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Water: Water is measured by volume, as so many litres per bag of cement as specified by

Slump test. The strength & workability of concrete depends to a great extent on the amount of water used in mixing. An increase of 10 % of water above the optimum increases workability but may reduce the strength by 15 % approximately and an increase 50 % of water above the optimum amount may reduce the strength by 50 %. With an excess of more than 50 %, the concrete becomes inadhesive. Excessive amount of water in concrete mixing not only produces low strength but also increases shrinkage and decreases durability. Alternatively a smaller amount of water decreases the strength and about 10 % less than minimal may be insufficient to ensure complete setting of the cement and may produce an unworkable concrete. A rule for determining the approximate quantity of water in gallon /Litre to give a strong concrete of reasonable workability may be given Water requirement of concrete = 28 % by weight of cement + 4 % by total weight of aggregates. Modern method to determine the quantity of water in a mixture is water cement ratio. The ratio of volume of mixing water to the volume of cement is called the water cement ratio. In practice the amount of water is actually determined at site by means of Slump Test with trial mixtures. A table of water cement ratio by weight is given below Proportion Water cement Ratio by weight

1:2:4

1:1.5:3

1:1:2

0.58

0.51

0.43

Quantity of water may now be calculated from water cement ratio as: Weight of water/Weight of cement = 0.58 for 1:2:4 Or, Ww/Wc = 0.58 Hence, weight of water per bag of cement (1 Bag = 50 Kg) I.e.; Ww 50 X 0.58= 29 Litres (One litre of water weighs one Kilogram)

Economy in the cost of R C C structures: The use of cold twisted deformed (Tor) bars over mild steel bars is economical in following ways: Due to high yield strength (Nearly 50 %) considerable saving in the steel quantity can be achieved. On account of increased bond stress such bars normally do not need end hook and require a reduced length for overlaps. Transport, storage, bending and fixing charges are lesser up to 35 %. Cost of Tor Steel is only 10 % per Ton than tested mild steel. Net economy

in the cost of reinforcement up to 35 % in Tension and 30 % in compression (According to Tor Steel Research Foundation in India) Due to great rigidity they are easily and more accurately placed in the form work and more space can be maintained between them in exact alignment by fewer ties and studs.

Develop length of Reinforcement: The calculated Tension or compression in any bar at


any section shall be developed in each side of the section by an appropriate development length or an anchorage or by a combination thereof. So there must be sufficient length of bar beyond any section to the tensile force (Or compressive force) in the bar at that section. The term bond is used to define the cumulative effects of the following factors: 1. Adhesion between reinforcement and concrete and this depends on the grade of concrete 2. Resistance to sliding owing to friction which depends mostly on the surface condition and 3. Gripping of reinforcement consequent of shrinkage.

Development Length in Tension: If the diameter of a round bar is denoted by d and the
Tensile stress be ft then the total Tensile Force T = ft X 0.785 This is resisted by the bond resistance
d2 .

(22/7 d X Lt) X fb, where Lt = Development (Bond) X fb. Hence, ft/4fb X d

length in tension and fb = Average bond stress. Hence, (22/7 d X Lt) fb = 0.785 d
2

Hence, the bond length is greater with higher tensile steel and will be lesser with richer mixes.

Development Length in Compression: For compression bars as in columns, beams, etc.


the bond stress shall be increased by 25 % than the permissible bond stress in tension. So the development length of a steel bar with the same grade concrete is lesser by 25 % in compression.

(22/7 d X Lc) fb = 0.785 d2 X fc or Lc = d X fc /4 X 1.25 fb = d X fc / 5 fb Let, Lc / d = n = Compressive stress in the bar / 5 X permissible bond stress (In Tension)
In no case, value of

n shall be less than 12. (For unknown stresses a bond length of 24 d

should be considered. No hook need be provided for a bar in compression but a bend is

desirable if the end of the bar is near and outer concrete face and it shall not be accounted for anchorage purposes.

Development Length for Plain and Deformed Bars: d = Diameter of Bar Working Stresses Plain Grade of For Bar in Tension =140 N/Sq. Concrete Plain mm for bars up to 20 mm Bars Dia. and 130 N/Sq. mm for bars > 20 mm Tension Compr ession Working Stress for M15 58d 43.5d Compression = 130 N/Sq. M - 20 44 d 32.5 d mm for all Dia. Working Stress for M25 39 d 29 d deformed Bars in Tension M - 30 35 d 26 d = 230 N/Sq. mm and 190/ N.Sq.mm in Compression. For deformed Bars

Tension 68.5d 51.5 d 46 41

Compress ion 45.25d 34 d d 30.20 d 27.20 d d

NOTE: The Lap length (Development Length) including anchorage value of hooks in Tension shall be Lt (Development Length). The straight length of the Lap (Development) shall not be < 15 d or 20 Cm. The Lap length in compression shall be equal to the development length in compression calculated but not less than 24 d.