#ining m#>ority control. Indeed, A&L4 seeks to end "&"D !rom m#king service contr#ctsSironic#lly, e(cept !or Coc#*Col# to provide ,ever#ges !or "&"D workers. =)e purpose o! service contr#cts, e.g., is to permit "&"D to )ire deep*w#ter drilling e(pertise !rom #,ro#d**e(pertise w)ic) "&"D l#cks.

In l#te 2//1, A&L4 lost )is ,id to continue )is control o! t)e @: w)en Ies\s ;C)uc)o< Ortega de!e#ted A&L4?s c#ndid#te to ,ecome t)e new resident o! @:. Ies\s (#nd )is c)ie! oper#tor Ies\s 5#m,r#no) w)o deem t)emselves to ,e ;Los C)uc)os<) now #re seeking to portr#y t)e @: #s t)e ;Rene*e! PR2”3 Pit) A&L4 displ#ced ,y 2//2, )e is wit)dr#wing !rom t)e @:.

In s)ort, C)uc)o (t)e nickn#me o! #ll t)ose n#med ;Iesus) won t)e @: presidency ,y ,#sing )is c#mp#ign to recogni-e C#lder%n #s resident #nd work

328

, p. 32M

wit) t)e @: (#nd @I) to solve &e(ico?s pro,lems, t)us de!e#ting A&L4?s #n#rc)ic#l policies.3E8

In t)e me#ntime t)e two @: !ounders or!irio &ufo- Ledo #nd Cu#u)t'moc CJrden#s (w)o )#ve long ,een enemies) )#ve t#ken di!!erent positionsA t)e !ormer supporting A&L4, t)e l#tter opposing )im #nd suggesting t)#t )e )imsel! (Cu#u)t'moc) s)ould #g#in ,e c#ndid#te !or resident o! &e(ico.

=)e E0rar! King of t(e PR263EM &#rcelo E0rar! (currently ;&#yor< o! &e(ico City #nd Ie!e de 7o,ierno o! &e(ico?s Ceder#l :istrict t)#t includes &e(ico City) must position )imsel! #s # r#tion#le, independent politic#l le#der. ",r#rd )#d !ollowed A&L4?s orders not to meet person#lly wit) #ny o!!ici#ls o! t)e C#lder%n government.

",r#rd?s critics #rgue t)#t )e governs &e(ico City t)roug) t)e use o! kommissars (spies w)o politici-e #ll #ctivities #s potenti#l conspir#cies, #s in t)e old U66@). His supporters include &#nuel Camac(o-"ol4s5 w)o during t)e 6#lin#s er# o! t)e @I served #s &#yor o! t)e :.C., 3211*322E. Critics o! C#m#c)o cl#im t)#t )e is intent on reviving t)e ;4ld Aut)orit#ri#n @I 6tyle,< ,ut t)is st#tement seems e(#gger#ted.
3E8

6ee Io)n @oss, ;=)e :emise o! t)e @:,< )ttpABBwww.counterpunc).orgBross/8302//1.)tml 3EM 6ee www.#ngel!ire.comBtnBtiemposBpolitic#Bte(toE3H.)tml 32M

, p. 320

/=!3- 1arcotraficantes #2rug rafficJers& "eeJ 'narc(y to 1eutrali,e Police % Military 1arcotraficantes kill &e(ic#n police #nd soldiers to disrupt t)e police power o! t)e government, w)ic) seeks to put t)e drug de#lers out o! ,usiness. =)e $#rcotr#!ic#ntes #re ,etter p#id #nd )#ve ,etter communic#tion t)#n t)e police #nd #rmy. =)ey cert#inly )#ve ,etter we#pons (including s)oulder*!ired missiles) t)#n t)e police #nd o!ten outgun even most milit#ry units. =)ey p#y enormous ,ri,es to #void scrutiny ,y government intern#l security ;!orces.< I! t)ey success!ully cre#te #n#rc)y ,y p#r#ly-ing t)e role o! police #nd #rmy, t)ey win t)e rig)t to !reely tr#!!ic in drugsSt)ey do not w#nt to try to govern &e(ico. er)#ps to s)ow person#l strengt) >ust d#ys #!ter ,eing sworn into o!!ice :ecem,er 3 2//M (wit) # ,#re winning m#rgin o! only .819 o! t)e vote), C#lder%n decl#red 3/ d#ys l#ter t)#t )e w#s sending Ceder#l troops to stop t)e drug violence in )is )ome st#te o! &ic)o#cJn. =)is #ct would turn into t)e P#r on :rug C#rtels t)roug)out &e(ico. But even more import#nt t)#n #ny politic#l we#kness !or C#lder%n decision to t#ke on t)e :rug C#rtels is t)e !#ct t)#t C#lder%n )#d t)e person#l cour#ge to re#li-e t)#t t)e Ceder#l government could no longer ignore t)e incre#singly violent $#rcotr#!ic#ntes w)o dec#de ,y dec#de since t)e 321/s )#d ,ecome evermore murderous #s t)ey ;c)#llenged< t)e &e(ic#n 6t#te. =)us, in )is !irst mont) in o!!ice C#lder%n sent #n initi#l M,8// troops to +u#s) # r#s) o! e(ecution*
320

, p. 321

style killings ,etween two riv#l drug g#ngs in &ic)oJc#n.3E0 6ince 2//M, t)e num,er o! troops )#ve risen #s t)ey spre#d t)roug)out &e(ico to surp#ss H8,/// in t)e struggle #g#inst t)e :rug C#rtels. Also, in 2//M C#lder%n undertook t)e !irst o! m#ny c#mp#igns to cle#n up police corruption in &e(ico w)en )is pu,lic security minister :enaro :arc4a+una removed 21H !eder#l police commissioners on corruption c)#rges #nd repl#ced t)em wit) # )#nd*selected group o! o!!icers w)o success!ully #rrested sever#l drug kingpins. =)e g#ngs )#ve responded wit) w)#t seems to ,e #n endless stre#m o! violenceSmore t)#n 3M,/// people )#ve ,een killed in drug* rel#ted crimes during t)e l#st t)ree ye#rs :ecem,er 2//M to :ecem,er 2//2, t)e v#st m#>ority ,eing n#rcotr#!ic#ntes ,ut #lso including innocents c#ug)t in t)e cross*!ire # well #s over 38/ police #nd troops. =)e tot#l killed persons, about 3hom are kno3n, t)e tot#l )#s risen to E2,/// !or t)e period 2//M*2/3/ is s)own ye#rly in Cigure 3H .

But let us not !orget t)e )istory d#ting ,#ck to t)e 3218 murder o! :"A #gent "nri+ue C#m#ren#, w)en &e(ico #nd t)e U6A ,ec#me !ully #w#re o! t)e d#nger posed ,y $#rcotr#!ic#ntesSsee 3E#, #,ove.
For t*o analyses of *(at can only 0e calle! t(e faile! G3"3 Kar on 2rugs an! G3"3 (istorical conte)t of many mu!!le! matters in (el$ing to resolve Me)ican issues to com0at t(e narcotraficantes5 see. e.g., Cl#ire 6udd# #nd )ilip C#puto. 6udd#, ^;&e(ico?s_ P#r on :rugs,< &#rc) 28, 2//2, is #t www.time.comBtimeBworld#rticleB/,1822,3110H11,//.)tml #nd C#puto on “ (e Fall of Me)ico”, Atlantic -aga6ine, :ec. 2//2 is #t www.t)e#tl#ntic.comBdocB2//232Bme(ico*drugs
137

321

, p. 322

"l C)#po w#s c#ptured in 322E ,ut esc#ped prison in 3228 on t)e eve o! )is e(tr#dition to t)e U6AS#s o! t)e end o! 2/3/ )e )#s still #t l#rge. In 2//1, "l C)#p# w#s listed #t 0/3 on the 2orbesA list o! ric)est people in t)e world wit) #n estim#ted net wort) o! U2 ,illion, w)ic) in!uri#ted &e(ic#n #ut)orities w)o s#w )is inclusion on t)e list #s #n insult to t)e civili-ed world. ***** Cigure 3H Vno*n num0er of $ersons Jille! in Me)ico’s 2rug Kar3 -..@--./.O
(&#y ,e Up to EM,/// or &ore)

