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Content Introduction 4

Module 1 Chapter 1. The language and culture of Great Britain and other English speaking countries 1.1. Theoretical questions: goals, methods etc. of linguistic countrystudying. The theory of the word as an important part of the linguistic education. Background knowledge, verbal and non-verbal methods of communication 1.2. The national view of the world and its connection with the language, the language peculiarities of different social groups 1.3. The national and cultural peculiarities of speech and behaviour, maxims of international communication, habits and national characters of people living in different parts of the United Kingdom and of different English speaking countries. The national character and language 1.4. Analysis of the language and its national and cultural semantics, methods of introduction, training and activation of elements, characteristic of the English language and texts in English Chapter 2. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, its geography, political life , economy, social life and symbols 2.1. The geography and the environment of different parts of Britain 2.2. The name of the country. The monarchy and the government, the electoral system, parties 2.3. Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, England. The languages spoken in the United Kingdom. The roots of the nationalism 2.4. The cities and towns of Great Britain 2.5. The economy of Great Britain. The industry and agriculture, service and banking. The City. The role of trade unions 2.6. Social and ethnic structure, classes. Migration and immigration. Ethnic minorities 2.7.The symbols of Great Britain and of its different parts Module 2 Chapter 3. History. The home and foreign policy 3.1. The history of the country. The formation of the United Kingdom 2

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3.2. The history of the monarchy. The role of the monarchy in the modern society 3.3. The history of the British Empire, the Commonwealth 3.4. The foreign policy of Great Britain. The relationships with Europe and Russia 3.5. Education. Schools and reforms of the 1980s. Higher education, universities 3.6. Social services, the national health service. The system of justice. The police and its role 3.7. Outstanding people in the history of the country 3.8. Religion. Faith and habits, values, stereotypes, humour in Great Britain and other English speaking countries Module 3 Chapter 4. Culture and art of Great Britain 4.1. Literature and its connection with the national view and national concepts 4.2. Architecture 4.3. Music and painting 4.4. Cinema and theatre Module 4 4.5. Sightseeing and tourists attractions 4.6. Outstanding people of modern Great Britain and other English speaking countries 4.7. Mass media Chapter 5. The USA (language, culture, geography, history, political life) and other English speaking countries Chapter 6. Keys to some of the tasks Additional questions and tests Bibliography Appendix 1. British chronology Appendix 2. British Prime Ministers and the governments Appendix 3. The Commonwealth of Nations Appendix 4. Presidents of the USA

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Introduction To the student The years at university are extremely important in persons intellectual, physical, emotional, and social development. Students acquire skills that are thought necessary by the society they live in. Many of the skills and abilities are interdependent, and if one has not been sufficiently developed, the acquisition of another may be impeded. For example, students who are able to continue learning outside and beyond university will have no difficulty in finding their own learning style, organizing their work, being independent, and assuming overall responsibility for their lifestyle. The importance of the ability for-self study is steadily growing in recent years. This is partly in response to the rapidly growing demand for it to provide students with a competitive educational advantage. There are many factors that influence the development of the ability: circumstances, attitudes, interests. One of the aims of this resource book is to provide information and activities that will meet the needs of students who want to improve the language and extent cultural awareness. We hope that there will be at least something for everyone and the second aim of the book, to provide students with the ideas and techniques that they can use when designing supplementary activities for themselves, will be achieved. The ideas of this resource book should be taken as a guide, not a hard and fast rule. Try to experiment with different learning styles, be open and interested in all that surround you. Your education is not confined to the limits of the classroom, textbooks and your teacher. For effective self-study you need to be able to accept criticism and become self-critical, to be aware of how you learn and where you go. We also include some learning tips. These consist of suggestions which will help you to organise your self-study better and encourage you to think of your own strategies for learning new material. There is a key in this book at the end of each unit. The key does not always give you simply one right answer. It sometimes also comments on the answer and will help you learn more about the topic studied in the unit. Self-evaluation Self-evaluation means being able to assess and give your own opinion about how good you are at something. The purpose of it is to help you to recognize your strong and less strong points, so you can know more clearly what you have to improve and what you can be pleased about. If you can evaluate your own abilities rather than have to ask someone else to do so, it allows you to learn more independently.

Self-evaluation is an important and vital part of the language learning process. It is a time when you can look back at, and reflect on, what you have been doing. It is a quiet time before going on to the next activity or language area. There are two kinds of self-evaluation which focus on: (1) the language you have been working on, and (2) the way you achieved the task. Self-evaluation can take place after you have done an activity, or at the end of a series of activities, or on a fixed day each week or fortnight any time you feel it useful. What is important is that self-evaluation is a regular feature of learning. It allows you to develop insight into yourself and your learning and to build an overview of the language learning progress. When self-evaluating - rank yourself as good, average or poor at achieving the aims of the task - give reasons for your ranking - give ideas on how you can help yourself improve. Answering detail questions When trying to answer detail questions, follow these steps; - Make sure you understand the question fully. - Scan the text to find the part where the answer is contained. - Highlight the relevant parts. - Paraphrase the relevant parts and make your answer as brief as possible. At the end of the book you can find additional questions and tests which will help you check whether you know the material well or it needs some more training. ! , , . , , . , , . , , . , 5

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Module 1 Chapter 1. The language and culture of Great Britain and other English speaking countries. 1.1. Theoretical questions: goals, methods etc. of linguistic countrystudying. The theory of the word as an important part of the linguistic education. Background knowledge, verbal and non-verbal methods of communication. Collocations Collocation is concerned with the way words occur together, often in unpredictable ways. Nouns often have typical adjectives which go with them. Here are some examples. Compare article and thing: We say but not usually... the real the genuine thing thing the the real article genuine article Examples: I don't like recorded music, I prefer the real thing. [i.e. real, live music] These trainers are the genuine article. Those others are just cheap imported copies. Other examples: You can give a broad summary of something. (Nor: a wide summary) You can describe something in great detail. (Nor: in big detail) Some adjectives go with a restricted range of nouns. For example: a formidable task/opponent/amount/person Often, verbs have typical adverbs that collocate with them. Examples: She always drives too fast. She always drives too quickly. Let's move fast. 7

Let's move quickly. Let's move swiftly on to the next point. Other examples: It's something I feel strongly about. (Not: I feel powerfully about) If I remember rightly, it happened at about six-thirty. (Not: If I remember perfectly) It is useful to learn which adverbs most typically modify particular types of adjectives. For example, the adverb utterly, which means totally or completely, generally occurs before an adjective. The majority of these adjectives have a negative connotation. Typical examples are: alien, appalling, blank, dismal, depressed, disgusting, distasteful, false, fatuous, impossible, lost, ludicrous, naive, ridiculous. Try to notice this kind of regularity when learning words. Verbs and their objects often form collocations. You raise your hand to ask a question. (Not: lift your hand) You can raise a family. (i.e. bring up children; not: lift a family) You can visit / go to / check out a website on the Internet. It is a very good idea when learning new words to learn any typical collocations that go with them! Exercises. 1. Choose between real and genuine in these sentences. If both are acceptable, chose them both. 1.1 The Egyptian Pyramid hotel in Las Vegas is great, but I'd prefer to see the real/genuine thing. 1.2 He just doesn't live in the real/genuine world. He lives in a fantasy world all the time. 1.3 This briefcase is made of real/genuine leather. 1.4 She is a very real/genuine person. If she promises something, she'll do it. 1.5 This home-made champagne is nice, but it's not as good as the real/genuine article. 2. Choose one of the words below each sentence to fill the gaps. In each case only one of them is the normal collocation for the underlined word. 2.1 After his death, she went to the hospital to collect his personal ______. a) affairs 8

b) objects c) effects d) extras 2.2 He made a rather __________.attempt at an apology, but it didn't convince anyone. a) faint b) frail c) fragile d) feeble 2.3 George was a._____________opponent, and I respected him for that. a) formidable b) dreadful c) forbidding d) threatening 2.4 I was feeling.____________anxious when she didn't arrive. a) totally b) pretty c) utterly d) blatantly 2.5 She seemed to be____________.bewildered by the answer they gave her. a) vividly b) strongly c) utterly d) heavily 3. Choose the most suitable collocation in these sentences. The word you choose should have the approximate meaning given in brackets. 3.1 A brisk/brusque/brash (quick and energetic) walk before breakfast helps to enforce/sharpen/grow (increase, make stronger) the appetite. 3.2 The death tally/tale/toll in the earthquake has now risen to 20,000. (number or total) 3.3 Let's take a sluggish/plodding/leisurely stroll along the beach, shall we? (slow and not energetic) 3.4 If you want to stay at home tonight, that's utterly/perfectly/blatantly OK with me. (completely, 100%) 3.5 My aunt bequeathed/bequested/bereaved 20,000 in her will to cancer research, (gave after her death) 3.6 If I remember rightly/keenly/fairly she had two brothers, both older than her. (correctly) 3.7 If you want information about the publisher of this book, you can accede/call/visit their website at www.cambridge.org (consult, look at).

3.8 Eating all those peanuts has spoilt/attacked/lowered my appetite. I don't feel like dinner now. (destroyed, decreased) 4 Which collocation is more likely? Choose the correct answer. 4.1 a strong car / a powerful car 4.2 strong tea / powerful tea 4.3 auburn hair / auburn carpet 4.4 a doleful party / a doleful expression 4.5 a lengthy car / a lengthy meeting

1.2. The national view of the world and its connection with the language, the language peculiarities of different social groups TEXT 1 Pre-reading activities: 1) What can you tell about a person by the way (s)he speaks? Can you tell by the way people speak what class they belong to? 2) What is a class? 3) Do you have classes in Russia? What are they? Read the text about classes in British society and answer the questions. Class In England, the notion of the honour of the family name is almost nonexistent (though it exists to some degree in the upper classes, in the other three British nations and among ethnic minorities). In fact, it is very easy to change your family name - and you can choose any name you like. In the 1980s one person changed his surname to Oddsocks McWeirdo El Tutti Frutti Hello Hippopotamus Bum. There are no laws in Britain about what surname a wife or child must have. Because of this freedom, names can be useful pointers to social trends. The case of double-barrelled names is an example. These are surnames with two parts separated by a hyphen; for example, Barclay-Finch. For centuries they have been a symbol of upper-class status (originating in the desire to preserve an aristocratic name when there was no male heir). Until recently, most people in Britain have avoided giving themselves double-barrelled names - they would have been laughed at for their pretensions. In 1962, only one in every 300 surnames was doublebarrelled. By 1992, however, one person in fifty had such a name. Why the change? One reason is feminism. Although an increasing number of women now keep their 10

maiden name when they marry, it is still normal to take the husband's name. Independent-minded women are now finding a compromise by doing both at the same time - and then passing this new double-barrelled name onto their children. Another motive is the desire of parents from different cultural and racial backgrounds for their children to have a sense of both of their heritages. The same lack of rigid tradition applies with regard to the first names that can be given to children. This is usually simply a matter of taste. Moreover, the concept of celebrating name-days is virtually unknown. 1) What is a double-barrelled name? When is it given? Is it usual to take double-barrelled names in Russia? Can you remember famous people with doublebarrelled names? Historians say that the class system has survived in Britain because of its flexibility. It has always been possible to buy or marry or even work your way up, so that your children (and their children) belong to a higher social class than you do. As a result, the class system has never been swept away by a revolution and an awareness of class forms a major part of most people's sense of identity. People in modern Britain are very conscious of class differences. They regard it as difficult to become friends with somebody from a different class. This feeling has little to do with conscious loyalty, and nothing to do with a positive belief in the class system itself. Most people say they do not approve of class divisions. Nor does it have very much to do with political or religious affiliations. It results from the fact that the different classes have different sets of attitudes and daily habits. Typically, they tend to eat different food at different times of day (and call the meals by different names , they like to talk about different topics using different styles and accents of English, they enjoy different pastimes and sports, they have different values about what things in life are most important and different ideas about the correct way to behave. Stereotypically, they go to different kinds of school . 2) Why has the class system survived in Britain? 3) what are the class distinctions in Britain? An interesting feature of the class structure in Britain is that it is not just, or even mainly, relative wealth or the appearance of it which determines someone's class. Of course, wealth is part of it - if you become wealthy, you can provide the conditions to enable your children to belong to a higher class than you do. But it is not always possible to guess reliably the class to which a person belongs by looking at his or her clothes, car or bank balance. The most obvious and immediate sign comes when a person opens his or her mouth, giving the listener clues to the speaker's attitudes and interests, both of which are indicative of class. 11

But even more indicative than what the speaker says is the way that he or she says it. The English grammar and vocabulary which is used in public speaking, radio and television news broadcasts, books and newspapers (and also - unless the lessons are run by Americans - as a model for learners of English as a foreign language) is known as 'standard British English'. Most working-class people, however, use lots of words and grammatical forms in their everyday speech which are regarded as 'non-standard'. 4) What is the most reliable indication of class? Nevertheless, nearly everybody in the country is capable of using standard English (or something very close to it) when they judge that the situation demands it. They are taught to do so at school. Therefore, the clearest indication of a person's class is often his or her accent. Most people cannot change this convincingly to suit the situation. The most prestigious accent in Britain is known as 'Received Pronunciation' (RP). It is the combination of standard English spoken with an RP accent that is usually meant when people talk about 'BBC English' or 'Oxford English' (referring to the university, not the town) or 'the Queen's English'. RP is not associated with any particular part of the country. The vast majority of people, however, speak with an accent which is geographically limited. In England and Wales, anyone who speaks with a strong regional accent is automatically assumed to be working class. Conversely, anyone with an RP accent is assumed to be upper or upper-middle class. (In Scotland and Northern Ireland, the situation is slightly different; in these places, some forms of regional accent are almost as prestigious as RP.) 5) What is RP? During the last quarter of the twentieth century, the way that people wish to identify themselves seems to have changed. In Britain, as anywhere else where there are recognized social classes, a certain amount of 'social climbing' goes on; that is, people try to appear as if they belong to as high a class as possible. These days, however, nobody wants to be thought of as snobbish. The word 'posh' illustrates this tendency. It is used by people from all classes to mean 'of a class higher than the one I (the speaker) belong to' and it is normally used with negative connotations. To accuse someone of being posh is to accuse them of being pretentious. Working-class people in particular are traditionally proud of their class membership and would not usually wish to be thought of as belonging to any other class. Interestingly, a survey conducted in the early 1990s showed that the proportion of people who describe themselves as working class is actually greater than the proportion whom sociologists would classify as such! This is one 12

manifestation of a phenomenon known as 'inverted snobbery', whereby middleclass people try to adopt working-class values and habits. They do this in the belief that the working classes are in some way 'better' (for example, more honest) than the middle classes. In this egalitarian climate, the unofficial segregation of the classes in Britain has become less rigid than it was. A person whose accent shows that he or she is working class is no longer prohibited from most high-status jobs for that reason alone. Nobody takes elocution lessons any more in order to sound more upper class. It is now acceptable for radio and television presenters to speak with 'an accent' (i.e. not to use strict RP). It is also notable that, at the time of writing, only one of the last six British Prime Ministers went to an elitist school for upper-class children, while almost every previous Prime Minister in history did. In general, the different classes mix more readily and easily with each other than they used to. There has been a great increase in the number of people from working-class origins who are homeowners and who do traditionally middle-class jobs. The lower and middle classes have drawn closer to each other in their attitudes. 6) What do you accuse a person of if you call him posh? 7) What is inverted snobbery? 8) What does egalitarian climate mean? TEXT 2 Read the text about accents and answer the questions. The fine distinctions of speech A picture of the British as both individualist and yet community-minded is a cosy one, and in many respects the British have a deep sense of cultural cohesion and unity. Yet, in the words of a leading educationist, "The trouble with the British is that they accept and enjoy the nice distinctions of social class. They love hierarchy and see nothing wrong in the deferential attitude that it breeds." Nowhere is this clearer than in the question of speech. For the way English is spoken gives away not only regional identity but to some extent class status too. It is, for one sociologist, "the snobbery which brands the tongue of every British child". Since the days of Shakespeare, the English of south east England has been considered the 'standard', for no better reason than that the south east is the region of economic and political power. The emergence of an upper and upper-middleclass mode of speech, 'received pronunciation' (RP), was systematically established through the public (in fact private) school system attended by the boys of wealthier families. RP persists as the accepted dialect of the national elite.

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Broadly speaking, there are two kinds of RP. One is 'unmarked' RP, which suggests no more than that the speaker is well-educated (although of course many equally well-educated people speak with a regional accent). This is the dialect of the BBC, and thus it has a kind of authority. Through radio and television unmarked RP is becoming a more widely spoken accent. Then there is 'marked' RP, which indicates high social class and is spoken, for example, by many army officers who come from upper-class families. At the time of the Falklands War, marked RP was very fashionable, since it suggested leadership and authority at a time of national crisis. Although spoken by less than 5 per cent of the population, RP has immense influence. Those who speak it enjoy a social authority that contradicts democratic ideals. As long as RP remains suggestive of authority, some job advertisements will demand 'well spokenness', and some ambitious politicians will hide their regional accents with RP. Regional accents exist, in class status terms, below RP. But even they have a hierarchy. Scottish, Welsh and Irish are generally the more popular regional accents. Then come northern, Yorkshire and west country accents, and at the bottom of the list come the least popular ones of the great conurbations, London, Liverpool, Glasgow and the West Midlands. Significantly the television news is read by RP speakers, while the weather forecast following the news is often read by someone with a regional accent. Is there an implicit difference in the importance and status of news and weather? Do dialect (a matter of grammar and vocabulary) and accent enrich or impoverish? This is a continuing matter for debate among linguists. Some argue that regional accents enhance the sense of local community, and that to abandon them is to give way to the accents of the ruling class. Others argue that regional dialects, given their class associations, are socially divisive. Dialect is unlikely to disappear and the debate is likely to continue. (from Britain) 9) How was RP established? 10) What is a regional accent? 11) What is the hierarchy of the regional accents? What are the most and the least popular accents? 12) What are the advantages and disadvantages of regional accents? TEXT 3 The extract below illustrates how people from different classes do not like to mix and how language is an important aspect of class. It is taken from a fantasy novel in which a republican government is elected in Britain and the royal family are sent to live on a working-class housing estate, in a road known to its inhabitants as 'Hell Close'. 14

Night has just fallen. The ex-queen and her husband arrive with a driver in a little van (with all their belongings in it), ready to move in to the house which they have been allotted. Their new neighbours, Tony and Beverly Threadgold, are standing at the front door of their house. Threadgolds watched as a shadowy figure ordered a tall man out of the van. Was she a foreigner? It wasn't English she was talking was it? As their ears became more accustomed they realized it was English, but posh English, really posh. 'Tone, why they moved a posho in Hell Close?' asked Beverly. 'Dunno,' replied Tony, peering into the gloom, 'Christ, just our lin'' luck to have poshos nex' door.' A few minutes later, the Queen addressed them. 'Excuse me, but do you have an axe I could borrow?' 'An ix?' repeated Tony. 'Yes, an axe.' The Queen came to their front gate. 'An ix?' puzzled Beverly. 'Yes.' 'I dunno what an "ix" is,' Tony said. 'You don't know what an axe is?' 'No.' 'One uses it for chopping wood.' The Queen was growing impatient. She had made a simple request; her new neighbours were obviously morons. She was aware that educational standards had fallen, but not to know what an axe was... It was a scandal. 'I need an implement of some kind to gain access to my house.' 'Arse?' 'House!' The driver volunteered his services as translator. His hours talking to the Queen on the motorway had given him confidence. 'This lady wants to know if you've got an axe.' Just then the Queen came down the garden path towards the Threadgolds and the light from their hall illuminated her face. Beverly gasped. Tony clutched the front-door frame for support before saying, 'It's out the back, I'll geddit.' Left alone, Beverly burst into tears. 'I mean, who would believe it?' she said later, as she and Tony lay in bed unable to sleep. 'I still don't believe it, Tone.' 'Nor do I, Bev. I mean, the Queen next door. We'll put in for a transfer, eh?' Slightly comforted, Beverly went to sleep. (from The Queen and I by Sue Townsend)

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1.3. The national and cultural peculiarities of speech and behaviour, maxims of international communication, habits and national characters of people living in different parts of the United Kingdom and of different English speaking countries. The national character and language. Other Englishes: diversity and variety English is spoken in a wide range of countries outside of Great Britain and the USA. In this unit we look at some other varieties of English you may encounter. A Ireland Irish English has some words and phrases you may see or hear on a visit to Ireland which are different from British English. Many of them come from the Gaelic language of Ireland. Here are some examples. word crate /kraek/ guards or gardai /ga:r'di:/ boreen /bo:'ri:n/ fleadh /:/ Taoiseach /'tujbk/ meaning fun, enjoyment police narrow, quiet country lane festival, usually of traditional music Prime Minister

Australia Many people feel that Australian English has introduced a relaxed, informal tone to English vocabulary. Australian slang is sometimes called 'strine'. Here are some examples. You'll have to forgive him; he's just an ignorant ocker. [person who is not well educated and does not behave in a polite way] There was a young Australian in the shopping centre playing a didgeridoo. [/dicrjan'du:/ - ancient Australian wind instrument which produces long deep notes] They live on a sheep station north of here. [large farm; also used in New Zealand] 'Struth! [gosh/wow] Look at that bloke [man] over there, mate [informal way of addressing a male]!' Be careful of the dingos [kind of wild dog] when you're out in the bush [the natural, uncultivated land away from towns]. (Bush is also used in this way in African varieties of English.)

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Travelling across the outback [the wild, uncultivated land, especially the desert] in Oz [slang name for Australia] can be dangerous, but there are some beaut [/bju:t/ beautiful] places to see. Some other English varieties vari example ety s

meaning/comment

Mal We shifted a month ago. Here's my moved house aysian new address. Can The washroom is on the left public toilet adian Hon We have to pay at the shroff. car park payment g Kong office Scot They have three bairns. children tish

Exercises: 1. Look at these news extracts and decide whether they are likely to have appeared in an Australian newspaper or in an Irish newspaper. 1) Will the 2002 Fleadh be held here? The city and environs could be in for a multi-million pound boost next year. 2) BEAUT BANGLES - Diamond fiesta Drooling at diamonds is probably not a healthy pastime, unless you're a born money bags. 3) OZ SNAPS UP S100m US GEAR American sports clothing has become a mega-business of the decade 4) He pointed out that all three men had apologised to the Gardai on the day following the incident. 2. Answer these questions: 1) What is the name for a kind of wild dog found in Australia? 2) Who or what is the Taoiseach? 3) When an Australian talks about the outback, what are they referring to? 4) What is an Irish person referring to when they talk of 'the craic'? 5) Where would you find a boreen? 6) Where would you find a station without trains or buses? 7) What would you do with a didgeridoo? 17

8) Is an ocker a person or thing? Explain. 3. Match the words with the explanations: 1) shroff Scottish word for 'small' 2) joker Scottish word for a child 3) wee Malaysian word for 'university' 4) varsity Australian word for 'person' 5) bairn Caribbean word for a godmother 6) washroom Hong Kong word for a payment office at a car park 7) macommere Irish word for 'idiot/fool' 8) eejit South African word for flat, open countryside with few trees 9) veld Canadian word for a public toilet

If you can, read Chapter 7 on 'World English' of The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language by David Crystal, published by Cambridge University Press, where you will find examples of English from different parts of the world. Reading Read more about the British, Scottish and Welsh character. TEXT 1 Culture and style: national self-expression How do these aspects of British society express themselves? Like any other society, the British like to create an agreeable picture of themselves. The majority like to think the important national values are things like tolerance, decency, moderation, consensus and compromise. They are uncomfortable with terms which polarize, such as: ideology, liberation, bourgeois, capitalist, collectivist. They like modesty and understatement, and they prefer practical common sense to pure logic. One writer, contrasting England with neighbouring France, says, "At times it seems that the French and English national characters could be expressed in a series of antitheses: wit/humour; logic/tradition; gallantry/courage; thrift/expenditure; taste/comfort; town/country; vanity/pride." Unlike elsewhere in Europe, someone described as an 'intellectual' usually feels embarrassed rather than flattered. TEXT 2 Community and the individual In spite of having been a centralised state for longer than most European countries, British society is also deeply individualistic in a way which is inseparable from ideas of liberty and localism. This has a long history. According 18

to one sociologist, "Individualism is built into 'custom and practice', into local work places and community organisations." There is a feeling that it is the ordinary people, standing up for their rights in spite of government, who safeguard freedom, in contrast with France where in theory it is the state which upholds liberty. According to Ralf Dahrendorf, "There is a fundamental liberty in Britain not easily found elsewhere." In part this liberty stems from the growth of a variety of institutions in previous centuries, which have strongly resisted the authority of central government. The tradition continues. Unlike in many other countries, local government clings both to local identity and style. For example, the reorganisation of the old counties in 1974 still causes fury where much-loved identities have been removed. Locally, many people refuse to recognise the reorganisation and deliberately use old county names, sometimes with the support of local councils. Some people have formed lobby organisations to persuade central government to recognize their right to return to the old county system. This local response illustrates another longstanding characteristic of the British. They have a strong civic sense and participate in public affairs as their birthright. It is at the local level that British democracy is most meaningful. Writing eighty years ago, Elie Halevy, a French writer on Britain, spoke enthusiastically of Britain as "the country of voluntary obedience, of spontaneous organization". It is as true today. The impulse to organize oneself and one's neighbours in some cause is a strong British tradition. William Beveridge, the wartime architect of Britain's welfare system, wrote at the time, "Vigour and abundance of Voluntary Action outside the home, individually and in association with other citizens, for bettering one's own life and that of one's fellows, are the distinguishing marks of a free society." About seven million Britons are involved in some kind of voluntary activity, ranging from urban community action groups of the political left, to local preservation societies, associated with more traditionally-minded people. Choirs, local dramatic groups, shelters for homeless people, the provision of the lifeboat service around Britain's shores, and many other things besides, depend upon the voluntary impulse. There are 160,000 Charities officially registered with the government, and another 200,000 voluntary organizations, including sports clubs, trade unions, rambling clubs, protest groups and other societies which are not. Most charities operate with less than 1,000 yearly. Only a handful operate with more than 1 million. One of the largest of these, the Third World development agency Oxfam, has a network across Britain of over 800 shops selling secondhand goods and Third World products, staffed by unpaid volunteers. These organizations, great or small, all depend upon time, skill and money given voluntarily. (from Britain in Close-Up) 19

TEXT 3 What does it mean to be Scottish? On 25 January every year, many Scottish people attend 'Burns' suppers'. At these parties they read from the work of the eighteenth century poet Robert Burns (regarded as Scotland's national poet), wear kilts, sing traditional songs, dance traditional dances (called 'reels') and eat haggis (made from sheep's heart, lungs and liver). Here are two opposing views of this way of celebrating Scottishness. That national pride that ties knots in your stomach when you see your country's flag somewhere unexpected is particularly strong among the Scots. On Burns' Night, people all over the world fight their way through haggis and Tam 0'Stumer1, not really liking either. They do it because they feel allegiance to a small, wet, under-populated, bullied country stuck on the edge of Europe. Many Scottish Scots hate the romantic, sentimental view of their country; the kilts, the pipes, the haggis, Bonnie Prince Charlie. The sight of a man in a skirt, or a Dundee cake2, makes them furious. To them, this is a tourist view of Scotland invented by the English. But I adore the fierce romantic, tartan, sentimental Scotland. The dour McStalin-ists are missing the point - and the fun. In the eighteenth century, the English practically destroyed Highland Scotland. The normalizing of relations between the two countries was accomplished by a novelist, Sir Walter Scott, whose stories and legends intrigued and excited the English. Under his direction, the whole country reinvented itself. Everyone who could get hold of a bit of tartan wore a kilt, ancient ceremonies were invented. In a few months, a wasteland of dangerous beggarly savages became a nation of noble, brave, exotic warriors. Scott did the best public relations job in history. The ceremonial cutting The realpolitik3 Scot doesn't see it like that. He only relates to heavy industry, 1966 trade unionism and a supposed class system that puts Englishmen at the top of the heap and Scottish workers at the bottom. His heart is in the Gorbals, not the Highlands. But I feel moved by the pipes, the old songs, the poems, the romantic stories, and the tearful, sentimental nationalism of it all. (A A Gill, The Sunday Times, 23 January 1994 (adapted)) the tide of a poem by Burns, and also the name for the traditional cap of highland dress 2 a rich fruit cake, supposedly originating from the town of Dundee 3 an approach to politics based on realities and material needs Answer the questions: 1. Who do you think the author of this article is? What are his feelings about Scotland? 20
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2. Write out the words that mean typical Scottish things. TEXT 4 The Welsh character The people of Wales do not have as many reminders of their Welshness in everyday life. The organization of public life is similar to that in England. Nor are there as many well-known symbols of Welshness. In addition, a large minority of the people in Wales probably do not consider themselves to be especially Welsh at all. In the nineteenth century large numbers of Scottish, Irish and English people went to find work there, and today many English people still make their homes in Wales or have holiday houses there. As a result, a feeling of loyalty to Wales is often similar in nature to the fairly weak loyalties to particular geographical areas found throughout England it is regional rather than nationalistic. However, there is one single highly-important symbol of Welsh identity the Welsh language. Everybody in Wales can speak English, but it is not everybody's first language. For about 20% of the population (that's more than half a million people), the mother-tongue is Welsh. For these people Welsh identity obviously means more than just living in the region known as Wales. Moreover, in comparison to the other small minority languages of Europe, Welsh shows signs of continued vitality. Thanks to successive campaigns, the language receives a lot of public support. All children in Wales learn it at school, there are many local newspapers in Welsh, there is a Welsh television channel and nearly all public notices and signs are written in both Welsh and English. (from Britain) 1.4. Analysis of the language and its national and cultural semantics, methods of introduction, training and activation of elements characteristic of the English language and texts in English Gender awareness and vocabulary A number of vocabulary changes are being introduced as a result of the feminist movement and heightened awareness of the sexist nature of some English vocabulary. David Crystal in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language writes: Attention has been focused on the replacement of 'male' words with a generic meaning by neutral items - chairman, for example, becoming chair or chairperson (though not without controversy) or salesman becoming sales assistant. In certain cases, such as job descriptions, use of sexually neutral language has become a legal requirement. There is continuing debate between extremists and moderates as to how far such revisions should go - whether they should affect traditional idioms such as man in the street1 and Neanderthal Man2, 21

or apply to parts of words where the male meaning of man is no longer dominant such as manhandle* and woman. The vocabulary of marital status has also been affected with the introduction of Ms as a neutral alternative to Miss or Mrs. 1 a typical person (could be replaced by person in the street) 2 primitive people who lived in Europe and Asia 2.5 to 3 million years ago 3 handle roughly, using force Here are some examples of non-sexist variations of vocabulary: older usage spokesma n fireman male nurse to man manhours air hostess cleaning lady foreman supervisor manpower human resources mankind human race Words relating to gender words meaning/comment example used for gender classification in male and female male, biology bees female having qualities felt to be masculine pride, mascul feminine charm ine, feminine typically male or female having positive qualities felt to manly strength, manly, be typically male or female womanly grace womanly manly (usually used in a sexual handsome and virile context) virile men resembling a woman (used of his effeminate walk effemin men, negative) ate resembling a man (used of her mannish mannis women, negative) haircut h a young girl who behaves and She's a real a 22 flight attendant cleaner to staff working hours firefighter nurse spokesperson current usage

dresses like a boy tomboy tomboy. a boy who behaves like a girl, He's such a sissy! a sissy or a weak and cowardly person (informal, negative) used of men and women, butch stars of butch aggressively masculine in looks and cowboy films behaviour (informal)

Exercises: 1. nswer these questions about the text. 1) Why do you think there have been attempts to introduce non-sexist language of the kind described by David Crystal? 2) How would you explain this expression: male words with a generic meaning? 3) Why do you think there might have been controversy about attempts to change the word chairman} 4) What do more extreme advocates of making English sexually neutral want to do that is unacceptable to the moderates? 5) Why was Ms introduced and why is it useful? 2. A modern editor would probably alter these sentences. How would this be done? 1) Three firemen helped put out a fire at a disused warehouse last night. 2) A spokesman for the Department of Education provided us with a statement. 3) Cleaning lady wanted for house in Priory Street. 4) The switchboard is continuously manned even during holiday periods. 5) All our air hostesses are fluent in at least three languages. 6) Miss Jones is in charge of the Manpower Department of the company. 7) Policemen today spend more time in cars than on the beat. 8) Brenda's husband is a male nurse. 9) It took a great many man-hours to clean up the stadium after the concert. 10) This was a great step for mankind. 11) The man in the street has little time for such issues. 12) They manhandled the hostage into the van. 3. Choose the best of the underlined words to complete each sentence. 1) That suit makes her look rather mannish/manly. 2) Go on, jump. Don't be such a tomboy/sissy! 3) Younger men are said to be more male/virile than older ones.

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4) She always dresses in a very feminine/effeminate way. You never see her in trousers. 5) The masculine/male cat is less aggressive than his sister. 4. Answer these questions. 1) Does your language ever use male words generically? 2) If so, have there been attempts to change them to avoid sexual stereotyping? 3) Do you think that using sex-biased words does affect people's attitudes to men and women's roles in society? 4) How do you feel about imposing language changes of the different kinds that David Crystal describes? 5) Do terms of address (i.e. Mr, Mrs, etc.) in your language indicate whether people are married? 6) Do you think it is better if terms of address indicate marital status or not? Why? 7) A grammatical problem in this area is the use of he/his to refer to a person of either sex. In the sentence 'A government minister may have to neglect his family.' the minister could be a man or a woman. However the use of 'his' assumes, perhaps wrongly, that it is a man. How could you rewrite this sentence to avoid this problem?

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Chapter 2. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, its geography, political life , economy, social life and symbols. 2.1. The geography and the environment of different parts of Britain. TEXT 1 The vanishing coastline Britain is an island under constant attack from the surrounding sea. Every year, little bits of the east coast vanish into the North Sea. Sometimes the land slips away slowly. But at other times it slips away very suddenly. In 1993 a dramatic example of this process occurred near the town of Scarborough in Yorkshire. The Holbeck Hotel, built on a clifftop overlooking the sea, had been the best hotel in town for 110 years. But on the morning of 4 June, guests awoke to find cracks in the walls and the doors stuck. When they looked out of the window, instead of seeing fifteen metres of hotel garden, they saw nothing -except the sea. There was no time to collect their belongings. They had to leave the hotel immediately. During the day various rooms of the hotel started leaning at odd angles and then slipped down the cliff. (see picture 1) The Holbeck Hotel's role in the tourism industry was over. However, by 'dying' so dramatically, it provided one last great sight for tourists. Hundreds of them watched the action throughout the day.

Picture 1. The Holbeck Hotel falling into the sea.

