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kULL 120: IUDGMLN1

Sect|on 1. Iudgment, def|n|t|on and form.
Iudgment |s the ad[ud|cat|on by the court that the accused |s gu||ty or
not gu||ty of the offense charged and the |mpos|t|on on h|m of the
proper pena|ty and c|v|| ||ab|||ty, |f any. It must be wr|tten |n the
off|c|a| |anguage, persona||y and d|rect|y prepared by the [udge and
s|gned by h|m and sha|| conta|n c|ear|y and d|st|nct|y a statement of
the facts and the |aw upon wh|ch |t |s based. (1a)

I. No such th|ng as et|t|on for Annu|ment of Iudgment |n a cr|m|na|
case
ku|e 47 applles only ln clvll cases.

II. Manner |n wh|ch [udgment |s made
A [udgmenL ls LhaL whlch flnally dlsposes of Lhe case
8y law, lL ls requlred LhaL lL ls Lhe [udge hlmself who pens Lhe
declslon. Pe may have researchers buL he should pen Lhe
declslon.
8uL whaL lf Lhere ls an lnsLance whereln Lhe [udge who heard
Lhe case ls noL Lhe [udge who penned Lhe declslon?
o kesayo v. eop|e ! Lhe [udge who penned Lhe declslon
only Look over from a colleague who earller preslded
over Lhe Lrlal. 1here was a valld [udgmenL.
o eop|e v. Ga||arde ! Lhe facL LhaL Lhe [udge who
penned Lhe declslon was noL Lhe [udge who heard Lhe
LesLlmony of wlLnesses ls noL enough reason Lo
overLurn Lhe flndlngs of facL of Lhe Lrlal courL, or even
Lhelr admlsslblllLy.
Sect|on 2. Contents of the [udgment.
If the [udgment |s of conv|ct|on, |t sha|| state (1) the |ega| qua||f|cat|on
of the offense const|tuted by the acts comm|tted by the accused and
the aggravat|ng or m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances wh|ch attended |ts
comm|ss|on, (2) the part|c|pat|on of the accused |n the offense,
whether as pr|nc|pa|, accomp||ce, or accessory after the fact, (3) the
pena|ty |mposed upon the accused, and (4) the c|v|| ||ab|||ty or
damages caused by h|s wrongfu| act or om|ss|on to be recovered from
the accused by the offended party, |f there |s any, un|ess the
enforcement of the c|v|| ||ab|||ty by a separate c|v|| act|on has been
reserved or wa|ved.

In case the [udgment |s of acqu|tta|, |t sha|| state whether the ev|dence
of the prosecut|on abso|ute|y fa||ed to prove the gu||t of the accused
or mere|y fa||ed to prove h|s gu||t beyond reasonab|e doubt. In e|ther
case, the [udgment sha|| determ|ne |f the act or om|ss|on from wh|ch
the c|v|| ||ab|||ty m|ght ar|se d|d not ex|st. (2a)

I. Contents of Iudgment
1. 1he offense LhaL you have commlLLed
2. 1he penalLy Lo be lmposed
3. 1he parLlclpaLlon wheLher prlnclpal, accompllce or accessorles.
4. 1he aggravaLlng or mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances.
3. lf lL ls an acqulLLal Lhere wlll be a sLaLemenL LhaL
a. lf Lhere's compleLe non-llablllLy
b. Cnly doubL LhaL led Lo Lhe acqulLLal l.e. reasonable
doubL
c. 1he facLs from whlch Lhe clvll llablllLy mlghL arlse do noL
exlsL.