=-5... totalO (including cross!ire)WW ?>@ :ec. 2//M -5?DD in 2//0 (including E// in IuJre-) @5-<. in 2//1 (including 3,M2/ in IuJre-) D5D-? in 2//2 #including 2,MM/ in Ciud#d IuJre-WWW) /;5.-= in -./. #inclu!ing=5/// in BuCre,S a0out -;T of of t(e cities /3? million $ersons (ave fle! W=)is tot#l since 2//M #grees wit) t)#t o! &e(ic#n o!!ici#ls w)o dis#gree wit) t)e tot#l o! E/,2// given ,y &e(ico?s Attorney 7ener#l Arturo C)Jve(see ress=K, I#n. E, 2/33A )ttpABBwww.presstv.irBdet#ilB381E11.)tml 4t)er sources cl#im t)#t C)Jve- )#s # d#t# ,#se wit) =@5... n#mes o! persons killed in t)e :rug P#rs, see Gardenia Mendoza Aguilar, Dec. 17, 2010
http://www.i pre.co /noticia!/2010/12/17/!on"3#" il" uerto!"por"la"narc" 228#38"1.ht l$co ent!%loc& WW6t#tistics on t)e loss o! li!e #re complic#ted in &e(ico, t)us t)ere is no

single list ,ut r#t)er m#ny, depending on t)e !ocus o! t)e compiler, w)ose lists
322

, p. 2//

includeA &en #nd women murdered, )um#n ,ones !ound ,ut not identi!ied #ndBor identi!i#,le, persons killed in ,#ttles ,etween drug c#rtels #ndBor wit) t)e milit#ry, persons killed ,y cross!ire, persons killed in kidn#ppings #ndBor ro,,eries, migr#nts killed, #pp#rent suicides, c)ildren murdered ,y !#mily #ndBor !oe, women killed ,y ;6#t#nic Cults,< women !#ctory workers w)o #re missing #nd #lso missing #nd presumed de#d, etc, In 2//2 Oen "llingwood #rticul#ted in )is August 1 #rticle !or t)e Los Angeles )imes t)e sudden rise o! missing women w)o #re students le#ving ,e)ind st#,le middle*#nd working* cl#ss !#miliesSsee www.l#tim e s . c o m B n e w s B n # tio n w o rldBw orldBl#* !g*
>u#re-* missing 2* 2//2 # u g / 2 , / , H E 8 0 1 / 0 . s t o r y

WWW=)e Ciud#d IuJre- tot#l includes 32H c#ses o! ; femici!e< in 2//2 #nd tot#l o! 08/ women since 322ESt)e l#tter !igure is given in t)e Inter* Americ#n Court o! Hum#n @ig)ts @eport +uoted in )ttpABBwww.elp#sotimes.comBciY3E213E32 Cemicide is t)e m#ss murder o! women simply ,ec#use t)ey #re women. It is t)e term t)#t )#s ,een coined in response to t)e )undreds o! women murdered #nd missing on t)e U.6.*&e(ico ,order in t)e city o! Iu#re-, >ust #cross t)e ,order !rom "l #so, =e(#s. 6ome lists s)ow ;only< E8/ women missingBde#d !rom 322E*2//2, ot)ers give !igures in t)e H8/ r#nge. =)e )ig) is 08/.
"ource6 :r#wn !romA )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB&e(ic#nY:rugYP#r #s well #s !rom t)e #lw#ys e(cellent report#ge ,y :ar!enia Men!o,a-'guilar5 www.impre.comBl#opinionBnotici#sB2//2B32B21Bm#s*,#r,#ros*los*#ctos*de*los**3M801M* 3.)tml #nd Io#n 7rillo, [&e(icoXs Coc#ine C#pit#l.[ )im e . Augus t 3H, 2//1, www.time.comBtimeBm#g#-ineB#rticleB/,2303,31E218H,//.)tml See a $o= htt+=>>www;+re$$t3;ir>,etai >1*&'&&;ht% /8an; ', :(112

***** In $ovem,er 2//2, 2orbes -aga6ine r#nked Io#+uNn 7u-mJn #s t)e H3st o! M0 most power!ul people in t)e world , #ngering Americ#n #nd &e(ic#n o!!ici#ls. :uring t)e e#rly 2///s improvements in illeg#l !lig)ts detection prompted "l C)#po to diversi!y tr#nsport#tion met)ods #nd routes. 7u-mJn is well known !or )is use o! sop)istic#ted tunnels to smuggle coc#ine !rom &e(ico into t)e
2//

, p. 2/3

United 6t#tes in t)e e#rly 322/s. In 322E # 0.E ton s)ipment o! )is coc#ine, conce#led in c#ns o! c)ile peppers #nd destined !or t)e United 6t#tes, w#s sei-ed in B#># C#li!orni#..3E1 residents Bus) #nd C#lder%n #greed, in 2//0,3E2 to t)e &'rid# Initi#tive !or eventu#lly providing U3.M ,illion to &e(ico #nd ot)er countries over t)ree ye#rs to )elp com,#t drug smuggling #nd violence. 4! t)e U3.3 ,illion #lloc#ted to &e(ico (vi# t)e tr#ns!er o! milit#ry e+uipment #nd t)e tr#ining o! police, prosecutors, #nd >udgesSnot ,y direct tr#ns!er o! !unds), t)e end o! 2//2 s#w only U1E million (09) wort) o! goods #nd service )#d ,een received ,y &e(ico #nd t)#t re+uired 4,#m#?s 6ecret#ry o! 6t#te, Hillary Clinton5 to person#lly cut t)roug) t)e U.6. ,ure#ucr#cy to )elp &e(ic#n ,egin to mount # gre#ter oper#tions level, w)ic) )#d st#lled under Bus) in 2//0 #nd 2//1 #nd under 4,#m# in 2//2.
3H/

By l#te 2//2 #nd e#rly 2/3/, )owever, t)e U.6. "lectronic 6urveill#nce, p#yments to in!orm#nts, #nd #n#lysis o! [li!e styles[ )#s guided &e(ic#n !orces to suc) key n#rcotr#!ic#ntes #s Arturo BeltrJn Leyv# (killed in # :ecem,er 2//2 s)ootout in Cuern#v#c# #nd )is ,rot)er C#rlos #rrested in Culi#cJn wit)in d#ys) #nd "l =eo 6imentel (#rrested in L# #-, B#># C#li!orni#, I#nu#ry 2/3/.

3E1

6ee )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBIo#+u9CE9A:nY7u-m9CE9A3nYLoer#

3E2 3H/

6ee )ttpABBe n.wikip e di #.or gBwikiB&'rid#YIniti#tiv e 4n t)e ;!#ilure< o! &'rid# initi#tive to mov e +uickly, see :ar! e n i a Men ! o , a - 'guil ar , www.impr e . c o m Bl # o pinio nBn o tici# sB 2 / / 2 B 3 2 B 2 1 B m # s * ,#r, # r o s* los* #ctos* de* los* *3M80 1 M* 3.)t ml 2/3

, p. 2/2

In spite o! t)e l#ck o! U.6. ;virtu#l !unds< promised to )elp &e(ico, t)e C#lder%n government #nnounced t)e ;2//2 scorec#rd< wit) some positive results in t)e &e(ico :rug P#r. Cigure 3M gives t)e scorec#rd. (Kirtu#l support is #n ;insult< to t)e &e(ic#n government ,ec#use t)e U.6. Congress )#s m#nd#ted t)#t U.6. p#yments ,e m#de directly to t)e provider o! services #nd not t)roug) t)e &e(ic#n government. =)is insult )#s ,een p#rti#lly ;compens#ted< ,y t)e U.6. providing electronic tr#cking support to loc#te c#pos.) Low p#y milit#ry is # pro,lem !or &e(ico ,ec#use t)e $#rcotr#!ic#ntes o!!er muc), muc) more in p#y #nd ,ene!itsSsee Cigure 38 Cigure 38
&ont)ly "#rnings in &e(ico $#rco P#rs (U6U) Army 6oldier 2//M U EM/ 2/3/ U MH/ U6U 3/O AO*H0, 6UK, ;c)#in*s#w<, cell p)one, )ome !or !#mily -nd top +u#lity medic#l pl#n U6U 8/ per killing ,y # 6ic#rio 6ome 6ic#rios m#y now cl#im to ,e ;underp#id< in lig)t o! t)e #rrest o! #n Americ#n 32*ye#r*oldW w#s p#id U2// weeklyWW in 2/3/ (,ut t)#t s#l#ry included torture #nd dismem,erment) $#rco P#rrior ("stim#ted) ;6ic#rio< Common Hit*&#n