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TEXT 2 The north-south divide There are many aspects of life in Britain which illustrate the so-called 'northsouth divide'. This is a well-known fact of British life, although there is no actual geographical boundary. Basically, the south has almost always been more prosperous than the north, with lower rates of unemployment and more expensive houses. This is especially true of the south-eastern area surrounding London. This area is often referred to as the ' Home Counties'. The word 'home' in this context highlights the importance attached to London and its domination of public life.

TEXT 3 The English Countryside The visitor from abroad who comes to England for the first time is nearly always struck with the great beauty and variety of the English countryside. He will have read a great deal about London, the Industrial Revolution, slums, and coal mines, and may have forgotten that English poets and writers, from Chaucer and down to the present, have found inspiration in the fields and rivers, woods and moors, country lanes and villages, valleys and uplands of their native land. There is nothing grandiose about the English landscape. There are no impressive mountain ranges (the highest point in England Scafell Pike in the Lake District, is only 3,210 feet above sea-level); no fjords or majestic waterfalls, no glaciers or fields of eternal snow, no vast forests or rivers of impressive length (the Thames is 210 miles from its source in the Cotswolds to its mouth). Seen from the air the countryside of much of England appears like a patchwork quilt, owing to the criss-cross hedges that separate one field from another. This suggests that the hand of man has done a great deal to shape the rural scene, and this is so. Maybe that is why so much of what is most pleasing to the eye is parkland, green fields with ancient oaks, a perfect setting for the many lovely country houses that are one of England's finest features. At one time large areas of England were covered with thick forests, mainly of oak, but gradually these were cut down, partly to provide timber for ships. There are still quite large areas of woodland left, such as the New Forest, the Forest of Dean, just as there are large expanses of fairly wild and desolate country Dartmoor, Exmoor and the Yorkshire Moors are typical examplesand efforts are constantly being made to ensure that they are preserved. The Lake District in the north-west, famous as the home of the Lake Poets, of whom William Wordsworth is probably the best known, is another area of great beauty, of lakes and mountains and valleys, which is still relatively unspoilt.

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TEXT 4 The Climate Like the scenery, the climate is not remarkable for great extremes. The winters are mild and the summers not particularly warm, judged by Continental standards. A joker once said that the English climate was the best in the world, but the weather was terrible. The weather is certainly rather unpredictable, and yet in a way this gives it a charm of its ownwhich you may not appreciate if you are caught in a shower of rain without a waterproof, or find yourself driving in a thick fog along the Ml. Why is the climate so mild, even though the British Isles are situated as far north as, for example, Labrador? One reason is the Gulf Stream, and the prevailing westerly winds (or south-westerly) from the Atlantic, and another is the fact that Britain is an island (see picture 2 below). The result is that on practically every day of the year, in every season, English people have always been able to spend part of the time out of doors. And perhaps it explains why the English are so fond of games and have invented so many different ways of amusing themselves in the open air. It certainly explains why they build their houses the way they do. Snow and frost are not the permanent feature of the winter scene to most Englishmen, nor is it ever so warm in summer that people have to take a siesta, as they do, for instance, in Italy and Spain. The Britons do, however, tend to fool themselves a little about the prevailing mildness of the climate. Very occasionally an easterly wind from the Continent brings a cold type of weather which may persist for several days or weeks. This is when the water-pipes always freeze because of outside plumbing (a foreigner who timidly suggests that it would be more sensible to build houses with internal plumbing gets the maddening answer that it is much easier to have the water-pipes on the outside so that they are accessible when they do freeze). By the same token, the very occasional fall of snow always seems to take the English by surprise, and studded winter tyres are practically unheard of. English homes, with their open fires, rattling sash windows and no thresholds strike the foreigner as draughty and cold, whereas the English wander about in their shirtsleeves and make their children wear knee-stockings all the year round. Take a look at the map of the British Isles. You will see that the country to the west and north of a line drawn very roughly from Exeter in the extreme southwest to Newcastle in the north-east, is mainly high ground, while most of the low ground lies to the south and east. You will also see that, running rather like a spine or backbone down from the Scottish Border to somewhere in the middle of England, we have a line of hills known as the Pennines. As a rule, the land to the west has a much higher rainfall than the land to the east of this line of hills. Perhaps the most typically English season is spring, when the country is putting on its gay coat of colours after the drabness of winter. Foreigners are 27

astonished at the beauty of the parks, the greenness of the fields and soft colours that are part of this season, which is the theme of so much of England's best known poetry, from the Elizabethan "Sweet lovers love the spring" to Browning's "Oh to be in England now that April's there".

Picture 2. The North East of the country. The weather in November. Exercises: 1. Give a list of 10 most interesting facts about the geography and climate of Great Britain. 2. What are the differences of climate in Great Britain and Russia? 3. Give your ideas on how the geographical position influences the climate of a country.

2.2. The name of the country. The monarchy and the government, the electoral system, parties. Elections The Rules The foundations of the electoral system were laid in the Middle Ages. Since then numerous Acts of Parliament have modified the system, but never in a systematic way. Fundamentally the system still has its ancient form, with each 28

community electing its (now) one representative to serve as its Member of Parliament until the next general election. If an MP dies or resigns his seat, a byelection is held to replace him. Any British subject can be nominated as a candidate for any seat on payment of a deposit of 500, though peers and Church of England clergymen are disqualified from sitting in the House of Commons. There is no need to live in the area or to have any personal connection with it, and less than half of the candidates are in fact local residents. There are usually more than two candidates for each seat, but the one who receives most votes is elected. A large proportion are elected with less than half of the votes cast. The franchise (right to vote) became universal for men by stages in the nineteenth century; hence the rise of the Labour Party. Women's suffrage came in two stages (1918 and 1928), and in 1970 the minimum voting age was reduced to eighteen. Voting is not compulsory, but in the autumn of each year every householder is obliged by law to enter on the register of electors the name of every resident who is over seventeen and a UK citizen. Much work is done to ensure that the register is complete and accurate, and each register is valid for one year beginning towards the end of February. People who are just too young to vote are included in the list, so that they may vote at any election which may be held after their eighteenth birthdays. It is only possible to vote at the polling station appropriate to one's address. Anyone who expects to be unable to vote there may apply in advance to be allowed to send the vote by post. In 1974-83 there were 635 MPs for the UK, each representing one 'constituency'; in 1983 the number was increased to 650. Because some areas increase in population while others decline, the electoral map, or division of the whole country into constituencies, has to be changed from time to time so as to prevent gross inequalities of representation. The maximum interval between 'redistributions' is set by law at fifteen years -each time subject to Parliament's approval. How Elections Work The most important effect of the electoral system, with each seat won by the candidate with most votes, has been to sustain the dominance of two main rival parties, and only two. One forms the Government, the other the Opposition, hoping to change places after the next general election. The Prime Minister can choose the date of an election, with only three or four weeks' notice, at any time that seems favourable, up to five years after the last. At an election the people choose 'a Parliament' for five years and no more; but only one 'Parliament', so defined, has lasted its full five years since 1945. The shortest, elected in February 1974, was dissolved seven months later. The development of opinion polls gives the Prime Minister a good idea of his or her party's chances, month by month. Until 1918 the Conservatives (Tories) and Liberals (formerly Whigs) took turns at holding power, then Conservatives and Labour. The Labour Party, formed

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in 1900 in alliance with the Liberals, replaced them as the second major party after 1918. Labour's success was made possible by divisions among the Liberals. Between 1945 and 1987 there were thirteen general elections. No party ever received as many as half of the votes cast, but twelve of the elections gave an overall majority of seats to Labour (5) or Conservative (7); the winning party's percentage of the votes varied from thirty-nine per cent to forty-nine per cent. The exception was in February 1974 when the biggest party in the House of Commons, Labour, had only 301 seats out of 635. A minority Labour government took power. After only seven months Prime Minister Wilson called a second election, in the hope of obtaining an overall majority. With Labour winning 319 seats he just succeeded, though Labour had less than two-fifths of the votes. Within two years Labour had lost five seats at by-elections, but stayed in office as a minority government through an agreement with the Liberals. This was not a coalition, but the only period since 1931 in which a governing party relied on the support of another to remain in power. This two-year period of minority rule was difficult for the Labour government, but Mr Callaghan, who had by then succeeded Mr Wilson as Prime Minister, could see from the opinion polls and occasional by-elections that Labour would probably lose any new general election if he used his right to dissolve Parliament. In March 1979 he was obliged to do so, at a time which he had not chosen, because his Government was defeated by one vote on a vote of confidence. The election which followed gave Mrs Thatcher's Conservatives a majority of 45 over all other parties combined. The Liberals had only eleven seats, the Scottish Nationalists three, the Welsh one. The two-party system seemed restored to its normal form, at least in terms of seats in the House of Commons. Mrs Thatcher called the next elections at four-yearly intervals, and won them both easily. Although the Parliaments of 1979, 1983 and 1987 were dominated by a government faced by a big opposition party, with a few seats held by minor parties, a study of the figures shows how this pattern did not at all reflect the people's votes. The electoral system caused dramatic distortions, most particularly in 1983. By then the Liberals had formed an alliance with a new centre party, the Social Democratic Party (SDP). This alliance won almost as many votes as Labour, but Labour won almost ten times as many seats. The figures for the south of England were even more remarkable. In this area, covering nearly half of England's population, the Alliance's candidates (Liberals and Social Democrats) received almost 50 per cent more votes than Labour, but won only seven seats to Labour's twenty-nine. Labour's support was concentrated in parts of London, where it won some of its seats with big majorities. Outside London and the few big towns most Alliance candidates won at least twice as many votes as Labour. The 1987 election produced results not greatly different from those of 1983, though Labour's share of the UK vote rose from 27.6 to 30.8 per cent, and the Alliance's share fell from 25.4 to 22.6. Labour's seats increased from 209 to 229, the Alliance's dropped from 23 to 22. Labour's biggest gains, in terms of votes, were in the 30

big towns of Scotland and the north, in places with above average unemployment, in seats which they had already won in 1983. Although Labour's small gain in votes between 1983 and 1987 was about equal to the Alliance's loss, it was not accounted for simply by people changing votes from Alliance to Labour. The shifts were in fact very complex, with big variations between constituencies. But overall the pattern established in 1983 survived, with almost a two-party parliament, and a government party holding a hundred more seats than all the rest lordlier on the basis of a minority of votes. The allied centre parties may have become the main alternative to the Conservatives in the south in the 1980s, but their achievement was made useless by the electoral system. Their supporters were too widely spread, mainly in areas where the Conservatives were stronger; so t hey won few seats. Labours support is concentrated in areas where the party can win seats; it does Labour no harm if it is the third party instead of being second, in terms of votes, in areas where the Conservatives are sure to win in any case. The two-party system which is the essential feature of modern British government is a product of the electoral system, rather than a reflection of the wishes of the people. Many opinion polls, over many years, have indicated that most of the British people would prefer to use their most fundamental right, that of voting, in a system which would give fair representation. But both Conservatives and Labour claim that the existing electoral system is better than any other, and have produced objective arguments for it and the two-party dominance which it sustains. First, all the people of each constituency have one MP to represent them and their interests. Second, the system gives the people a clear choice between two alternative sets of leaders and policies. Third, it gives stable government for up to five years at a time. Fourth, because any person with realistic political ambitions must join one of the two main parties, each party includes a wide range of attitudes. Therefore, fifth, each party's programme, being a compromise, is likely to avoid extremes - and a government knows that within five years of taking power it must again face the judgment of the voters. On the other hand it is pointed out that two-party choice at an election may be no better than a choice between two evils. Ministers of both parties, once in office, have developed a habit of claiming that at the last election the people voted to approve of every item in the winning party's election manifesto - although the truth is that only about two-fifths voted for the party, and many of these were more against the losers than for the winners. The claims about moderation, once well founded, have become less convincing in the past twenty years or so. Exercises: 1. Make notes on the main facts referring to the election system in the UK. 2. Compare and contrast the elections and how they work in Great Britain and in Russia. Make a report in class. 31

2.3. Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, England. The languages spoken in the United Kingdom. The roots of the nationalism. TEXT 1 The invisible Scot Here are some brief extracts from an article written by a Scotswoman, Janet Swinney, which expresses anger at how the dominance of England over Scotland is reflected in the way things are described. First, there is 'domination by omission'. A map appeared in the Observer newspaper in May 1989 under the heading 'Britain's Dirty Rivers'. It showed only England and Wales. Janet Swinney says: 'What is the meaning of this illustration? Does Scotland have no rivers or no dirty rivers, or has someone simply used the word Britain to mean England and Wales?' Second, she points out the common use of England/English to mean Britain/British: 'When I went to Turkey a few years ago with an assorted group of Britons, most of the English were happy to record their nationality on their embarkation cards as English, and saw nothing offensive about it. It's not unusual, either, for Scots to receive mail from elsewhere in the UK addressed Scotland, England ... Last year, works of art from the Soviet Union intended for display at the Edinburgh International Festival were sent to the City Art Gallery addressed Edinburgh, England'. A third aspect of domination can be seen in the names given to publications and organizations: 'The practice is to label anything that pertains to England and (usually) Wales as though it were the norm, and anything Scottish as though it were a deviation from it. Why else do we have The Times Educational Supplement and The Times Educational Supplement (Scotland), the "National Trust" and the "National Trust for Scotland", the "Trades Union Congress" and the "Scottish Trades Union Congress"? In a society of equals, all these names would carry their geographical markers: The Times Educational Supplement (England and Wales) etc'. TEXT 2 Stands Scotland Where It Did? 1745 was a disastrous year for the Highlands. The traditional customs were declared illegal; Highlanders were forbidden to wear the kilt, the teaching of Gaelic was officially proscribed, as was the clan system of government. Conquered by force of arms, the Scots avenged themselves through intellect, and during the latter part of the 18th century, far from being a humiliated province of England, Scotland became the scene of brilliant literary and social activity. Edinburgh was not proclaimed "the Athens of the North" merely on the strength of 32

its buildings in the great Greek classic style, but because it attracted students, writers, artists, wits and gourmets from all over Europe. It was Edinburgh's golden age, the age of David Hume the philosopher, Adam Smith the economist, Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns (the latter soon grew tired of Edinburgh society), Raeburn the painter, James Boswell, whose private journals, a gem of their kind, have more readers today than his "Life of Johnson". But it was Walter Scott at the beginning of the 19th century who by his poems and historical novels reawakened a sense of national pride and of belonging to a great national tradition. Comment on the texts.

2.4. The cities and towns of Great Britain Pre-reading activities: 1. Make a list of 5 facts you know about Wales without referring to any source books. Make similar lists of facts you know about Northern Ireland and Scotland. 2. Refer to any encyclopedia to add 3 more facts about all the parts of the UK mentioned above. 3. Compare your lists in groups. Reading Read about the capitals of Wales and Northern Ireland. Decide what the main points of each of the texts are. TEXT 1 Cardiff Cardiff has been the official capital of Wales since 1955. There has been a community here for hundreds of years, but it began to grow quickly and to become prosperous during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This was the period when the coal, iron and steel industries were developing in South Wales, and Cardiff became a major industrial town and an important port. However, when these industries began to decline, Cardiff suffered too. Today, the docks are much smaller, but the city is now expanding as a commercial and administrative centre. It is an attractive and interesting place to live in, with good communications, plenty of parks and a varied population which includes nearly 10,000 university and college students. As a tourist, you might want to visit the castle and Llandaff cathedral, or the National Museum of Wales. If you like music, there is the famous national concert 33

hall, St David's Hall, or the New Theatre, which is the home of the Welsh National Opera Company. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G.) TEXT 2 Belfast People reading about the troubles in Northern Ireland or seeing the damage caused by bombs on television, probably imagine that the country is one big battlefield. The opposite is true. Many areas of Northern Ireland are beautiful and peaceful. Because the country is only 5,500 square miles (14,250 sq. km.) in area, you can see most of the main attractions in a week without travelling more than 500 miles (800 km.). Belfast is one of the youngest capital cities in the world and it has grown incredibly fast. Today the city has a population of 400,000, nearly a third of the entire population of Northern Ireland, but in the 17th century it was only a village. Then, during the 19th century, the development of industries like linen, ropemaking, engineering, tobacco and the sea-trade doubled the town's size every ten years. The city is well-known for shipbuilding it was here that the 'Titanic', was built and sent out on her fatal maiden voyage. Some of the Belfast streets have often been the scenes of violence - streetnames such as the Falls Road and Shankill Road are well known throughout Britain because they have been heard so often on the news -but people still live in Belfast, and they can and do go out and enjoy themselves. In spite of the years of trouble, there are many cultural and leisure facilities. from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G. Exercises: 1. Write a detailed outline of the texts. 2. Prepare a speech on both capitals and the countries using the texts above and the information you have learned before. Edinburgh. Exercises 1. Make a report on the capital of Scotland Edinburgh (see pictures 3-7) 2. What is the difference between the usage of the adjectives Scots and Scottish? Give examples of collocations with these words.

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Picture 3. In the old town, atop steep basalt cliffs that rise above the city, stands the castle: Edinburgh Castle

Picture 4. Edinburgh is distinguished by its spacious layout and attractive buildings

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Picture 5. The view of Edinburgh.

Picture 6. The Royal Mile.

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Picture 7. The Royal Mile extends Fast from the castle rock to the Palace of Holyrood House Other cities and towns Pre-reading activities: 1. What other cities and towns of the UK do you know? What are they famous for? 2. Look at the map of the UK and find the following: Norwich, Canterbury, Oxford, Cambridge, Colchester, York, Stratford-upon-Avon, Birmingham. Reading Read the texts about different towns and ciyies of the UK and draw pictures symbolizing each of the towns. Compare the pictures in groups and let your group mates guess what you meant by the pictures. TEXT 3 Norwich Norwich is the most important city of East Anglia and of course it has a large shopping centre for the rural area surrounding it. It also has to cater for the tourists who are attracted to the city by such features as the cathedral, museums and castle.

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Unlike many cities, where small specialist shops have gradually been replaced by large department stores and supermarkets, Norwich still has a wide variety of shops. One of the most unusual must be the Mustard Shop. As its name suggests, it sells nothing but mustard, and there are as many different kinds as it is possible to imagine. It has a mustard museum, which describes the history of Colman's mustard. The Colmans were a famous Norwich family who started a mustardmaking business over 150 years ago. Then there is the outdoor market, with its multi-coloured stall-covers, where you can buy everything from books to bananas. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G.) TEXT 4 Canterbury Canterbury is a town in Kent with a population of about 120,000. It is the religious capital of England because its cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury who is head of the Church of England. From the 12th to the 15th centuries, it was a place of pilgrimage. Thousands of people came to pray at the shrine of a former Archbishop of Canterbury who was murdered in the Cathedral in 1170. His name was Thomas Becket. Murder in the Cathedral During the 12th century, King Henry II decided that the Church had too much power. In 1162, he made Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury, thinking that his friend would help him to weaken the position of the Church. Although the King himself liked Thomas, he was not popular with other powerful men in England. They were jealous of his friendship with the King, and they also disliked him because he was not a nobleman. As Thomas was not even a priest, many people were very angry that he had been made Archbishop. The King was amazed when Thomas began to defend the position of the Church against the King. After a while, Thomas had to leave England because relations between him and the King had become very bad, and Thomas was afraid that he might be killed. He lived in exile for five years until the King asked him to come back. The people, the bishops and the Pope were causing the King problems because they all wanted Thomas to continue as Archbishop of Canterbury. When Thomas returned, in 1170, he brought authorization from the Pope to excommunicate the priests and noblemen who had acted against him. The King was furious when he learned this - soon afterwards, four of Henry's knights entered Canterbury Cathedral and murdered the Archbishop on the steps of the altar. Three years later in 1173, Becket was made a saint, and his tomb became the destination of thousands of pilgrims for three centuries. It was said that miracles happened there, and many sick people went there in the hope of finding a cure. 38

In the 16th century, when King Henry VIII separated from the Roman Catholic Church and established the Church of England, he said that Becket was no longer a saint, and his tomb was destroyed. The story of Thomas Becket is the subject of two modern plays, Murder in the Cathedral by T.S. Eliot and Becket by Jean Anouilh. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G.) Exercise: Find a word or words in the text which are similar in meaning to the following: a hundred years liked by a lot of people envious very surprised return very angry TEXT 5 Chaucer's pilgrims The best-known Canterbury pilgrims are probably those who appear in the book by Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales. It was written in the 14th century, when the pilgrimage had become a rather pleasant holiday for the groups of people who travelled together for protection and companionship. he Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories told by the members of a group of pilgrims. Through the stories we get a vivid picture not only of the narrators themselves but also of the religious and social life of the 14th century. There were twenty-nine pilgrims altogether, including a knight, a doctor, a miller, a middle-aged widow and numerous members of religious orders of one kind or another. The Pilgrim's Way is the name of an old path starting at Winchester which, it is traditionally thought, was taken by pilgrims travelling to Canterbury. However, there is no real evidence of this. You can still walk along some of the route, which is part of a long-distance footpath called the North Downs Way. It is protected by law, so it cannot be ploughed by farmers or made into a motorway! If you have the energy to follow the route as far as Canterbury, you will find that although there is no tomb, Becket is not forgotten. His face and name are still there, on postcards and souvenirs in every other shop! A twentieth-century visitor The most famous modern 'pilgrim' is without doubt Pope John Paul 11. His visit to Canterbury in 1982 was an important historical event because it showed the spirit of understanding that exists now between the Roman Catholic and the Anglican Churches. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop Runcie, and the Pope knelt in silence on Becket's steps - just 817 years after his death. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G)

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TEXT 6 Oxford Town and gown There has been a town where Oxford now stands for many centuries - even before 912, the first written record of its existence. The University began to establish itself in the middle of the 12th century, and by 1300 there were already 1,500 students. At this time, Oxford was a wealthy town, but by the middle of the 14th century, it was poorer, because of a decline in trade and because of the terrible plague, which killed many people in England. Relations between the students and the townspeople were very unfriendly, and there was often fighting in the streets. On 10th February 1355, the festival of St Scholastica, a battle began which lasted two days. Sixty-two students were killed. The townspeople were punished for this in two ways: they had to walk through the town to attend a special service on every St Scholastica's day until 1825. Worse than this, the University was given control of the town for nearly 600 years. Nowadays, there are about 12,000 students in Oxford, and the University and the town live happily side by side! City of dreaming spires The best-known description of Oxford is by Matthew Arnold, the 19th century poet, who wrote about 'that sweet city with her dreaming spires'. However, Oxford is not only famous for its architecture. In the 20th century, it has developed quickly as an industrial and commercial centre. The Rover Group factory at Cowley, for example, is an important part of Britain's motor industry. It is also an important centre in the world of medicine; it is the home of Oxfam, the charity which raises millions of pounds to help poor people all over the world; and its airport contains Europe's leading air-training school. Oxford words The Oxford English Dictionary is well-known to students of English everywhere. The new edition, published in 1989, defines more than half a million words, and there are twenty volumes. Some of the words are special Oxford words. For example, 'bulldog' in Oxford is the name given to University policemen who wear bowler hats and sometimes patrol the streets at night. They are very fast runners. 'Punt' is a word often used in both Oxford and Cambridge. It refers to a flat-bottomed boat with sloping ends which is moved by pushing a long pole in the water. Oxford University Press, the publishing house which produces the Oxford English Dictionary, has a special department called the Oxford Word and Language Service (OWLS for short). If you have a question about the meaning of a word or its origin, you can write or telephone, and the staff there will help you. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G.) 40

TEXT 7 Cambridge Cambridge must be one of the best-known towns in the world, and can be found on most tourists' lists of places to visit. The principal reason for its fame is its University, which started during the 13th century and grew steadily, until today there are more than twenty colleges. Most of them allow visitors to enter the grounds and courtyards. The most popular place from which to view them is from the Backs, where the college grounds go down to the River Cam. The oldest college is Peterhouse, which was founded in 1284, and the most recent is Robinson College, which was opened in 1977. The most famous is probably King's, because of its magnificent chapel. Its choir of boys and undergraduates is also very well known. he University was exclusively for men until 1871 when the first women's college was opened. Another was opened two years later and a third in 1954. In the 1970s, most colleges opened their doors to both men and women. Almost all the colleges are now mixed, but it will be many years before there are equal numbers of both sexes. Cambridge Science Park To the North of this ancient city is the modern face of the University - the Cambridge Science Park, which has developed in response to the need for universities to increase their contact with high technology industry. It was established in 1970 by Trinity College, which has a long scientific tradition going back to Sir Isaac Newton. It is now home to more than sixty companies and research institutes. The ideas of 'science' and 'parks' may not seem to go together naturally, but the whole area is in fact very attractively designed, with a lot of space between each building. The planners thought that it was important for people to have a pleasant, park-like environment in which to work. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G.) TEXT 8 Colchester If you go for a walk through the streets of Colchester, you will be able to see evidence of its long history (and indeed the history of England) almost everywhere you look. This town trail will take you past the most famous buildings and give you some information about their importance in the development of the town. As you read, follow the route on the map. There are pictures to show you the locations of the buildings which are described.

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Colchester town trail 1 The trail starts at Balkerne Gate, which used to be the West Gate of the town in Roman times, and is one of the best-preserved Roman gateways in Britain. The Romans invaded Britain in AD 43, and Colchester became a town for retired Roman soldiers. The road beyond the gateway is a modern by-pass, but beside it you can see the original Roman walls. 2 Walk towards the town centre along Balkerne Passage and you cannot miss 'Jumbo', the town's most famous landmark. It is a Victorian water-tower which took its name from a famous elephant sold to a circus in 1882, the year of the tower's construction. 3 Go up the hill into the High Street, one of the main streets during Roman times, past the Town Hall, and turn left into West Stockwell Street. Walk down to Northgate Street and back up East Stockwell Street and you will see some fine mediaeval and Georgian houses, most of which have been restored. This area is known as the Dutch Quarter because it is where Flemish weavers lived when they fled from the Netherlands in the 16th century. They helped to improve the Colchester cloth industry. 4 Turn left along St Helen's Lane. Near St Helen's Chapel, on the corner, are the remains of one of the walls of a Roman Theatre. 5 Next on the itinerary are the Castle and Museum, so our route takes us back to the High Street and left a short way, to the gates of Castle Park. The Castle, which dates from the 11th century, was built on the site of a Roman temple. Now there is a museum inside, where you will find a wonderful collection of Roman antiquities and a lot of information about Roman Colchester. 6 Leaving the Castle, turn left down East Hill to look at the Siege House. During the Civil War, Colchester was defended by a Royalist Army and was besieged for eleven weeks before finally surrendering. Bullet-holes made during the siege can still be seen clearly in the walls. Of course there are many other interesting places to visit in this historic town, but no doubt by now you will be ready to return to the Town Centre in search of tea and cakes! Do you like oysters? Colchester has been famous for its oysters from the River Colne since the time of the Romans. The season starts in October, and every year the Mayor of Colchester goes out in a boat with a party of guests to fish the first oysters. In the evening, the Oyster Feast is held in the Town Hall. Well-known people, usually television personalities, are invited as well as local people. ( from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G.)

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TEXT 9 York Yorvik was the capital of a Viking kingdom. In mediaeval times, York was the second city of the land. Georgian York was the social centre of the North, Victorian York was an important railway centre, and 20th century York is, among other things, the home of world-famous chocolate and one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Think of York and then think of historic things: battlements, glorious churches, ancient narrow streets, old houses and welcoming pubs where stories of ghosts are told around the fire. Then visit York and find these impressions true, even the ghost stories! As well as being an example of living history, the city knows well how to show its history to visitors. The National Railway Museum's collection of steam trains and Royal Carriages is world-famous. In the Castle Museum one can imagine oneself in a 19th century world of Victorian streets, shops, farmhouses and homes. York Story, in Castlegate, is a lively museum showing how the city of York grew during 1900 years. In the newest museum visitors travel in a special electric car (like a time machine) through an original Viking street with the sights, sounds and smells which a Viking in York would have experienced. Most splendid of all, of course, is the magnificent Minster. It is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and the most important church in the North of England. It is famous for its mediaeval stained glass windows, and the interior is full of colour and light. You can see the huge Minster for miles. You can climb to the top of the tower, go on a guided tour or take a trip into history below ground, where you can see the Roman remains. Feeling energetic? Nothing could be better than a walk along the top of the three-mile city walls. In today's York there is a festival of music and the arts every summer, which includes the famous miracle plays. These are the religious plays which were performed in the streets in mediaeval York and which are still enjoyed in York today. ( from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G.) TEXT 10 Stratford-upon-Avon In April 1564 a son was born to John and Mary Shakespeare at Henley Street, Stratford-upon-Avon. His mother was the daughter of Robert Arden, an important farmer in Warwickshire. His father was a rich citizen whose business was making and selling leather gloves. The parents did not guess that their son, William, was going to be such an important figure in English poetry and drama, and that his plays would still be acted four hundred years later - not only in England, but all over the world! We don't know how he earned his living during these early years. He may have helped his father in the family business or he may have been a country 43

schoolmaster for a time. During these years his three children were born: Susannah, the eldest, then twins - a son, Hamnet (not Hamlet!), and another girl, Judith. In 1587 Shakespeare went to work in London, leaving Anne and the children at home. One story says this is because he killed some deer which belonged to a rich landowner nearby, and that he had to run away from the law. Shakespeare soon began to act and to write plays. By 1592 he was an important member of a well-known acting company, and in 1599 the famous Globe Theatre was built on the south bank of the river Thames. It was in this theatre that most of his plays were performed and, like all Elizabethan theatres, it was a round building with the stage in the centre open to the sky. If it rained, the actors got wet! If the weather was too bad, there was no performance. By 1603, the year when Queen Elizabeth I died, Shakespeare was already the leading poet and dramatist of his time. He continued to write for the next ten years, but in 1613 he finally stopped writing and went to live in Stratford where he died in 1616. He is buried in Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon. Ben Jonson, who lived from 1572 to 1637, and who was also a famous writer of plays, called Shakespeare 'Sweet swan of Avon'. Shakespeare has been known as the 'Swan of Avon' ever since. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G.)

TEXT 11 Birmingham Buying and selling has been an important part of life in Birmingham for more than eight hundred years. In fact men used to sell their wives there as recently as the 18th century! (In 1733 Samuel Whitehouse sold his wife to Thomas Griffiths in the market place for a little more than one pound!) Although neither husbands nor wives are for sale nowadays, Birmingham's markets offer a large choice of other goods. Each Tuesday, Friday and Saturday, the colourful rag market can be found. People used to come to buy and sell old clothes (rags) but now there is a wide selection of modern fashions for everybody. Years ago farmers used to sell their animals at the Bull Ring, but now it is one of the biggest open-air markets and shopping centres in the United Kingdom. People enjoy shopping there because it has modern shops, together with the atmosphere of a traditional street market. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G.)

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TEXT 12 Londonderry The city of Derry has a long history going back fourteen hundred years. At the time of the plantation the City of London in England sent over builders and money to rebuild Derry. As a result, Derry was renamed Londonderry, but today both the long and the short names are used. The best way to see the city of Derry is to walk along the famous city wall built by the planters in 1614. The wall is about 1 mile (1.5 km.) around and 21 feet (6.5 m.) thick. It is still unbroken - the only complete city wall in Britain or Ireland - in spite of the fact that it has stood against several sieges. One siege in particular is famous - the Great Siege which started in December 1688 and lasted until July the following year. During this time the city was surrounded by James IPs army. 7,000 people out of a population of 30,000 died of starvation before the siege was finally ended. This historical event is still very much alive in people's memories and every year there is a ceremonial closing of the city gates to commemorate the siege. (from Spotlight on Britain by Sheerin S., Seath J., White G.) Exercise. Search the internet and find information about Durham (see pictures 8-10) a city in the North East of England, the administrative center of Co Durham on the River Wear. http://www.dur.ac.uk/

Picture 8. Durham is a city in the North East of England on the River Wear.

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Picture 9. Durham has a Norman cathedral and an 11-th century castle, now part of Durham University.

Picture 10. The Norman cathedral in Durham.

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2.5. The economy of Great Britain. The industry and agriculture, service and banking. The City. The role of trade unions. TEXT 1 Work organizations The organization which represents employers in private industry is called the Confederation of British Industry (CBI). Most employers belong to it and so the advice which it gives to trade unions and the government is quite influential. The Trades Union Congress (TUC) is a voluntary association of the country's trade unions. There are more than a hundred of these, representing employees in all types of business. Most British unions are connected with particular occupations. Many belong to the Labour party to which their members pay a 'political levy'. That is, a small part of their union membership subscription is passed on to the party, although they have the right to 'contract out' of this arrangement if they want to. However, the unions themselves are not usually formed along party lines; that is, there is usually only one union for each group of employees rather than a separate one for each political party within that group. Unions have local branches, some of which are called 'chapels', reflecting a historical link with nonconformism. At the work site, a union is represented by a shop steward, who negotiates with the on-site management. His (very rarely is it 'her') struggles with the foreman, the management-appointed overseer, became part of twentieth century folklore. Union membership has been declining since 1979 ( The decline of the unions). Immediately before then, the leader of the TUC (its General Secretary) was one of the most powerful people in the country and was regularly consulted by the Prime Minister and other important government figures. At that time the members of unions belonging to the TUC made up more than half of all employed people in the country. But a large section of the public became disillusioned with the power of the unions and the government then passed laws to restrict this power. Perhaps the decline in union membership is inevitable in view of the history of British unions as organizations for full-time male industrial workers. To the increasing numbers of female and part-time workers in the workforce, the traditional structure of British unionism has seemed less relevant. In an effort to halt the decline, the TUC declared in 1994 that it was loosening its contacts with the Labour party and was going to forge closer contacts with other parties. One other work organization needs special mention. This is the National Union of Farmers (NUF). It does not belong to the TUC, being made up mostly of agricultural employers and independent farmers. Considering the small number of people involved in agriculture in Britain (the smallest proportion in the whole of the EU), it has a remarkably large influence. This is perhaps because of the special 47

fascination that 'the land' holds for most British people, making it relatively easy for the NUF to make its demands heard, and also because many of its members are wealthy. Answer the question. What do you know about work organizations in Russia? TEXT 2 The trade unions The other central actor in industry is the trade union movement, the organised labour of Britain. Its main characteristics are 1) the belief in collective bargaining with employers to protect the interests of its members, i.e. negotiations by one or more unions with an employer to achieve satisfactory rates of pay for the employees; 2) a willingness to be militant, using any form of industrial action to be effective; 3) affiliation to and support of the Labour Party. Originally many of the unions were organised to protect their members not only against employers but often against other workers, especially where a particular skill was involved. In 1868 the Trades Union Congress (TUC) was established as a coordinating body to represent the collective interests of workers with industrialists and with government. From 1945-79 the number of unions in the TUC decreased while the number of members increased, thus leading to a smaller number of more powerful unions. In 1960 there were 650 unions with 9.8 million members, but by 1980 there were 438 unions with over 12 million members. This centralisation was an inevitable response to the growing concentration of capital power. By the mid 1970s over 25 per cent of the workforce were employed in firms of over 10,000 employees in the private sector alone. The largest union, the Transport and General Workers (TGWU) had 2 million members in 1979. More unions merged during the 1980s, partly because of falling membership, but also to adapt to the increased power of employers to insist on making arrangements with a single union at the workplace rather than several, as had traditionally happened. During the 1960s and 1970s the unions became politically so powerful that no government could operate without closely consulting them. 'Beer and sandwich' lunches at which trade unionists and Prime Ministers discussed industrial strategy became a well-known feature of life at 10 Downing Street. In 1974 a miners' strike brought down the Conservative government and five years later strike action brought down the Labour government. Throughout the period both Labour and Conservative governments had tried to introduce laws to limit union power, but both had been unsuccessful and decided that voluntary agreements were the only fruitful solution.