2/33 U 02/ (pl#n) Bonuses #re set in incre#se

YYYYYYYYYYYYY WCor news #nd video o! ;"l onc)is<, see )ttpABBwww.,orderl#nd,e#t.comB2/3/B33Brut)less*sic#rio*is*only*32*ye#rs*old.)tml WW Cor #n interview wit) ;"l onc)is,< see )ttpABBwww.immort#ltec)ni+ue.co.ukB=)re#d*"l* onc)is*3H*F"A@*4L:*$A@C*=HA=* 6LI=*=H@4A=6*C4$C"66"6 2/2

, p. 2/E

***** Cigure 3M Cal!erEn’s Positive an! 1egative 2rug Kar "corecar!5 -..<
(I! you need # tr#nsl#tion, see t)e Course Pe,site) $otici#s positiv#sA g resuntos n#rcotr#!ic#ntes detenidos 33 mil 220 g rincip#les c#pos c#NdosA “El eo” eo!oro :arc4a-"imentel,W >e!e de >e!es en =i>u#n#, 3*32*2/3/, !und#dor de l# [n#rcoguerr# sin regl#s y sin pied#d[ en #,ril de 2//1 'rturo AeltrCn-+eyva, e( >e!e del c#rtel de 6in#lo#, killed 32*38*2//2 Iicente Carrillo-+eyva5 )i>o del e(tinto 'ma!o Carrillo Fuentes5 !und#dor del c#rtel de IuJre-V Iicente Ham0a!a-1ie0la, #li#s "l Kicentillo, )i>o de Ismael cEl Mayo’ Ham0a!a, uno de los >e!es del c#rtel de 6in#lo#. g Cuncion#rios involucr#dos con el n#rcotrJ!icoA EM2V incluyendo 8H milit#res g :ecomiso de coc#Nn# 32 tonel#d#s g :ecomiso de ve)Nculos 8,112 g :ecomiso de #rm#s 38 mil g "rr#dic#ci%n de m#ri)u#n# y #m#pol# 30,8ME )ectJre#s $otici#s neg#tiv#sA * ">ecut#dos por los n#rcotr#!ic#ntes (#ndBor killed in cross!ire)A 0,8// * :N# mJs violentoA 30 de diciem,re con MH muertos **********
W["l =eo, +uien )#,N# sido reclut#do en 3228 por RamEn 'rellano-FFli), en #,ril de 2//1 rompi% con el cJrtel de =i>u#n# supuest#mente #l m#ndo de Fernan!o "Cnc(e,-'rellano cEl Ingeniero’ p#r# d#r inicio # l# dn#rcoguerr#? ^sin regl#s, sin pied#d_. ["s cu#ndo tom# el control de l# estructur# del crimen y n#rcotrJ!ico en B#># C#li!orni#Z. #r# m#ntener el !in#nci#miento de su estructur# oper#tiv# El eo recurr4a al secuestro !e em$resarios y comerciantes en sus $rinci$ales ,onas !e o$eraciEn5 Ensena!a Rosarito5 iMuana y ecate83 “En esa narcoguerra em$ie,an a surgir !eca$ita!os5 colga!os y ca!Cveres !isueltos en Cci!o3 +os cnarcomensaMes’ !an cuenta !e los motivos !e ca!a uno !e los cuer$os 9ue se locali,a0an rega!os en la ciu!a! Zen la 0atalla[6 "l =eo vs. "l Ingeniero,Z ["l =eo se le vincul# con l# m#yorN# de l#s e>ecuciones de policN#s municip#les, est#t#les y !eder#les, #sN como de !uncion#rios p\,licos, como el de @ogelio 6Jnc)e-*Iim'ne-, emple#do del go,ierno del est#do, # +uien encontr#ron desnudo y con )uell#s de tortur#, colg#do de un puente en =i>u#n# el 1 de octu,re de 2//2. ;Luego se increment#ron l#s #men#-#s en contr# del procur#dor est#t#l @ommel &oreno, y del >e!e de l# policN# loc#l, IuliJn Ley-#ol#. ;"n 2//H, >unto con su )erm#no &#rco Antonio 7#rcN#*6iment#l, d"l C)ris?V "!r#Nn 're-* #suengo, d"l "!r#?, y Iorge Aureli#no*C'li(, d"l &#cum,#?, ^"l =eo se )#,iJ integr#d#_ # l# estructur# oper#cion#l del tr#siego de drog# # "st#dos Unidos,< seg\n Iorge &or#les*Ald#m#, www.impre.comBnotici#sB2/3/B3B3EBpolici#*me(ic#n#*c#ptur#*#*el**3M122E*3.)tm

6ourceA Ad#pted !rom :ar! e n i a Men ! o , a - 'guilar , ;&Js BJr,#r o s los
#ctos de los $#rcos,< La ;pini9n , :ece m , e r 21, 2//2 #t 2/E

, p. 2/H

www.impr e . c o m Bl # o pinio nBn o tici# sB 2 / / 2 B 3 2 B 2 1 B m # s * ,#r, # r o s* los* #ctos* de* los* *3M80 1 M* 3.)t ml

Ma$ ? (e Reac( of Me)ico’s 2rug Cartels5 -..<

2/H

, p. 2/8

**** Cigure 30 Me)ican 2rug Cartels an! (eir Ca$osL+iving an! 2ea!5 -..<
"(cluding $on*Cunctioning C#rtels #nd $ew ossi,le 6trong C#rtels, e.g. )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBLosY$egros (&#ny C#pos #re 6till Living, But in risonA see Inter#ctive LinkA )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB=imelineYo!Yt)eY&e(ic#nY:rugYP#r $#me o! C#rtel Beltr#n Leyv# C#rtel 6in#lo# $um,er o! C#pos M 6till living #t t)e end o! 2//2 E ,ut C#rlos #rrested in Culi#cJn 32*E/*/2 (3H d#ys #!ter “El Befe” 'rturo killed in Cuern#v#c# ,y "lite &e(ic#n $#vy 6+u#d)W 2, t)e &#(imum Le#der ;"l &Js Loco< )#ving ,een killed in l#te 2/3/, t)e &e(ic#n 7overnment #nnounced t)is g#ng o! $#rcotr#!ic#ntes now ;dis#rticul#ted.< But not ,e!ore ,loody ,#ttles in w)ic) t)e g#ng e!!ectively se#led o!! !or some d#ys t)e st#te c#pit#l o! &oreli#. 33 ,ut one in U.6. prison ( :arciC-'0rego) Q one (Osiel CCr!enas-:uillFn) in &e(ic#n insecure prison w)ere )e c#n still oper#te t)e C#rtel, )owever, see ;5et#s,< ,elow !or Alli#nce 0 ,ut t)e notorius Rafael Caro-Xuintero rison in &e(ico, #nd Miguel Caro-Xuintero is in U.6. prison 1 ,ut, e.g., Miguel angel FFli)-:allar!o is in )ig) security prison M ,ut, e.g. ;El eo” "imentel an! - su0c(iefs c#ptured in in I#nBCe,. 2/3/V &. b. C'li(* 7#ll#rdo is in )ig) security prisonV R ,ut #s le#ders #re #rrested or killed, new ones #re #ppointed to m#int#in t)e (myt)ic#lR) 6peci#l Corce ;Clu, o! E3 mem,ers<V in Iuly 2//2 U.6. =re#sury n#mes H le#ders #s 2/8

L# C#mili# &ic)ocJn#

3/

7ul! C#rtel

32

IuJre- C#rtel 6in#lo# C#rtel =i>u#n# C#rtel

1 1 M

5et#sWW

E3

, p. 2/M

;:rug Oingpins< o! 5cet#sB7ul! C#rtel W6ee www.google.comB)ostednewsBc#n#di#npressB#rticleBALe+&8>/n6LA+8dn n@twgckA6l+)=gAeG • WWIn #ddition to conducting #ctivities #long t)e ,order, t)e 5et#s C#rtel is #ctive t)roug)out t)e 7ul! Co#st region, in t)e 6out)ern st#tes o! =#,#sco, Fuc#t#n, Guint#n# @oo, #nd C)i#p#s, #nd in t)e #ci!ic Co#st st#tes o! 7uerrero, 4#(#c#, #nd &ic)o#cJn, #s well #s in &e(ico City. At times it )#s oper#ted in Ciud#d IuJre- in support o! remn#nts o! t)e old C#rrillo Cuentes C#rtel, #nd per)#ps ot)er groups w)o oppose t)e C#ro*Guintero C#rtel. • 64U@C"A La ;pini9nV )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB=imelineYo!Yt)eY&e(ic#nY:rugYP#r Q
)ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBLosY5et#s #s well #s )ttpABBtre#s.govBpressBrele#sesBtg22/.)tm

*****

Cor t)e :rug P#r results o! 2/3/, see t)e continuously upd#ted site #t )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB=imelineYo!Yt)eY&e(ic#nY:rugYP#r

/=!3= (e Korl! :reat 2e$ression II5 -..>-+os :ran!es Pro0lemas 1acionales II ZGr0an an! Rural Me)ico in t(e Korl![5 -..@L &e(ico is gr#vely imp#cted ,y t)e P#ll 6treet*c#used Porld :epression II, ,ut t)e ,rig)t is t)#t it )#s t#ken #n event not seen since 3222 !or it ,ecome cle#r to C#lder%n t)#t # new vision is necess#ry. Cigure 31 reve#ls t)e e(tent o! t)e tod#y?s crisis #s it inter#cts wit) )istoric#l crises to ;dem#nd< politic#l c)#nge. =)us, C#lder%n )#s c#lled !or limiting (#nd presum#,ly l#ter ending) #rtidocr#cy in w)ic) Congression#l positions #re selected ,y t)e politic#l p#rties. =o succeed, #ccount#,ility t)roug) direct election ,y t)e popul#ce is necess#ry. Pit) no possi,ility o! reelection, voters )#ve little c)#nce to ev#lu#te
2/M

, p. 2/0

t)eir ;elected< :eputies #nd 6en#tors #t t)e outset ,ec#use t)ey #re #ll c)osen to run ,y t)e politic#l p#rties, #nd t)ey s)i!t ,#ck #nd !ort) ,etween t)e two c)#m,ers o! Congress in ,etween serving #s 7overnor or )e#d o! #n #utonomous government #gency. (e Cal!erEn 'C IIE-" ' E P+'1 is compre)ensive. Cor e(#mple, in 2//2 )e set out to ,egin ending su,sidies to corrupt #utonomous government #gencies (suc) #s Lu- y Cuer-# del Centro)141V continue )is e!!ort to c)#nge t)e l#w, #t le#st o,li+uely, so #s to permit "&"D to seek !oreign )elp !or t)e "&"D (w)ic) will not ,e priv#ti-ed ,ut r#t)er !ollower t)e Br#-ili#n &odel)V ,egin to end #rtidocr#cy ,y permitting re*electionV r#pidly #dopt t)e rig)t to or#l tri#ls, !in#lly ending in &e(ico t)e $#poleonic Code?s ;guilty until proven innocent<V ;leg#li-e< psyc)otropic drugs !or person#l #nd to ,e #,le to move !reely wit) up to E*8 d#ys person#l supplyV restructure t)e mess #t t)e &inistry o! He#lt) (w)ic) )#d not )#d t)e tec)nology to identi!y t)e 6wine Clu ,e!ore it spre#d to #ll &e(ico #nd t)e Porld in 2//1V #nd (since 2//M) soug)t to ,ring down t)e ;&en wit) 7uns< (t)e ,rutes seen in !ilm director Io)n 6#yles movie o! t)e s#me n#me) w)o )#ve ,ecome ;su,*)um#n Be#sts<. =oo C#lder%n )#s to ,e sure t)#t &e(ico re#li-e t)#t t)e esc#pe v#lve o! workers going to t)e U6A is now closed #nd m#ny &e(ic#ns returning on t)eir own ,ec#use o! t)e U.6. unemployment crisis #s well #s deport#tion ,y residents Bus) II #nd 4,#m#St)e l#tter deporting more t)#n 3,2 million
3H3

)ttpABBwww.intern#tion#lviewpoint.orgBspip.p)pR#rticle3082 2/0

, p. 2/1

migr#nts !or ,eing in t)e U6A wit)out documents, #nd ,uild # 6uper* ort #t Colonet, B#># C#li!orni#, to permit s)ippers to ,yp#ss +uickly #nd ine(pensively t)e complic#ted orts o! Los AngelesBLong Be#c) to re#c) r#il lines into t)e U6A. Un!ortun#tely, in t)e economic crisis o! 2//1 #nd 2//2 #nd #mid # :rug P#r, #nd ot)er m#>or pro,lems, C#lder%n )#d to del#y Colonet. C#lder%n )#d to implicitly t#ke on t)e pro,lems t)#t I list in Cigure 31.

*******

Figure /> Many-Pronge! Crisis5 -..@--./. Los 7r#nd e s ro,le m # s $#cion #l e s II
" ' G" 4C =H" C4LL4PI$7, w)ic) constitute 4B6=ACL"6 =4 :"K"L4 &"$= 4il reserves in coll#pse #nd Congress re!uses to #ut)ori-e entry under even under 6t#te control o! !oreign c#pit#l wit) e(pertise #nd r#re deep*w#ter rigs needed drill #t le#st 2/,/// !eet ,elow 7ul! sur!#ce 4il price coll#pse since 2//1(,ut modest recovery end o! 2/3/ o!!set ,y t)e!t o! oil #nd g#s ,y "&"D 6indic#to, $#rcotr#!ic#ntes, #nd ot)er crimin#ls Coreign #nd domestic investment dr#m#tic decline since 2//1 wit) modest recovery since l#unc) o! 7reen Autos to ,e m#de in &e(ico ,y U.6. #nd ot)er !oreign comp#nies @emitt#nces !rom workers in U6A to !#milies in &e(ico !rom U28.3 ,illion in 2//1 to
2/1

, p. 2/2

U23.2 ,illion 2//2, ,ut per)#ps (R) reg#ined to U22.2 in 2/3/

)ttpABBwww.impre.comBl#opinionBnotici#sBprimer#*p#gin#B2/3/B3B21B,#>#n*l#s* remes#s*#*me(ico*30/821*3.)tml #nd )ttpABBwww.impre.comBl#opinionBnotici#sBprimer#*p#gin#B2/3/B3B21B,#>#n*l#s* remes#s*#*me(ico*30/821*3.)tmlccommentsBlock

in tan!em *it( ;Closure< o! U.6. >o, m#rket #s #n esc#pe v#lve !or &e(ico?s innov#tive #nd e(cess l#,or. 4,#m# incre#ses in 2//2 r#ids on U.6. pl#ntsB!ields to incre#se deport#tions ,y #t le#st 19 more t)#n Bus) II, r#ising t)e tot#l to E11,/// (including !#milies) !or workingB,eing in U6A wit)out immigr#tion documents. @ise #nd !#ll o! &e(ic#n undocumented migr#nts in t)e United 6t#tes (w)ic) stood #t #n estim#ted 2.2 million in 321/ 32./ million in 2//M), !#ll to less t)#n 33./ million in 2//2.
)ttpABBwww.migr#tionpolicy.orgBpu,sBI&"*I#n2/3/.pd! )ttpABBwww.migr#tionin!orm#tion.orgBd#t#)u,Bcountryd#t#.c!mRI:TH12