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The Conservative government elected in 1979, however, was determined to limit union power by law and introduced a series of laws in 1980, 1982, 1984 and 1988. These laws had two main aims. The first was to restrict and regulate the power of unions in industry, and the second was to shift the balance of power within each union, in the belief that ordinary members of unions would moderate the behaviour of their officials. The laws reduced picketing rights (assembling outside workplace entrances to discourage anyone from entering) and the right to secondary action (sympathy strikes or other action at workplaces not directly involved in the dispute); made union leaders liable to legal prosecution if they organised a strike without a secret ballot of membership; weakened the right of unions to insist that all workers at a particular workplace belonged to a union; threatened union funds for any violation of the new laws; insisted that all union leaders should be subject to periodic elections by secret ballot; and required that the members of each union should vote on whether they should have a political fund (a clear attempt to destroy the financing of the Labour Party). Union power was further weakened by a fall in membership, from 12.2 million (53 per cent of the employed workforce) in 1979 to 8.7 million by 1989. Most of the shrinkage was explained by growing unemployment, and by the shift in the national economy. Union membership was far lower in the new and growing service industries, so the loss in manufacturing was not made up in those industries. Union power was also weakened by the exclusion of the TUC from consultation with government - no more beer and sandwiches at Downing Street. Finally, changing economic circumstances, not only in Britain but in the industrialised world generally, brought great stress to the union movement, particularly to those most resistant to economic and technological change. Answer the question. What is the role of the trade unions in your country?

2.6. Social and ethnic structure, classes. Migration and immigration. Ethnic minorities. Reading Read the text about ethnic minority communities in Britain and say what is done in the country to avoid tension between ethnic groups and discrimination of minorities. The ethnic dimension The ethnic minority communities in Britain are about 5.7 per cent of the total population but are likely to rise to about 7 per cent in the early years of the 21st century, on account of their higher birth rate. Black immigrants first started coming to Britain in substantial numbers from 1948 onwards, in response to labour 49

shortages. At first almost all came from the West Indies, but during the 1960s and 1970s a large number came from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. There were already several thousand non-white Britons, mainly in ports like Liverpool, Bristol and Cardiff. Some families dated back to the eighteenth century and slave trading. They were used to discrimination. The immigrants arriving in waves in the 1950s and after soon discovered that they were the target of discrimination in class and status. Black people have generally had the worst paid jobs, lived in the worst housing and encountered hostility from white neighbours. The initial view that black immigrants would assimilate into the host community was quickly proved wrong. In the mid 1960s the government introduced the first of three Race Relations Acts in order to eliminate racial discrimination. The 1977 Race Discrimination Act sought to prevent discrimination in employment, housing and other areas, and to prevent the publication of any material likely to stir up racial hatred. At the same time, however, laws were introduced to restrict immigration. Although these laws were not specific, it was difficult to avoid the conclusion that they were particularly aimed at coloured or black immigrants. Over the years the situation for the ethnic minorities has not improved. Before she came to power, Margaret Thatcher promised that a Conservative government would "finally see an end to immigration". Implicit in these words was the aim of bringing to an end the arrival of coloured or black immigrants, for she also spoke sympathetically of the fears of white Britons that they might be "swamped by people with a different culture". During the 1980s her government restricted immigration further, and ended the automatic right of anyone born in Britain to British citizenship. Mrs Thatcher's provocative remarks angered the country's 2.5 million people of ethnic minority origin and contributed to the level of hostility many of them felt in Britain, for she had touched upon a widespread but ill-informed view of immigration, which has been persistently echoed in the press, that the problem is one of immigration into an already overcrowded island. For people either living in areas of poor housing or in need of their own home, there is understandable resentment at the idea of immigrants competing for a scarce resource. But immigration has been dropping steadily since its peak year in 1967 and, although this is not widely known, in the thirty years up to 1982 750,000 more people left Britain permanently than entered to settle. Since then immigrants and emigrants have nearly balanced. There is anger too, because the processing of applications for immigrants and for those seeking political asylum can take years because of bureaucratic inefficiency. The other charge frequently levelled against the ethnic minority communities is their "failure to integrate". Integration is difficult in a hostile climate. The ethnic minority communities feel that they face hostility not only from the white people amongst whom they live but also from the authorities. In 50

1989 the Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants claimed that each month hundreds of black people were stopped at random by the police to check whether they were illegal immigrants. A Home Office survey of two police stations indicated that in some areas a young black man was ten times more likely to be stopped in the street by police than the average white citizen. Black people feel harassed by such treatment, particularly since a growing number of black youths, the main target of the police, were born in Britain. There is also clear evidence that the police more readily arrest blacks than whites. A study in 1989 showed that although only 6 per cent of the population, blacks made up 20 per cent of those held in custody in England and Wales, and 38 per cent of those held in custody in London. Blacks, it seems are both twice as likely to be held in custody before trial and twice as likely to be acquitted once their case is heard by a magistrate. Discrimination, or at least a failure to involve the ethnic minority groups adequately, is apparent in many institutions. The army is a good example. In 1988 only 1.6 per cent of applicants were black, and only one out of 881 people recruited as officers was black. Moreover, it was only after Prince Charles had drawn attention to the absence of black recruits in the Brigade of Guards, which performs most of London's ceremonial and royal parades, that any attempt was made to recruit members of the ethnic minority communities. By 1988 two black guardsmen had been recruited, one of whom complained of "intolerable racial abuse and bullying". These cases were not unique. Other cases of racial bullying and abuse in the army and the police force were periodically reported in the press. Because the police force is perceived as hostile to the ethnic minority communities, and because of the racial abuse experienced by the few who have joined, recruitment is very low. By 1989 coloured police officers made up only 0.9 per cent of the police in England and Wales. Even in the trade union movement, which has made many statements on racial equality, blacks are under-represented. In 1988 the Transport and General Workers' Union had only one out of 500 fulltime officials who was black. Like women, ethnic minority workers tend to be concentrated in particular areas of work, in declining industries or in unpopular night-shift work. Like women, too, non-manual black workers on average earn only about three quarters of the wages of white colleagues. Immigrants may have difficulty getting a job. One controlled experiment, using two actors, one white, the other black, demonstrated that a white is ten times more likely to obtain a job than a black. The unemployment figures confirm this. In 1982 unemployment among whites was 13 per cent, and 25 per cent among Afro-Caribbeans. A government survey in 1986 found that among white youths aged 16-24, 17 per cent were out of work, compared with 32 per cent of AfroCaribbeans and 43 per cent of Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. A black is likely to find it harder to obtain credit from At a popular level Afro-Caribbeans and Asians experience disadvantage. It may merely be that they find greater a bank or a loan to purchase a house. Even in the provision of housing, there is widespread 51

discrimination, with a tendency for councils to allocate their better housing to whites. Two London borough councils during the 1980s were warned by the Commission for Racial Equality (a monitoring organisation) to stop discrimination in housing allocation. At a more serious level Afro-Caribbeans and Asians are frequent targets for verbal abuse, harassment or even attack. A government report in 1981 estimated that Asians were fifty times, and Afro-Caribbeans thirty-six times more likely to be victims of a racially motivated incident than whites. The experience of the Meah family from Bangladesh is a good example. Mr Meah had been in London since 1963 but brought his family to Britain in 1981, and obtained a council flat. Within weeks, gangs of white youths began to spit, swear and jostle Mrs Meah and her daughters whenever they left their flat. Their car windscreen was repeatedly smashed. Sometimes they were hit or had their hair pulled. Volunteers stayed with the Meah family to give them support and to call for help. Eventually the ringleaders were taken to court and the Meahs were left alone. But elsewhere many Asian people go on suffering harassment. One in four Asian households has direct experience of harassment. In Leeds, for example, a survey in 1988 showed that 45 per cent of victims of racial harassment had been forced to alter their pattern of life, for example by not letting their children play outside. A relatively small number of activists, sometimes in specifically right wing groups like the National Front, create most of the trouble. But a far greater number of whites will either sympathise with such activists, or look the other way. Difficulties for ethnic minority children begin when they go to school. Most members of the ethnic minorities live in deprived inner city areas where the quality of the schools is worse than elsewhere and where teachers may have lower expectations. Low expectations from their teachers and a sense of alienation from the majority white community are serious disadvantages. Afro-Caribbeans are expected to remain at the bottom of the economic scale. Asians, who do better in formal education than Afro-Caribbeans and many white children, are often resented when they surpass whites. It is hardly surprising that those aged between fifteen and twenty-five feel the greatest anger. They discover prejudice at school and on the streets, and when they leave school they find it is far harder for them to find work than it is for whites. In 1981 there were serious riots in two deprived inner city areas: Brixton in south London and Toxteth in Liverpool. Four years later there was another outbreak of rioting in a number of poor urban areas across Britain. In all these cases - the result of poor housing, poor education, poor employment expectations and finally of insensitive policing - there was a major ethnic element.

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Picture 11. In some places the barriers have begun to be broken down In some places the barriers have begun to be broken down, but it has required determination (see picture 11 above). When the Afro-Caribbean footballer, John Barnes, began to play for Liverpool Football Club, he was met with racist abuse from spectators. When play took him to the edge of the pitch he was spat upon and showered with bananas. Barnes refused to react, and slowly won the respect of the crowds. More black players have become a frequent sight in football matches. But the suspicion remains, in the words of one newspaper that, like other black players, Barnes "has not so much been accepted as being black as forgiven for it". Economic success has helped a number of Asians move into a more secure position in the middle class. Some remain firmly committed to the Labour Party, traditionally more sympathetic to the position of the ethnic minority communities than the Conservatives. But an increasing number of successful Asians have begun to vote Conservative. At the end of the 1970s nine out of ten Asians were Labour voters. By 1987 one in four Asians, and half of those in the middle class, voted Conservative. Nevertheless, a number of successful Asians and Afro-Caribbeans continue to challenge the situation for the ethnic minority communities through support of the Labour Party. A few enter Parliament, like Keith Vaz, who was elected to represent Leicester East in 1987. Others enter local government where, like women, they have stronger representation. In 1984 the Lord Mayor of Bradford, for example, was an Asian. (from Britain in Close-up byDavid McDowell) 53

Exercises: 1. Read the text again and write out the key ideas of it. 2. Find more facts about the present situation with the ethnic minority communities. 2.7. The symbols of Great Britain and of its different parts. TEXT 1 The Wars of the Roses During the fifteenth century the throne of England was claimed by representatives of two rival groups. The power of the greatest nobles, who had their own private armies, meant that constant challenges to the position of the monarch were possible. The Lancastrians, whose symbol was a red rose, supported the descendants of the Duke of Lancaster, and the Yorkists, whose symbol was a white rose, supported the descendants of the Duke of York. The struggle for power led to the 'Wars of the Roses' between 145c and 148 c. They ended when Henry VII defeated and killed Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field and were followed by an era of stability and strong government which was welcomed by those weakened and impoverished by decades of war. TEXT 2 The Union Jack The earliest form of the flag of Great Britain developed in 1606 and used during the reigns of James I (160325) and Charles I (162549), displayed the red cross of England superimposed on the white cross of Scotland, with the blue field of the latter. Because in heraldry a red on blue is not considered permissible, the red cross had to be bordered with white, its own correct field. During the Commonwealth and Protectorate period (164960), the Irish harp was incorporated in the Union Jack, but the flag resumed its original form on the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Thus did the Union Flag, or Great Union, continue in use until January 1, 1801, the effective date of the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland. In order to incorporate the Cross of St. Patrick (a red diagonal cross on white) while preserving the individual entities of the three crosses the heraldic advisers to the sovereign found an elegant solution. The existing white Cross of St. Andrew was divided diagonally, with the red appearing below the white on the hoist half of the flag and above it on the fly half. To avoid having the red cross touch the blue background, which would be contrary to heraldic law, a fimbriation (narrow border) of white was added to the red cross. In the centre, a white fimbriation also separated the Cross of St. Patrick from the red cross of St. George.

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TEXT 3 Scottish festivals Hogmanay At midnight on 31st December throughout Great Britain people celebrate the coming of the new year, by holding hands in a large circle and singing this song: Should auld acquaintance be forgot And never brought to mind Should auld acquaintance be forgot For the sake of auld lang syne. For auld lang syne, my dear, For auld lang syne We'll take a cup of kindness yet, For the sake of auld lang syne. 'For auld lang syne' means 'in memory of past times' and the words were written by Scotland's most famous poet, Robert Burns. He wrote much of his poetry in the Scots dialect. New Year's Eve is a more important festival in Scotland than it is in England, and it even has a special name. It is not clear where the word 'hogmanay' comes from, but it is connected with the provision of food and drink for all visitors to your home on 31st December. In addition, many people believe that you will have good luck for the coming year if the first person to enter your house after midnight is a 'tall dark stranger'. It is also thought lucky if this person brings a piece of coal and some white bread! Most Scots take part in a ceilidh (Gaelic for 'dance') on New Year's Eve and there is much dancing and singing until the early hours of the morning. Burns' Night 25th January is celebrated all over the world by Scotsmen wherever they are, as it is the birthday of Robert Burns. As at hogmanay, a special meal of haggis, potatoes and turnip is eaten, washed down by lots of whisky! The haggis is carried into the dining room behind a piper wearing traditional dress. He then reads a poem written especially for the haggis! TEXT 4 Scotch Whisky A typical sight in many Highland valleys or glance are the white buildings of the malt whisky distilleries. No two malt whiskies are the same, and the taste can not be copied anywhere else in the world, as the water comes from the local hills. Whisky was first produced in Scotland in 1494 and for many years there was a lot of smuggling to avoid paying taxes. There are more than 100 malt whisky distilleries in the Highlands and it is not surprising that the word Scotch (Scottish is used to describe someone or something from Scotland) is used to mean whisky throughout the world.

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1. Answer the following questions: 1. How did the Wars of the Roses influence on establishing the national symbol of England? 2. What colour combination on the Union Jack would be contrary to heraldic law? 3. What Scottish festivals do you know? Do people in your country celebrate the same festivals? Are they exactly the same? 2. Write down as many different drinks as you can think of. How are they made? TEXT 5 The rural ideal There are many sub-cultures within Britain which reflect age, class, gender, ethnicity and social outlook. Broadly speaking there is a divide between the cultures of the controlling majority and those of the protesting minority, people who feel comparatively weak. One of the most striking aspects of popular mainstream culture in Britain is the love of the countryside (see picture 12). Many people, whether they live in a suburban house or in a flat in a high-rise block, would say their dream home was a country cottage with roses growing over the door. As a nation, the British have made a mental retreat from the urban environment. They have a deep nostalgia for an idealised world of neat hedgerows, cottages and great country houses, surrounded by parkland and eighteenth-century style gardens that looked harmonious and natural. The nostalgia stems partly from a sense of loss which has lingered since the Industrial Revolution two centuries ago, and from a romantic love of nature which has been such a powerful theme in English literature. The National Trust, which owns or manages hundreds of country estates and great country houses, was founded a century ago on the rising nostalgia for a lost rural paradise. Its rapid growth in membership from 315,000 in the late 1970s to 2.4 million in 1997, illustrates its success in encouraging a love of the country and of the past. In 1996 there were well over 11 million visits to National Trust properties. The National Trust can easily become an exercise in national nostalgia, and because so many properties are great houses, it can also pander to a sense of deference to the great landed families.

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Picture 12. One of the most striking aspects of popular mainstream culture in Britain is the love of the countryside A basic reason many town dwellers wish to live in the suburbs is to have a garden in which to grow flowers (see pictures 13, 14). Indeed, many suburban houses imitate a cottage style. Even in the heart of London, its great parks, such as St James's, Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens, are informal, recreating a rural ideal. Britain is a country where over 80 per cent of the population live in towns of 50,000 inhabitants or more. Yet most reject the urban industrial culture, viewing life in the city as an 'unnatural' economic necessity. In order to realise their rural dream, on average 300 people every day move to a dwelling in the country. Many upper-middle-class people own a country cottage to which they retreat at weekends. In March 1998 about 250,000 people marched through central London in protest at what they saw as the government's neglect of the countryside. In fact the Countryside March was composed of different lobby groups, some with conflicting agendas, but that was not the point. The significance of the protest lay in the sheer number who attended, many of whom were actually town dwellers. The majority of British may understand little of the real countryside, but it remains sufficiently important to their sense of identity for them to take to the streets if they think it is endangered. 57

Picture 13. Many upper-middle-class people own a country cottage to which they retreat at weekends

Picture 14. In order to realise their rural dream, on average 300 people every day move to a dwelling in the country

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TEXT 6 The culture of sport Gentlemen and players The middle-class origins of much British sport means that it began as an amateur pastime - a leisure-time activity which nobody was paid for taking part in. Even in football, which has been played on a professional basis since 188 c, one of the first teams to win the FA (Football Association) Cup was a team of amateur players (the Corinthians). In many other sports there has been resistance to professionalism. People thought it would spoil the sporting spirit. Not until 1 968 were tennis professionals allowed to compete at Wimbledon. In cricket there was, until 1962, a rigid distinction between 'gentlemen' (amateurs) and 'players' (professionals), even when the two played together in the same team. These days, all 'first class' cricketers are professionals. Britain was the first country to organise sport as a national activity. In the second half of the nineteenth century it organised and exported a number of games, notably football, rugby football, hockey, lawn tennis, golf and cricket. The initial purpose behind organised sport was to provide an outlet for youthful energies at public schools. It was generally believed to have character-building qualities for future leaders. But it was not long before local businessmen began to organise football and other sports as recreational activity for their workforces. Football clubs quickly sprang up in towns and cities all over Britain, and football was rapidly taken into working-class culture. The Saturday afternoon match was an occasion which working-class men would attend, supporting their local team. From the 1960s, however, the character of football (and other national sports) began to change. A fundamental reason was financial. As match attendances dropped, clubs sought external help from sponsorship and advertising. Commercial companies found this profitable. For example, Cornhill Insurance began to sponsor English 'test' cricket in 1980 at a cost of 4.5 million. Beforehand only 2 per cent of the population had heard of Cornhill, while by 1985 20 per cent had done so, and Cornhill had almost doubled its turnover. The decline in spectators forced club managers to make their sporting events less occasions for local support and more displays of spectacular skill. Football clubs started buying and selling players. In the 1950s football heroes, like Stanley Matthews, remained in their local communities. From the 1960s, many football stars moved into expensive suburbs and displayed their newly acquired wealth. Supporters became primarily consumers, with no involvement in their club. Few members of the teams they supported were genuinely local people who lived in the same community as their supporters. High transfer fees, the glamorous lives of some players, and the lack of participation in the control of clubs, undermined the traditional involvement and loyalty of supporters. A process of alienation occurred between supporters and clubs. In the 1980s this alienation led some supporters to 59

demonstrate loyalty through their own action, by invading football pitches and controlling the surrounding streets, inevitably leading to violence. Meanwhile the football clubs have shifted their priority from simply playing the game to becoming profitable businesses. In 1982 only 12 out of 92 football league clubs in Britain made a profit from spectators. Traditionally the clubs were run by committees usually composed of local people who treated the club as a prestigious hobby. All that changed with the creation of the Premier League in 1992, launched with a lucrative five-year television deal with the BBC and BSkyB. Suddenly there was 15 times as much money. Football had become big business, and immediately began to attract private investors. Multimillionaires and commercial enterprises soon took an interest and several bought control of particular clubs. In 1996, for example, Leeds United was acquired for over 20 million by a leisure company. By the year 2000 15 clubs will be listed on the stock market for public investment. Thus the game has radically changed. In 1985 ticket sales were the most important source of revenue. By 1995 sponsorship, television coverage and 'merchandising', the sale of goods with the club logo, were collectively set to eclipse ticket sales. In the space of three years, 1992-95, Manchester United increased the annual value of its merchandising from 2 million to 23.5 million. Players are not only bought and sold for huge sums, but receive enormous payment for their performance. There is a price to be paid. Tension now exists between the great magnates who own football clubs and the fans. As a journalist says of one club which is a good business but a mediocre club, 'something crucial has been sacrificed to make the books balance. The club has misplaced its soul.' If football (and other sports) were not run as business enterprises, they might lose television spectators but enjoy greater local participation. However, even though football has become such a spectator sport, at the end of the twentieth century 1.6 million British were playing it as recreation, more than ever before. It remains a truly national game. In 1996 the Rugby Football Union abandoned its amateur status and went professional. As in football, the finance has been revolutionised, with the advent of major sponsorship, backers, and the marketing of merchandise. Investors, as one journalist notes, 'see rugby as part of the changing sociological face of the country as we move deeper into a leisure orientated world'. They look forward to handsome returns on their investment. But what will it do for the game? Over a century ago, the novelist Anthony Trollope listed the sports 'essentially dear to the English nature'. These included hunting, shooting, rowing and horse racing. He was, of course, referring to the 'gentleman class', which through the public school system established football, rugby and cricket as national games. A class dimension to sport persists. Hunting, rowing and horse racing, because of the expense involved, have remained primarily upper-class pastimes. The Henley Regatta, the high point of the rowing season, Royal Ascot, for horse racing, and polo at Windsor remain pinnacles of the upper-class summer season. 60

Golf is still to some extent financially segregated between exclusive private clubs and municipal facilities. Football remains essentially lower class, but with a growing middle-class following. In 1996 the Professional Footballers Association could not name a single ex-public schoolboy playing in any of the football leagues. On the other hand, while in Wales rugby has always been a mass game, in England it has always been more socially exclusive, with a very high proportion of expublic school players. Having gone professional, rugby is bound to become more socially mixed. Despite these areas of exclusivity, sport remains one of the areas in which members of ethnic minorities have demonstrated their ability in a white-dominated society, particularly in athletics, cricket and soccer. The black footballer, Paul Ince, has captained the English football team and the black sprinter, Linford Christie, was the captain of the British men's Olympic team in both 1992 and 1996. Answer the following questions: 1. Is Britains nostalgia for life in the countryside beneficial or damaging? State your opinion and support it with evidence from the text. Is there an equivalent nostalgia in your own country? 2. What is the difference between gentlemen and players? 3. In what ways has the character of football as a national sport of Britain changed in the last 40 years?

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Module 2 Chapter 3. History. The home and foreign policy. 3.1. The history of the country. The formation of the United Kingdom. TEXT 1 Henry VII Henry VII is less well known than either Henry VIII or Elizabeth 1. But he was far more important in establishing the new monarchy than either of them. He had the same ideas and opinions as the growing classes of merchants and gentleman farmers, and he based royal power on good business sense. Henry VII (see picture 14) firmly believed that war and glory were bad for business, and that business was good for the state. He therefore avoided quarrels either with Scotland in the north, or France in the south. During the fifteenth century, hut particularly during the Wars of the Roses, England's trading position had been badly damaged. The strong German Hanseatic League, a closed trading society, had destroyed English trade with the Baltic and northern Europe. Trade with Italy and France had also been reduced after England's defeat in France in the mid-fifteenth century. The Low Countries (the Netherlands and Belgium) alone offered a way in for trade in Europe. Only a year after his victory at Bosworth in 1485, Henry VII made an important trade agreement with the Netherlands which allowed English trade to grow again. Henry was fortunate. Many of the old nobility had died or been defeated in the recent wars, and their lands had gone to the king. This meant that Henry had more power and more money than earlier kings. In order to establish his authority beyond question, he forbade anyone, except himself, to keep armed men. The authority of the law had been almost completely destroyed by the lawless behaviour of nobles and their armed men. Henry used the "Court of Star Chamber", traditionally the king's council chamber, to deal with lawless nobles. Local justice that had broken down during the wars slowly began to operate again. Henry encouraged the use of heavy fines as punishment because this gave the Crown money. Henry's aim was to make the Crown financially independent, and the lands and the fines he took from the old nobility helped him do this. Henry also raised taxes for wars which he then did not fight. He never spent money unless he had to. One might expect Henry to have been unpopular, but he was careful to keep the friendship of the merchant and lesser gentry classes. Like him they wanted peace and prosperity. He created a new nobility from among them, and men unknown

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before now became Henry's statesmen. But they all knew that their rise to importance was completely dependent on the Crown. When Henry died in 1509 he left behind the huge total of 2 million, about fifteen years' worth of income. The only thing on which he was happy to spend money freely was the building of ships for a merchant fleet. Henry understood earlier than most people that England's future wealth would depend on international trade. And in order to trade, Henry realised that England must have its own fleet of merchant ships.

Picture 14. Henry VII. Tudor (from An Illustrated History of Britain) Answer the questions: 1. Why was Henry VII more powerfull than earlier kings? 2. What was the Court of Star Chamber? 3. Why did Henry thing England must have the fleet?

TEXT 2 The Protestant Catholic struggle Edward VL, Henry VIII's son, was only a child when he became king, so the country was ruled by a council. All the members of this council were from the new nobility created by the Tudors.. They were keen Protestant reformers because they had benefited from the sale of monastery lands. Indeed, all the new landowners knew that they could only be sure of keeping their new lands if they made England truly Protestant.

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Most English people still believed in the old Catholic religion. Less than half the English were Protestant by belief, but these people were allowed to take a lead in religious matters. In 1552 a new prayer book was introduced to make sure that all churches followed the new Protestant religion. Most people were not very happy with the new religion. They had been glad to see the end of some of the Church's bad practices like the selling of "pardons" for the forgiveness of sins. But they did not like the changes in belief, and in some places there was trouble. Mary, the Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon, became queen when Edward, aged sixteen, died in 1553. A group of nobles tried to put Lady Jane Grey, a Protestant, on the throne. But Mary succeeded in entering London and took control of the kingdom. She was supported by the ordinary people, who were angered by the greed of the Protestant nobles. However, Mary was unwise and unbending in her policy and her beliefs. She was the first queen of England since Matilda, 400 years earlier. At that time women were considered to be inferior to men. The marriage of a queen was therefore a difficult matter. If Mary married an Englishman she would be under the control of a man of lesser importance. If she married a foreigner it might place England under foreign control. Mary, for political, religious and family reasons, chose to marry King Philip of Spain. It was an unfortunate choice. The ordinary people disliked the marriage, as Philip's Spanish friends in England were quick to notice. Popular feeling was so strong that a rebellion in Kent actually reached London before ending in failure. Mary dealt cruelly with the rebel leader, Wyatt, but she took the unusual step of asking Parliament for its opinion about her marriage plan. Parliament unwillingly agreed to Mary's marriage, and it only accepted Philip as king of England for Mary's lifetime. Mary's marriage to Philip was the first mistake of her unfortunate reign. She then began burning Protestants. Three hundred people died in this way during her five-year reign, and the burnings began to sicken people. At the same time, the thought of becoming a junior ally of Spain was very unpopular. Only the knowledge that Mary herself was dying prevented a popular rebellion. Elizabeth, Mary's half sister, was lucky to become queen when Mary died in 1558. Mary had considered killing her, because she was an obvious leader for Protestant revolt. Elizabeth had been wise enough to say nothing, do nothing, and to express neither Catholic nor Protestant views while Mary lived. And Philip persuaded Mary to leave Elizabeth unharmed. When she became queen in 1558, Elizabeth I wanted to find a peaceful answer to the problems of the English Reformation. She wanted to bring together again those parts of English society which were in religious disagreement. And she wanted to make England prosperous. In some ways the kind of Protestantism finally agreed in 1559 remained closer to the Catholic religion than to other Protestant groups. But Elizabeth made sure that the Church was still under her 64

authority, unlike politically dangerous forms of Protestantism in Europe. In a way, she made the Church part of the state machine. The "parish", the area served by one church, usually the same size as a village, became the unit of state administration. People had to go to church on Sundays by law and they were fined if they stayed away. This meant that the parish priest, the "parson" or "vicar", became almost as powerful as the village squire. Elizabeth also arranged for a book of sermons to be used in church. Although most of the sermons consisted of Bible teaching, this book also taught the people that rebellion against the Crown was a sin against God. Both the French and Spanish kings wanted to marry Elizabeth and so join England to their own country. Elizabeth and her advisers knew how much damage Mary had done and that it was important that she should avoid such a marriage. At the same time, however, there was a danger that the pope would persuade Catholic countries to attack England. Finally, there was a danger from those Catholic nobles still in England who wished to remove Elizabeth and replace her with the queen of Scotland, who was a Catholic. Mary, the Scottish queen, usually called "Queen of Scots", was the heir to the English throne because she was Elizabeth's closest living relative, and because Elizabeth had not married. Mary's mother had been French, and Mary had spent her childhood in France, and was a strong Catholic. When she returned to rule Scotland as queen, Mary soon made enemies of some of her nobles, and to avoid them she finally escaped to the safety of England. Elizabeth, however, kept Mary as a prisoner for almost twenty years. During that time Elizabeth discovered several secret Catholic plots, some of which clearly aimed at making Mary queen of England. It was difficult for Elizabeth to decide what to do with Mary. She knew that France was unlikely to attack England in support of Mary. But she was afraid that Spain might do so. Mary's close connection with France, however, was a discouragement to Philip. He would not wish to defeat Elizabeth only to put Mary on the throne. It would be giving England to the French. So for a long time Elizabeth just kept Mary as a prisoner. When Elizabeth finally agreed to Mary's execution in 1587, it was partly because Mary had named Philip as her heir to the throne of England, and because with this claim Philip of Spain had decided to invade England. Elizabeth no longer had a reason to keep Mary alive. In England Mary's execution was popular. The Catholic plots and the dangers of a foreign Catholic invasion had changed people's feelings. By 1585 most English people believed that to be a Catholic was to be an enemy of England. This hatred of everything Catholic became an important political force. The struggle between Catholics and Protestants continued to endanger Elizabeth's position for the next thirty years. Both France and Spain were Catholic. Elizabeth and her advisers wanted to avoid open quarrels with both of them. This 65

was particularly to Bristol in southwest England. It took until the end of the eighteenth century for this trade to be ended. This growth of trade abroad was not entirely new. The Merchant Adventurers Company had already been established with royal support before the end of the fifteenth century. During Elizabeth's reign more "chartered" companies, as they were known, were established. A "charter" gave a company the right to all the business in its particular trade or region. In return for this important advantage the chartered company gave some of its profits to the Crown. A number of these companies were established during Elizabeth's reign: the Eastland Company to trade with Scandinavia and the Baltic in 1579; the Levant Company to trade with the Ottoman Empire in 1581; the Africa Company to trade in slaves, in 1588; and the East India Company to trade with India in 1600. The East India Company was established mainly because the Dutch controlled the entire spice trade with the East Indies (Indonesia). Spices were extremely important for making the winter salted meat tastier. The English were determined to have a share in this rich trade, but were unsuccessful. However, the East India Company did begin to operate in India, Persia and even in Japan, where it bad a trading station from 1613-23. The quarrel over spices was England's first difficulty with the Church. Before the end of the seventeenth century jading competition with the Dutch had led to three wars. TEXT 3 Mary Queen of Scots and the Scottish Reformation Mary was troubled by bad luck and wrong decisions (see picture 15). She returned to Scotland as both queen and widow in 1561. She was Catholic, but during her time in France Scotland had become officially and popularly Protestant. The Scottish nobles who supported friendship with England had welcomed Protestantism for both political and economic reasons. The new religion brought Scotland closer to England than France. Financially, the Scottish monarch could take over the great wealth of the Church in Scotland and this would almost certainly mean awards of land to the nobles. The yearly income of the Church in Scotland had been twice that of the monarch. Unlike the English, however, the Scots were careful not to give the monarch authority over the new Protestant Scottish "Kirk", as the Church in Scotland was called. This was possible because the Reformation took place while the queen, Mary, was not in Scotland, and unable to interfere. The new Kirk was a far more democratic organisation than the English Church, because it had no bishops and was governed by a General Assembly. The Kirk taught the importance of personal belief and the study of the Bible, and this led quickly to the idea that education was important for everyone in Scotland. As a result most Scots remained better

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educated than other Europeans, including the English, until the end of the nineteenth century. Protestantism had spread quickly through the Scottish universities, which were closely connected to those in Germany and Scandinavia. The new Kirk in Scotland disliked Mary and her French Catholicism. Mary was careful not to give the Kirk any reason for actually opposing her. She made it clear she would not try to bring back Catholicism. Mary was soon married again, to Lord Darnley, a 'Scottish Catholic'. But when she tired of him, she allowed herself to agree to his murder and married the murderer, Bothwell. Scottish society, in spite of its lawlessness, was shocked. The English government did not look forward to the possibility of Mary succeeding Elizabeth as queen. In addition to her Catholicism and her strong French culture, she had shown very poor judgement. By her behaviour Mary probably destroyed her chance of inheriting the English throne. She found herself at war with her Scottish opponents, and was soon captured and imprisoned. However, in 1568 she escaped to England, where she was held by Elizabeth for nineteen years before she was finally executed. (from An Illustrated History of Britain)

Picture 15. Mary Queen of Scots TEXT 4 A Scottish king for England Mary's son, James VI, started to rule at the age of twelve in 1578. He showed great skill from an early age. He knew that if he behaved correctly he could expect to inherit the English throne after Elizabeth's death, as he was her

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closest relative. He also knew that a Catholic alliance between Spain and France might lead to an invasion of England so he knew he had to remain friendly with them too. He managed to "face both ways", while remaining publicly the Protestant ally of England. Mary Queen of Scots had poor judgement, but she was a beauty. Neither oF these qualities helped her in her relations with her cousin Elizabeth I, and an act of foolishness finally lost her head. James VI is remembered as a weak man and a bad decision-maker. But this was not true while he was king only in Scotland. Early in his reign, in the last years of the sixteenth century, he rebuilt the authority of the Scottish Crown after the disasters which had happened to his mother, grandfather and great-grandfather. He brought the Catholic and Protestant nobles and also the Kirk more or less under royal control. These were the successes of an extremely clever diplomat. Like the Tudors, he was a firm believer in the authority of the Crown, and like them he worked with small councils, of ministers, rather than Parliament. But he did not have the money or military power of the Tudors. James VI's greatest success was in gaining the English throne when Elizabeth died in 1603 at the unusually old age of 70 (see picture 16).

Picture 16. Elizabeth I (1558-1603) If Elizabeth's advisers had had serious doubts about James as a suitable Protestant ruler, they would probably have tried to find another successor to Elizabeth. Few in England could have liked the idea of a new king coming from Scotland, their wild northern neighbour. The fact that England accepted him suggests that its leading statesmen had confidence in James's skills. (from An Illustrated History of Britain)

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3.2 The history of the monarchy. The role of the monarchy in the modern society. TEXT 1 The Royal Family Having refused to leave London during air attacks on the capital during the Second World War and remaining in Buckingham Palace after it was itself hit, and by tours of the most badly bombed parts of I London, George VI and his consort, Elizabeth (the I Queen Mother), became the most loved people of Britain. Since then the monarchy has gone from strength to strength. Never before has the Royal Family been the subject of such national and international interest. Despite the obvious contradiction between democracy and monarchy, the Royal Family has remained immensely popular. There is j a widely-held but contradictory attitude towards the monarchy, that on the one hand it is important because it embodies national identity, but on the other hand that it is merely a harmless but colourful part of our heritage. Almost 80 per cent of the population are strongly in favour of the monarchy, and probably fewer than 10 per cent are opposed to it. Indeed the monarchy has penetrated so deeply into national consciousness, that many British, according to one book on the subject up to one third of the nation, at some stage in their lives dream about the Royal Family - for example, that the Queen is their mother, or that she comes to tea, or that the dreamer rescues some member of the Royal Family from some danger and enjoys the latter's undying gratitude. Comic as this may be, it reveals a popular state of mind, a fascination with royalty that hardly existed in previous centuries. In a country that prides itself on championing democracy, it can only be described as irrational There is a reverential, almost religious attitude to the sovereign. Popular fascination means not only that approximately twenty books are published in Britain each year on the Royal Family, but popular magazines all over Europe feature British royalty frequently. Fascination and reverence go further. Even ordinary items used by the Queen, for example cutlery used on a royal visit somewhere, acquires sanctity and may be put on view for people to see. This reverential attitude is partly to do with that "magical feeling" but it is also to do with a British love of hierarchy. The British expect both the sovereign and heir apparent to marry someone worthy of the honour, a member of foreign royalty or of the British nobility another curious contradiction with the idea of democracy. The sanctity of the sovereign is such that she will shake hands but it is she who shakes the hand. Otherwise she may not be touched - since it implies disrespect to the royal personage. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and US President Reagan were on such good terms that they embraced when they met. The idea of the Queen 69

embracing anyone apart from blood relatives or other royalty is unthinkable, however friendly she might be. The Royal Family find the adulation of the nation a major and constant challenge. Their position remains dependent on being seen, and on being seen to be a worthy symbol of the nation. Royal dignity is expressed formally through the ceremonies invented at the end of the last century, but at a day-to-day level even clothing is chosen to ensure dignity. The Queen wears colourful clothes which meet the need to be visible in public (at home she almost always wears quiet colours), but otherwise her clothes are staid, a reminder that she stands for stability and continuity. She even wears a hat in public, a substitute crown. Prince Charles and his father, Prince Philip, always dress correctly for the occasion, another expression of stability increasingly out of tune with changes in popular fashion. But their style goes with the view Prince Charles expressed in 1981: "Monarchy is, I do believe, the system mankind has so far evolved which comes nearest to ensuring stable government." It is a message about the preservation of the existing order of things and about the powerful influence royalty must have on national life. The clothes Prince Charles wears must be seen to affirm this view of royalty. It is rumoured that Prince Charles owns a pair of jeans, but it is unlikely he will be seen wearing them. Authority, even without power, is also essential for the British monarchy, but some wonder whether this is desirable. In practice, for example, the Queen is above the law, partly because judges are 'Her Majesty's Judges' and it is her law they exercise, but also because it is unthinkable that she or anyone in her immediate family should appear in court as a defendant. Their authority derives from many sources apart from constitutional ones, for example from their clothes and also from their speech. When Margaret Thatcher began to dress, as it was thought, like the Queen, and talked of 'We' (as royalty traditionally do) rather than 'I', many people resented her regal manner. Their style of education and their sporting image (horse riding, polo, and skiing) lend weight to their authority. It would be difficult, for example, for a state school-educated, football-playing, prince with a regional dialect to command the same respect. Royal authority is expressed in other ways, ones which are careful to avoid the accusation of interference in political life, yet undoubtedly are. Every week the Queen receives the Prime Minister to discuss the matters of state, as she has been doing since 1952. This experience gives her immense authority. It is impossible that the Queen should always be in sympathy with her Prime Minister. Should the nation pay for an undemocratic institution? The Queen is reputed to be the wealthiest person in Britain. No one outside the Palace knows for sure the size of the Royal Family's private fortunes, but some press estimates put it at about 5 billion in 1988. The Palace will not disclose what it considers a private matter. The Queen's wealth is free of all taxes, which means that she is not subject 70

to any of the taxes used to limit wealth acquisition among the richest people in the country. Yet the Queen and other members of the Royal Family also receive a large sum from the taxpayer, known as the 'Civil List'. This, too, is free of tax, and is provided specifically to cover the expenses of the Royal Family in the discharge of its public duties. It is not a salary, and is provided for a ten-year period on an assumed rate of inflation for the period. As a result, at the beginning of the decade, in 1991, the Queen was allocated an annual income of 7.9 million, even though her predicted expenditure for 1991 was only 5.9 million. The government has agreed on this ten-yearly payment because it agreed with the Palace that an annual request from the Queen for funds was undignified. But a government funding one of its own ministries in this way would be considered financially reckless. In addition there are some conspicuously expensive items which are paid for by the taxpayer, for example the Royal Yacht Britannia, which by 1991 was costing the taxpayer 9.2 million yearly. The yacht has been justified through its dual role as a hospital ship, but it has never been used in this role in spite of the wars in the Falklands (1982) and the Gulf (1991). In 1990 the Royal Train cost 2.3 million to maintain and was also paid for by the taxpayer. One irritated journalist wrote in 1988, "Have a royal family if you must. But have a quiet one away from the tabloid headlines, have a frugal one ... have a democratic one to whom nobody curtsies. And have one which pays for itself." The debate about the role and cost of the monarchy will continue, but it is doubtful whether mud will change before the end of the century. The monarchy, whether it is a rational institution for late twentieth-century Britain or not, is too popular. (from Britain in Close-Up) Answer the questions: 1. Is the monarchy popular in Britain. Give the examples from the text. 2. What made the royal family popular during the war? 3. What does queens hat symbolize? 4. How is the royal authority expressed? 5. What is Civil List? TEXT 2 Read the text about the Wars of the Roses. Do you know why is it called this way?

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The Wars of the Roses Henry VI, who had become king as a baby, grew up to be simple-minded and book-loving. He hated the warlike nobles, and was an unsuitable king for such a violent society. But he was a civilised and gentle man. He founded two places of learning that still exist, Eton College not far from London, and King's College in Cambridge. He could happily have spent his life in such places of learning. But Henry's simple-mindedness gave way to periods of mental illness. England had lost a war and was ruled by a mentally ill king who was bad at choosing advisers. It was perhaps natural that the nobles began to ask questions about who should be ruling the country. They remembered that Henry's grandfather Henry of Lancaster had taken the throne when Richard II was deposed. There were not more than sixty noble families controlling England at this time. Most of them were related to each other through marriage. Some of the nobles were extremely powerful. Many of them continued to keep their own private armies after returning from the war in France, and used them to frighten local people into obeying them. Some of these armies were large. For example, by 1450 the duke of Buckingham had 2,000 men in his private army. The discontented nobility were divided between those who remained loyal to Henry VI, the "Lancastrians", and those who supported the duke of York, the "Yorkists". The duke of York was the heir of the earl of March, who had lost the competition for the throne when Richard II was deposed in 1399. In 1460 the duke of York claimed the throne for himself. After his death in battle, his son Edward took up the struggle and won the throne in 1461. Edward IV put Henry into the Tower of London, but nine years later a new Lancastrian army rescued Henry and chased Edward out of the country. Like the Lancastrians, Edward was able to raise another army. Edward had the advantage of his popularity with the merchants of London and the southeast of England. This was because the Yorkists had strongly encouraged profitable trade, particularly with Burgundy. Edward returned to England in 1471 and defeated the Lancastrians. At last Edward IV was safe on the throne. Henry VI died in the Tower of London soon after, almost certainly murdered. The war between York and Lancaster would probably have stopped then if Edward's son had been old enough to rule, and if Edward's brother, Richard of Gloucester, had not been so ambitious. But when Edward IV died in 1483, his own two sons, the twelve-year-old Edward V and his younger brother, were put in the Tower by Richard of Gloucester. Richard took the Crown and became King Richard III. A month later the two princes were murdered. William Shakespeare's play Richard 111, written a century later, accuses Richard of murder and almost everyone believed it. Richard III had a better reason than most to wish his two nephews dead, but his guilt has never been proved. Richard III was not popular. Lancastrians and Yorkists both disliked him. In 1485 a challenger with a very distant claim to royal blood through John of Gaunt 72

landed in England with Breton soldiers to claim the throne. Many discontented lords, both Lancastrians and Yorkists, joined him. His name was Henry Tudor, duke of Richmond, and he was half Welsh. He met Richard III at Bosworth. Half of Richard's army changed sides, and the battle quickly ended in his defeat and death. Henry Tudor was crowned king immediately, on the battlefield. The war had finally ended, though this could not have been clear at the time. Much later, in the nineteenth century, the novelist Walter Scott named these wars the "Wars of the Roses", because York's symbol was a white rose, and Lancaster's a red one. The Wars of the Roses nearly destroyed the English idea of kingship for ever. After 1460 there had been little respect for anything except the power to take the Crown. Tudor historians made much of these wars and made it seem as if much of England had been destroyed. This was not true. Fighting took place for only a total of fifteen months out of the whole twenty-five year period. Only the nobles and their armies were involved. It is true, however, that the wars were a disaster for the nobility. For the first time there had been no purpose in taking prisoners, because no one was interested in payment of ransom. Everyone was interested in destroying the opposing nobility. Those captured in battle were usually killed immediately. By the time of the battle of Bosworth in 1485, the old nobility had nearly destroyed itself. Almost half the lords of the sixty noble families had died in the wars. It was this fact which made it possible for the Tudors to build a new nation state. (from An Illustrated History of Britain)

Answer the questions: 1. Who and why called this war the Wars of the Roses? 2. What are the years of this war? 3. What royal dynasties took part in the war and what dynasty came to rule the country after the war?

3.3 The history of the British Empire, the Commonwealth. Read the text about the Commonwealth and write out the key facts about the association of independent nations. The Commonwealth Beyond its immediate foreign policy priorities, its ties with Europe and the United States, Britain has important relations across the rest of the world. The Commonwealth of countries previously governed by Britain provides an informal forum, unlike the formality of the United Nations, for international issues to be discussed. By 1990 there were fifty member countries of the Commonwealth, with 73

the re-admission of Pakistan (which had left in 1972) and the entry of Namibia. The Queen is titular head of the Commonwealth, actual head of eighteen countries, and an ardent supporter of the Commonwealth idea. There were only eleven members in 1960, twenty-one by 1965, and membership has more than doubled since then. However, the growth of the Commonwealth is not necessarily a sign of its success. The greatest strength of the Commonwealth in the 1960s and early 1970s was the intimacy of this varied club. Today that intimacy has been largely lost. The larger the Commonwealth becomes, the less effective it is as a place for the uninhibited exchange of views. The heads of government of all Commonwealth countries meet every two years, and sometimes issue a Declaration of Intent, enshrining agreed ideals or principles. In 1971 the Singapore Declaration stated, "We believe in the liberty of the individual, in equal rights for all citizens regardless of race, colour, creed or political belief, and in their inalienable right to participate by means of free and democratic political processes in framing the society in which they live." As with the United Nations, many members fall short of their undertaking. In 1979 the Lusaka Declaration urged the eradication of racism as a priority for the Commonwealth. Some members feel that Britain's position on South Africa during the 1980s violated the Declaration's intent. On the other hand British critics of the Commonwealth suggest that Britain no longer has any relationship of value with many members, and point to the absence of democratic values of some members. The disagreement in the 1980s over South Africa prompted some Conservative MPs to call for Britain's withdrawal from the international organisation it had created. Today there is no longer the strong sense of Commonwealth purpose that there was thirty years ago. For Britain this is partly because the Commonwealth is now much less important economically than the European Community. The dramatic reduction of Britain's overseas aid during the 1980s, much of which went to Commonwealth countries, and the raising of education fees for overseas students in Britain, have both weakened Britain's Commonwealth ties. Despite ambivalent attitudes to the Commonwealth, it is most unlikely that Britain would withdraw except in an extreme situation. But if the Commonwealth gently weakens, it is unlikely Britain will do very much to revive it. Unless member countries feel there is some reason for perpetuating an organisation which represents historical accident rather than common purpose, the long-term future of the Commonwealth must be in doubt. ( from Britain in Close-up by David McDowell) Exercises: 1. Look at the map and find all the countries of the Commonwealth.

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2. Make sure you know the pronunciation of the countries in English and their names in Russian.

3.4 The foreign policy of Great Britain. The relationships with Europe and Russia TEXT 1 Read the following text and make a short report about the secrecy as it is understood in the UK. The question of security Secrecy is a very British obsession. Britain is possibly the most secretive country in the West. Virtually every other country admits it has a secret service of some kind, but Britain has pretended it does not. The air of mystery fascinates the public, both in Britain and elsewhere. The success of Ian Fleming's hero James Bond and the novels of Len Deighton and John Le Carre owes much to this fascination. Secrecy may be romantic but there are serious implications in a democracy. Parliament is unable to know what is undertaken by Britain's security services, on the grounds that some parliamentarians would be a security risk. It is a strange argument for a parliamentary democracy to use, since it implies that neither Parliament nor people are sovereign, and that someone else, whose identity we cannot be sure of, knows best. Secrecy provides a protection against public accountability. It also gives the secret services a powerful hold on the country. In 1968, a Labour minister was falsely accused by MI5 (see below) of marrying a 'Soviet agent'. With his career destroyed, he left politics and Britain with his Russian-born wife to live in Geneva. His Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, was repeatedly and falsely accused of being a KGB agent (1963), of concealing the spying activities of his colleagues and of having Soviet agents as personal friends (1971). During the years 1965-80 a leading trade an investigation by The Observer newspaper suggested that official phone tapping rose to a level of 30,000 individual lines each year, without the knowledge or consent of Parliament. In spite of government silence it has been common knowledge that two main organisations, MI5 and MI6, exist. MI5, which was officially acknowledged in 1989, is responsible for Britain's own security and the detection and arrest of foreign spies. MI6 (also known as the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS)), which the government only officially acknowledged in 1992, runs Britain's spy network abroad. But for many years, MI6 and the identity of its director has been well known to other governments. British diplomats are coy. They refer to MI6 simply as 'the Friends'. 75

MI5, MI6, the police Special Branch and Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) are all coordinated by the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), which is composed of senior civil servants and intelligence chiefs responsible to the Cabinet Secretary and the Prime Minister. The rivalry between these different intelligence networks is most in evidence, it is said, at meetings of the JIC. During the 1980s several important incidents occurred which demonstrate the British obsession with secrecy. In 1984 Clive Ponting, a senior civil servant, believed his ministers were deliberately concealing information from an interested MP, and from the Parliamentary Select Committee for Foreign Affairs, not on the grounds of secrecy but because it would reveal that the government had been deliberately misleading Parliament for the preceding two years. It concerned the sinking of the Argentinian warship the Belgrano in 1982. Ponting decided to send crucial evidence to this MP showing that he and Parliament were being misled. Ponting was prosecuted for violating the Official Secrets Act. The jury found Ponting not guilty. They felt he had acted in the public interest, and justified his disclosure. Afterwards, the government introduced a new Official Secrets Act which specifically stated that the disclosure of secrets "in the public interest" was no defence. (from Britain in Close-up byDavid McDowell) TEXT 2 Read the text and explain why the British have mixed feelings about their armed forces. The armed forces The British have mixed feelings about their armed forces. There is pride in their abilities and bravery, demonstrated in the 1982 recapture of the Falkland Islands/Las Malvinas and in the Gulf War. There is also pride in the history and traditions of the Royal Navy, the Royal Air Force, and the regiments of the Army, many of which are over 250 years old. On the other hand the authority required in, and imposed by, an army is deeply disliked by a nation of individualistic and antiauthoritarian people. Any use of the armed forces in mainland Britain to maintain order would provoke a major popular protest. As a result of these two distinct attitudes, the armed forces are the object of both pride and mockery. After 1945 it was clear that Britain was no longer the foremost power it had been previously. In order to secure "the right to sit at the top of the table", as one Prime Minister put it, Britain invested in the development and deployment of nuclear weapons. It soon found it could not afford production costs and became dependent on US-supplied weapons. From 1962 it purchased US Polaris missiles for its submarines. Whether Britain needed a nuclear deterrent for security rather than to increase its political influence has always been a matter for debate. 76

As in the political sphere, Britain has adjusted militarily too slowly to its changing circumstances. In spite of the progressive contraction of its commitments, it remains over-extended. In the 1970s it withdrew from its military 'east of Suez' role, but it would probably have been prudent to withdraw ten years earlier. Although the bulk of British forces in 1990 were stationed in Germany as part of the NATO defence, there were also smaller forces in Belize, Brunei, Cyprus, the Falklands, Gibraltar and Hong In line with its view of itself as the most important member of NATO after the US, Britain has maintained a nuclear deterrent and substantial armed forces in spite of its declining economic power. In 1990 Britain was spending 4.3 per cent of its gross domestic product on defence compared with West Germany's 3 per cent, although both countries were spending roughly the same amount of money. This provided Britain with a nuclear deterrent and a force of 300,000 soldiers, sailors and airmen (and 175,000 civilians providing services for them) at an annual cost in 1990 of 20 billion. During the 1980s Britain also decided to replace the Polaris system with US Trident missiles. These are scheduled to come into service in the 1990s and last until about 2020, at a cost estimated in the late 1980s at 10,000 million. In fact Trident gives Britain a nuclear capacity greatly in excess of its true deterrent requirement. Each of four submarines will carry eight missiles, with each missile capable of carrying fourteen independent warheads. Each submarine will carry a potential total of 128 warheads, compared with 48 warheads in the Polaris system, an almost threefold increase in destructive capability. Are such costs worth it? The first Secretary General of NATO forty years ago was British. He privately described NATO's purpose: "To keep the Russians out, the Americans in and the Germans down." Such a view can hardly have a place in modern Europe. However, Britain in 1990 was less willing than its allies to reduce its military expenditure. It still has difficulty in giving up its nostalgic self-image of a great military power. Nevertheless Britain will have to review and reduce its military capability during the 1990s, partly in response to the momentous changes in but also because it cannot afford to invest so much in the non-productive sector of a struggling economy. Take, for example, the cost of its fleet. A report in 1990 showed that out of the twenty-year life expected of the average naval vessel, only five years were spent at sea. For the rest of the time the ship was in port, being repaired or refitted, or with its crew on leave. The final maintenance bill might well be two or three times the initial purchase price. Or look at air force costs. Britain and Israel both have about 550 combat aircraft. Britain uses three times as many people to keep them in service, mainly because it deploys them on more airstrips. But in 1990 it also had many aircraft sitting unused: "While all air forces like to have reserves," as one defence correspondent noted, "no other in NATO has such a high proportion of its aircraft gathering dust." The pressure to significantly reduce both the size and cost of Britain's armed forces cannot be ignored. 77

The armed forces are likely to become a smaller more flexible force during the 1990s. Tanks, heavy artillery and the equipment suitable for a major European war are likely to be reduced, in favour of more helicopters and transport planes to produce a highly versatile rapid deployment force which can be used anywhere in the world. This need for greater flexibility was confirmed by the Gulf War in 1991. There is a commercial aspect to the strategic changes in Europe. Britain has encouraged the development of a strong arms industry to supply the armed forces and also to make profitable sales internationally. During the 1980s Britain became the largest international arms trader after the United States. With the likely decline in orders from the British armed forces several major companies face the choice of increasing arms sales to the Third World or diversifying into the much more competitive civil sector. One further point needs to be made about the Army in particular. It is a deeply 'tribal' institution. Infantry regiments, with 200 or more years of history, regard themselves as families. Many officers are the sons or grandsons of men who also served in the same regiment. The officer culture tends to be old-fashioned and conservative in its values and political outlook. It is also, particularly in the smarter regiments, like the Guards, cavalry, highland and rifle regiments, distinctly upper class in a way seldom found outside the Army. The sons of great landowners sometimes pursue an army career, for example in a Guards regiment, until they inherit the family estate. It almost goes without saying that most officers in such regiments were educated at public schools. The Guards may represent the upper-class elite in the Army, but the Special Air Service (SAS) represents the tough operational elite. It was established during the Second World War to work behind enemy lines. After the war it continued to exist, but was deliberately hidden from publicity. Men could only join the SAS from other army units after the most rigorous selection procedure for physical and mental ability. They sometimes operated in other countries to support regimes considered friendly to Britain. They also operated in Northern Ireland from 1969 onwards, though it was seven years before the government admitted to this. In 1980 the SAS became highly visible when some of its men stormed the Iranian Embassy in London to release embassy staff taken hostage. During the 1980s the SAS was repeatedly in the news. It captured the imagination of many for its daring, skill and secrecy. It was this image of a tough, 'go anywhere', secret elite that stimulated such interest. Exercises: 1. Read the text again and write out the main facts about the armed forces of the UK. 2. Discuss the facts with your group mates and decide what else you would like to know about the British army.

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3. Find information on the topic you are interested in and make a 5-minute report to present in class.

3.5. Education. Schools and reforms of the 1980s. Higher education, universities. Pre-reading activities: 1. Do you think that some people play computer games too much and too often? 2. Do you think that computers could replace teachers in schools? Why? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of computers? How will they affect your life in the future? TEXT 1 Computers Computers have also started to play an important part in education. Most schools in the United Kingdom now have their own computer. As well as using them for school exercises, many young people are now able to write their own games as well. Although a large number of teachers and parents see the advantages of computers, others are not so keen. They say that some young people use computers only for games and don't really learn anything. This will interfere with reading development or traditional hobbies, such as drama or sport. In fact some people say that as computers become better at understanding and speaking we will prefer them to our friends!

Computer words The arrival of computers has brought many new words into the English language. How many of these do you know? Find the words you dont know in an English-English dictionary. WORD-PROCESSOR HARDWARE HANDS ON LAP-TOP COMPUTER GRAPHICS ELECTRONIC MAIL 512K LOADING MONITOR DISC DRIVE 79

TEXT 2 Read the text about education on Britain. Find Russian equivalents of the words in the bold type. Comprehensive schools in the UK are open to all and are for all abilities. You can only get into a grammar school by competitive entry (an exam). Public schools in the UK are very famous private schools. Colleges include teachertraining colleges, technical colleges and general colleges of further education. Exams and qualifications take/do/sit an exam resit an exam (take it again because you did badly first time) pass (get the minimum grade or more) / do well in (get a high grade) an exam fail (you do not get the minimum grade) / do badly in (you fail, or don't do as well as expected /as well as you wanted) an exam Before an exam it's a good idea to revise for it. If you skip classes/lectures, you'll probably do badly in the exam, [informal; miss deliberately] Some schools give pupils tests regularly to check their progress. The schoolleaving exams are held in May/June. In England, these are called GCSEs (age 16) and A-levels (age 18). In some schools, colleges and universities, instead of tests and exams there is continuous assessment with marks, e.g. 65%, or grades, e.g. A, B+, for essays and projects during the term. If you pass your university exams, you graduate (get a degree), then you're a graduate and you may want to go on to a post-graduate course. Talking about education In colleges and universities, there are usually lectures (large classes listening to the teacher and taking notes), seminars (10-20 students actively taking part in discussion etc.) and tutorials (one student or a small group, working closely with a teacher). A professor is a senior university academic who is a well-known specialist in his/her subject. University and college teachers are usually called lecturers or tutors.

Asking somebody about their country's education system. What age do children start school at? What's the school-leaving age? Are there evening classes for adults? Do you have state and private universities? Do students get grants for further education? 80

Do the exersises using the wolds in bold type. 1. Fill the gaps in this life story of a British woman. At 5, Nelly Dawes went straight to___.(1) school because there were very few _______(2) schools for younger children in those days. When she was ready to go on to secondary school, she passed an exam and so got into her local_____(3) school. Nowadays her own children don't do that exam, since most children go to a _______(4) school. She left school at 16 and did not go on to_______(5) education, but she works during the day, then goes to________(6) at the local school once a week to learn French. She would like to take up her education again more seriously, if she could get a______(7) or scholarship from the government. Her ambition is to go to a_________(8) and become a school-teacher. 2. Correct the mis-collocations in these sentences. 1. I can't come out. I'm studying. I'm passing an examination tomorrow. 2. Congratulations! I hear you succeeded your examination! 3. You can study a lot of different careers at this university. 4. I got some good notes in my continuous assessment this term. 5. She's a professor in a primary school. 6. He gave an interesting 45-minute conference on Goethe. 7. She got a degree in personnel management from a private college. 3. What questions could you ask to get these answers? 1. No, they have to finance their own studies. 2. There isn't much difference; it's just that one gets money from the government and the courses are free, the other depends on fee-paying students. 3. Well, they learn one or two things, like recognising a few numbers, but most of the time they just play. 4. Because I wanted to be a teacher, no other reason. 5. It's sixteen, but a lot of kids stay on until eighteen. 6. I've been revising/studying for an exam. 7. No, ours are given in grades, you know, B+, C, A, that sort of thing. 8. No, I was ill. I didn't miss it deliberately. 4. Make a table for the various stages and types of education in your country. How does it compare with the UK system and with the system in other countries represented in your class or that you know of? Is it possible to find satisfactory English translations for all the different aspects of education in your country? Follow-up activity: The education system in the USA is a bit different from in the UK. Find out what the following terms mean in the US education system. 81

high-school TEXT 3

college sophomore

graduate school

Read about different types of universities in the United Kingdom. Types of university There are no important official or legal distinctions between the various types of university in the country. But it is possible to discern a few broad categories. Oxbridge This name denotes the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, both founded in the medieval period (see pictures 17, 18).

Picture 17. University College, Oxford

They are federations of semi-independent colleges, each college having its own staff, known as 'Fellows'. Most colleges have their own dining hall, library and chapel and contain enough accommodation for at least half of their students. The Fellows teach the college students, either one-to-one or in very small groups (known as 'tutorials' in Oxford and 'supervisions' in Cambridge). Oxbridge has the lowest student/staff ratio in Britain. Lectures and laboratory work are organized at university level. As well as the college libraries, there are the two university libraries, both of which are legally entitled to a free copy of every book published in Britain. Before 1 970 all Oxbridge colleges were single-sex (mostly for men). Now, the majority admit both sexes.

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Picture 18. Kings College, Cambridge seen from 'the Backs' The old Scottish universities By 1600 Scotland boasted four universities. They were Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and St Andrews. The last of these resembles Oxbridge in many ways, while the other three are more like civic universities (see below) in that most of the students live at home or find their own rooms in town. At all of them the pattern of study is closer to the continental tradition than to the English one - there is less specialization than at Oxbridge. The early nineteenth-century English universities Durham University was founded in 1832. Its collegiate living arrangements are similar to Oxbridge, but academic matters are organized at university level. The University of London started in 1836 with just two colleges. Many more have joined since, scattered widely around the city, so that each college (most are nonresidential) is almost a separate university. The central organization is responsible for little more than exams and the awarding of degrees. The older civic ('redbrick') universities During the nineteenth century various institutes of higher education, usually with a technical bias, sprang up in the new industrial towns and cities such as Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds. Their buildings were of local material, often brick, in contrast to the stone of older universities (hence the name, 'redbrick'). They catered only for local people. At first, they prepared students for London University degrees, but later they were given the right to award their own degrees, and so became universities themselves. In the mid twentieth century they started to accept students from all over the country. The campus universities These are purpose-built institutions located in the countryside but close to towns. Examples are East Anglia, Lancaster, Sussex and Warwick (see picture 19). They have accommodation for most of their students on site and from their beginning, mostly in the early 1960s, attracted students from all over the country. (Many were known as centres of student protest in the late 1960s and early 1970s.) 83

They tend to emphasize relatively 'new' academic disciplines such as social sciences and to make greater use than other universities of teaching in small groups, often known as 'seminars'.

Picture 19. Sussex University Campus University The newer civic universities These were originally technical colleges set up by local authorities in the first half of the twentieth century. Their upgrading to university status took place in two waves. The first wave occurred in the mid 1960s, when ten of them (e.g. Aston in Birmingham, Salford near Manchester and Strathclyde in Glasgow) were promoted in this way. Then, in the early 1970s, another thirty became 'polytechnics', which meant that as well as continuing with their former courses, they were allowed to teach degree courses (the degrees being awarded by a national body). In the early 1990s most of these (and also some other colleges) became universities. Their most notable feature is flexibility with regard to studying arrangements, including 'sandwich' courses (i.e. studies interrupted periods of time outside education). They are now all financed by central government. . Check yourself. Answer the questions: 1. Who are the Fellows? 2. How many people are present at tutorials? 3. How can you explain the name Redbrick universities? Give the examples of these universities. 4. What are campus universities? Do you like the idea of a campus university? Why (not)? 5. What are the newer civic universities. What were they initially? What is a sandwich course? Do you have sandwich courses? What are their advantages?

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Name the main types of British universities. Give examples of each. TEXT 4 Read the information about one of the oldest British universities. Cambridge Cambridge must be one of the best-known towns in the world, and can be found on most tourists' lists of places to visit. The principal reason for its fame is its University, which started during the 13th century and grew steadily, until today there are more than twenty colleges. Most of them allow visitors to enter the grounds and courtyards. The most popular place from which to view them is from the Backs, where the college grounds go down to the River Cam. The oldest college is Peterhouse, which was founded in 1284, and the most recent is Robinson College, which was opened in 1977. The most famous is probably King's, because of its magnificent chapel. Its choir of boys and undergraduates is also very well known. King's College Chapel The University was exclusively for men until 1871 when the first women's college was opened. Another was opened two years later and a third in 1954. In the 1970s, most colleges opened their doors to both men and women. Almost all the colleges are now mixed, but it will be many years before there are equal numbers of both sexes. Cambridge Science Park To the North of this ancient city is the modern face of the University - the Cambridge Science Park, which has developed in response to the need for universities to increase their contact with high technology industry. It was established in 1970 by Trinity College, which has a long scientific tradition going back to Sir Isaac Newton. It is now home to more than sixty companies and research institutes. The ideas of 'science' and 'parks' may not seem to go together naturally, but the whole area is in fact very attractively designed, with a lot of space between each building. The planners thought that it was important for people to have a pleasant, park-like environment in which to work. Talking points: What is the purpose of a science park? What are the advantages to the University and to industry?

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TEXT 5 Life at college British universities There are 46 universities in Britain. Good 'A' Level results in at least two subjects are necessary to get a place at one. However, good exam passes alone are not enough. Universities choose their students after interviews, and competition for places at university is fierce. For all British citizens a place at university brings with it a grant from their Local Education authority. The grants cover tuition fees and some of the living expenses. The amount depends on the parents' income. If the parents do not earn much money, their children will receive a full grant which will cover all their expenses. Free at last! Most 18 and 19 year-olds in Britain are fairly independent people, and when the time comes to pick a college they usually choose one as far away from home as possible! So, many students in northern and Scottish universities come from the south of England and vice versa. It is very unusual for university students to live at home. Although parents may be a little sad to see this happen, they usually approve of the move, and see it as a necessary part of becoming an adult. Anyway, the three university terms are only ten weeks each, and during vacation times families are reunited. Freshers When they first arrive at college, first year university students are called 'freshers'. A fresher's life can be exciting but terrifying for the first week. Often freshers will live in a Hall of Residence on or near the college campus, although they may move out into a rented room in their second or third year, or share a house with friends. Many freshers will feel very homesick for the first week or so, but living in hall soon helps them to make new friends. During the first week, all the clubs and societies hold a 'freshers' fair' during which they try to persuade the new students to join their society. The freshers are told that it is important for them to come into contact with many opinions and activities during their time at university, but the choice can be a bit overwhelming! On the day that lectures start, groups of freshers are often seen walking around huge campuses, maps in hand and a worried look on their faces. They are learning how difficult it is to change from a school community to one of many thousands. They also learn a new way of studying. As well as lectures, there are regular seminars, at which one of a small group of students (probably not more than ten) reads a paper he or she has written. The paper is then discussed by the tutor and the rest of the group. Once or twice a term, students will have a tutorial. This means that they see a tutor alone to discuss their work and their progress. In 86

Oxford and Cambridge, and some other universities, the study system is based entirely around such tutorials which take place once a week. Attending lectures is optional for 'Oxbridge' students! After three or four years (depending on the type of course and the university) these students will take their finals. Most of them (over 90 per cent) will get a first, second or third class degree and be able to put BA (Bachelor of Arts) or BSc (Bachelor of Science) after their name. It will have been well earned! Talking points: Is it a good thing to leave home at the age of 18? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Many British people believe that if you do nothing more than study hard at university, you will have wasted a great opportunity. What do they mean and do you agree? How do British universities differ from universities in your country? What do you like and dislike about the British system? (from Spotlight on Britain, Oxford University Press) 3.6. Social services, the national health service. The system of justice. The police and its role. TEXT 1 Crime and criminal procedure There is a widespread feeling among the British public that crime is increasing. Figures on this matter are notoriously difficult to evaluate, however. One reason for this is that not all actual crimes are necessarily reported. Official figures suggest that the crime of rape increased by more than 50% between 1988 and 1992. But these figures may represent an increase in the number of victims willing to report rape rather than a real increase in cases of rape. Nevertheless, it is generally accepted that in the last quarter of the twentieth century, the number of crimes went up. And the fear of crime seems to have increased a lot. This has gone together with a lack of confidence in the ability of the police to catch criminals. In the early 1990s private security firms were one of the fastest-growing businesses in the country. Another response to the perceived situation has been the growth of Neighbourhood Watch schemes. They attempt to educate people in crime prevention and to encourage the people of a particular neighbourhood to look out for anything suspicious. In 1994 the government was even considering helping members of these schemes to organize patrols. There has also been some impatience with the rules of criminal procedure under which the police and courts have to operate. The police are not, of course, above the law. When they arrest somebody on suspicion of having committed a 87

crime, they have to follow certain procedures. For example, unless they obtain special permission, they are not allowed to detain a person for more than twentyfour hours without formally charging that person with having committed a crime. Even after they have charged somebody, they need permission to remand that person in custody (i.e. to keep him or her in prison) until the case is heard in court. In 1994 public concern about criminals ' getting away with it' led the government to make one very controversial change in the law.