I&66 (#lre#dly under!unded !or needed )ospit#ls, medic#lBst#!!, medicinesBD*r#ys) coll#psing under weig)t o! non*mem,ers #dded ,y 6eguro opul#r (no worker contri,utions re+uired) u,lic He#lt) 6ystem ne#r coll#pse in 2//2, owing to Z. "*ine Flu Crisis c#used in &e(ico #nd world ,y U.6. tr#nsn#tion#l 6mit)!ield C#rms u,lic He#lt) l#,s need to ,e upgr#ded to detect dise#se #t outset, not weeks l#ter #!!ect s#mples sent to C#n#d# #nd U6A !or !irst #nd second opinions :engue Cever sweeps 2H o! &e(ico?s E2 st#tes, over H8,/// c#ses in #re#s under H,8// !eet elev. $o v#ccine #g#inst in!ected mos+uitoes until per)#ps 2/3H
2/2

, p. 23/

)ttpABBwww.impre.comBl#opinionBnotici#sBl#tino#meric#B2//2B33B30Bsu, en*#lert#*por*dengue*en*me(*382E8/*3.)tml

Adult di#,etes in &e(ico is #t ;epedemic< levelsA &e(ic#n*Americ#n &igr#nts )#ve ,een !ound to )#ve 2( more propensity to !#ll ill wit) :i#,etes 2 t)#n ;w)ite non*)isp#nics (33.09 comp#red to H.19), owing to Indigenous genetics, )eredity, intensive work style in t)e U6A, #nd diet. 6eeA )ttpABBwww.impre.comBeldi#rionyBvid#* Curt)er, 0E9 o! &e(ic#nAmeric#n migr#nt wom#n #re overweig)t #nd wit) :i#,etes 2 comp#red to M3.M9 o! non L#tin#s in t)e U6A. 6ee

estiloBs#ludB2/3/B32B32Bun#*vid#*nuev#*pero*con*di#,et*2200H3*3.)tmlccommentsBlock

)ttpABBwww.impre.comBl#opinionBnotici#sBprimer#*p#gin#B2/33B3B2Bel* suentildeVo*#meric#no*les*r*2E3E81*3.)tmlccommentsBlock

C)ild )e#lt) E89 o! c)ildren under 32 #re o,ese owing to e(cessive consumption o! >unk !oods #nd )ig) num,er o! tortill#s (m#ny poor consume up to 30 tortill#s d#ilySno me#t, !is), milk, eggs, or even veget#,les previously consumed in ,etter times), #ddition to c)ips, ,re#ds #nd ot)er c#r,o)ydr#tes, suc) #s sug#r*co#ted cere#ls #nd drinks, e(cessive use o! t)e wrong cooking oils (e.g. ,e#ns re!ried in l#rd) l#ck o! protein #nd e(ercise, etc., #ccording to &e(ico?s u,lic He#lt) &inister Ios' Angel Cordo,#, +uoted in La ;pini9n, 3*3E*3/ www.impre.comBl#opinionBnotici#sBl#tino#meric#B2/3/B3B3EBengo rd#*en*me(ico*m#l*de*o,esi*3M123/*3.)tml =ourism to &e(icoA #rriv#l o! !oreigners su,>ect to decline #mid :rug P#rs, kidn#ppings, #nd ,outs o! dise#se "(ports #nd Imports decline in t)e world ;,oom #nd ,ust< economy =r#nsport#tion ,ottlenecksA )undreds o! ro#ds need to ,e m#de H*l#ne #nd m#int#inedV r#il routes need to ,e dou,leV tr#ckedV )erit#ge #irlines #re m#king intern#tion#l tr#vel so )ig) cost #s to in)i,it
23/

, p. 233

economic growt)S#nd t)ey )#ve given up co#st#l !lig)t to U6A to U.6. #irlinesV monopoly domestic routes )urting tourismV Construction industry decline Agricultur#l production pro,lems owning to * worst droug)t (since 32E1) in 2//2*2/3/ * &e(ico (like C)in#, Indi#, U6A w#stes #nd overuses ground w#ter T declining resource
)ttpABBwww.sciencenews.orgBviewBgenericBidBHME22BtitleBBigY7ulp,YAsi#nYstyle

* decline in tourism cripples muc) #gricul. production owing to coll#pse rest#ur#nt industry 2//2*2/3/ * t)re#ts to c#ctus industryA t)e!t o! pl#nts to sell in U6AV nop#lillo in!ection T some pl#nts die * still no !eder#l #gricultur#l e(tension * l#ck o! credit !or #g producers #s well #s e>idos Coreign :irect Investment decline Credit #v#il#,ility to ,usiness #nd consumers endsV new credit c#rds #nd lo#ns not gener#lly #v#il#,le ;@e#son#,le< ,#nking !ees #nd interest )#s come to #n endS ;re#son#,le in &e(ico c#n me#n up to dou,le t)#t c)#rged ,y U.6. ,#nks $ot#ri#l )istoric#l costs were supposed to ,e re!ormed ,ut coll#pse o! c)#nge m#kes leg#l tr#nsctions too costly !or most persons (U.6. $ot#ries c)#rge U8 to veri!y sig#ture on m#>or documentsV &e(ic#n not#ries c)#rge 9 o! tr#ns#ction cost on t)eory t)ey t)ey #re gu#r#nteeing #ll t)e st#tements in t)e documents to ,e true Implemen#tion o! =itle Insur#nce only ,eginning is !ew pl#ces #nd limited circumst#ncesComputeri-#tion o! title recording developing too slowly Consumer s#les coll#pse since 2//1
233

, p. 232

Business ,#nkruptcy l#ws do not necess#rily protect non*,usiness property #rti*docr#cy T #rties n#me H/9 o! t)e :eputies #nd 289 o! t)e 6en#tors, me#ning t)#t t)ose ;winners< do not c#mp#ign !or votes o! t)e popul#tion ,ut only !or power wit)in t)eir #rty )ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiB6en#teY921&e(ico922 $o re*election me#ns no #ccount#,ility so #rty )olds control, not voters C#t#l politic#l !l#w T con!licting systemsA residenti#l, semipresidenti#l, o p#rli#ment#ryRS Porfirio MuYo, +e!o notesV &e(ico su!!er !rom con!usion o! 6p#nis), Crenc), U.6. l#ws, #nd Indigenous ;usos y costum,res< 7overnment workers do not )#ve civil service >o, protectionA in most !eder#l #gencies #nd in most st#te #nd loc#l ;#dministr#tions< c)#nge in le#ders)ip results in w)oles#le c)#nge in >o, )olders, t)us disrupting knowledge #,out )ow t)e levels inter#ct #s well #s t)e !low o! work 7overnment #,ility to spend moneySrigid e(penditure rules (;norm#tivid#d<) re+uire do-ens o! sign#tures ,y ,ure#ucr#ts #t #ll level w)o !e#r ,eing prosecuted i! #ny kick,#cks or corruption is l#ter discoveredS,etter not to sign 7overnment #,ility to spur ,usiness competition #nd regul#te &onopolies is very lowS # competitiveness commission e(ists ,ut is powerless #nd !rig)tened $eed to incre#se t)e terms o! m#yos !rom E to #t le#st H ye#rs #nd c)#nge t)e complic#ted civil code t)#t ;!ree-es< #ctions ,y t)ose m#yors, w)o c#nnot #!!ord t)e leg#l #dvice to keep t)em ,eing c)#rged wit) viol#tion o! rigid e(penditure rules (norm#tivid#d) $eed !or l#ws to regul#ting drug tr#de (e(cept !or leg#li-#tion o!
232

, p. 23E

rel#tively l#rge #mounts !or ;person#l use[ w)ic) #lre#dy e(its) $eed !or e!!ective, )onest olice !orces (w)ic) )#ve #lw#ys e(isted only in written pl#ns) ,ec#use low p#y re+uires police to collect # living w#ge only ,y dem#nding ,ri,es. &ilit#ry p#y is #lso to low to compete wit) $#rcotr#!ic#ntes Iudici#l system continues to ,e )#mpered ,y corrupt use o! #mp#ro Iudges su,>ect to pressure (;convict #nd you #nd your !#mily die<) #s in t)e 2/3/ "sco,edo c#se w)ere de!end#nt con!essed #nd led t)e police to t)e victim?s rem#insS,ut )e w#s rele#sed ;!or l#ck o! evidence<V ;good sign< w#s t)e suspension o! t)e >udges #nd )ig)er court revers#l o! t)e #c+uitt#l, <,#d sign< w#s t)#t it w#s too l#te to re*#rrest t)e murderer, w)o )#d !led

)ttpABBwww.w)#tsons#ny#.comBnews*3H/H3*me(ic#n*victim*s*mum* m#risel#*esco,edo*killed*too*w)ile*dem#nding*>ustice.)tml

6erious need to re!orm prosecutori#l, >udici#l, #nd prison systemsA !rom :ec. 2//M to :ec. 2/3/, !eder#l #ut)orities m#de 8H/,/// prelimin#ry investig#tions, prosecuted H//,///, #nd s#w 12,8// persons imprisoned, # r#te o! only389 o! t)e origin#l tot#l. 6eeA
)ttpABBwww.impre.comBnotici#sB2/3/B32B30Bson*EM*mil*muertos*por*l#* n#rc*221ME1*3.)tmlccommentsBlock

$eed to #ssess more c#ses in lig)t o! 2//0 d#t# t)#t #re not #s positiveA 4! /.. Crimes, only -; #re reported #nd only ?3@ investig#ted, /3@ persons #re prosecuted, #nd /3/ persons sentenced to prison.
To2ard a Ne2 riminal Fustice S,stem (2/3/), =#,le E.

6ee 7uillermo 5eped# Lecuon#, ;Crimin#l Investig#tion #nd 6u,version o! Iustice 6ystem rinciples,< on t)e internet #s Fudicial Re0orm in Mexico:

$eed to veri!y d#t# t)#t indic#te H// persons )#ve ,een e(tr#dited to

23E

, p. 23H

t)e U6A ,y &e(ico ,etween 2//0 #nd 2/3/, 83 ,illion does o! coc#ine, )eroine #nd m#ri>#n# )#ve ,een sei-ed, #t # tot#l v#lue o! U6U 33.1 ,illion. 6eeA
)ttpABBwww.impre.comBnotici#sB2/3/B32B30Bson*EM*mil*muertos*por*l#* n#rc*221ME1*3.)tmlccommentsBlock

B#sic need to re!orm prisons to stop esc#pesA &#n )#ve !led !rom prisonA in 2/3/, e.g., E83 persons esc#ped in t)e st#te o! =#m#ulip#s (on t)e =e(#s ,order)V #nd in 2//2, 8E esc#ped in 5#c#tec#s ,#cked ,y n#rcotr#!ic#ntes dressed #s police, w)o entered t)e prison wit) # 30*c#r convoy #nd # )elicopterV etcZ.
)ttpABBwww.l#times.comBnewsBn#tionworldBworldBl#*!g*me(ico*prison31* 2//2m#y31,/,HE32121.story

$eed to re!orm prisons, w)ere prisoners ruleSprisoners wit) c#s) c#n )#ve # live*in wi!e or mistress #nd c#tered me#ls, use o! cell p)one, #nd e#sy #ccess to drugs #nd we#pons L#ws preventing kidn#pping t)eoretic#lly go into !orce in 2/33 !in#lly to de!ine kidn#pping in &e(ico #s st#rting !rom t)e !irst moment o! !orced det#inment (r#t)er t)#n, s#y, 2H or H1 )ours #!ter t)e kidn#pping, depending on )ow e#c) st#te )#ndles ;"(press Oidn#ppings<), 0ut en!orcement m#y,e di!!icult in t)e c#se o! +uick "(press Oidn#ppings (o!ten ,y police), #nd ;Bride kidn#pping< (# term o!ten #pplied loosely, to include #ny ,ride, usu#lly # minor) X#,ductedX #g#inst t)e will o! )er p#rents, ,ec#use t)e young girl m#y ,e willing to m#rry t)e X#,ductorX )ttpABBwww.pittsreport.comB2/3/B32Bme(ico* 2B)ttpABBen.wikipedi#.orgBwikiBBrideYkidn#pping L#ck o! Innov#tion in industry, mining, #nd #griculture** most innov#tion now loc#ted in Br#-il (&e(icoXs m#in competitor in L#tin Americ#) Continuing !oreign #nd domestic de,t over)#ng tot#ls H89 o! 7: ] including su,tot#l !or C4BA @4A (322/) #nd I AB (3221) w)ic) #re up to 329 o! 7: , #ccording to :r. Iu#n &oreno 're-.
23H

, p. 238

-----Comp#re &e(ico?s pro,lems to t)e view ,y Andre#s Olut) (t)e C#li!orni# correspondent !or )he 7conomist(, w)o in 2/3/ s#w C#li!orni# #s t)e !irst !#iled st#te o! t)e U6AA “If a state can no longer a!!ress or solve t(e $ro0lems it faces5 t(en it (as faile!3 California easily meets t(at criterion3 Prisons6 C#li!orni# )#s t)e worst recidivism r#te in t)e country. Kater6 itXs #n in!r#structure #nd # clim#te issue ,ut itXs #lso # govern#nce issue3 E!ucation6 C#li!orni# ,uilt t)e ,est pu,lic university system in t)e country, w)ic) it is currently dism#ntling ,ec#use it is now # !#iled st#te. Au!gets6 # st#te is supposed to )#ve # ,udget, to p#ss it on time, #nd C#li!orni# never does. =)#t st#rted well ,e!ore t)e recession. 4ur opponents m#y #rgue t)#t #s soon #s t)ereXs # recovery t)ese pro,lems will recede. ItXs not true. P#rren Bu!!ett s#ys itXs only w)en t)e tide goes out t)#t you le#rn w)oXs swimming n#ked. C#l!orni# )#s ,een undressing since t)e 320/sZsince t)e in!#mous roposition 3E. =)is is somet)ing c#lled direct democr#cy t)#t t)e !ounders o! t)e n#tion were very #!r#id o!. *enty-four states (ave Zciti,en[ initiatives3 Only one !oes not allo* its legislature to amen! initiatives t(at its voters (ave $asse!5 no matter (o* insane3 In only one st#te do t)e inm#tes run t)e #sylum. )ttpABBwww.newsweek.comBidB2E2808 (3*2M*3/)

A m#>or issue o! t)e c#mp#ign w#s to ,ring #n ;end< to c)#os cre#ted ,y crimin#ls (n#rcotr#!ic#ntes, kidn#ppers, #nd crooked police) #nd re*est#,lis) 7overnment #ut)ority over t)e entire country. =)ese #re still m#>or unresolved issues !#cing t)e country.

Alt)oug) t)e A$ is #nti*st#te in politic#l terms, t)#t is not t)e c#se in soci#l terms. C#lder%n #nd t)e A$ soug)t unsuccess!ully in 2//0 to de!e#t t)e @: legisl#tion w)ic) )#s resulted in Ceder#l :istrict ,ecoming t)e second !eder#l entity in t)e country (#!ter t)e st#te o! Co#)uil#) to #pprove s#me*se( unions, #nd t)e !irst to #llow con>ug#l visits !or )omose(u#l prisoners.

&ost import#ntly, in 2//0 under t)e @: t)e :.C.?s Legisl#tive Assem,ly e(p#nded provisions on #,ortions, ,ecoming t)e !irst !eder#l entity to e(p#nd #,ortion in &e(ico ,eyond c#ses o! r#pe #nd economic re#sons. =)e :.C. permits
238

, p. 23M

#,ortion, reg#rdless o! t)e re#son, s)ould t)e mot)er re+uest it ,e!ore week 32 o! pregn#ncy. Acting out o! religious doctrine r#t)er t)#n leg#l policy, mem,ers o! t)e C#lder%n government )#ve set up # con!ront#tion wit) t)e :.C. ,y re!using to permit !eder#l )ospit#ls in t)e :.C. to per!orm #,ortions, t)us in>ecting t)e st#te into t)e priv#te li!e o! individu#ls.