Answer the questions: 1. What is the role of private security firms in Britain? 2. What are the most effective ways to bring down the level of crime? Pre-reading activity. What do you know about the British charity organizations? TEXT 2 Social services and charities As well as giving financial help, the government also takes a more active role in looking after people's welfare. Services are run either directly or indirectly (through 'contracting out' to private companies) by local government. Examples are the building and running of old people's homes and the provision of 'home helps' for people who are disabled. Professional social workers have the task of identifying and helping members of the community in need. These include the old, the mentally handicapped and children suffering from neglect or from maltreatment. Social workers do a great deal of valuable work. But their task is often a thankless one. For example, they are often blamed for not acting to protect children from violent parents. But they are also sometimes blamed for exactly the opposite for taking children away from their families unnecessarily. There seems to be a conflict of values in modern Britain. On the one hand, there is the traditional respect for privacy and the importance placed by successive governments on 'family values'; on the other hand, there is the modern expectation that public agencies will intervene in people's private lives and their legal ability to do so. Before the welfare state was established and the concept of 'social services' came into being, the poor and needy in Britain turned to the many charitable organizations for help. These organizations were (and still are) staffed mostly by unpaid volunteers, especially women, and relied (and still do rely) on voluntary contributions from the public. There are more than 50,000 registered charities in the country today. Taken together, they have an income of more than 1 billion. Most of them are charities only in the legal sense (they are non-profit-making and 88

so do not pay income tax) and have never had any relevance to the poor and needy. However, there are still today a large number which offer help to large sections of the public in various ways ( some well-known charities). Charities and the social services departments of local authorities sometimes co-operate. One example is the 'meals-on-wheels' system, whereby food is cooked by local government staff and then distributed by volunteers to the homes of people who cannot cook for themselves. Another example is the Citizens Advice Bureau (CAB), which has a network of offices throughout the country offering free information and advice. The CAB is funded by local authorities and the Department of Trade and Industry, but the offices are staffed by volunteers. Task. Surf the NET and make a report about the British Legion.

3.7. Outstanding people in the history of the country TEXT 1 King Arthur King Arthur provides a wonderful example of the distortions of popular history. In folklore and myth he is a great English hero, and he and his knights of the round table are regarded as the perfect example of medieval nobility and chivalry. In fact, he lived long before medieval times and was a Romanized Celt trying to hold back the advances of the Anglo-Saxons - the very people who became 'the English'! Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. 1. Have you seen any films about King Arthur? Can you retell the plot? 2. What else do you know about King Arthur? TEXT 2 Robin Hood Robin Hood is a legendary' folk hero. King Richard I (1189-99) spent most of his reign fighting in the crusades (the wars between Christians and Muslims in the Middle East). While Richard was away, England was governed by his brother John, who was unpopular because of all the taxes he imposed. According to legend, Robin Hood lived with his band of 'merry men' in Sherwood Forest outside Nottingham, stealing from the rich and giving to the poor. He was constantly hunted by the local sheriff (the royal representative) but was never captured.

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Exercise 1. Fill in A, AN or THE where necessary. 1 Sherwood Forest was royal forest in England. Prince John loved to go hunting there. 2 King Richards brother is Prince John. When King left England, John became king. 3 Nottingham was county town in England. There were lot of counties. Each county had sheriff. 4 sheriff of Nottingham lived in castle. castle was on small hill. 5 poor people liked eating humble pies for lunch or dinner. Only rich people could afford to buy meat. TEXT 3 Read the entry from the tionary. Which members of Tudor family do you know? Tudor [tju: dr / tu: dr] adjective 1 of English royal family or reign: relating to or belonging to the English . royal family that ruled between 1485 and 1603, or to this period of English history. The period is spanned by the reigns of Kings Henry VII, Henry VIII, and Edward VI, and Queens Mary I and Elizabeth I. 2 relating to Tudor architectural style: relating to or being a style of . architecture popular throughout the Tudor period characterized by timber frameworks, visible from the outside, filled in with plaster or brick noun (plural Tudors) member of Tudor family: a member of the Tudor royal family TEXT 4 Bloody Mary (1553-1558) Queen Mary I ruled in England and Ireland from 1553 to 1558. She was the first queen in Britain, besides Matilda who had ruled 400 years before Mary, and Lady Jane Grey who had been the queen only for nine days. During the reign of Edward VI most people got used to Protestantism. Mary was a Catholic and nobles, being afraid of religious persecutions tried to put Lady Jane Grey, a Protestant, on the throne. But Mary succeeded in entering London and took control of the kingdom. Later Lady Jane Grey was executed. Mary was thirty-seven when she became queen. She was not beautiful. She was short and thin, her health was weak. Besides, she was unwise and unbending in her decisions. She was nicknamed Bloody Mary because of a large number of 90

religious persecutions that took place during her reign. She dealt cruelly with the rebels and with those who did not want to accept Catholic teaching. Mary made mistakes and the most serious one was her marriage to Philip, King of Spain. She loved him, and he loved power, so his aim was the English throne. Since women were considered to be inferior to men, her marriage would mean that she would be under Philip's control, together with the whole country. That's why people disliked the marriage. A strong rebellion started in Kent, in the South of England, though it was defeated before it had reached London. At last Mary took an unusual step of asking Parliament for its opinion about the marriage. Parliament agreed, but only accepted Philip as king of England for Mary's lifetime. Philip was in anger. He wanted at least to have a son, an heir, not to let Mary's half-sister Elizabeth succeed to the throne. Very soon he realized that Mary was not able to produce children. So, his dreams never came true. Mary was unfortunate both in her reign and her private life. Numerous executions of Protestants began to sicken the people. They were about to rebel, but the news that Mary was dying stopped them. Historians say that people were dancing, laughing in the streets of London when Bloody Mary died. They were greeting another queen, Elizabeth I Henry VIIIs second daughter. Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. 1. What do you know about Lady Jane Grey? 2. Whose daughter was Mary I? 3. Why was she nicknamed Bloody? 4. What was her attitude towards Protestants? 5. What mistakes did Mary make during her reign? 6. Where is the borderline between monarch's cruelty and the wish to maintain order in the country? What do you think about Mary's methods of ruling over her subjects? TEXT 5 Elizabeth I Queen of England and Ireland Birth Death Royal Family Reign Signif icant Acts 91 September 7, 1533 March 23, 1603 Tudor 1558-1603

Enacted the Act of Uniformity in 1559, which created an independent and uniform English litany for religious worship Enacted the Act of the Thirty-nine Articles in 1563, a compromise which formally separated the Anglican church from the Roman Catholic church Enacted various so-called "poor laws" during the 1590s, culminating in the Poor Law Act of 1601, which made local government responsible for its own impoverished citizens Milest ones 1536 Was exiled from the court following the execution of her mother, Anne Boleyn 1554 Was imprisoned in the Tower of London by her halfsister, Mary I, who as a Catholic regarded the Protestant Elizabeth as a threat 1558 Ascended the throne following the death of Mary I 1558 Established Protestantism as the official religion, which she later solidified with the Act of Uniformity (1559) and the Thirty-nine Articles (1563) 1569 Suppressed a Catholic rebellion in northern England 1571 Uncovered a Catholic conspiracy involving her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots 1586 Increased the persecution of Catholics after learning of a plot involving Anthony Babington, a page to Mary, Queen of Scots 1587 Agreed to the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, after establishing Mary's involvement in the Babington Plot 1588 Enjoyed increased popularity after English ships defeated the Spanish Armada's attempt to attack England and restore Catholic leadership 1600 Granted the East India Company a monopoly on trade with overseas colonies in Asia 1601 Ordered the execution of her former close associate, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, after his attempt to overthrow her English forces were assisted in their defeat of the Armada by Did the "Protestant Wind," a huge storm that ravaged the Spanish ship You Know formation.

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England emerged as a world economic and military power during Elizabeth's reign. The great drama and poetry of William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and other English writers established the Elizabethan era as one of the most important in the history of English literature. DO YOU KNOW THAT... Elizabeth I was Queen for 44 years, unlike all her predecessors, whose terms had been much shorter owing to various factors like disease, or murder, or overthrow; . Elizabeth I was called "Virgin Queen" because she never married. Firstly, she remembered her father's wives, two of whom had been executed. Secondly, her marriage could not be a matter of love, but only politics. She could not choose anyone from the English nobles, because all of them were inferior to her high position, and as a wife had to submit to her husband, it meant that the Queen of England had to submit to her "inferior" husband. Elizabeth could not choose the French or Spanish kings to marry, because it endangered the position of England as an independent empire. Thirdly, there is a version that she loved one man all her life. It was Robert Dudley, but when she met him he had a wife, so she could not marry him. They say that dying she whispered his name. Do you know that... the first English colony in America, though a failure, was called Virginia in honour of Elizabeth I, "Virgin Queen"; the founder of the first British colony in America was Walter Raleigh; Elizabeth I encouraged English seamen to go to America and bring silver, gold and other valuable things for sale. The "sea dogs", as they were called, were traders as well as pirates and adventurers. The most famous of them were John Hawkins, Francis Drake and Martin Frobisher. They used to attack Spanish ships as they returned from America with gold and silver. Spain and England were trade rivals and hence enemies. Elizabeth apologized to Philip, the King of Spain, but at the same time did not refuse from her share of what had been taken from Spanish ships; during Elizabeth I's reign the question of religion was very important. Elizabeth did not want to persecute Catholics. She began to restore the Church of England. She ordered to change the Protestant Prayer Book to make it easier for Catholics to accept. Exercise 1. Match the words and their definitions. 1. feeble a) a person who held a position before someone else; 2. to plot b) to admit defeat; to agree to obey; 3. thrift c) lacking strength or force; frail;

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4. predecessor d) to give up officially (an official position, esp. that of king or queen); 5. overthrow e) the part belonging to, or done by a particular person; 6. to submit f) a person who makes a claim (which is doubtful or not proved) to some high position, such as to be the rightful king; 7. adventurer g) a person who enjoys journeys, new experiences, often dangerous; 8. share h) wise and careful use of money and goods; avoidance of waste; 9. pretender i) (of a group of people) to make a secret plan for something harmful; 10. to abdicate j) removal from power. TEXT 6 Isaac Newton The Reflecting Telescope In October 1667, soon after his return to Cambridge, Newton was elected to a minor fellowship at Trinity College. Six months later he received a major fellowship and shortly thereafter was named Master of Arts. During this period he devoted much of his time to practical work in optics. His earlier experiments with the prism convinced him that a telescopes resolution is limited not s o much by the difficulty of building flawless lenses as by the general refraction differences of differently colored rays. Newton observed that lenses refract, or bend, different colors of light by a slightly different amount. He believed that these differences would make it impossible to bring a beam of white light (which includes all the different colors of light) to a single focus. Thus he turned his attention to building a reflecting telescope, or a telescope that uses mirrors instead of lenses, as a practical solution. Mirrors reflect all colors of light by the same amount. The argues between two scientists Newton was entangled in a lengthy and bitter controversy with Leibniz over which of the two scientists had invented calculus. This controversy embittered Newtons last years and harmed relations between the scientific communities in Britain and on the European continent. It also slowed the progress of mathematical science in Britain. Most scholars agree that Newton was the first to invent calculus, although Leibniz was the first to publish his findings. Mathematicians later adopted Leibnizs mathematical symbols, which have survived to the present day with few changes. Newtons impact on science Newtons place in scientific history rests on his application of mathematics to the study of nature and his explanation of a wide range of natural phenomena with one general principlethe law of gravitation. He used the foundations of 94

dynamics, or the laws of nature governing motion and its effects on bodies, as the basis of a mechanical picture of the universe. His achievements in the use of calculus went so far beyond previous discoveries that scientists and scholars regard him as the chief pioneer in this field of mathematics. Newtons work greatly influenced the development of physical sciences. During the two centuries following publication of the Principia, scientists and philosophers found many new areas in which they applied Newtons methods of inquiry and analysis. Much of this expansion arose as a consequence of the Principia. Scientists did not see the need for revision of some of Newtons conclusions until the early 20th century. This reassessment of Newtons ideas about the universe led to the modern theory of relativity and to quantum theory, which deal with the special cases of physics involving high speeds and physics of very small dimensions, respectively. For systems of ordinary dimensions, involving velocities that do not approach the speed of light, the principles that Newton formulated nearly three centuries ago are still valid. Besides his scientific work, Newton left substantial writings on theology, chronology, alchemy, and chemistry. In 1725 Newton moved from London to Kensington (then a village outside London) for health reasons. He died there on March 20, 1727. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, the first scientist to be so honored.

Sir Isaac Newton English mathematician and physicist Bir December 25, 1642 th De March 20, 1727 ath Pla ce of Woolsthorpe, England Birth Kn Inventing, in part, the branch of mathematics now known as own for calculus Formulating the three laws of motion, which describe classical mechanics Proposing the theory of universal gravitation, which explains that all bodies are affected by the force called gravity Ca 1661 Entered Trinity College, University of Cambridge reer

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1665-1666 Developed what he called the fluxional method (now known as calculus) while living in seclusion to avoid the plague 1669-1701 Served as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge 1687 Published his seminal work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), which contained his three laws of motion and the theory of gravitation 1703-1727 Acted as president of the Royal Society, an organization that promotes the natural sciences 1704 Published Opticks (Optics), describing his theory that white light is a blend of different colors Di Newton was reluctant to share his research with other scientists d You for fear they would take credit for his discoveries. Know Newton instigated a Royal Society investigation to prove that he invented calculus before German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who had published the method first. In addition to science, Newton showed an interest in alchemy, mysticism, and theology. French writer Voltaire first recorded the story that a falling apple gave Newton the inspiration for his theory of gravitation. Voltaire cited Newton's niece as his source for the story.

Charles Robert Darwin British naturalist Bir February 12, 1809 th De April 19, 1882 ath Pla ce of Shrewsbury, England Birth Kn Proposing the theory of natural selection own for Ca 1831 Graduated from the University of Cambridge with a degree reer in theology 96

1831-1836 Sailed around the world as a naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle 1839 Published notebooks containing meticulous observations of animal and plant species and geology made during the Beagle voyage 1858 Published a paper introducing his ideas on natural selection; the paper was presented to the Linnaean Society, a scientific organization in London, concurrently with a similar paper by British naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace 1859 Published On the Origin of Species, his complete theory of natural selection 1871 Published The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, which explicitly stated that humans are descended from apes 1872 Published The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Di Prior to the publication of Darwin's ideas, most people believed d You that species were eternally unchanging. Know By implying that humans had evolved just like other species, On the Origin of Species directly contradicted orthodox theological opinion. British naturalist Alfred Wallace independently conceived a theory of natural selection identical to Darwin's; both Darwin's and Wallace's theories were presented on the same day in 1858 to the Linnean Society of London. Initially a medical student at Edinburgh University, Darwin dropped out and entered the University of Cambridge, where he became an unenthusiastic student of theology. Darwin's father almost prohibited him from joining the Beagle voyage in 1831, for fear that it might lead him away from a future in the clergy. Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. 1. What is Isaak Newton famous for? 2. Who and why did Newton argue with? 3. Where was he buried? 4. When did Charles Darwin publish complete theory of natural selection? 5. What university did Charles Darwin enter to become an unenthusiastic student of theology? 3.8. Religion. Faith and habits, values, stereotypes, humour in Great Britain and other English speaking countries. 97

TEXT 1 Catholicism After the establishment of Protestantism in Britain, Catholicism was for a time an illegal religion and then a barely tolerated religion. Not until 1850 was a British Catholic hierarchy reestablished. Only in the twentieth century did it become fully open about its activities. Although Catholics can now be found in all ranks of society and in all occupations, the comparatively recent integration of Catholicism means that they are still under-represented at the top levels. For example, although Catholics comprise more than 10% of the population, they comprise only around 5% of MPs. A large proportion of Catholics in modern Britain are those whose family roots are in Italy, Ireland or elsewhere in Europe. The Irish connection is evident in the large proportion of priests in England who come from Ireland (they are sometimes said to be Ireland's biggest export!). Partly because of its comparatively marginal status, the Catholic Church, in the interests of self-preservation, has maintained a greater cohesiveness and uniformity than the Anglican Church. In modern times it is possible to detect opposing beliefs within it (there are conservative and radical/liberal wings), but there is, for example, more centralized control over practices of worship. Not having had a recognized, official role to play in society, the Catholic Church in Britain takes doctrine and practice (for example, weekly attendance at mass) a bit more seriously than it is taken in countries where Catholicism is the majority religion - and a lot more seriously than the Anglican Church in general does. This comparative dedication can be seen in two aspects of Catholic life. First, religious instruction is taken more seriously in Catholic schools than it is in Anglican ones, and Catholic schools in Britain usually have a head who is either a monk, a friar or a nun. Second, there is the matter of attendance at church. Many people who hardly ever step inside a church still feel entitled to describe themselves as 'Anglican'. In contrast, British people who were brought up as Catholics but who no longer attend mass regularly or receive the sacraments do not normally describe themselves as 'Catholic'. They qualify this label with 'brought up as' or 'lapsed'. Despite being very much a minority religion in most places in the country, as many British Catholics regularly go to church as do Anglicans. Task. Surf the NET to find more information about British Catholic church Catholic schools in Britain TEXT 2

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So how funny is our sense of humour? After hearing jokes across Britain, Lenny Henry's verdict offers little cheer Amelia Hill,social affairs correspondent Sunday June 10, 2007 The Observer From The Office to Little Britain and Peep Show, British comedy is as robust as it has ever been. But are Cockneys really funnier than Scousers? What about the Welsh? The British take their humour seriously, but do the one-liners people tell really reveal something about society, about who people are and how people have changed? What, in short, is in a joke? To get under the skin of the British sense of humour, the Open University has carried out a unique survey of the jokes people tell. 'The defining trait of Britishness is our sense of humour, but although we all tell funny stories and jokes, not all of us get a laugh from them,' said Dr Marie Gillespie, professor of sociology and anthropology at the Open University. 'Jokes are not just a bit of fun. Yes, they play with the taboo and the forbidden, with the rules of language and logic, but jokes are also a barometer of the social and political climate. They reveal a great deal about social conventions and expose established pieties.' As part of an ongoing survey by the OU into jokes and their relationship with society, Gillespie has spent six months analysing the jokes of over 420 people as told over the past year to a travelling 'joke booth' in such unlikely outposts as the Bluewater shopping centre in Kent and the Metrocentre, Gateshead. Gillespie's research has been used as the basis for a four-part television series hosted by Lenny Henry. Lenny's Britain tracks his experiences as he tours Britain with the joke booth, visiting family homes and workplaces to find out what humour means to people in different environments. It was not all, Henry admits, good, clean fun. 'I have to admit, I was really shocked by the jokes a lot of people told; most of the time, I might as well have been back in Seventies Britain,' he said. 'The humour was predominantly racist, homophobic, mother-in-law and cannibal-fixated. The one characteristic most of the jokes shared was that they were mean. They were joyless. I have been left wondering if that is what we've all become as a nation: mean and hateful. 'The most upsetting thing about this is that humour is the best way of spreading love and binding us all together,' he added. 'But instead I found that in some environments, such as offices, humour was used to isolate others as a form of bullying.' Henry remembers watching as a joke at the expense of a colleague was emailed around an office he was visiting, eventually arriving on the screen of that person. 'I talked to my daughter about this sort of thing, and she confirmed that this is how humour is used when computers are involved,' he said. 'It was a profoundly depressing discovery.' Gillespie, however, advises caution in being offended by other people's humour. 'We have to be careful not to speculate about the intentions, racist or otherwise, of joke tellers, and it's important to distinguish between a joke and the 99

uses of that joke,' she said. 'A joke can easily be turned into an insult, but it needn't be meant that way, or taken that way.' Perhaps the most unexpected finding was that not a single joke about class was told by the 212 men and 208 women who entered the booth in locations all round the UK and Ireland. 'I found that amazing,' said Gillespie. Professor Christie Davies, author of Jokes and their Relation to Society and The Mirth of Nations, who also worked on the study, said: 'Many jokes had a religious theme, featuring vicars, priests and nuns who swear or drink or are associated with sauciness or sex.' So can the British congratulate themselves on their culturally superior sense of humour? Henry thinks not. 'It seems like everyone is telling the same joke, revealing the increasingly pervasive influence of TV, emails and texting.' 'Our humour has melded and bulged into that of the rest of the world,' he said. 'It's a tragic shame: where the original British sense of humour still exists, it is absolutely unmistakeable. It is sharp, ironic and powerful. But I fear it is being lost. And if we lose our sense of humour, it makes me incredibly sad to think what other unique aspects of our cultural identity go with it.' Module 3 Chapter 4. Culture and art of Great Britain 4.1. Literature and its connection with the national view and national concepts. Pre-reading activity: 1. Read the introduction and say when the poem about Beowulf was written and where the events took place. 2. Read the extract of the poem and say what heroes of Russian literature you can compare Beowulf with. Beowulf The beautiful Saxon poem called "Beowulf tells us of the times long before the Anglo-Saxons came to Britain. There is no mention of England. The poem was compiled in the 10th century by an unknown scribe. The manuscript is in the British Museum, in London. It is impossible for a non-specialist to read it in the original, so the text is in the English translation. The scene is set among the Jutes who lived on the Scandinavian peninsula at the time, and the Danes, their neighbours across the strait. The Danes and the Jutes were great sailors. The poem shows us these warriors in battle and at peace, their feasts and amusements, their love for the sea and for adventure. Beowulf is a young knight of the Jutes, or Geats, as the Jutes were called.. His adventures with a sea-monster abroad, in the country of the Danes, and later 100

with a fire-dragon at home, form two parts in this heroic epic. Though fierce and cruel in war, he respected men and women. He is ready to sacrifice his life for them. Beowulf fights for the benefit of his people, not for his own glory, and in battle he strives to be fair to the end. I A long, long time ago the king of Denmark was Hrothgar. He was brave, just and kind, and his people loved him. He built a large and beautiful palace for himself and his warriors. Men came from all parts of the country to look at the fine palace. Every evening many people gathered in the palace, and they ate and drank, told stories and sang songs, danced and laughed. Not far from the palace there was a large lake. A great monster lived in that lake. His name was Grendel. Grendel heard the singing and laughing in Hrothgar's palace every evening and did not like it. He was lonely in his lake and he was very angry with the warriors because they were making merry. He got more and more angry every day. Late one night Grendel got out of his lake and went to Hrothgar's palace. Soon he came near it. It was still and dark inside, and Grendel went in. There were many warriors in the palace, but they were all asleep. Grendel killed one of the warriors and drank his blood. Then he killed another warrior and drank his blood, too. That night the monster killed thirty warriors and drank their blood. Then he took the bodies of the dead men and went back to his lake. The next night Grendel came to the palace again. Again he killed thirty warriors, drank their blood and carried their dead bodies into the lake. Night after night, month after month, winter after winter the terrible monster came to the palace and killed men. There was no laughing and singing now. The bravest and strongest warriors could do nothing against him. Their spears, arrows and swords could not kill Grendel. This went on for twelve years. II On the other side of the sea was the country of Geats. There was a young man among the Geats whose name was Beowulf. He was very brave and strong. He was the strongest man in the whole country. He was stronger than thirty men. One day he heard about the terrible monster Grendel who killed thirty warriors every night in Denmark. Beowulf wanted to help King Hrothgar. He found fourteen strong and brave warriors from among his friends, got on a ship with them and sailed off across the sea. They sailed the whole night, and in the morning they came to Denmark. When they got off the ship, they saw a man on horseback. He was one of King Hrothgar's warriors. "Who are you and what are you doing here?" he asked them. "We are warriors from the country of the Geats," answered Beowulf. "We know about Grendel. We want to help you to fight the monster." 101

The warrior took Beowulf and his friends, to Hrothgar's palace. King Hrothgar smiled when he saw the Geats. "I am glad to see you and your friends brave Beowulf," he said, "but I must tell you that your task will not be easy. You must know that many warriors spent a night in the palace. They tried to kill the monster but they are all dead now." I am not afraid," said Beowulf, "I shall stay in the palace for the night and meet Grendel. And I shall fight without sword or spear or arrows, because they won't help against him." Night came. Everybody left the palace. Only Beowulf and his friends remained. Beowulf told his fourteen friends to lie down and sleep. He himself waited for Grendel in the dark. Grendel appeared in the middle of the night. He quickly entered the palace, killed one of the sleeping warriors and began to drink his blood, as he always did. But at that moment he saw Beowulf and a terrible fight began. They fought for a long time. Grendel was very strong, but Beowulf was stronger. He caught Grendel by the arm and tore it off. This monster howled and ran out of the palace. He ran back to his lake and died there. In the morning King Hrothgar and his men came to the palace. They looked with great surprise at Grendel's arm which was hanging from the ceiling in the middle of the palace. Then they went to the lake. The water of the lake was red with Grendel's blood. People from all parts of the country came to look at Beowulf and thank him. Everybody was very glad. Till late at night they talked, sang and laughed in the palace as before. At night everybody went to sleep. But the troubles of Hrothgar and his men were not over. An ugly witch came out of the lake and quickly ran to the palace. She was Grendel's mother. She ran into the palace, caught one of the warriors, killed him and carried him to the lake. "I ask you to help me once more, brave Beowulf," said Hrothgar. "I shall gladly help you, King Hrothgar," answered Beowulf. "Let us go to the lake at once. I shall kill this witch." They got on their horses and rode to the lake. When they reached it, they saw that the lake was not quiet and its water was black. They waited. It became cold and dark. The witch did not appear. The warriors did not know what to do. Then Beowulf got off his horse and jumped into the lake. When his feet touched the bottom, the witch jumped on him and tried to kill him, but she could not. Then Beowulf saw the witch's cave and ran into it. And here he was very surprised. There was no water in the cave. In the middle of the floor there was a bright fire. In the light of the fire Beowulf saw a magic sword on the wall. He quickly took it and killed the witch with it.

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At that moment the sun appeared over his head, and he saw the dead body of Grendel in a corner of the cave. Beowulf took the magic sword and came out of the lake. His friends were happy to see him alive. In the palace Beowulf told King Hrothgar and his warriors about his fight with the witch. King Hrothgar thanked Beowulf many times and gave him and his men many rich presents. When Beowulf and his friends were going home, many people came to say good-bye to him and to thank him again and again. (from Guide to English and American Literature) Exercises 1. Answer the questions: What does the poem tell us about? Why was Grendel angry with the warriors? What can prove that Beowulf was very strong? How did Beowulf kill Grendel? 2. Speak about the fight of Beowulf and the witch. 3. Discuss in groups why you think people wrote "The Song of Beowulf". Read some extracts from books of famous British writers and decide where each extract is taken from. Extract 1. My name is [] and I was born in the City of York. I always wanted to go to sea. One day, when I was eighteen years old, I went to Hull. There I met a boy whom I knew. The boy's father was the captain of a ship. That boy said to me, "[], do you want to sail on our ship? We start for London today." I was very glad, of course, and agreed at once. In the open sea we were caught in a terrible storm. Our ship struggled with the waves for a long time. Finally it went to the bottom and we were all thrown into the sea. A ship which was passing by sent a boat and saved us. In the morning we reached the shore. I was very young then and soon forgot the terrible storm. I still wanted to be a sailor. I went to London. There I met the captain of a ship which was going to Africa. The captain was a very nice gentleman. We liked each other and soon became friends. The captain invited me to sail to Africa with him. Of course, I agreed with pleasure. Our voyage to Africa was lucky. But when we came back to England, the captain died, and I had to go on my second voyage to Africa without my friend. At first everything went well. The weather was fine and the sea was calm. But not far from the shores of Africa we met a ship with a black flag. It was a pirate ship and the pirates attacked us. Our sailors fought bravely, but the pirates were stronger. Some of our men were killed, and the others were taken prisoner. When 103

the pirate ship came to the port, the captain took me to his house and made me his slave. I spent two years in the pirate captain's house. (from Guide to English and American Literature) Extract 2. It is the custom that every Wednesday (which, as I have before observed, was their Sabbath), the King and Queen, with the royal issue of both sexes, dine together in the apartment of his Majesty, to whom I was now become a great favourite; and all these times my little chair and table were placed at his left hand, before one of the salt-cellars. This prince took a pleasure in conversing with me; inquiring into the manners, religion, laws, government and learning of Europe, wherein I gave him the best account I was able. His apprehension was so clear, and his judgement so exact, that he made very wise reflections and observations upon all I said. But, I confess, that after I had been a little too copious in talking of my own beloved country; of our trade and wars by sea and land, of our schisms in religion, and parties in the state; the prejudices of his education prevailed so far, that he could not forbear taking me up in his right hand, and stroking me gently with the other, after a hearty fit of laughing, asked me whether I were a Whig or Tory? Then turning to his first minister, who waited behind him with a white staff near as tall as the mainmast of the "Royal Sovereign", he observed how contemptible a thing was human grandeur, which could be mimicked by such diminutive insects as I: "and yet," said he I dare engage these creatures have their titles and distinctions of honour; they contrive little nests and burrows, that they call houses and cities; they make a figure and dress in equipage; they love, they fight, they dispute, they cheat, they betray." And thus he continued on while my colour came and went several times, with indignation to hear our noble country, the mistress of arts and arms, the scourge of France, the arbitress of Europe, the seat of virtue, piety, honour and truth, the pride and envy of the world, so contemptuously treated. ( from Guide to English and American Literature) Extract 3. Meanwhile, the noise of defensive preparations within the castle increased tenfold. The heavy yet hasty step of the men-at-arms was heard on the battlements and in the narrow passages and stairs leading to different points of defence. The voices of the Knights were heard commanding their followers and directing means of defence. [ ] was suffering from his inactivity. "If only I could get near the window, and see this brave game," he said. "You will only injure yourself, noble Knight," said Rebecca. She went on: 104

"I myself will stand at the window and describe to you as best I can what passes out." "You must notyou shall not," exclaimed [] . "Each opening will soon be a mark for the archers." (from Guide to English and American Literature) Follow-up activities: 1. Look at the list of British writers. Make sure you know how to interpret their names into Russian. 2. What other British writers do you know? Make a 10-minute report about one of them. Chaucer (1340-1400) William Shakespeare (15641616) Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) Walter Scott (1771-1832) Robert Burns (1759-1796) Percy Bysshe Shelley (17921822) John Keats (1795-1821) George Gordon Byron (17881824) Charles Dickens (1812-1870) William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863) Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) 1950) Herbert George Wells (18661946) William Somerset Maugham (1874-1966) Graham Greene (1904-1991) Charles Percy Snow (19051980) Archibald Joseph Cronin (1896-1981) James Aldridge (born 1918) John Boynton Priestley (18941984) John Galsworthy (1867-1933) George Bernard Shaw (1856-

3. Look at the list of American writers. Make sure you know how to interpret their names into Russian. 4. Refer to resource books on literature and make short notes on each of the writers. Compare your notes in groups. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Washington Irving (1783-1859) James Fenimore Cooper (17891851) Edgar Allan (1809-1849) Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) Walt Whitman (1819-1892) Mark Twain (1835-1910) 105 O. Henry (1862-1910) Jack London (1876-1916) Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896-1940) Ernest Hemingway (18991961) William Faulkner (1897-1962)

Jerome David Salinger (born 1919)

Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953) Lillian Hellman (1906-1984)

4.2. Architecture. Buckingham Palace (see picture 19) is the official London residence of the British monarch. The palace is a setting for state occasions and royal entertaining, and a major tourist attraction. It has been a rallying point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and crisis.

Picture19. Buckingham Palace Originally known as Buckingham House (and often colloquially referred to as "Buck House"), the building forming the core of today's palace was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 and acquired by King George III in 1762 as a private residence, known as "The Queen's House". It was enlarged over the next 75 years, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, forming three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace finally became the official royal palace of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. The last major structural additions were made in the late 19th and early 20th century, including the present-day public face of Buckingham Palace. The original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which still survive, included widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle epoque cream and gold colour scheme. Many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House following the death of King George IV. The Buckingham Palace Garden is the largest private garden in London, originally landscaped by Capability Brown, but redesigned by William Townsend Aiton of Kew Gardens and John Nash. The artificial lake was completed in 1828 and is supplied with water from the Serpentine, a lake in Hyde Park. The state rooms form the nucleus of the working Palace and are currently used regularly by Queen Elizabeth II and members of the royal family for official and state entertaining. Buckingham Palace is one of the world's most familiar 106

buildings and more than 50,000 people visit the palace each year as guests to banquets, lunches, dinners, receptions and the royal garden parties. Windsor Castle Windsor Castle, a thousand-year-old fortress transformed into a royal palace. This well-known silhouette of a seemingly medieval castle was not created, however, until the 1820s by Jeffry Wyatville (see picture 20). Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited castle in the world and, dating back to the time of William the Conqueror, is the oldest in continuous occupation. The castle's floor area is approximately 45,000 square metres (about 484,000 square feet). Together with Buckingham Palace in London and Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, it is one of the principal official residences of the British monarch. Queen Elizabeth II spends many weekends of the year at the castle, using it for both state and private entertaining. Her other two residences, Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle, are the Royal Family's private homes

Picture 20. Windsor Castle Most of the Kings and Queens of England have had a direct influence on the construction and evolution of the castle, which has been their garrison fortress, home, official palace, and sometimes their prison. The castle's history and that of the British monarchy are inextricably linked. Chronologically the history of the castle can be traced through the reigns of the monarchs who have occupied it. When the country has been at peace, the castle has been expanded by the additions of large and grand apartments; when the country has been at war, the castle has been more heavily fortified. This pattern has continued to the present day. Royal Pavilion in Brighton

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The Prince Regent, who later became King George IV, first visited Brighton in the year of 1783, due to his physician advising him that the seawater would be beneficial to his gout. In 1786 he rented a farmhouse in the Old Steine area of Brighton. Being remote from the Royal Court in London, the Pavilion (see picture 4) was also a discreet location for the Prince to enjoy liaisons with his long-time companion, Mrs Fitzherbert. The Prince had wished to marry her, and may have done so secretly; however this was illegal due to her Catholic religion. Henry Holland was soon employed to enlarge the building. The Prince also purchased land surrounding the property, on which was built in 1803 a grand riding school and stables in an Indian style, to designs by William Porden. Between 1815 and 1822 the designer John Nash redesigned the palace, and it is the work of Nash which can be seen today. The palace looks rather striking in the middle of Brighton, having a very Indian appearance on the outside (see picture 21).