C#lder%n !#ces t)e !#ct t)#t "&"D (t)e m#>or source o! income !or t)e government) is e()#usting &e(ico?s oil reserves #nd does not )#ve t)e c#p#,ility to drill in t)e deep 7ul! o! &e(ico w)ic) )#s # )uge oil reserve w)ic) it ;s)#res< wit) t)e U6A. Curt)er, !#ces t)e s#me pro,lem #t t)e ,order wit) t)e U6A, w)ere &e(ico s)#res #n underground pool o! oil wit) )is neig),or to t)e nort). (How t)e two countries s)#re t)ese pools o! oil wit)out one ;dr#ining< t)e ot)er?s s)#re is not even ,eing discussed.)

In t)e me#ntime, even t)oug) t)e "&"D work !orce )#s ,een reduced ,y )#l! during t)e Anti*6t#te p)#se since 321E, it still )#s twice #s m#ny workers #s needed, #nd 3/9 v#c#nt, t)e p#y o! t)e p)#ntom workers reverting to t)e "&"D Union !or its own #ctivities. =B)e Union itsel! )olds ;sweet)e#rt contr#cts (gu#r#nteed )ig)*pro!it, low*yield results) wit) "&"D.

23M

, p. 230

=)e #,ility o! &e(ico?s we#lt)y monopolists to de!e#t t)e !eder#l government Competitive Commission is typi!ied ,y t)e ,e)#vior o! C#rlos 6lim, w)o )#s competed wit) 7#tes !or t)e st#tus o! ;ric)est person in t)e world.< Unlike 7#tes (w)o )#s )#d )is own pro,lems o! +u#s)ing t)e competition), 6lim )#s don#ted virtu#lly not)ing to p)il#nt)ropyS7#tes don#ted U6U E/ ,illion. 6lim?s use o! t)e #mp#ro to prevent &e(ico !rom !orcing )im to cut )is incredi,ly )ig) telep)one r#tes is not)ing s)ort o! crimin#l, s#y )is critics. Cor t)e ,est #n#lysis o! 6lim #nd )is !#ilure to invest et)ic#lly in &e(ic#n ,usiness, see t)e pu,lic* service #n#lysis ,y :enise :resserA ;4pen Letter to C#rlos 6lim< (d#ted Ce,ru#ry 38, 2//2)A )ttpABBe#cm.,logspot.comB2//2B/EBopen*letter*to*me(ic#n* mogul*c#rlos.)tm

By preventing innov#tion #nd keeping costs )ig) !or poor service, #vers :resser, 6lim )#s #lmost single*)#ndedly stunted &e(ico?s economic development.

C#lder%n )#s c#lled !or development o! # new port #t Colonet #nd # r#ilro#d to link wit) t)e Pest*"#st r#ilro#d route !rom Los Angeles #cross t)e U6A (t)us relieving congestion #t t)e ports o! Long Be#c) #nd Los Angeles. But &e(ico?s complic#ted norm#tive rules (see ,elow) #s well #s t)e world !in#nci#l crisis o! l#te 2//1 #nd 2//2 t)#t )#s dried up t)e !low o! credit.

230

, p. 231

Cor t)e @4C&"D*University o! B#># C#li!orni# pl#n to develop t)e B#># Crontier #s # 6peci#l "conomic 5one to compete wit) C)in#, see t)e /niciati!a ABC para la creaci9n de la 2rontera de Ba0a California1Global (2BC1 GL;BAL %&M&( como #rimera Nona 7con9mica 7special de -:.ico, ,y I#mes Pilkie #nd &iguel Angel @iver# @ios.3H2

C#lder%n )#s ,een #,le to win # controversi#l ta) reform !rom Congress, ,ut it )#s #lien#ted muc) o! t)e priv#te sector ,ec#use 0usinesses are ta)e! on gross recei$ts (not pro!its) #nd deductions #re limited.

&e(ico?s re#l !oreign de,t o! U6U 3E2 in 2//1 (down !rom U6U 3EE ,illion w)en )e took o!!ice in 2//M) is not # re#l pro,lem in m#king e(penditure, ,ut r#t)er C#lder%n !#ces # t#ngle o! Corpor#tivist norm#tive l#ws m#de more di!!icult ,y Co(?s tr#nsp#rency l#ws t)#t prevent e(penditure o! !unds #!ter )e t)e resident )#s ordered t)#t t)e e(penditures ,e m#de. (Bure#ucr#ts, w)o #re #ut)ori-ed to m#ke )is e(penditures, #re #lw#ys !e#r!ul o! Congression#l #udits t)#t will !ind t)em guilty o! viol#ting rules wit) ;c#tc)*22s.< =)is serves to remind us o! t)e ne#r !#ilure o! Io)n C. Oennedy w)en, purportedly, )e ordered t)e ent#gon to ;get t)e d#mned Iupiter missiles out o! =urkeySt)ey #re

t)re#tening my de#l wit) t)e @ussi#ns to get t)eir missiles out o! Cu,#< (or words

3H2

6ee )ttpABBwww.pro!me(.orgBme(ico#ndt)eworldBvolume3EB8l#te!#ll/1BCBC*7lo,#l 92/32#92/!e,92//2.pd! 231

, p. 232

to t)#t e!!ect). $eedless to s#y, it took si( mont)s to get t)e missiles out o! =urkey, t)e ent#gon resisting to t)e ,itter end.3HE

C#lder%n !#ces one positive situ#tion in t)#t t)e &e(ic#n countryside )#s gener#lly recogni-ed t)#t &e(ico must spre#d t)e use o! tr#ctors. P)ere previous residents )#d !#iled to interest !#rmers to #ccept t)e pl#n to ,uy #nd distri,ute 3/,/// tr#ctors in &e(ico, in 2//0 t)e Con!eder#ci%n $#cion#l C#mpesino ($#tion#l e#s#nt Ceder#tion) signed # contr#ct to purc)#se 28,/// tr#ctors !rom C)in#.3HH P)ile t)e U6A, C#n#d#, I#p#n, #nd t)e "urope#n Union )#ve H// tr#ctors !or e#c) 3,/// !#rmers, &e(ico )#s only 32 tr#ctors !or e#c) 3,/// !#rmers.3H8

C#r ,e)ind Br#-il #nd its use o! sug#r (w)ic) is !#r superior to corn) to provide ,io*!uel #t t)e pump, &e(ico w#s only #,le to p#ss # l#w in 2//1 t)#t seeks to ,ring &e(ico up*to*d#teA3HM

&e(ico?s 2//1 L#w on :evelopment o! Bio*!uels est#,lis)es t)e ,#sis !or production, tr#nsport#tion, stor#ge, distri,ution, #nd m#rketing o! new !uels. It includes emp)#sis on protection o! t)e environment #nd reduction o! #ir pollution
3HE 3HH

6ee www.#,ovetopsecret.comB!orumBt)re#d13200Bpg3 #nd )ttpABB)nn.usB#rticlesB0212.)tml 6ee www.el*univers#l.com.m(B!in#n-#sB810EH.)tml 3H8 6ee www.ori-#,#.in!oBori-#,#Binde(BopBnotici#BidB2M/H0.)tml 3HM 6ee )ttpABBwww.c#il#w.orgBielY#dvisorBindustryYnewsBlope-* vel#rde.#lm#r#-Yme(icoY,io!uel.)tml 232

, p. 22/

emissions. =)e Bio*!uels L#w #lso est#,lis)es me#sures !or protection o! &e(icoXs sel!*supply o! critic#l #gricultur#l products, suc) #s corn.