Picture 21. Royal Pavilion in Brighton. However, the fanciful interior design, primarily by Frederick Crace and Robert Jones firm, is heavily influenced by both Chinese and Indian fashion (with Moghul and Islamic architectural elements). It is a prime example of the exoticism that was an alternative to more classicising mainstream taste in the Regency style. Task. Find some information and photos about interesting buildings of your city. Make a presentation.

4.3. Music and painting

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Pre-reading activity: What music do you listen to? Why do you like it? Reading More than 30 years of Rock Music The text discusses seven major groups and the music they like: Teddy Boys, Rockers, Mods, Hippies, Punks, Skinheads and Bikers. What do you know about each of these groups? Top of the Pops Top of the Pops is a programme that has been shown every week on BBC TV for many years. Each week computers in a number of record-shops throughout the United Kingdom show how many copies of a record have been sold that week. The new chart, issued each Sunday afternoon, shows which singles have sold the most copies during the previous week. With this information, the show's producers decide which songs will be played. Usually it will be those moving up the charts, or the new releases which the disc-jockeys (usually called DJs) think will be 'hits'. Of course, each week the show finishes with the number one single. Bands either appear live in the studio, or in a video recording made especially to sell the record. These videos have become so important in the last few years that they can help to make a record a hit. When the American rock-and-roll singer Chuck Berry (see picture22.) first sang 'Roll over Beethoven and tell Tchaikowsky the news!' in the 1950s, he was telling the world that the new music, Rock-'n'-Roll, was here to stay. Over the last thirty years it has had an enormous effect on people's lives, and especially on the kind of clothes they wear.

Picture 22. Chuck Berry

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The first group to be seen in the newspapers in the late 50s were the Teddy Boys (see picture23). Their clothes were supposed to be similar to those worn in Edwardian England (Ted and Teddy are abbreviations of Edward): long jackets with velvet collars, drainpipe trousers (so tight they looked like drainpipes!) and brightly-coloured socks. Their shoes had very thick rubber soles and their hair was swept upwards and backwards. Before the arrival of the Teddy Boys young people had usually worn what their parents wore. Now they wore what they liked. In the mid-60s the Mods, (so called because of their 'modern' style of dressing) became the new leaders of teenage fashion. Short hair and smart suits were popular again. But perhaps the Mods' most important possessions were their scooters, usually decorated with large numbers of lights and mirrors. They wore long green anoraks, called parkas, to protect their clothes.

Picture 23. The Teddy Boys

Picture 24. The Hippies.

The Mods' greatest enemies were the Rockers who despised the Mods' scooters and smart clothes. Like the Teds, Rockers listened mainly to rock-and-roll and had no time for Mod bands such as The Who or the Small Faces. They rode powerful motor-bikes, had long untidy hair, and wore thick leather jackets. Whereas the Mods used purple-hearts (a stimulant or amphetamine, so called because of its colour and shape) 'to get their kicks', the rockers mainly drank alcohol. Throughout the 60s, on public holidays during the summer, groups of Mods and Rockers used to travel to the sea-side resorts of south-eastern England, such as 110

Brighton and Margate, and get involved in battles with the police and with each other. Nevertheless at that time 'swinging London' was everybody's idea of heaven! Young people were very clothes-conscious and London's Carnaby Street became the fashion centre of Europe and the world. It attracted thousands of tourists every year. Towards the end of the 60s a new group appeared, whose ideas started in California, in the USA. The Hippies (see picture24) preached a philosophy of peace and love, wore necklaces of coloured beads, and gave flowers to surprised strangers on the street. Music, especially under the influence of the Beatles, began to include strange sounds and images in an attempt to recreate the 'psychedelic' or dream-like experience of drugs. Hippies wore simple clothes, blue jeans and open sandals, and grew their hair very long. They often lived together in large communities, sharing their possessions. This was their protest against the materialism of the 60s and also against the increasing military involvement of the United States in Vietnam. However, the dreams of peace and love disappeared in the early 70s as the mood of society changed. People's attention turned to life's more basic problems as the world price of oil increased, causing a fall in living standards and rising inflation. Skinheads were racist, violent, and proud of the fact. The 'uniform' worn by most of them consisted of trousers that were too short, enormous boots, and braces. As their name suggests, they wore their hair extremely short or even shaved it all off. As unemployment grew throughout the 70s, groups of skinheads began to take their revenge on immigrants, who were attacked on the streets and in their homes. Unfortunately the mass unemployment of the 80s has caused an increase in the number of skinheads. Many are members of the National Front, a political party that wants Britain to be for white people only. The skinhead subculture was originally associated with music genres such as soul, ska, rocksteady and early reggae.The link between skinheads and Jamaican music led to the development of the skinhead reggae genre; performed by artists such as Desmond Dekker, Derrick Morgan, Laurel Aitken, Symarip and The Pioneers. In the early 1970s, some Suedeheads also listened to British glam rock bands such as The Sweet, Slade and Mott the Hoople. The most popular music style for late-1970s skinheads was 2 Tone (also called Two Tone), which was a musical fusion of ska, rocksteady, reggae, pop and punk rock.The 2 Tone genre was named after a Coventry, England record label that featured bands such as The Specials, Madness and The Selecter. The record label scored many top 20 hits, and eventually a number one.

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Picture 25. The punks. Towards the end of the 70s another style of music and dress appeared and is still very popular. The word Punk (see picture25) derives from American English and is often used to describe someone who is immoral or worthless. The bestknown punk band of the 70s and early 80s were trie 'Sex Pistols', who are still famous for their strange names, including Johnny Rotten and Sid Vicious. They sang songs about anarchy and destruction and upset many people by using bad language on television and by insulting the Queen. Punks' clothes show a rejection of conventional styles of dress. Their music is loud, fast and tuneless. They feel that the music of the 70s had become too complicated. It had lost touch with the feelings of'ordinary kids'. In the 1980s many new bands have emerged; and also old ones have reappeared. Out of punk has come New Wave music which totally rejects the ideas of the skinheads. Many of the bands contain both black and white musicians, and anti-racism concerts have been organized (known as Rock against Racism). West Indian music has also played a large part in forming people's musical tastes. Many new British bands combine raditional rock music with an infectious reggae beat. From America, a new interest in discotheques and dancing has appeared. Like the Rockers, Bikers still enjoy 'heavy metal music' which is easily recognized by its high volume and use of electric guitars. 'Dancing' is simply shaking your head violently to the rhythm of the music and so has become known as 'head banging'. Many of the new bands of the 80s have been able to use the changes in technology to develop their music. Computerized drum machines, synthesizers and other electronic instruments are now just as popular as the electric guitar. Black music has become increasingly important with international stars like Michael Jackson combining the best of modern music with spectacular live performances. 'Hip Hop' music has combined fast speaking in rhyme (called 'rapping') with the excitement of the rock beat. ( from Spotlight on Britain) Answer the questions: 112

1. Which of the groups mentioned do you know? 2. Are these movements popular in your country? Can you give the examples of the groups representing these movements. 3. Tell about one of these movements in class. Writing task. 4. Write the review of one of the groups albums.

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Exercise. Find information about the following pictures and the painters (see pictures 26-32).

Picture 26. William Hogarth Shrimp Girl

Picture 27. John Constable TheCorn field

Picture 28. Gainsborough Mrs Sarah Siddons

Thomas

Picture 29. Gainsborough The Market Cart

Thomas

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Picture 30. Thomas Gainsborough The Kornard Forest

Picture 31. William Hogarth Marriage a la mode 115

Picture 32. William Hogarth Marriage a la mode 4.4. Cinema and theatre Read and make the plan of the text TEXT 1 . The Art of Acting From the fall of the Roman Empire until the 10th century, acting hardly existed as an art in Western Europe; only the wandering minstrels gave entertainments in castles and at fairs. In England, the first real actors were amateurs who performed Miracle and Morality plays1 which were religious in character. In the Elizabethan age, the first professional theatres were opened. At the time of Shakespeare there were at least six companies of actors. Shakespeare himself joined the Earl2 of Leicester's company, which under James I3 became known as the 'King's Men'. There were also companies of boy actors. All the women's parts were played by boys. It was very difficult for most actors to earn a living on the stage, even in a London company, and many of them fell into debt. 116

When Shakespeare arrived in London in 1586, the acting was very crude and conventional. There was almost no scenery, and the actors were dressed in the costumes of their day. But when 'The Globe' was opened to the public in 1599, it was the golden age of the theatre in England. In the first half of the 17th century the influence of the Puritans4 was bad for the popular theatre, and it was not before the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 that theatre-going again became a popular habit. The most popular plays were comedies. The first part played by an actress was that of Desdemona. Nell Gwynn was the first English actress. By the beginning of the 18th century the most popular type of play was the sentimental comedy. The acting was artificial probably due to the influence of French actors. But, later, under the influence of David Garrick and some other actors, acting became much more naturalistic. David Garrick was one of the greatest actors known. But even at his time acting was not very popular. An actor whose acting had offended the audience had to ask pardon on his knees before a full house before he could continue in his profession. During the 19th century acting became more and more naturalistic. Like in Shakespeare's time, the best actors understood the importance of the team work of the company. One of the most famous actors of that time was Henry Irving. He was the first actor to be knighted. By the 1920s naturalistic acting reached a peak in the performance of Sir Gerald du Maurier. He hardly appeared to be acting at all. At present most acting still continues to be naturalistic. Designers make the settings as realistic as possible. Modern producers and directors Peter Hall, Peter Brook and others are trying out new styles of acting. Some go back to Greek methods, with a revival of the chorus; others are making use of the audience in helping to interpret the play. References 1. Miracle and Morality plays ['mirakbndma'raeliti] (- , , ) 2. Earl [:1] (, , ) 3. James I ['d3eimzd3'f3:st] I { 1603 1625; , , , ; ; . 1566 .) 4. the Puritans ['pjuantanz] Answer the questions: 1. Why do the British people are so proud of W. Shakespeare? 117

2. Why do they call him the Swan of Avon? Module 4 4.5. Sightseeing and tourists attractions. TEXT 1 The Druids The Druids were the religious, learned, and magistral class among the Celtic people, who lived mainly in the British Isles and areas of Gaul (now France). Druidism flourished from the 2nd century BC through the 2nd century AD, when the Romans suppressed Celtic culture and Christianity supplanted the Druids religious functions. Because the druids relied on an oral tradition rather than written records, knowledge about their practices is slight. Nineteenth-century American writer and mythologist Thomas Bulfinch drew the following stories about the Druids and their festivals from accounts written by ancient Romans and Greeks, and from fragments of ancient poetry. The Druids were the priests or ministers of religion among the ancient Celtic nations in Gaul, Britain, and Germany. Our information respecting them is borrowed from notices in the Greek and Roman writers, compared with the remains of Welsh and Gaelic poetry still extant. The Druids combined the functions of the priest, the magistrate, the scholar, and the physician. They stood to the people of the Celtic tribes in a relation closely analogous to that in which the Brahmans of India, the Magi of Persia, and the priests of the Egyptians stood to the people respectively by whom they were revered. The Druids taught the existence of one god, to whom they gave a name "Be' al," which Celtic antiquaries tell us means "the life of everything," or "the source of all beings," and which seems to have affinity with the Phnician Baal. What renders this affinity more striking is that the Druids as well as the Phnicians identified this, their supreme deity, with the Sun. Fire was regarded as a symbol of the divinity. The Latin writers assert that the Druids also worshipped numerous inferior gods. They used no images to represent the object of their worship, nor did they meet in temples or buildings of any kind for the performance of their sacred rites. A circle of stones (each stone generally of vast size), enclosing an area of from twenty feet to thirty yards in diameter, constituted their sacred place. The most celebrated of these now remaining is Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain, England. These sacred circles were generally situated near some stream, or under the shadow of a grove or widespreading oak. In the centre of the circle stood the Cromlech or altar, which was a large stone, placed in the manner of a table upon other stones set up on end. The Druids had also their high places, which were large

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stones or piles of stones on the summits of hills. These were called Cairns, and were used in the worship of the deity under the symbol of the sun. That the Druids offered sacrifices to their deity there can be no doubt. But there is some uncertainty as to what they offered, and of the ceremonies connected with their religious services we know almost nothing. The classical (Roman) writers affirm that they offered on great occasions human sacrifices, as for success in war or for relief from dangerous diseases. [First-century Roman general and statesman Gaius Julius] Csar has given a detailed account of the manner in which this was done. "They have images of immense size, the limbs of which are framed with twisted twigs and filled with living persons. These being set on fire, those within are encompassed by the flames." Many attempts have been made by Celtic writers to shake the testimony of the Roman historians to this fact, but without success. The Druids observed two festivals in each year. The former took place in the beginning of May, and was called Beltane or "fire of God." On this occasion a large fire was kindled on some elevated spot, in honour of the sun, whose returning beneficence they thus welcomed after the gloom and desolation of winter. Of this custom a trace remains in the name given to Whitsunday in parts of Scotland to this day. [Nineteenth-century Scottish novelist and poet] Sir Walter Scott uses the word in the "Boat Song" in the "Lady of the Lake": "Ours is no sapling, chance sown by the fountain, Blooming at Beltane in winter to fade;" etc. The other great festival of the Druids was called "Samh' in," or "fire of peace," and was held on [the] first of November, which still retains this designation in the Highlands of Scotland. On this occasion the Druids assembled in solemn conclave, in the most central part of the district, to discharge the judicial functions of their order. All questions, whether public or private, all crimes against person or property, were at this time brought before them for adjudication. With these judicial acts were combined certain superstitious usages, especially the kindling of the sacred fire, from which all the fires in the district, which had been beforehand scrupulously extinguished, might be relighted. This usage of kindling fires lingered in the British islands long after the establishment of Christianity. Besides these two great annual festivals, the Druids were in the habit of observing the full moon, and especially the sixth day of the moon. On the latter they sought the Mistletoe, which grew on their favourite oaks, and to which, as well as to the oak itself, they ascribed a peculiar virtue and sacredness. The discovery of it was an occasion of rejoicing and solemn worship. "They call it," says [1st-century Roman encyclopedist] Pliny [the Elder], "by a word in their language, which means 'heal-all,' and having made solemn preparation for feasting and sacrifice under the tree, they drive thither two milk-white bulls, whose horns are then for the first time bound. The priest then, robed in white, ascends the tree, and cuts off the mistletoe with a golden sickle. It is caught in a white mantle, after which they proceed to slay the victims, at the same time praying that God would 119

render his gift prosperous to those to whom he had given it." They drink the water in which it has been infused, and think it a remedy for all diseases. The mistletoe is a parasitic plant, and is not always nor often found on the oak, so that when it is found it is the more precious. The Druids were the teachers of morality as well as of religion. Of their ethical teaching a valuable specimen is preserved in the Triads of the Welsh Bards, and from this we may gather that their views of moral rectitude were on the whole just, and that they held and inculcated many very noble and valuable principles of conduct. They were also the men of science and learning of their age and people. Whether they were acquainted with letters or not has been disputed, though the probability is strong that they were, to some extent. But it is certain that they committed nothing of their doctrine, their history, or their poetry to writing. Their teaching was oral, and their literature (if such a word may be used in such a case) was preserved solely by tradition. But the Roman writers admit that "they paid much attention to the order and laws of nature, and investigated and taught to the youth under their charge many things concerning the stars and their motions, the size of the world and the lands, and concerning the might and power of the immortal gods." Their history consisted in traditional tales, in which the heroic deeds of their forefathers were celebrated. These were apparently in verse, and thus constituted part of the poetry as well as the history of the Druids. In the poems of [the legendary Gaelic poet] Ossian we have, if not the actual productions of Druidical times, what may be considered faithful representations of the songs of the Bards. The Bards were an essential part of the Druidical hierarchy. One author, Pennant, says, "The Bards were supposed to be endowed with powers equal to inspiration. They were the oral historians of all past transactions, public and private. They were also accomplished genealogists," etc. Pennant gives a minute account of the Eisteddfods or sessions of the Bards and minstrels, which were held in Wales for many centuries, long after the Druidical priesthood in its other departments became extinct. At these meetings none but Bards of merit were suffered to rehearse their pieces, and minstrels of skill to perform. Judges were appointed to decide on their respective abilities, and suitable degrees were conferred. In the earlier period the judges were appointed by the Welsh princes, and after the conquest of Wales, by commission from the kings of England. Yet the tradition is that Edward I, in revenge for the influence of the Bards in animating the resistance of the people to his sway, persecuted them with great cruelty. This tradition has furnished the [18th-century English] poet [Thomas] Gray with the subject of his celebrated ode, the "Bard." There are still occasional meetings of the lovers of Welsh poetry and music, held under the ancient name. Among Mrs. Hemans' poems is one written for an Eisteddfod, or meeting of Welsh Bards, held in London, May 22, 1822. It begins with a description of the ancient meeting, of which the following lines are a part: 120

"midst the eternal cliffs, whose strength defied /The crested Roman in his hour of pride;/ And where the Druid's ancient cromlech frowned,/ And the oaks breathed mysterious murmurs round,/ There thronged the inspired of yore!/ On plain or height,/ In the sun's face, beneath the eye of light,/ And baring unto heaven each noble head,/ Stood in the circle, where none else might tread." The Druidical system was at its height at the time of the Roman invasion under Julius Csar. Against the Druids, as their chief enemies, these conquerors of the world directed their unsparing fury. The Druids, harassed at all points on the mainland, retreated to Anglesey [a region in Wales] and Iona [an island off the coast of Scotland], where for a season they found shelter and continued their now dishonoured rites. The Druids retained their predominance in Iona and over the adjacent islands and mainland until they were supplanted and their superstitions overturned by the arrival of St. Columba [in the 1st century], the apostle of the Highlands, by whom the inhabitants of that district were first led to profess Christianity. Exercise 1. Answer the following questions: 1. Who were the Druids? 2. What is the main idea of their philosophy? 3. What sight connected with the Druids do you know? What is it famous for?

TEXT 2 Buckingham Palace, official town residence of the British monarch since 1837, located near Saint James's Park, London. Built by John Sheffield, 1st duke of Buckingham and Normandy, in 1703, the palace was purchased for the royal family in 1761 by George III, although St. James's Palace continued to be the official residence until the accession of Queen Victoria. The neoclassical structure was remodeled by John Nash in 1825. In 1856 a ballroom was added, and in 1913 a new east front was built. Buckingham Palace has about 600 rooms and 20 hectares (50 acres) of gardens. It is noted for its fine collection of paintings. Trafalgar Square, public square in central London that commemorates the victory of British naval commander Viscount Horatio Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The site, formerly occupied by run-down housing and stabling for the king's horses, was cleared in 1832 and developed according to a plan by British architect John Nash. The square is dominated by Nelson's Column, a Corinthian column (see Column: Classical Columns) 51 m (170 ft) tall designed by British sculptor William Railton and erected in 1842. It is surmounted by a stone statue of Nelson 121

in full dress uniform by British sculptor H.E. Bailey. In 1867 four bronze lions were added at the base of the monument, each 6 m (20 ft) long and 3.4 m (11 ft) high. The figures were cast from a design by British sculptor Sir Edwin Landseer. Two fountains designed by British architect Sir Edwin Lutyens were erected in 1939. Trafalgar Square, a popular tourist spot, is often the site of political demonstrations, as well as a traditional location of New Year celebrations. It is flanked on its north side by the National Gallery, a renowned art museum. National Gallery (London), one of the principal art galleries in Britain and among the most important in the world, located in Trafalgar Square, and opened in 1838. The gallery, in Greek Revival style, was designed by William Wilkins and built in 1833-1887. It was later enlarged by the addition of the Sainsbury Wing, financed by members of the Sainsbury family (founders of the British supermarket chain) and designed by Robert Venturi. The new wing opened in 1991. The idea of establishing a national gallery grew out of concern for protecting Britains artistic heritage, threatened by the sale of Sir Robert Walpoles collection to Catherine of Russia. The national collection grew from paintings presented to the nation in 1823 by collector and connoisseur Sir George Beaumont, and a government purchase in 1824 of 38 works from the collection of merchant John Julius Angerstein, in whose house in Pall Mall they were initially displayed. The National Gallery now has over 2000 works representing the principal schools of European painting from the 13th century to 20th century. Its collection of Italian Renaissance paintings, displayed in the Sainsbury Wing, represents almost all the great Florentine and Venetian painters of that period and is the most comprehensive outside Italy. Dutch and Flemish painters are also strongly represented, as are French and Spanish painters of the 15th century to 19th century. English monarchs since William the Conqueror in 1066 have been crowned in the abbey, and many from Edward's time until 1760 (George II) are buried in its chapels. The tombs of famous citizensamong them the poet Geoffrey Chaucer, the physicist Isaac Newton, and the naturalist Charles Darwinare located in the main church of the abbey. The abbey also contains monuments to prominent political figures and, in the four bays and aisles comprising the Poets' Corner, tributes to Shakespeare and other outstanding literary personages. St Pauls Cathedral Sir Christopher Wren's masterpiece stands on a site occupied by several predecessors, the last of which perished in the Great Fire of London in 1666. The building of the present Cathedral commenced in 1675 and the last stone was laid in 1710. Acclaimed by many authorities as one of the most beautiful Renaissance buildings in the world, its dome is only surpassed in size by St Peter's in Rome. 122

The inner dome is decorated by paintings by Sir James Thornhill depicting the life of St Paul, and above it there is the larger outer dome constructed of wood covered with lead. Visitors are strongly recommended to make the ascent to the Whispering Gallery in order to experience the acoustic phenomenon from which it gets its name, and thence on to the exterior Stone Gallery from where the whole of London is visible. Those with sufficient stamina may continue higher yet, up to the Golden Gallery and then finally into the Golden Ball itself on which the Golden Cross dominates the City of London. The magnificent interior of the Cathedral contains many fine paintings, sculptures, monuments and works of art, fore- most of which are the original choir stalls carved by Wren's contemporary, Grinling Gibbons, the fine wrought iron work by Tijou, another contemporary, the new High Altar based on Wren's own design and dedicated to Commonwealth troops who died in the Second World War, and the American Memorial Chapel in the apse behind the Altar. One object which miraculously survived the Great Fire is the macabre statue of John Donne the poet. Also here are Holman Hunt's copy of his famous painting The Light of the World, memorials to artists Turner, Reynolds, Van Dyck, Millais, Constable, and Blake; soldiers Sir John Moore, General Gordon, Lord Kitchener and the mighty sarcophagus of the Duke of Wellington. Lord Nelson's remains are interred in a black marble sarcophagus made originally for Henry VIM, whilst those of the master architect lie in the crypt with the simple inscription Si Monumentum requiris circumspice (If you seek a memorial, look around you). Westminster Abbey One of the finest examples of Early English Gothic architecture, founded by Edward the Confessor in 1065 on the site of a church which had been built 500 years earlier (see pictures 26, 27). "The Abbey", as it is affectionately known to the English, but more properly the Collegiate Church of St. Peter in Westminster, was mostly built in the thirteenth century during the reign of Henry III. Entering by the west door the gaze is directed upwards to the vaulted ceiling, then along the great nave lit by the aisle and clerestory windows above. Despite the advice often given to ignore the clutter of memorials, these testimonials to the great dead are the very stuff of which history is made. This is where all the English monarchs have been crowned for over 600 years and many of them subsequently buried, their magnificent tombs surrounded by a proliferation of commoners, prime ministers, artists, physicians, poets, actors, authors, soldiers and sailors, politicians. Holding pride of place is the tomb of the Unknown Warrior, just inside the west door, commemorating the nation's dead of all ranks and Services, nearly a million who perished in the First World War.

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Picture 26. Westminster Abbey is one of the finest examples of Early English Gothic architecture.

Picture 27. Westminster Abbey

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Among the famous persons buried or commemorated here are Queen Elizabeth I; the tragic Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded in 1587 by order of her cousin and reburied in the Abbey 25 years later by command of her son, King James I; King George II (the last sovereign to be buried in the Abbey); Soldiers: Field Marshal Allenby, General Gordon, Lord Baden-Powell; Scientists: Sir Isaac Newton, Darwin; Writers: Thackeray, Ruskin, Goldsmith, Burns, Wordsworth, Browning, Milton, Chaucer, Ben Jonson (incorrectly spelt Johnson), Samuel Johnson, Dickens, Shakespeare; Musicians: Handel, Purcell; Statesmen: Disraeli, Chamberlain, Gladstone, Palmerston, Fox, Pitt; Actors: Irving, Garrick; and Painter: Kneller (the only painter so honoured), and many, many others. The Abbey's founder is buried in the Chapel of Edward the Confessor where his timeworn tomb was for hundreds of years a place of pilgrimage. The tomb's outer covering of gold and precious stones was stripped during the Reformation as was the original silver head from the nearby effigy of Herny V. The Chapel also contains the tombs of Henry VIII, Edward I and his wife Eleanor of Castile, Edward III, Richard II (his portrait, the earliest contemporary painting of an English King, hangs in the nave by the west door), Philippa of Hainault and Anne of Bohemia. The most sumptuous single addition to the Abbey is unquestionably Henry Vll's Chapel at the eastern end, described by a contemporary antiquary, John Leland, as one of the wonders of the world. Henry was buried here in 1509 alongside his Queen, Elizabeth of York, who six years before had died in childbirth. The delicate lacework tracery of the fan-vaulted ceiling is unparalleled in the whole of England. The octagonal Chapter House, dating from the mid-thirteenth century, has seen endless restorations, though much of the original fabric remains along with the floor tiles which surprisingly have survived to this day. On the plain stone benches around the walls sat the medieval monks at their business. For over one hundred and fifty years the Chapter House was used as Parliament House, until 1547 when King Edward VI allowed the House of Commons to meet in St. Stephens Chapel in the old Palace of Westminster. Thereafter the Chapter House fell into disuse until 1860 when major restorations were carried out by Sir George Gilbert Scott. The Coronation Chair is situated between the High Altar and the Chapel of Edward the Confessor. The oak chair which was built by order of Edward I in 1300 to contain the legendary Stone of Scone, captured four years earlier in Scotland, has been used for every Coronation since 1308. Visitors would also be well advised to see the Museum and the adjacent Chapel of the Pyx which in ancient times was used as the Royal Treasury. Here was kept the Pyx, a box containing standard coins of the realm against which current gold and silver coins were tested each year for weight and purity of metal. St. Margaret's, nearby Westminster Abbey. St Margaret's has been the parish church of the House of Commons since 1614. According to tradition the original 125

church was founded by Edward the Confessor in the twelfth century but the present building dates from 1523. The fine Flemish glass of the east window was a betrothal present from Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to Prince Arthur, son of Henry VII, and their daughter, Catharine of Aragon. Unfortunately poor Arthur died and his brother, later to become Henry VIM, had married his widowed sisterin-law before the gift arrived. It was not until 1758 that the glass was installed in St. Margaret's. Among the famous persons buried here are Sir Walter Raleigh, William Caxton, and Admiral Hollar Blake. Those married here include Samuel Pepys (1655), John Milton (1656) and Winston Churchill (1908). Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster. A street of early eighteenth-century houses of brown brickwork and bright clean paintwork. Now mainly used for commercial purposes the houses are remarkably well preserved. Elaborate doors, wooden porches, elegant canopies, black iron railings, torch extinguishers (No. 26) and the statue of Queen Anne outside No. 13 make this one of the prettiest streets in London. Exercise. Find some short texts about sights of Russia and translate them into English. 4.6. Outstanding people of modern Great Britain and other English speaking countries. TEXT 1 Tony Blair Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to 27 June 2007, the Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007 and the Member of Parliament for Sedgefield from 1983 to 2007 (see picture 28). On the day he stood down as Prime Minister, he was appointed official Envoy of the Quartet on the Middle East on behalf of the United Nations, the European Union, the United States and Russia, and stepped down as an Member of Parliament using a procedural device. Tony Blair was elected Leader of the Labour Party in July 1994 following the sudden death of his predecessor, John Smith. Under Blair's leadership the party abandoned many policies that they had held for decades. Labour won a landslide victory in the 1997 general election, which ended 18 years of rule by the Conservative Party with the heaviest Conservative defeat since 1832. Blair is the Labour Party's longest-serving Prime Minister; the only person to have led the Labour Party to three consecutive general election victories; and the only Labour Prime Minister to serve consecutive terms more than one of which was at least four years long.

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Gordon Brown, Blair's Chancellor of the Exchequer during his entire ten years in office, succeeded him as Leader of the Labour Party on 24 June 2007 and as Prime Minister on 27 June 2007. Background and family life Blair was born at the Queen Mary Maternity Home] in Edinburgh, Scotland on 6 May 1953, the second son of Leo and Hazel Blair (ne Corscadden). Leo Blair, the son of two English actors, was adopted by a Glasgow shipyard worker named James Blair and his wife Mary as a baby. Hazel Corscadden was the daughter of George Corscadden, a butcher and Orangeman who had moved to Glasgow in 1916 but returned to (and died in) Ballyshannon in 1923, where his wife Sarah Margaret ne Lipsett gave birth to Blair's mother Hazel above her family's grocery shop. George Corscadden was from a family of Protestant farmers in County Donegal, Ireland, who descended from Scottish settlers who took their name from Garscadden, now part of Glasgow. The Blair family was often taken on holiday to Rossnowlagh, a beach resort near Hazel's hometown of Ballyshannon which is the venue of the main Orange order parade in the Republic of Ireland. Tony Blair has one elder brother, William Blair, who is a barrister and a Queen's Counsel (QC), and a younger sister, Sarah. Blair spent the first 19 months of his life at the family home in Paisley Terrace in the Willowbrae area of Edinburgh. During this period his father worked as a junior tax inspector whilst also studying for a law degree from the University of Edinburgh.] His family spent three and a half years in the 1950s living in Adelaide, Australia, where his father was a lecturer in law at the University of Adelaide. The Blairs lived close to the university, in the suburb of Dulwich. The family returned to Britain in the late 1950s, living for a time with Hazel Blair's stepfather William McClay and her mother at their home in Stepps, near Glasgow. He spent the remainder of his childhood in Durham, England, his father being by then a lecturer at Durham University. After attending Durham's Chorister School from 1961 to 1966, Blair boarded at Fettes College, a notable independent school in Edinburgh, where he met Charlie Falconer (a pupil at the rival Edinburgh Academy), whom he later appointed Lord Chancellor. He reportedly modelled himself on Mick Jagger. His teachers were unimpressed with him: his biographer, John Rentoul reported that "All the teachers I spoke to when researching the book said he was a complete pain in the backside, and they were very glad to see the back of him." Blair was arrested at Fettes, having being mistaken for a burglar as he climbed into his dormitory using a ladder, after being out late.] After Fettes, Blair spent a year in London, where he attempted to find fame as a rock music promoter, before going up to the University of Oxford to read jurisprudence at St John's College. As a student, he played guitar and sang for a rock band called Ugly Rumours. During this time, he dated future American Psycho director Mary Harron. Whilst at Oxford, Blair's mother Hazel died of 127

cancer which was said to have greatly affected Blair. After graduating from Oxford with a second class degree, Blair became a member of Lincoln's Inn, enrolled as a pupil barrister and met his future wife, Cherie Booth (daughter of the actor Tony Booth) at the Chambers founded by Derry Irvine (who was to be Blair's first Lord Chancellor), 11 King's Bench Walk Chambers. His biographer Rentoul records that, according to his lawyer friends, Blair was much less concerned about which party he was affiliated with than about his aim of becoming Prime Minister. Blair married Booth, a practising Roman Catholic and future Queen's Counsel, on 29 March 1980. They have four children (Euan, Nicky, Kathryn and Leo). Leo (born 20 May 2000) was the first legitimate child born to a serving Prime Minister in over 150 years, since Francis Russell was born to Lord John Russell on 11 July 1849. Although the Blairs stated that they had wished to shield their children from the media, Euan and Nicky's education was a cause of political controversy. They both attended the Roman Catholic London Oratory School, criticised by leftwingers for its selection procedures, instead of a poorly-performing Roman Catholic school in Labour-controlled Islington, where they then lived, in Richmond Avenue. There was further criticism when it was revealed that Euan received private coaching from staff from Westminster School.

Picture 28. Tony Blair Political overview The Labour Party is historically a socialist political party. In 2001, Tony Blair said, "We are a left of centre party, pursuing economic prosperity and social justice as partners and not as opposites". Blair has rarely applied such labels to himself, but he promised before the 1997 election that New Labour would govern "from the radical centre", and according to one lifelong Labour Party member, has

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always described himself as a social democrat. However, Labour Party backbenchers and other left wing critics typically place Blair to the right of centre. A YouGov opinion poll in 2005 also found that a small majority of British voters, including many New Labour supporters, place Blair on the right of the political spectrum. The Financial Times on the other hand has argued that Blair is not conservative, but instead a populist. Critics and admirers tend to agree that Blair's electoral success was based on his ability to occupy the centre ground and appeal to voters across the political spectrum, to the extent that he has been fundamentally at odds with traditional Labour Party values. Some left wing critics have argued that Blair has overseen the final stage of a long term shift of the Labour Party to the right, and that very little now remains of a Labour Left. There is also evidence that Blair's long term dominance of the centre has forced his Conservative opponents to shift a long distance to the left, in order to challenge his hegemony there. Blair has raised taxes; implemented redistributive policies; introduced a minimum wage and some new employment rights (while keeping Margaret Thatcher's trade union legislation); introduced significant constitutional reforms (which remain incomplete and controversial); promoted new rights for gay people in the Civil Partnership Act 2004; and signed treaties integrating Britain more closely with the EU. He introduced substantial market-based reforms in the education and health sectors; introduced student tuition fees (also controversial); sought to reduce certain categories of welfare payments; and introduced tough antiterrorism and identity card legislation. TEXT 2 Bill Clinton

Picture 29. The forty-second President of the U S

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Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the forty-second President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. Before his presidency, Clinton served nearly twelve years as the 50th and 52nd Governor of Arkansas (see picture 29). He was the third-youngest president, older than Theodore Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy. He became president at the end of the Cold War, and is known as the first baby boomer president, as he was born in the period after the Second World War. Clinton was described as a New Democrat and was mainly responsible for the Third Way philosophy of governance that came to epitomize his two terms as president. His policies, on issues such as the North American Free Trade Agreement, have been described as "centrist." Clinton presided over the longest period of peace-time economic expansion in American history, which included a balanced budget and a federal surplus. His presidency was also quickly challenged. On the heels of a failed attempt at health care reform with a Democratic Congress, Republicans won control of the House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years. In his second term he was impeached by the U.S. House for perjury, but was subsequently acquitted by the United States Senate and completed his term. Clinton left office with a 65% approval rating, the highest end-of-presidency rating of any President that came into office after World War II. However, public reaction to the Lewinsky scandal left a mixed impression about his personal character. ABC News characterized public consensus on Clinton as, "You can't trust him, he's got weak morals and ethics and he's done a heck of a good job. Since leaving office, Clinton has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. He created the William J. Clinton Foundation to promote and address international causes, such as treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS and global warming. In 2004, he released a personal autobiography, My Life. His wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton, is the Junior United States Senator from the state of New York, where they both currently reside, and a Democratic candidate for president in the 2008 election. Answer the questions: 1. What politicians do you believe work better male or female? 2. What are the mane points in Tony Blairs political overview? 3. How can you characterize the period of Bill Clintons life as a politician? TEXT 3 Princess Diana Princess Diana, Princess of Wales, was born in 1961 in Sandringham, Norfolk, England. Her full name was Diana Frances Spencer. She was educated at Riddlesworth Hall in Norfolk, and West Heath School in Kent. From 1979 until 130

1981 Diana worked as a kindergarten teacher in London. On February 24, 1981, her engagement to Prince Charles, the heir to the British throne, was announced. They were married in St Paul's Cathedral in an internationally televised ceremony on July 29, 1981. The couple had two sons: Prince William Arthur Philip Louis (born June 21, 1982), and Prince Henry Charles Albert David (born September 15, 1984). After the birth of the second son the relationship between Charles and Diana began to worsen. Charles seemed not to take part in the life of his wife and his children. He looked awkward trying to play with his children. Charles and Diana seldom appeared in public together. He began to see his former lover Camilla Parker. Diana had changed a lot. She would never again be a naive girl for whom marrying into the Royal Family had been like a miracle. John Major announced the separation of the couple in December 1992. Diana continued to give active support to many charities related to homeless and deprived children, drug abuse, and victims of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diana shocked many people in 1987, when she shook the hand of an AIDS patient. She was the vice president of the British Red Cross and served as a member of the J national Red Cross advisory board since 1994. Diana was loved by people. She was becoming even more popular than Elizabeth II. People sympathized with her after the divorce Windsors began to dislike Diana and tried to get rid of her. She was deprived of the title "Her Highness" and given a money compensation for it. Diana wanted to leave England, but she could not take her sons, the heirs to the British throne, with her. Diana stayed. Her life aroused great interest of the public. This interest was: extremely exaggerated by the paparazzi. They followed her everywhere in the swimming pool, on the yacht, in the street, everywhere. 1 often acted tactlessly. By one of the versions Diana's tragic death caused by the paparazzi, who were following her car that day. It happened on August 31, 1997 in one of the tunnels in Paris. She was alive right after the crash. An ambulance took her to the hospital, the injuries were so serious that she did not survive. She was always a silent woman, the last and the greatest Silent Star of our noisy age, shining with quietness. Her life was meant to be watched, not heard. She was the image that outdid all others. She could be anything that we wanted her to be, Princess Diana, queen of hearts, our Lady of Sorrow, everyone's and no one's. Exercise 1. This is an article which was published in a Russian newspaper six months after Dianas death. Translate it into English using the following expressions: To give cause for gasping; to inform resolutely; to refer to something; the senior adviser; to be killed in a car crash; to be skeptical about the prospects of; parentage; to have a striking resemblance to somebody. 131

. . . : . 15 , . : , , , . , . , , . , , . , , , , . , , - . , , , - . Exercise 2. Answer the questions 1. What else do you know about Lady Di? 2. Where did Diana work as a teacher before her marriage? 3. What can you tell about her sons Prince William and Prince Henry?

4.7. Mass media Headline English Newspaper headlines try to catch the reader's eye by using as few words as possible language headlines use is, consequently, unusual in a number of ways. Grammar words like articles or auxiliary verbs are often left out, e.g. EARLY Q FORECAST IN INTEREST RATES A simple form of the verb is used, e.g. MAYOR OPENS HOSPITAL The infinitive is used to express the fact that something is going to happen in the e.g. PRESIDENT TO VISIT FLOOD AREAS

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Newspaper headlines use a lot of distinctive vocabulary. They usually prefer words are shorter and sound more dramatic than ordinary English words. The words marl can be used either as nouns or verbs. newsp aper word aid* news meaning paper word help key essential, (adj.) vital axe* cut, remove link* connecti on back support move step (verb) bar* exclude, forbid * ordeal towards a (noun) desired painful experience bid* attempt oust push out blast* explosion (verb) plea / remove blaze fire (noun) request * pledge* promise boost incentive, ploy clever * boss* 1 encourage (noun) activity head* 1 manager, director poll* election / probe public opinio! * investigation clash* dispute quit leave, (verb) resign curb* restraint, riddle mystery limit (noun) cut* reduction strife conflict (noun) drama tense talks discussio situation (noun) ns drive* campaign, threat danger effort gems jewels vow* promise (noun) go- approval affect wed (verb) marry ahead hit badly (verb) Newspaper headlines often use abbreviations, e.g. PM for Prime Minister, MP for of Parliament. Some newspapers also enjoy making jokes in their headlines. They do this by playing on words or punning, e.g. a wet open air concert in London by the opera singer Luciano Pavarotti was described as: 133 meaning

TORRENTIAL RAIN IN MOST ARIAS An announcement that a woman working at the Mars chocolate company had go interesting new job was: WOMAN FROM MARS TO BE FIRST BRITON LN SI (Note that the word 'Briton' is almost exclusively found in newspapers.) The English newspaper The Guardian is particularly fond of playing on words in its headlines. See if you can find some examples at its website:www.guardian.co.uk. Exercises: 1. Match the headlines on the left with the appropriate topic on the right. PM BACKS PEACE PLAN MP SPY DRAMA SPACE PROBE FAILS QUEENS GEMS RIDDLE STAR WEDS a) marriage of famous actress b) royal jewels are stolen c) proposal to end war d) satellite is not launched e) politician sells secrets to enemy 2. Explain what the following headlines mean in ordinary English. 1. MOVE TO CREATE MORE JOBS (Example: Steps are being taken with the aim to provide more work for people) 2. GO-AHEAD FOR WATER CURBS 3. Woman quits after job ordeal 4. POLL PROBES SPENDING HABITS 5. BID TO OUST PM Prince vows to back family 3. The words marked * in the table opposite can be either nouns or verbs. Note that the meaning given is sometimes in the form of a noun. In the headlines below you have examples of words from the table used as verbs. Look at the underlined verbs and explain what they mean. You may need to use more than one word. EXAMPLE: PM TO CURB SPENDING limit 1 BOOK LINKS M15 WITH KGB 2 CHANCELLOR CUTS INTEREST RATES 3 BOMB BLASTS CENTRAL LONDON 4 PM PLEDGES BACKING FOR EUROPE 5 PRESIDENT HEADS PEACE MOVES 134

4. Would you be interested in the stories under the following headlines? Why (not)? Mortgages cut as bank rates fall again New tennis clash Price curbs boost exports Teenage 4m fraud riddle Women barred from jobs Royal family quits (from English Vocabulary in Use upper intermediate and advanced)

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Chapter 5. The USA (language, culture, geography, history, political life) and other English speaking countries. Alexander Graham Bell: Broadening the Channels of Communication Bells great invention "I know it can be done, and I'm going to find the way." These words of determination were spoken by Alexander Graham Bell when he told scientists that he was trying to send human speech over an electric wire. Bell's determination to do what seemed impossible was the key to his success. It resulted in the invention of the telephone. Bell realized that, to carry the human voice, he would have to create a continuous current of electricity that would vibrate with the tones of the voice, just as the air vibrates with the speaking voice. In other words, he would have to substitute electrical waves for the air waves on which our voices are carried in face-to-face conversation. He arrived at this conclusion, not because he knew very much about electricity, which he did not, but because he understood the nature of sound and sound vibrations. Now he knew that a knowledge of electricity would also be necessary if he wanted to prove his theory and invent a practical instrument for sending the human voice over wires. First of all, however, he wanted to test his ideas on someone else, someone who was an expert, such as Joseph Henry, one of the great physicists of the day. So Bell traveled to Washington, D.C., to visit the famous scientist. Joseph Henry had never met the tall, thin, dark-haired young man who walked into his office that March day in 1875. But he had heard of the Belt family and their highly successful teaching methods with the deaf. He was impressed by the earnestness of his young visitor whose dark eyes blazed with excitement as he explained his theory of sending voices by electricity. When Bell had finished his explanation, he turned to Henry and said, "What would you advise me to do, sir, publish my discovery and let others work it out, or attempt to solve the problem myself?" "You have the idea for a great invention, Bell," Henry answered. "Work at it." "But, sir, there are mechanical difficulties to be overcome that would require a knowledge of electricity that I don't have." "GET IT!" was the great scientist's advice. "But for those two words of encouragement," Bell wrote later, "I should never have invented the telephone." Bell returned to Boston and got the help of Thomas Watson, an electrician. The two worked as a team in the months that followed, with Watson supplying the electrical knowledge that Bell lacked.

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As spring turned into summer 1875, Bell and Watson labored night and day. They worked in a hot, dusty room at the boarding house where Bell lived and which he used as his laboratory. Bell sketched designs; Watson built them. They strung wires from one end of the house to the other, and attached instruments at each end of the wire. Each would shout into his instrument, but the only voice either man heard came through the walls or up the halls never through the instrument. Patiently, they either made adjustments or threw away the old instrument and started again. Equally patient, the other people in the house allowed them to string wires through their rooms and good naturedly endured their fruitless shouting. Bell and Watson worked on, and summer was followed by autumn and winter. Then, on March 10, 1876 success! Several years passed before the public regarded Bell's telephone as more than a toy to be exhibited at lectures. But Bell and Watson continued to improve their telephone and to display its practical use over increasingly long distances. In 1878 they made the first long-distance telephone call between Boston and New York City, 200 miles apart. Afterwards, a Boston newspaper reported that "The use of this discovery promises to completely change the business of sending messages by electricity between distant points." The newspaper's statement indeed became true. Three months later the Bell Telephone Company was officially formed. By 1880, four years after the invention of the telephone, there were 48,000 telephones in use in the United States; by 1910, seven million; and by 1922, there were three times that number. Task. Think of some other great inventions which influenced our life.

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Chapter 6. Keys to some of the tasks Keys to Chapter 1. 1.1. 1.1 real 1.2 real 1.3 real/genuine 1.4 genuine 1.5 genuine 2.1 c 2.2 d 2.3 a 2.4 b 2.5 c 1.3. 1. 1) Irish 2. 1) a dingo 2) 2) the Prime Minister of Australian Ireland 3) Australi 3) the wild land, especially an the central deserts of Australia 4) Irish 4) fun / social enjoyment 5) in Ireland 6) in Australia or New Zealand 7) blow into it 8) a person; someone who is not very polite 3. 1) Hong Kong word for payment office at a car park 2) Australian word for 'person' 3) Scottish word for 'small' 4) Malaysian word for 'university' 5) Scottish word for a child 6) Canadian word for a public toilet 7) Caribbean word for a godmother 8) Irish word for 'idiot/fool' 9) South African word for flat, open countryside with few trees 3.1 brisk, 4.1 a powerful car sharpen 4.2 strong tea 3.2 toll 4.3 auburn hair 3.3 leisurely 4.4 a dolefully 3.4 perfectly expression 3.5 bequeathed 4.5 a lengthy 3.6 rightly meeting 3.7 visit 3.8 spoilt

1.4. 138

Exercise 1. 1. To try to make the language less stereotyped with regard to gender and also perhaps to try to alter sexist attitudes in this way. 2. The expression means words that have male connotations but are referring to people in general. 3. There might have been controversy perhaps because some people felt it was an unnecessary change or that it was impossible to try to impose language change artificially. 4. They want to get read of male words in traditional idioms like man in the street by using such phrases as the person in the street or the average person instead. They even want to get rid of men in the words like manhandle and woman where the male idea has really been lost. 5. It was introduced as a title which dose not focus on whether a woman is married or not. It is useful if you do not know what a womans marital status or if a woman dose not want people to know her marital status. Exercise 2. 1. Three firefighters helped put out a fire at a disused warehouse last night. 2. A spokesperson for the Department of Education provided us with a statement. 3. Cleaner wanted for house in Priory Street. 4. The switchboard is continuously staffed even during holiday periods. 5. All our flight attendants are fluent in at least three languages. 6. Ms Jones is in charge of the Human Resources Department of the company. 7. Police officers today spend more time in cars than on the beat. 8. Brendas husband is a nurse. 9. It took a great many working hours to clean up the stadium after the concert. 10. This was a great step for the human race. 11. The average person has little time for such issues. 12. They pushed the hostage into the van. Exercise 3. 1. mannish 2. sissy 3. virile 4. feminine 5. male Exercise 4. 139

1-6. Personal answers. 7. The sentence can be altered by either using he or she, e. g. A government minister may have to neglect his or her family. Or by making plural, e. g. Government ministers may have to neglect their families. It is also becoming increasingly common and acceptable for their to be used as a generic pronoun with a singular referent, e. g. A government minister may have to neglect their family. Note that some people find it incorrect. Note that some writers use the pronoun s/he instead of he or she. Keys to Chapter 2 2.7. TEXTS 1-4. Ex.1 1. The red rose of the Lancastrians became the national symbol of England. 2. Red in touch with blue, because in heraldry a red on blue is not considered permissible, the red cross had to be bordered with white, its own correct field. 3. Students own answer.

3.5 TEXT 2 Exercise 1. 1. primary; 2. nursery; 3. grammar; 4. comprehensive; 5. higher 6. evening classes; 7. grant; 8. teacher-training college. Exercise 2. 1. I'm taking/doing/sitting an exam tomorrow. 2. Hear you passed/did well in your examination. 3. You can study a lot of different subjects / take a lot of different courses at this university. 4. I got some good marks/grades in my continuous assessment this term. 5. She's a teacher in a primary school. (Professors are only in universities.) 6. He gave an interesting 45-minute lecture on Goethe. (A conference is a meeting of the same interests, usually lasting several days.) 7. She got a diploma in personnel management. (Only universities can give degrees.) Exercise 3. Possible questions 1. Do students in your country get a grant? 140

2. What's the difference between a university and a polytechnic in Britain? 3. What goes on at play-schools and nursery schools? 4. Why did you choose a teacher-training college instead of a university? 5. What's the school-leaving age in Britain now? 6. You look terribly tired. What've you been doing? 7. Do you get marks/credits/points for your exams? 8. Did you skip yesterday's lecture? Follow-up activity: You could look up these things in an encyclopedia, or on the Internet. Broadly speaking a high like a British secondary school, college means further education, a sophomore college student and graduate school is where you study for further degrees, e.g. MAMS graduating for your first degree. 3.7. TEXT 1 Ex.1 1. Students own answers. Possible answer is Camelot. 2. Students own answers. TEXT 2 Ex.1 1. Sherwood Forest was the royal forest in England. Prince John loved to go hunting there. 2. King Richards brother is Prince John. When the King left England, John became king. 3. Nottingham was a county town in England. There were a lot of counties. Each county had a sheriff. 4. The sheriff of Nottingham lived in a castle. The castle was on a small hill. 5. Poor people liked eating humble pies for lunch or dinner. Only rich people could afford to buy meat. TEXT 3 Ex.1 1. Kings Henry VII, Henry VIII, and Edward VI, and Queens Mary I and Elizabeth I 2. Henry VII is less well known than either Henry VIII or Elizabeth I. But he was far more important in establishing the new monarchy. By the way, he was a founder of the Tudors. 3. Henry VII had the same ideas and opinions as the growing classes of merchants and gentlemen farmers, and he based royal power on good business sense. He avoided quarrels with different countries, for example France or Scotland. TEXT 4 141

Ex.1 1. Lady Jane Grey was the queen only for nine days. 2. She was a Henry VIIIs daughter by his first wife Catherine of Aragon. 3. She was nicknamed Bloody Mary because of a large number of religious persecutions that took place during her reign. 4. She dealt cruelly with the Protestantism, rebels and with those who did not want to accept Catholic teaching. 5. The most serious mistake was her marriage to Philip, King of Spain, and his aim was the English throne. TEXT 5 Ex.1 1 c); 2 i); 3 h); 4 a); 5 j); 6 b); 7 g); 8 e); 9 f); 10 d). TEXT 7 Ex.1 1. Newtons revolutionary contributions explained the workings of a large part of the physical world in mathematical terms, and they suggested that science may provide explanations for other phenomena as well. 2. Newton was entangled in a lengthy and bitter controversy with Leibniz over which of the two scientists had invented calculus. 3. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. 4. In 1859 Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, his complete theory of natural selection. 5. the University of Cambridge Keys to Chapter 4 4.1. Extract 1. Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe Extract 2. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver's Travels Extract 3. Walter Scott, Ivanhoe

4.7. Ex.1

1d; 2f; 3e; 4b; 5 a0 6 c.

Ex.2 1. Steps are being taken with the aim of providing more work for people. 2. Approval has been given to a plan to place restrictions on peoples use of water.

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3. A woman resigned from her job after undergoing some unpleasant experience there. 4. A public opinion survey has looked into how people spend their money. 5. An attempted has been made to remove Prime Minister from his/her position. 6. The Prince has promised to give support to his family or to family values, in general. Ex.3 1. makes a connection between 2. reduces 3. explodes in 4. promises 5. leads/ is a major figure in.

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Additional questions and tests Chapter 1 1.1 -1.4 Test 1. Match each group of adjectives with a suitable noun. a) a close/long-distance/ a tough b) a difficult/an exciting/a huge c) complete/ firm/wide d) lasting/wide-spread/minor e) first/everyday/body f) wonderful/wasted/ideal g) effective/interview/traditional h) latest/pirat/live i) deep/true/platonic j) growing/clear/disturbing Keys 1-b 2-c 3-j 4-a 5-e 6-f 1. challenge 2.suppourt 3.trend 4. race 5. language 6.opportunity 7. love 8. technique 9. damage 10.recording 7-i 8-g 9-d 10-h

Test 2. Underline the most suitable word or phrase. 1. Helen doesnt look well; she is extremely slim/thin. 2. Its really hot day today, but its nice and chilly/cool in here. 3. Peter nodded/shook his head in agreement. 4. I cant pay you anything for this old coin. Its priceless/worthless. 5. The house was surrounded by a high/tall fence. 6. The sun is shining, and its a/an attractive/lovely day 7. This chicken is good. Its very tasteful/tasty. 8. Be careful of the next corner. Its rather dangerous/harmful. 9. Graham left the film before the end because he was bored/ lazy. 10. When I saw him scratch my car I got very angry/nervous. Keys 1.thin; 2.cool; 3.nodded; 4.worthless; 5.tall; 6.a lovely; 7. tasty; 8.dangerous; 9.bored;10. angry. Test 3. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence. 1. You cant tell what someone is like just from their ___________. A character B appearance C personality D looking 144

2. He was born in Scotland but he was ___________ in Northern Ireland. A. grew up B. raised C. brought up D. rose 3. Graham works well in class, but his _____________could be better. A. rudeness B. behaviour C. politeness D. acting 4. I got to ___________ Steve last year when we worked together. A. introduce B. know C. meet D. sympathize 5. Teresa never gets angry with the children. She is very ____________ . A. brave B. honest C. patient. D. pleasant Keys 1.B; 2.C; 3.B; 4.B; 5.C

Test 4. Choose the most suitable word or phrase a) Please dont push. Its very bad-tempered/ rude/ unsympathetic. b) Jack hates spending money. Hes rather frank/ greedy/ mean. c) Our teacher is very proud/ strict/ tolerant. d) Helen never does her homework. She is rather gentle/ lazy/ reliable. e) I didnt talk to anyone at the party because I felt ambitious/ lonely /shy. f) I dont like people who are noisy and aggressive/ courageous/ sociable. g) Thanks for bringing us a present. It was very adorable/ grateful/ thoughtful of you. h) Peter refuses to change his mind although he is wrong. He is so imaginative/ snobbish/ stubborn. i) When Harry saw his girlfriend dancing with Paul he felt jealous/ selfish/ sentimental. j) Tom always pays for everyone when we go out. He is so cheerful/ generous/ honest. Keys a) rude; b) mean; c) strict; d) lazy; e) shy; g) thoughtful; h) stubborn; i) jealous; j) generous. f) aggressive;

Test 5. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence 1. For company and conversation the British people go to the: 1. pub 2. club 3. restaurant 4. caf 145

2. The most popular free time activity is: 1. tea-drinking 2. talking over the phone 3. gardening 4. jogging 3. The stereotypical characteristic of British people is|: 1. laziness 2. snobbery 3. hospitality 4. rudeness 4. If a person is very good in golf, and someone asks him if he is a good player, he is not likely to answer : 1. Im not bad 2. I think Im quite good 3. Im a first class golf-player 4. Well, Im very keen on golf 5. The traditional British food is: 1. Fish and chips 2. Cabbage soup 3. Bacon and eggs 4. Porridge 6. In English homes, . has always been, until recent times the centre of the natural interest. 1. a fireplace 2. a TV set 3. a radio 4. a kitchen table 7. In most tourist brochures England is called The Land of . 1. Stability 2. Opportunities 3. Ceremony 4. Tradition 146

8. For the British .is the convenient topic to fill the gap. 1. politics 2. monarchy 3. weather 4. hobby 9. 1 pint is: 1. 0.38 litres 2. 0.58 litles 3. 1.16 litres 4. 1.6 litres 10. 1 pound is: 1. 0.456 kiligrams 2. 1.456 kilograms 3. 2.456 kilograms 4. 6.38 kilograms

Keys:

1-1 2-3 3-2 4-3 5-1,3,4 6-1 7-4 8-3 9-2 10-1.

Chapter 2 2.1 Test 1. Choose the most suitable answer to the questions. 1. What does the land in Britain have? a) mountains b) flat land c) a notable lack of extremes d) big rivers 2. Why has Britains climate got such a bad reputation? a) it rains all the time b) because of its changeability c) snow is a regular feature of the higher areas d) because of the image of a wet and foggy land 3.Why has it often been remarked that a journey of 100 miles across the UK can seem twice as far? a) its landscape is boring b) it has neither towering mountain ranges, nor impressively large rivers c) the scenery changes noticeably over quite short distances 147

d) the south and east of the country is comparatively low-lying 4. Why is much of the land in Britain used for human habitation? a) Britain is densely populated b) because of the desire for privacy and love of the country-side c) most people live in towns or cities d) the English and the Welsh dont like living in blocks of flats 5. What does the word smog mean? a) smoke b) fog c) brown air d) a mixture of smoke and fog 6. Whose descriptions did the nineteenth century Londons pea-soupers (thick smogs) become famous through? a) William Shakespeare b) Robert Burns c) Charles Dickens d) Sherlock Holmes 7. What is the most densely populated area in the UK? a) the Midlands b) Northern England c) Southern England d) Scotland 8. What is Britains second largest city? a) Edinburgh b) Birmingham c) London d) Glasgow 9. What part of the UK is supposed to be the industrial one? a) Southern England b) the Midlands c) Northern England d) Northern Ireland 10. How many fairly clearly-marked regions are there in Scotland? a) two b) three c) four d) one Keys 1- c 2- b 3-c 4- b 5- d 6- c 7- c 8- b 9- c 10- b

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2.2 Test 2 . Write whether these sentences true or false. a. The Prime minister is the member of House of Lords. b. There are 20 people in the Cabinet. c. The Government is the Prime minister and the Queen. d. The Lords and the Commons have equal power. e. Queen never speaks in parliament. f. Queen doesnt have any contact with the Government. g. Queen opens new hospitals, bridges and factories. Keys a) F b) T c) F d) F e)F f) F g) T

Test 3. Which party do these people support? a. It is the governments job to build hospitals. b. At present people pay too much tax. c. We want a combination of private industry and help for the people in need. d. The unemployment must find jobs. The government cant pay them for doing nothing. e. We can solve these problems here in Manchester. We dont need Westminster to interfere. Keys a) Labour Party b) Conservative Party c)The Liberal Democrats d) The Conservative Party e) The Liberal Democrats 2.3 Test 4. Choose the most suitable answer to the questions. 1. What states do the British Isles consist of? a) England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland b) The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and The Republic of Ireland c) England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 2. What is the normal adjective to talk about something to do with the UK? a) British b) English c) Britain 3. When did most of Ireland become a separate state? a) in 1800 149

b) in 1603 c) in 1922 4. What language/languages did people speak in the Celtic areas? a) Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh b) Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh Gaelic c) English 5. Which custom and practice are many aspects of everyday life in Britain organized according to? a) British b) English c) Scottish 6. One of the countries forming the United Kingdom has its own language in which the writing system is simpler than that of English because almost all letters correspond to their sounds. This country is ... a) Wales b) Scotland c) Northern Ireland 7. What country do people have the strongest sense of conflict with the English in? a) Northern Ireland b) Scotland c) Wales 8. When was Wales conquered by the English? a) about 800 years ago b) about 700 years ago c) about 600 years ago 9. What country has its own system of education? a) Northern Ireland b) Scotland c) England 10. Which of the countries forming the United Kingdom has two official languages? a) Scotland b) Wales c) Northern Ireland Keys 1-b 2-a 3-c 4-a 5-b 6-a 7-a 8-b 9-b 10-b 2.4 Test 5. Check yourself answering the following questions: Where is Norwich situated? Who is the shopping center in Norwich for? Where is Canterburry situated? 150

Who was Thomas Becket? When was the book The Canterburry Tales written? How many pilgrims appear in the book by Geoffry Chaucer and who are they? When was Oxford first mentioned in the written record? Who is said to give the best discription of Oxford? What is Oxfam? What does OWLS stand for? When did cambridge University start? What is Kings college in Cambridge famous for? What happened in Cambridge in 1871? What was the main reason to develop the cambridge science park? What kind of place was Colchester in Roman times? What was York famous for before medieval times? What cathedral can you visit in York? What was John Shakespares business? When was the Globe Theatre build? When did Shakespare stop writing? What did men use to sell in Birmingham? Why was Derry renamed? What siege is commemorated in Londonderry? What kind of place was London in Roman times? What are different parts of London famous for? Speak about the East End, the West End, Westminster, Whitehall, Kensington and Knightsbridge, the City. If you are not sure in your answer read the texts about the cities and towns of Great Britain again! Test 6. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence 1. The Great fire of London which ended a terrible plague took place in___ 1) 1665 2)1666 3)1649 4)1660 2. Highgate is known as _______ 1) the financial and business centre 2) the shopping and entertainment centre 3) the government centre 4) the part of London that has kept its village character 3. The place associated with the West End is_______ 151

1) Trafalgar Square 2) Big Ben 3) Westminster Abbey 4) the Cenotaph 4. Behind Nelsons Column there is _______ 1) New Covent Garden 2) The National Gallary 3) Piccadily Circus 4) the Cenoteph 5. The museum you can visit in Kensington and Knightsbridge is ______ 1) the National Gallery 2) the Museum of Mustard 3) the Victoria and Albert Museum 4) the Museum of London 6. Cardiff has been the official capital of Wales since ________ 1) 1895 2) 1915 3) 1945 4) 1955 7. The Titanic was built and sent out on her fatal maiden voyage in______ 1) Glasgo 2) Belfast 3) London 4) Cardiff 8. You can see an original Viking street in ______ 1) York 2) Colchester 3) Stratford-upon-Avon 4) Cambridge 9. The city described by Matthew Arnold as that sweet city with her dreaming spires is _______ 1) Canterburry 2) London 3) Cambridge 4) Oxford

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10. The religious capital of England is _______ 1) London 2) Cambridge 3) Canterburry 4) Oxford Keys` 1-2 3 2.6 Test 7. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable word or phrase. 1. Black immigrants first started coming to Britain in substantial numbers in response to _______________ . 2. During the 1960s and 1970s a large number of immigrants came from India, Pakistan and ______________ . 3. In the 1950s the immigrants were the target of discrimination and encountered ______________ . 4. The 1997 ___________ sought to prevent discrimination in employment> housing and other areas. 5. During the 1980s Margaret Thatchers government restricted immigration and ended the automatic right of anyone born in Britain to ________________ . 6. In Cornwall there is still a sense of ___________ identity. 7. Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Essex, Kent and Surrey are the ___________ . 8. At the outset of the 1990s Britains total population was over ___________ . 9. The largest shopping centre in Europe in 1990 was the Metrocentre in Gateshead, _______________ . 10. Leading Japanese firms have chosen periphery areas for major investment, for example Toyota in ____________ . Keys 153 2-4 3-1 4-2 5-3 6-4 7-2 8-1 9-4 10-

1. labour shortages 2. Bangladesh 3. hostility 4. Race Descrimination Act 5. British citisenship 6. Celtic 7. Home counies 8. 57 million 9. Newcastle 10. Wales 2.7 Test 8. Choose the most suitable answer to the questions. 1. What colours are represented on The Union Jack? a) red, white, and blue b) red, white, blue and green c) red and blue 2. The colors of Scottish national flag are ... a) red and white b) blue and white c) blue and yellow 3. Many people in Scotland have the name MacKenzie. 'Mac' means... a) 'sir' b) 'son of' c) 'family' 4. The Patron Saint of Scotland is ... a) St. George b) St. David c) St. Andrew 5. What is the national emblem of Wales? a) leek b) thistle c) shamrock 6. What is a very well-known symbol of Scottishness? a) skirt b) shirt c) kilt 7. The Welsh are known in Great Britain for their... a) handicrafts b) singing ability 154

MacDonald

or

c) dancing 8. What was the original Roman name for Britain? a) Caledonia b) Albion c) Hibernia 9. What is a national passion of the British? a) sport b) reading c) travelling 10. Whose emblem was the Red Rose? a) the Lancastrian b) the Yorkist c) the MacDonalds Keys 1-a 2-b 3-b 4-c 5-a 6-c 7-b 8-b 9-a 10-a

Chapter 3 3.1 Test 1. Check whether you know the answers to the following questions. 1. What were the reasons why Henry VIII disliked the power of the Church of England? 2. When did the Parliament pass the Law of Supremacy? What did this law mean? 3. What does the letters FD on British coins stand for? 4. What religion became official during the rule of Henry VIII? 5. What happened to the monasteries during the rule of Henry VIII? 6. Who was the first Scottish king to rule in England? Answers 1. Henry disliked the power of the Church in England because, since it was an international organization, he could not completely control it. The power of the Catholic Church in England could therefore work against his own authority, and the taxes paid to the Church reduced his own income In 1510 Henry had married Catherine of Aragon, the widow of his elder brother Arthur. But by 1526 she had still not had a son who survived infancy and was now unlikely to do so. Henry tried to persuade the pope to allow him to divorce Catherine. But the Pope forbade Henry's divorce.

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2. In 1531 Henry persuaded the bishops to make him head of the Church in England, and this became law after Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy in 1534 3. Henry had earlier written a book criticizing Martin Luther's teaching and the pope had rewarded him with the title Fidei Defensor, Defender of the Faith. The letters "F. D." are still to be found on every British coin. 4. Catholicism. 5. James VI. Test 2. Choose the most suitable verb form in each sentence. a) I suddenly remembered that I forgot/had forgotten my keys. b) While Diana watched/was watching her favourite program there was a power cut. c) Tom used to/would live at the end of the street. d) Laura missed the party because no-one was telling/had told her about it e) By the time Sheila got back, Chris went/had gone. f) David ate/had eaten Japanese food before, so he knew what to order. g) I did/was doing some shopping yesterday when I saw that Dutch friend of yours. h) I used to like/was liking sweets much more then I do now. i) What exactly were you doing/did you do when I came into your office yesterday. j) Helen would/used to be a doctor. Keys a) had forgotten b) was watching c) used to d) had told e) had gone f) had eaten g) was doing h) used to i) were you doing j) used to. Test 3. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence. 1. In 43 AD Britain was invaded by: 1. Emperor Claudius 2. Julius Caesar 3. Beaker Folk 4. Vikings 2. The Battle of Hastings took place: 1. 14 April 1066 2. 14 October 1086 3. 14 October 1066 4. 14 April 1086 156

3. Domesday Book was compiled by the court of: 1. William the Conqueror 2. Edward the Confessor 3. Lord the Protector 4. Bonny Prince Charlie 4. 1215 is the year of: 1. the title of the Prince of Wales 2. Magna Carta 3. Plague in London 4. The foundation of Parliament 5. Wat Tylers uprising was in: 1.1346 2. 1348 3. 1381 4. 1399 6. Wars of the Roses took place in the period of: 1. 1189-1199 2. 1337-1437 3. 1455-1485 4. 1775-1783 7. Guy Fawkes is famous for: 1. the introduction of Poll Tax 2. round-the-world journey 3. the defeat of Spanish Armada 4. Gunpowder plot 8. The Years Commonwealth and protectorate of England: 1.1653-1658 2.1649-1660 3.1647-1658 4. 1625-1649 9. In 1603 there was: 1. Union of Scotland, England and Wales under one crown 2. Union of Scotland and England under one crown 3. Union of England and Ireland under one crown 4. Union of England and Wales under one crown 10. Put the events in the right order: 157

1. Habeas Corpus Act, 2. Interregnum 3. Glorious Revolution 4. Restoration 11. Robert Walpole is: 1. The leader of American patriots 2. The first British Prime Minister 3. A famous English poet 4. The Leader of the Opposition Party 12. What is Chartism: 1. A British working class movement for parliamentary reforms 2. A movement in literature of 18th-19th centuries 3. A movement in painting 4. A movement of the working class in Ireland for independence Keys 1-2 2-3 10-2,4,1,3

3-1 4-2 5-3 11 -2 12-1

6-2

7- 4

8-1

9-2

3.2 Test 4. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence 1. The monarchy is the oldest secular institution in the UK, going back at least to the century: 1.8th 2.9th 3.10th 4.11th 2. The court of William the Conqueror: 1. compiled Doomsday Book 2. accepted the Magna Carta 3. wrote the Constitution 4. passed the Bill of Rights. 3. Wars of the Roses took place in the period of between the dynasties of .: 1.1337-1437; Lancaster and Tudor 158

2. 1455-1485; York and Lancaster 3.1775-1783; York and Hannover 4. 1337-1437; Lancaster and Windsor 4. The colony in North America was called Virginia in honour of : 1. Mary Tudor 2. Elizabeth Windsor 3. Elizabeth Tudor 4. Victoria Hannover 5. Who was not the wife of Henry VIII: 1. Ann of Cleves 2. Florence Nightingale 3. Ann Boleyn 4. Katherine of Aragon 5. Jane Seymour 6. Katherine Parr 7. Katherine Howard 6. Queen Victoria was married to: 1. William IV 2. Edward, Duke of Kent 3. Lord Melbourne 4. Albert Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 7. The 17th century struggle between Crown and Parliament led to the establishment of . The monarch the centre of the executive power throughout most of the 18th century. 1. an absolute monarchy; remained 2. democracy; quitted to be 3. a limited constitutional monarchy; remained 4. a democratic republic; quitted to be. 8. The ceremony on Queens official birthday is called; 1. Changing of the Guards 2. Ceremony of the Keys 3. Trooping the Colour 4. Trooping the Banner 9. The money given to the Queen and some of her relatives by the Parliament each year so that they can perform their public duties is called: 1. Honours List 159

2. Private List 3. Royal List 4. Civil List 10. What best describes the role of British monarch nowadays: 1. reigns but doesnt rule 2. rules but doesnt reign 3. rules but doesnt govern 4. governs but doesnt rule Keys: 1-2 2-1 3-2 4-3 5-2 6-4 7-3 8-3 9-4 10 -1

3.3 Test 5. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence. 1. The Commonwealth of Nations was established by the State of Westminster in 1)1929 2) 1931 3)1937 4) 1941 2. The country that withdrew from the Commonwealth in 1949 was 1) South Africa 2) Fiji 3) Pakistan 4) Ireland 3. The Commonwealth Secretariat headquarters are at 1) Malborough House 2) White House 3) the House of Parliaments 4) the House of Lords 4. Commonwealth day is celebrated on the official birthday of Queen Elizabeth II 1) in May 2) in June 3) in July 4) in August 5. The heads of government of all Commonwealth countries meet every 1) year 2) two years 160

3) three years 4) four years Keys 1-2 2-4 3-1 4-2 5-2

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Test 6. Say whether the following statements are true or false. 1) Today there is as strong sense of Commonwealth purpose as 30 years ago. 2) The Queen is the titular head of the Commonwealth. 3) There was a dramatic reduction of Britains overseas aid during the 1980s. 4) South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth. 5) Canada withdrew from the Commonwealth. Keys 1) false 2) true 3) true 4) true 5) false

3.4 Test 7. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence. 1. The Falklands armed conflict took place in 1) 1972 2) 1979 3) 1982 4) 1985 2. Britain joined the European Community in 1) 1973 2) 1975 3) 1977 4) 1979 3. By 1980 it was possible that Britain could leave the European Community, on account of the dispute over its contribution to the 1) International Policy 2) Common Agricultural Policy 3) Ethnic Minority Policy 4) Eastern Europe Policy 4. Hong Kong was British colony till 1) 1995 2) 1997 3) 1999 4) 2001

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5. In 1980 the most important military ally of the UK was 1) the USA 2) the European Community 3) the Commonwealth 4) Germany 6. The author of the stories about James Bond is 1) Ian Flemming 2) Len Deighton 3) John Le Carre 4) Harold Wilson 7. The organization that runs Britains spy network abroad is 1) M14 2) M15 3) M16 4) M17 8. The Gulf war took place in 1) 1989 2) 1990 3) 1991 4) 1992 9. In 1990 britain was spending on defence the same amount of money as 1) Russia 2) the USA 3) France 4) West Germany 10. The SAS (Special Air Service) represents 1) the upper-class elite 2) the tough operational elite 3) great land owners 4) infantry regiments Keys 1-3 2-1 3-2 4-2 5-1 6-1 7-3 8-3 9-4 10-2

Test 8 . Decipher the following abbreviations and tell what you know about them. LEA, REACH, CTC, GSCE, AS Level, A Level, FE.