----CO1C+G"IO1 KI HOG E12

6urpriseR =)e @I is t)e 2/3/ !#vorite to win ,#ck t)e residency in 2/32. =)e @: )#s splintered, ,#dly d#m#ged ,y t)e #ntics o! A&L4, w)o is seen #s )opelessly out o! touc) wit) re#lity, even in t)e #rty t)#t )e led !rom 322M to 2//2S3E ye#rs #ttempting to ,ecome # new Ie!e &J(imo sm#s)ed )is person#l reput#tion. Alt)oug) t)e @I lost t)e residency to t)e A$ in 2///, t)e @IXs system o! [Corpor#tivism[ rem#ins l#rgely in pl#ce #t t)e !eder#l level #s well #s #t t)e 6t#te #nd =ownBCityBCounty levels o! government to prevent muc) o! t)e c)#nge t)#t Anti*6t#tists #nd Active 6t#tists )#ve soug)t to implement. By t)e time o! t)e @IXs 08t) #nnivers#ry in &#rc) 2//H, t)e @I could cl#im t)#t it )eld E09 votes c#st n#tion#lly**# percent#ge t)#t underst#ted its power #nd t)e power o! t)e Corpor#tivist system t)#t it le!t in pl#ce. In e#rly 2//2 t)e @I )eld 829 o! t)e &e(ico?s E2 governors)ips, E19 o! t)e E3 st#te legisl#tures (E3 e(cludes t)e :.C), #nd E09 o! t)e country?s 2,H80 m#yors)ips. =)us, t)e @I )#s more governors)ips #nd more control o!

22/

, p. 223

legisl#tures #nd m#yors)ips t)#n #ny ot)er politic#l p#rty. 6ee t)e @I we,site in "nglis) www.pri.org.m(B riist#s=r#,#>#ndoB @Ien&e(icoBenglis).#sp( 7iven t)e unpopul#rity o! t)e A$ owing to t)e long :rug P#r #nd t#(#tion c)#nges in t)e !#ce o! t)e resurging @I, in 2/3/ t)e A$ moved tow#rd #n #lli#nce wit) t)e new @:, w)ic) )#d seen A&L4 !or t)e le!tist #rtido de =r#,#>o ( =). A&L4 )oped to split t)e @: #nd m#ke t)e = into t)e new power on t)e le!t, ,ut #ll t)is did w#s drive t)e @: #nd A$ into e#c) ot)er?s #rms #s t)ey looked !or w#ys to ,e#t t)e @I in co#litions suc) #s developed in 6in#lo# (w)ere t)e @I lost t)e governors)ip !or t)e !irst time in 13 ye#rs. =)e s#me #lli#nce w#s #lso success!ul in 4#(#c#, w)ic) #lso !in#lly s#w t)e @I loose t)e governors)ip #!ter 13 ye#rs. &ost o,servers t)ink t)#t t)e A$ )#s no vi#,le c#ndid#te !or &e(ico?s residency in 2/32, ,ut per)#ps :iego CernJnde- de Cev#llos (;"l Ie!e<) )#s ;s#ved t)e d#y<, some #rgue. He w#s ;kidn#pped< in &#y #nd rele#sed in :ecem,er 2/3/, supposedly )#ving ;negoti#ted t)e r#nsom down !rom U6U 3// million to U E/ million. But t)e ;victim<, w)o will ,e 03 in &#rc) 2/33, #ppe#red to ,e in suc) good s)#pe #!ter more t)#n seven mont)s in c#ptivity t)#t specul#tion ,eg#nA He )#d #rr#nged # ;sel!*kidn#pping< to )elp cre#te symp#t)y !or t)e A$, !or w)ic) )e r#n #s presidenti#l c#ndid#te in 322H. "l ;Ie!e :iego< )#s s#id not)ing #,out )is c#ptors, ,ut # ,r#nc) o! t)e "5L$ cl#imed in # mess#ge to &e(ico t)#t )e )#d ,een )eld #t t)e orders o! !ormer 6u,*Com#nd#nte &#rcos, w)o )#d seemingly dis#ppe#red !rom t)e scene.
223

, p. 222

Cl#iming in t)eir mess#ge t)#t t)ey #re t)e ;"(*&ysterious Oidn#ppers<, t)ey took )im )ost#ge #s t)e #rc)*le#der o! $eo*Li,er#lism #nd enemy o! t)e Indigenous eople. At t)is writing, conspir#cy t)eory is rising. P)#t does #ll t)is me#n, w)ic) is t)e tone !or e(#mple o! new #rticles, !or e(#mple, ,y "C" (t)e 6p#nis) $ews Agency ,#sed in &#drid), w)ic) re!erred to t)e ;supposed mess#ge !rom t)e d"5L$? #nd t)e ;link< to &#rcos.3H0

Celipe C#lder%n, in#ugur#ted :ecem,er 3, 2//M, ,elieves t)#t Corpor#tivism must ,e ended #long wit) t)e costly #nd ine!!icient rem#inders o! 6t#tism (suc) #s t)e "&"D #nd electricity monopolies), ,ut )e c#nnot s#y so directly owing to "&"D ,eing seen ,y m#ny #s t)e sym,ol o!

&e(ic#n economic independence in t)e world. Fet C#lder%n did t#ke on "in!icato Me)icano !e Electricistas m#in oper#tions in t)e center o! t)e country, in 4cto,er 2//2 #,olis)ing t)eir power over t)e comp#ny #nd inst#lling re#l #ccounting. (@ogue #gents o! t)e 6&" #re still ,lowing up power tr#ns!ormers to cl#im t)#t no ot)er e(perts c#n m#int#in t)em like t)e e(perts o! t)e 6&".)

Un!ortun#tely !or C#lder%n, )is #dministr#tion )#s coincided wit) Porld :epression II, #nd m#ny voters do no underst#nd t)e complic#ted
3H0

6ecu e s t r o de Cern J n d e - dpor "5L$,?< La ;pini9n , I#nu#r y 2, 2/33. 222

, p. 22E

intern#tion#l rel#tions)ips t)#t )#ve ,roug)t m#>or economic pro,lems to #ll countries o! t)e world

4t)ers #rgue t)#t [6t#tism[ is not t)e issue ,ut r#t)er t)e development o! #n [Active 6t#te[ t)#t c#n t#ke c#re o! t)e popul#tion unprotected ,y t)e [!ree m#rket,[ w)ic) needs serious regul#tion to stop t)e greed o! C"4s willing to destroy entire economies !or t)eir ye#rly ,onus t)#t is ,#sed on !#ilure i! not success.

=)e $#rcotr#!ic#ntes continue to !ind t)emselves splintered into internecine w#r!#re #mong competing c#rtels, trying to st#y #live #nd i! in >#il not e(tr#dited to t)e U6A. In t)e me#ntime t)ey constitute # t)re#t to &e(ico?s sel!*con!idence #nd s#!ety o! t)e gener#l pu,lic. Pit) l#wlessness seemingly on t)e rise, kidn#ppers (,e t)ey $#rcotr#!ic#ntes, police, #ndBor independent crimin#ls) )#ve emerged to )#mper t)e role o! domestic #nd !oreign tourism in &e(ico.

&e(ico is not # ;!#iled 6t#te,< #s t)e ent#gon suggested in 2//2, ,ut one in w)ic) $#rcotr#!ic#ntes seek # st#te o! #n#rc)y in rel#tion to police #nd milit#ry #,ility to stop t)eir #ctivities. 6ee &#p H !or t)e sw#y o! si( #re#s w)ere #t le#st seven c#rtels struggle wit) e#c) ot)er #nd wit) t)e &e(ic#n government.

22E

, p. 22H

But t)e very !#ct t)#t C#lder%n )#s ,een #,le develop # vision, w)ic) I #rticul#te )ere #s ;Los 7r#ndes ro,lem#s $#cion#les II, #ugers well !or &e(ico #ttempting to resolve pro,lems, including do-ens o! 4,st#cles to :evelopment (#ge*old )#l!*solved, )#l!*understood, #nd #ccumul#ting !#ster t)#n #ny c#n ,e ;solved< is ,#sed on t)e re#li-#tion, I )ope, t)#t we #ll recogni-e t)#t t)ere #re no !in#l solutions, ,ut only #d#pt#tions to )istory #s it #dv#nces into t)e presentS #lw#ys su,>ect to re interpret#tion in t)e lig)t o! new events #nd !indings.

=#me k)em c)oR

22H

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