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Keys LEA-Local Education Authority REACH- 'Records of Achievement, and it attempts to set learning objectives for each term and year in primary school, and for each component of each subject at secondary school. This has introduced much more central control and standardization into what is taught CTC- City Technology Colleges GSCE-General Certificate of Secondary Education AS level-(Advanced Supplementary), which is worth half an 'A' Level A level-Advanced level FE- Further Education Task 9. Decide which answer best fits each space. Learning to learn. There is usually one important (1) ... missing from most school (2)... Very few student are (3) ... how to organize their learning, and how to (4)... the best use of their time. Lets take some simple (5) ... Do you know how to (6).. up words in a dictionary? And do you understand all the (7) ...the dictionary contains? Can you (8) ... notes quickly, and can you understand them (9)...? For some reason many schools give learners no (10)...with this matters. Teachers ask students to (11) ... pages from books, or tell them to write ten pages, but dont explain (12)...to do it. Learning by (13)... can be useful, but it is important to have a genuine (14)... of a subject. You can (15).. a lot of time memorizing books, without understanding anything about the subject! 1) A theme B book C subject D mark 2) A agendas B timetables C terms D organizations 3) A taught B learnt C educated D graduated 4) A take B give C get D make 5) A sentences B results C rules D examples 6) A find B look C research D get 7) A information B advice C subjects D themes 8) A do B send C make D revise 9) A after B afterwards C lastly D at last 10) A teaching B ability C instruction D help 11) A concentrate B remind C forget D memorize 12) A how B what C why D it 13) A the way B heart C now D law 14) A information B success C understanding D attention 15) A pass B waste C tell D use 164

Keys

1.C 2.B 3.A 4. D 5.D 6.B 7.A 8.C 9.B 10.D 11.D 12.A 13.B 14.C 15.B

Test 10. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence 1. Public school in Britain is not: 1. a private school 2. a boarding school 3. a state school 4. an independent school 2. English schoolchildren have in the school year. 1. 2 terms 2. 3 terms 3. 4 terms 4. 5 terms 3.The National Curriculum was introduced in: 1. 1948 2. 1968 3. 1988 4. 1998 4. In Britain education is compulsory: 1. from 5 to 16 2. from 5to 18 3. from 7 to 16 4. from 7 to 18 5. What is the example of selective secondary education? 1. a comprehensive school 2. a secondary modern school 3. a technical college 4. a grammar school 6. Oxford University was founded in: 1. 13th century 2. 14th century 3. 15th century 4. 16 century

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7. What is the abbreviation for the exam taken at the end of the secondary school? 1. GNVQ 2. CTC 3. GSCE 4. SCE 8. Put in the right order: 1. MA 2. fresher 3. PhD 4. BA 9. Fellows are: 1. group mates 2. staff at Oxbridge 3. room mates 4. students working in cafes 10. The Open University was founded in: 1. 1949 2. 1969 3. 1989 4. 1998 Keys: 1-3 2-2 3-3 4-1 5-4 6-1 7-3 8 -2,4,1,3 9- 2 10-2.

3.6 Test 11. Choose the most suitable answer to the following questions.

1. What is the age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales (the age when a person can be charged with a criminal offence)? a. 8 years old b. 10 years old c. 12 years old d. 14 years old 2. What is the most common type of indictable offence recorded by the police? a. Sexual offences b. Theft and handling stolen goods c. Burglary and robbery 166

d. Violence against the person e. Fraud and forgery f. Criminal damage 3. At what age is a person most likely to be found guilty of or cautioned rot an indictable offence? a. 14 and under 17 b. 17 and under 21 c. 21 and over 4. Which of the following crimes known to the police in England and Wales involves the greatest total value of property stolen? a. Burglary b. Theft from another person c. Theft by an employee d. Theft of motor vehicles e. Shop-lifting 5. What is the average age of judges in the England and Wales? a. 50 b. 60 c. 70 6. What is the most frequently used punishment for indictable offences? a. Probation b. Prison c. Fine 7. How likely is man over 21 to be found guilty of an indictable offence than a woman over 21? a. As Likely b. Twice as likely c. Four times as likely 8. True or false? More women than man are found guilty of shoplifting. Keys 1b 2b 3b 4d 5b 6c 7c 8False

Test 12 . Underline the most suitable word or phrase. 167

a. There were ten people waiting in the doctors office/surgery/ward. b. After I ate the shellfish, I experienced/fell/happened ill. c. Georges cut arm took over a week to cure/heal/look after. d. David fell down the steps and twisted his ankle/heel/toe. e. Everyone admired Lucy because she was tall and skinny/slim/thin. f. Ive been digging the garden and now my back aches/pains/injures. g. Whenever I travel by boat I start feeling hurt/sick/sore. h. The doctor cant say what is wrong with you until cures/examines/recovers you. i. Use this thermometer and take his fever/heat/temperature. j. I seem to have caught/infected/taken cold. Keys a. surgery b. fell c. heal d. ankle e. slim f. aches g. sick h. examines i. temperature j. cought

she

Test 13 . Replace the words in italics with one of the given words. Use each word only once. Agony, body, breath, look, stomach ache, beard, brains, heart, spine, tongue a. Janet fell from her horse and injured her backbone. b. I had a very bad toothache, and was in great pain all night. c. The police discovered the dead person buried in the garden. d. One thing you can say about Ann, she has certainly got intelligence. e. They have a new house right in the centre of the countryside. f. Italian is actually Marys native language. g. Before I dived in the water, I took a deep mouthful of air. h. After dinner, Jack had a pain from eating too much. i. Shirley had a strange expression on her face. j. David managed to grow a lot of hair on his face.

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Keys a) spine b) agony c) Body d) Brains e)Heart f)Tongue g) Breath h) Stomachache i) Look j) Beard Test 14. Complete each sentence (a-j) with a suitable ending (1-10). Use each ending once. a. I think we should send for the ambulance b. Some people go jogging every morning c. It would be a good idea for you to go to the dentists d. The doctor gave Andy an injection e. Im going to the hospital tomorrow f. We took the cat to the vet g. Susan took two aspirins h. Nobody could find a stretcher i. The doctor gave Helen a prescription j. I bought some special cream

1. to have that bad tooth of yours taken out. 2. to check weather it had recovered from its accident. 3. to take old Mr. Jones to hospital. 4. to put on my sunburned arms and legs. 5. to get rid of her headache. 6. to reduce the pain and held him sleep. 7. to take to the chemists. 8. to keep fit or to loose some weight. 9. to carry the injured man out of the building. 10. to have an operation on my foot. Keys a-3 b-8 c-1 d-6 e-10 f-2 g-5 h-9 i-7 j-4

Test 15. Match each sentence (a-j) with a suitable sentence (1-10) below which has the same meaning. a. Henrys heart was in the right place. b. Paul held his tongue. c. Richard jawed away for at least an hour. d. Dave hah a lot of cheek to talk like that. e. Keith couldnt stomach his new boss. f. Harry backed his boss. g. William kept poking his nose in. 169

h. Graham thumbed a lift to work. i. Charles put his foot on it. j. Jacks heart ached to be where he belonged. 1. He talked. 2. He supported him. 3. He said the wrong thing. 4. He was kind. 5. He was rather rude. 6. He didnt say anything. 7. He interfered in other peoples business. 8. He hitchhiked. 9. He missed home. 10. He didnt like him. Keys a-4 b-6 c-1 d-5 e-10 f-2 g-7 h-8 i-3 j-9 Test 16. Choose the most suitable answer to the questions. 1. How many wives had Henry VIII? a) five b) six c) four 2. When did the Tudor occupy the throne of England? a) from 1485 to 1603 b) from 1485 to 1553 c) from 1509 to 1603 3. What queen is known as the virgin queen? a) Elizabeth I b) Elizabeth II c) Mary I 4. What threat was posed by Mary Queen of Scots to the rule of Elizabeth I? a) she wanted to execute Elizabeth I b) she tried to plot against Elizabeth I c) she wanted to put Elizabeth I in prison 5. What is the place of the UK in the world in awarding the Nobel Prize in science? a) the first b) the second c) the third 6. Who is known for his discoveries of electromagnetic induction and of the laws of electrolysis? a) Isaac Newton 170

b) Alexander Fleming c) Michael Faraday 7. Who formulated laws of universal gravitation and motionlaws that explain how objects move on Earth as well as through the heavens? a) Isaac Newton b) Alexander Fleming c) Michael Faraday 8. What nationality was James Watt? a) He was English b) He was Irish c) He was Scottish 9. Who is known for his discovery of penicillin? a) Isaac Newton b) Alexander Fleming c) Michael Faraday 10. What is the main idea of Charles Darwins theory of evolution? a) each generation will improve adaptively over the preceding generations, and this gradual and continuous process is the source of the evolution of species b) species intensely compete for survival c) the next generation tends to embody favorable natural variations Keys 1-b 2-a 3-a 4-b 5-b 6-c 7-a 8-c 9-b 10-a Chapter 4 4.1 Test 1. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence. 1. The History of the English Church was written by 1) Bede 2) King Alfred 3) Duke William 4) Chaucer 2. The English owe the famous Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to 1) Bede 2) King Alfred 3) Duke William 4) Chaucer 3. Geoffrey Chaucer was born in 1) 1168 171

2) 1209 3) 1340 4) 1384 4. William Shakespeare was born in 1) April, 1564 2) May, 1564 3) June, 1564 4) July, 1564 5. The novel Robinson Crusoe is about adventures of a real man, Alexander Selkirk, who was 1) an Englishman 2) an Irishman 3) a Welsh 4) a Scotch 6. Jonatan Swift was born in 1) Ireland 2) Wales 3) Scotland 4) England 7. Walter Scot was born in 1) Ireland 2) Wales 3) Scotland 4) England 8. William Wordsworth is a representative of 1) renaissance 2) romanticism 3) realism 4) modernism 9. The author of Childe Harolds Pilgrimage is 1) Samuel Taylor Coleridge 2) John Keats 3) Percy Bysshe Shelley 4) George Gordon Byron 10. Beowulf was from 172

1) the country of Geats 2) Denmark 3) England 4) the country of Hrotgar Keys 1-1 2-2 3-3 4-1 5-4 6-1 7-3 8-2 9-4 10-1

Test 2. Choose the correct alternative. 1. Architectural pressure groups fought unsuccessfully to save a terrace of eighteen century houses from... A disruption B abolition C dmolition D dismantling 2. The hotel room was ...furnished with only a bed, a wardrobe and an ancient armchair. A thinly B sparsely C lightly D sketchingly 3. The main disadvantage of our house is that the only ...to the garden is through a bedroom. A passage B doorway C access D communication. 4. Our hosts had prepared a ...meal with several courses to celebrate our arrival. A generous B profuse C lavish D sprendrift 5. Having decided to rent a flat, we...contacting all the accomodation agencies in the city. A set to B set off C set out D set about Keys 1-C 2-B 3-C 4-C 5-D

Test 3. Choose the most suitable word. a) As you see, the garden has two ornamental iron doors/gates and there is a stone path/pavement leading to the house. b) There is the front entry/entrance, but there is another door at the edge/side of the house. c) All the rooms have covered/fitted carpets. d) All the cupboards/wardrobes in the kitchen and the bookshelves/library in the living room are included in the price. e) There is a beautiful stone chimney/fireplace in the living room, and there are sinks/washbasins in all the bedrooms. 173

f) At the top of the stairs /steps there is a coloured/stained glass window. g) The bathroom has a shower/washer and modern mixer pipes/taps. h) At the top of the house there is a/an attic/cellar and the garden contains a glass house/greenhouse and a garden hut/shed. i) There is a wooden fence/wall on the one side of the garden, and a bush/hedge on the other. j) There is a fine single/detached house in a quite neighbourhood/suburb. Keys a) gates, path; b) entrance, side; c) fitted; d) cupboards, bookshelves; e) fireplace, washbasins; f) stairs, stained; g) shower, taps; h) an attic, greenhouse, shed; i) fence, hedge; j) detached, neighbourhood. Test 4. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentence. 1. The Tower of London was founded by _________ 1. King Alfred 2. Richard the Lion Heart 3. William the Conqueror 4. Edward the Confessor 2. St. Pauls Cathedral was rebuilt by_______ 1. Inigo Jones 2. Christopher Wren 3. George Gilbert Scott 4. John Wallis 3. Westminster Abbey was founded by Edward the Confessor and is built in _______style. 1. Gothic 2. Victorian 3. Norman 4. Classical 4. The Houses of Parliament were built by Sir Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin in _______century. 1.16th 2.17th 3.18th 4.19th

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5. The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton which housed the Great exhibition of 1851 was _______ in 1936. 1. dismantled 2. removed to Sydenham 3. destroyed by fire 4. rebuilt 6. Royal Pavilion in Brighton was redesigned by John Nash in 1815-1822 and has a very_______appearance: 1. Japanese 2. Indian 3. French 4. Scandinavian 7. The Traitors gate is in_______ 1. the Tower of London 2. the Houses of Parliament 3. Buckingham Palace 4. Holyrood Palace 8. Big Ben is the name of_________ 1. The Palace of Westminster 2. the Palace Clock 3. the great Bell 4. the tower housing the Palace Clock 9. Which is not the official Royal Residence but one of the Royal Familys private homes? 1. Windsor Castle 2. Balmoral Castle 3. Buckingham Palace 4. Holyrood Palace 10. The prevalent styles in British architecture of the 20th century are_______ 1. Modernist 2. Post-modernist 3. Classical 4. Neo-classical

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Keys: 1-3

2-2

3-1

4-4

5-3

6-2

7-1

8-3

9-2

10-2,4

4.3 Test 5. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence. 1. Susans first painting was a/an _____portrait. A self B own C selfish D auto 2. Peter sings every Sunday in the local church______ A concert B chorus C opera D choir 3. We enjoyed the play so much that we _______ for ten minutes A booed B screamed C applauded D handed 4. The play was a success and had very good ______in the papers. A reviews B critics C advertisements D notes 5. All the members of the ________ had a party after the play was over. A scene B cast C circle D drama Keys 1-A 2-D 3-C 4-A 5-B

Test 6. Complete each sentence with the suitable word. Use each word only once. composer conductor electric live popular 1. Unfortunately the boy upstairs is learning the ______guitar. 2. Of course its possible to like both classical and _________ music. 3. The orchestra would no be so successful with a different______ 4. No recording can be as good as a.______ concert in my opinion. 5. Thats a nice piece of music. Who is the _______? Keys 1.electric 2.popular 3.conductor 4.live 5.composer.

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4.5 Test 7. Choose the most suitable answer to the question. 1. What plain does Stonehenge stand on? a) the Wiltshire Plain b) the Salisbure Plain c) the Lancashire-Cheshire Plain 2. What way did the Druids use Stonehenge? a) it was used as an ancient astronomical observatory b) it was used as a place of worship c) it was an ancient calendar for them 3. What is the oldest surviving building in London? a) the Westminster Palace b) Buckingham Palace c) the Tower of London 4. Who built the White Tower? a) Henry III b) William the Conqueror c) Charles II 5. What place did the Tower Green use to be? a) the treasury b) the prison c) the place where the less common prisoners met their end 6. What is displayed in The Tudor Gallery? a) the personal armours of Henry VIII b) the personal armours of Henry VII c) the personal armours of Elizabeth I 7. What does the phrase The Crown Jewels mean? a) the world's largest and most valuable collection of jewels and gold plate, comprising the Coronation Regalia b) The Imperial State Crown c) The Queen Mother's Crown 8. How do they call the guard of the Tower? a) the Yeomen of the Guard c) the Yeomen Warders 9. What street is the most famous in London for 10? a) Downing Street b) Victoria Street c) Oxford Street 10. Who presides over the assembly of The House of Lords? a) the Prime Minister b) the Queen c) the Lord Chancellor 177

Keys

1-b

2-b

3-c

4-b

5-c

6-a

7-a

8-c

9-a

10-c

Test 8. Choose the word or phrase that best completes each sentence. 1.In an effort to increase his newspapers ..., the editor introduced a weekly competition. A. propaganda B. distribution C. circulation D. dispersion 2. The stuntman seemed to show total disregard ...fear as he performed his daredevil tricks. A. of B. over C. for D. about 3. She used her weekly column in the local newspaper as a .... for her political views. A. vehicle B. means C. vessel D. passage 4. Having been a foreign correspondent all his working life, he s a .... traveller. A. veteran B. vintage C. customary D. antiquated. 5. The newspaper was ordered to pay him 1,500 .... for printing a libellous story about him. A. damages B. refund C. penalty D. restitution Keys 1-C 2-C 3-A 4-A 5-D

Test 9. Fill each of the numbered blanks in the passage with one suitable word. Publications that come out at regular ....(1) of more that one day are known ... (2) periodicals. The majority of periodicals ...(3) to press between a week and six weeks before the publication and they are therefore .... (4)to print topical news stories and articles in a way that a book ....(5). This is one advantage that periodical has .... (6)the book. ...(7)advantages are that periodicals are cheaper, they are easier to read, and their... (8) is more varied. Periodicals .... (9)from newspapers because they do not concentrate upon ... (10)the reader a summary of the immediate news. There are also physical ... . (11) most periodicals are ...(12) on better paper, they are smaller and are stapled or stitched.. (13) so that they last longer. The line between newspapers and

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periodicals is not clearly ... (14), however, because some weeklies that appear in newspaper.... (15) are really periodicals. Keys 1.basis 2.as 3.go 4.able 5.cannot 6.over 7. Other 8. content 9.differ 10.giving 11.advantages 12.printed 13.well 14.defined 15.suppliments. Test 10. Choose the alternative according to the task. 1. A paper round is: 1. your purchase wrapped in the newspaper 2. a morning paper delivered to the door by a teenager 3. a newspaper bound to your purchase in the shop 4. a newspaper that can be bought round the corner. 2. Another name for quality paper is: 1. quality sheets 2. serious sheets 3. broadsheets 4. white pages. 3. Choose the tabloid: 1. The Guardian 2. The Daily Express 3. The Daily Telegraph 4. The Independent 4. Choose the quality paper: 1. The Daily Mail 2. The Sun 3. The Star 4. The Times 5. There is a striking difference between the quality papers and the . mass circulation tabloids: 1. six; seven 2. five; six 3. six; ten 4. five; twelve. 6. Scotland has important quality papers. 1. two 2. three 179

3. four . five. 7. The most famous of all British newspapers is It is not now and has never been, an organ of the Government and has no link with any party. 1. The Guardian 2. The Times 3. The Financial Times 4. The Daily Express 8. Which TV channel(s) have no advertisement? 1. BBC 1 2. ITV 3. BBC 2 4. Channel 4 5. Channel 5 9. Which channel broadcasts the programs of Open University? 1. BBC 1 2. ITV 3. BBC 2 4. Channel 4 5. Channel 5 10. Radio times is: 1. a bestselling magazine 2. a popular newspaper 3. a popular TV program 4. a popular radio program. Keys: 1-2 Chapter5. Test 11 1. The USA is , a union of 50 states. 1. a constitutional republic 2. a presidential republic 3. a federal republic 4. a constitutional monarchy 2. The largest rivers in the USA are: 1. The Missisippi River, the Missoury and the Ohio 180 2-3 3-2 4-4 5-2 6-1 7-2 8-1,3 9-3 10-1

2. The Missisippi River, the Missoury and the Grand 3. The Missisipi River, Potomac and the Colorado 4. The Alabama River, the Sacramento and the Colunmbia 3. In 1782, the bald eagle was adopted as the nationalbird for the country. The baud eagle is 1. really bald 2. black-streaked 3. wingless 4. white-streaked 4. The legislative body is the Congress (bicameral), consisting of . 1. The Senate and the House of Representatives 2. The House of Commons and the House of Representatives 3. The House of Commons and the Senate 4. The House of Representatives and the President 5. (A) is the head of the executive branch of the Government and works from his (B). In the White House to make the decisions that govern and protect the nation. A 1.The Prime Minister 2. The Vice-President 3. The President B. 1.Blue Room 2. Red Room 3. State Dining Room 4. Oval Office 6. By the time of the American Revolution (1776), the culture of the American colonists had been thouroughly 1. British 2. French 3. Indian 4. Dutch 7. A popular American folk art practiced by the countrys ordinary people is making patchwork . 1. kirts 2.quilts 3. shirts 4. kilts

181

8. Canada is officially bilingual and the federal government is available in English and 1. French 2. Chinese 3. Italian 4. Punjabi 9. Australia has a legislature: .. 1. unicameralThe House of Representatives 2. unicameralThe Senate 3. bicameral.. The House of Representatives and The Senate 4. bicameral.. The House of Representatives and The House of Lords.

10. The capital of New Zealand is: 1. Ottawa 2. Wellington 3. Canberra 4. Quebec

Keys:

1-3 2-1 3-4 4-1 5-A-3, B-4 6-1 7-2 8-1 9-3 10-2

182

Bibliography 1. , . The History of England [] (2- )/ . . . : , 1996. 24 c. 2. , . The History of England. Absolute Monarchy [] / . . . : , 1996. 224. 3. , . The History of England. Parliamentary Monarchy [] = . / . . : , 1996. 224. 4. [] / . . . . , . . . .: : : . . , 2004. 432 .: . 5. . [] : . . / . ... . : , 2006. 136. 6. , . . Pilot One [] = . . . 2-, . / . . .- . : , 2001.- 416 . 7. , . . : [] / . . . ., ; -, 2004. 128 . 8. , . . . : , , [] / . . , . . ; . . . . : , 2005. -1040 . 9. . . []: . . . . / . . , . . , .. ; . . , . . . . : , 1999. 512 . 10. , . . , . [] : / . . , . . ; . . . . .: . ., 1991. 360 . 11. , . . []: . 3- . / . . . . : , 2005. 256 ., . 12. , .. -: . [] / . . . . : , 1997. 448. 13. , . . []: . / . . , . . , . . , . . . 3- ., . .: . ., 1997. 522 .

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14. , . . : [] / / . . . - -: , 2001. 320 . 15. . . [] / . . . : -, 1997. 387. 16. . . [] / . . . : -, 1997. 332. 17. , .. , , , , [] / .. . ./ . : /, 2004. 336. 18. . [] / . . . . , . . . 2- ., . . .: , 1990. 494 . 19. , . . [] / . . , . . , . . . .: , 1991. - 287 . 20. - : . 55000 . [] . .., .. . ... .: . ., 1996. 768. 21. , .. []= Read and speak about Britain and the British-2- ., ./ . . .- .: .., 1997.- 255 . 22. -, .. [] 2- , ./ C. . . .: - , 2004. 352 . 23. , . . [] / . . . .: - , 2003. 720 ., 8 . . 24. , . . . [] : / . . ; . . . . . : . ., 1991. 360 . 25. All London. 155 photographs. English. [ ] Editorial Escudo de Oro, S.A. 26. Bromhead, P. Life in Modern America [Text] / P. Bromhead. - Longman Group UK Ltd, 1996. 27.Bromhead, P. Life in Modern Britain [Text] / P. Bromhead .-Longman Group UK Ltd, 1997. 28. Broukal, M. Introducing the USA: A Cultural Reader [Text] / M. Broukal, P. Murthy.- Longman Group UK Ltd, 1995. 29. Burgess, S. How to Teach for Exams [Text] / S. Burgess, K. Head. Pearson Education Ltd, 2005.

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30. Fielder, E. America in Close-up [Text] / E. Fielder, R. Jansen, Norman Risch.- Longman Group UK Ltd, 2004. 31. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. [Text] Pearson Education Ltd, 2003. 32. Marcus, S. A World of Fiction: Twenty Timeless Short Stories [Text] / S. Marcus.- Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc, 1995. 33. McCarthy, M. English Collocations in Use [Text] / M. McCarthy, F. ODell.- CUP, 2005. 34. McCarthy, M. English Vocabulary in Use (advanced). [Text] / M. McCarthy, F. ODell CUP, 2002.-315 p. 35. McCarthy, M. English Vocabulary in Use (upper- intermediate & advanced) [Text] / M. McCarthy, F. ODell.- CUP, 1997.- 296 p. 36. McCarthy, M. Test Your English Vocabulary in Use (advanced) [Text] / M.McCarthy, F. ODell.- CUP, 2005. 37. McDowell, D. An Illustrated History of Britain [Text]/ D. McDowell. Longman Group UK Ltd, 1997.-188 p. 38. McDowell, D. Britain in Close-up [Text] / D. McDowell. - Longman Group UK Ltd, 2003.-208 p. 39. ODriscoll, J. Britain [Text] / J. ODriscoll.-Oxford University Press, 2003.- 223 p. 40. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. 7th ed. OUP, 2005 41. Sheerin, S. White, G. Spotlight on Britain [Text] / S. Sheerin, J. Seath, G. White.- Oxford University Press, 1997. 42. Thornbury, S. How to Teach Vocabulary [Text]/ S. Thornbury. Pearson Education Ltd, 2004. 43. Authentic English = [Text]: . - . : XXI, 2006. 516., . 44. Glimpses of Britain. Reader [Text] / . . . : , 2006. 128 . 45. What is the English we read: / . .. , .. , ... . : , - , 2003. 792. : 1. Encyclopedia Britannica [Electronic resource]. - Ready Reference, 2003. 2. Encyclopedia Britannica [Electronic resource]. - Ready Reference, 2005. 3. Encyclopedia Encarta 2001. Deluxe. [Electronic resource]. - Microsoft. 4. Encyclopedia Encarta 2006. Premium. [Electronic resource]. - Microsoft. 5. Lingvo 10.0. [ Electronic resource] . ABBY

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Appendix 1

BRITISH CHRONOLOGY 2200BC - 1300BC 800BC 55BC 43AD 50 70 - 84 409 470 495 793 800 891 1066 1078 - 88 1165 - 79 1209 1249 1295 1337 1348 1430 1440 1453 1455 1474 1564 - 1616 1609 1624 - 1630 1626 - 1629 1642 1649 - 50 1650 - 1652 1653 Stonehenge built Immigration of Celts Julius Caesars first expedition to Britain Roman invasion Foundation of London Conqest of Wales & North Last Roman legions leave Saxons settle in Sussex Saxons settle in Wessex. First vikings raids on Britain Beowulf, old English epic poem Anglo-Saxon chronicle begun Battle of Hastings William 1 crowned in Westminster Abbey Tower of London built Windsor Castle rebuilt in stone London bridge finished in stone University college, Oxford founded Meeting of model Parliament Start of Hundred Years War Black Death Joan of Arc burnt Eton college founded End of Hundred Years War Outbreak of the Wars of the Roses William Caxton prints first book in English Shakespear Rebellion in Ireland War with Spain War with France Outbraek of Civil War Cromwell conquers Ireland Cromwell conquers Scotland Cromwell becomes Lord Protector 186

1659 1664 - 1665 1666 1694 1707 1710 1727 1753 1756 1805 1815 1824 1836 1848 1940 1969 1983 - 90 1987 1990 - 98 Minister

Richard Cromwell overthrown by army Great Plague Great Fire Bank of England established Union of England and Scotland St.Pauls Cathedral completed Robert Walpole, the first prime-minister British museum founded Seven Years War begins Battle of Trafalgar Battle of Waterloo National Gallary founded Chartist movement launched Chartist movement collapses Churchill becomes Prime-minister North Sea oil discovered Conservatives re-eelected under Mrs. Thatcher Mrs. Thatcher wins third term of office Mrs. Thatcher resigns; John Major becomes Prime

187

Appendix 2

BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS AND GOVERNMENTS Name Spencer Perceval Earl of Liverpool George Canning Viscount Goderich Duke of Wellington Earl Grey Viscount Melbourne Sir Robert Peel Viscount Melbourne Sir Robert Peel Lord John Russell Earl of Derby Earl of Aberdeen Viscount Palmerston Earl of Derby Viscount Palmerston Earl Russell Earl of Derby Benjamin Disraeli W.E. Gladstone Party Tory Tory Tory Tory Tory Whig Whig Tory Whig Tory Whig Tory Peelite Liberal Conservative Liberal Liberal Conservative Conservative Liberal Date 1809 1812 1827 1827 1828 1830 1834 1834 1835 1841 1846 1852 1852 1855 1858 1859 1865 1866 1868 1868

188

Benjamin Disraeli W.E. Gladstone Marquess of Salisbury W.E. Gladstone Marquess of Salisbury W.E. Gladstone Earl of Rosebery Marquess of Salisbury A.J. Balfour Sir H. CampbellBannerman H.H. Asquith H.H. Asquith D. Lloyd-George A. Bonar Law Stanley Baldwin J. Ramsay MacDonald Stanley Baldwin J. Ramsay MacDonald J. Ramsay MacDonald Stanley Baldwin Naville Chamberlain Winston S. Churchill Winston S. Churchill Clement R. Attlee Sir Winston Churchill Sir Anthony Eden

Conservative Liberal Conservative Liberal Conservative Liberal Liberal Conservative Conservative Liberal Liberal Coalition Coalition Conservative Conservative Labour Conservative Labour Coalition Coalition Coalition Coalition Conservative Labour Conservative Conservative 189

1874 1880 1885 1886 1886 1892 1894 1895 1902 1905 1908 1915 1916 1922 1923 1924 1924 1939 1931 1935 1937 1940 1945 1945 1951 1955

Harold Macmillan Sir Alec Douglas-Home Harold Wilson Edward Heath Harold Wilson James Callaghan Margaret Thatcher Margaret Thatcher Margaret Thatcher John Major Tony Blair Tony Blair

Conservative Conservative Labour Conservative Labour Labour Conservative Conservative Conservative Conservative Labour Labour

1957 1963 1964 1970 1974 1976 1979 1983 1987 1990 1995 1999

190

Appendix 3

The Commonwealth of Nations Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Canada Cyprus Dominica Gambia Ghana Great Britain Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Maldives Malta Mauritius Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea St. Christopher and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines 191

Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda Vanuatu Western Samoa Zambia Zimbabwe

192

Appendix 4 Presidents of the USA

1. George Washington 2. John Adams 3. Thomas Jefferson 4. James Maddison 5. James Monroe 6. John Quincy Adams 7. Andrew Jackson 8. Martin Van Buren 9. William Harrison 10. John Tyler 11. James Knox Polk 12. Zachary Taylor 13. Millard Fillmore 14. Franklin Pierce 15. James Buchanan 16. Abraham Lincoln 17. Andrew Johnson 18. Ulysses Grant 19. Rutherford Hayes 20. James Garfield 21. Chester Alan Arthur 22. Grover Cleveland 23. Benjamin Harrison 24. Grover Cleveland 25. William McKinley 26. Theodore Roosevelt 27. William ft 28. Woodrow Wilson 29. Warren Harding 30. Calvin Coolidge 31. Herbert Clark Hoover 32. Franklin Delano Roosevelt 33. Harry S Truman 34. Dwight Eisenhower 35. John Fitzgerald Kennedy 193

1789-1797 1797-1801 1801-1809 1809-1817 1817-1825 1825-1829 1829-1837 1837-1841 1841-1841 1841-1845 1845-1849 1849-1850 1850-1853 1853-1857 1857-1861 1861-1865 1865-1869 1869-1877 1877-1881 1881-1881 1881-1885 1885-1889 1889-1893 1893-1897 1897-1901 1901-1909 1909-1913 1913-1921 1921-1923 1923-1929 1929-1933 1933-1945 1945-1953 1953-1961 1961-1963

36. Lyndon Baines Johnson 37. Richard Milhous Nixon 38. Gerald Rudolph Ford 39. Jimmy (James Earl) Carter 40. Ronald Reagan 41. George Bush 42. Bill Clinton 43. George Bush Jr. 2000-

1963-1969 1969-1974 1974-1977 1977-1981 1981-1988 1988-1992 1992-2000

194