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II. kemedy |n Case of Acqu|tta|
Genera| ku|e: none. 1he acqulLLal ls lmmedlaLely execuLory.
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Sect|on 3. Iudgment for two or more offenses.
When two or more offenses are charged |n a s|ng|e comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on but the accused fa||s to ob[ect to |t before tr|a|, the court
may conv|ct h|m of as many offenses as are charged and proved, and
|mpose on h|m the pena|ty for each offense, sett|ng out separate|y the
f|nd|ngs of fact and |aw |n each offense. (3a)

I. Can the court render a va||d [udgment |f once |nformat|on conta|ns
more than one offense?
?LS. lor as long as Lhe accused refuses or falls Lo ob[ecL. ln LhaL
case, every offense esLabllshed and proven can be Laken agalnsL
Lhe accused.
8ead wlLh Sect|on 13, ku|e 110

Sect|on 4. Iudgment |n case of var|ance between a||egat|on and proof.
When there |s var|ance between the offense charged |n the comp|a|nt
or |nformat|on and that proved, and the offense as charged |s |nc|uded
|n or necessar||y |nc|udes the offense proved, the accused sha|| be
conv|cted of the offense proved wh|ch |s |nc|uded |n the offense
charged, or of the offense charged wh|ch |s |nc|uded |n the offense
proved. (4a)

Sect|on S. When an offense |nc|udes or |s |nc|uded |n another.
An offense charged necessar||y |nc|udes the offense proved when
some of the essent|a| e|ements or |ngred|ents of the former, as a||eged
|n the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on, const|tute the |atter. And an offense
charged |s necessar||y |nc|uded |n the offense proved, when the
essent|a| |ngred|ents of the former const|tute or form part of those
const|tut|ng the |atter. (Sa)

I. What happens |f there's a d|fference between the offense charged |n
the comp|a|nt]|nfo and the offense proved?
Accused may be convlcLed of elLher:
" Cffense proved (whlch musL be lncluded ln Lhe
offense charged), or
" Cffense charged (whlch ls lncluded ln Lhe offense
proved)
8aslcally: Lhe lesser offense, wheLher lL be Lhe one
proved or charged
Consu|ta v. eop|e ! Pence, one can be convlcLed of grave
coerclon ln an lnformaLlon LhaL charges robbery wlLh vlolence
agalnsL persons.

Sect|on 6. romu|gat|on of [udgment.
1he [udgment |s promu|gated by read|ng |t |n the presence of the
accused and any [udge of the court |n wh|ch |t was rendered. nowever,
|f the conv|ct|on |s for a ||ght offense, the [udgment may be
pronounced |n the presence of h|s counse| or representat|ve. When
the [udge |s absent or outs|de the prov|nce or c|ty, the [udgment may
be promu|gated by the c|erk of court.

If the accused |s conf|ned or deta|ned |n another prov|nce or c|ty, the
[udgment may be promu|gated by the execut|ve [udge of the keg|ona|
1r|a| Court hav|ng [ur|sd|ct|on over the p|ace of conf|nement or
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detent|on upon request of the court wh|ch rendered the [udgment.
1he court promu|gat|ng the [udgment sha|| have author|ty to accept
the not|ce of appea| and to approve the ba|| bond pend|ng appea|,
prov|ded, that |f the dec|s|on of the tr|a| court conv|ct|ng the accused
changed the nature of the offense from non-ba||ab|e to ba||ab|e, the
app||cat|on for ba|| can on|y be f||ed and reso|ved by the appe||ate
court.

1he proper c|erk of court sha|| g|ve not|ce to the accused persona||y or
through h|s bondsman or warden and counse|, requ|r|ng h|m to be
present at the promu|gat|on of the dec|s|on. If the accused was tr|ed |n
absent|a because he [umped ba|| or escaped from pr|son, the not|ce to
h|m sha|| be served at h|s |ast known address.

In case the accused fa||s to appear at the schedu|ed date of
promu|gat|on of [udgment desp|te not|ce, the promu|gat|on sha|| be
made by record|ng the [udgment |n the cr|m|na| docket and serv|ng
h|m a copy thereof at h|s |ast known address or thru h|s counse|.

If the [udgment |s for conv|ct|on and the fa||ure of the accused to
appear was w|thout [ust|f|ab|e cause, he sha|| |ose the remed|es
ava||ab|e |n these ru|es aga|nst the [udgment and the court sha|| order
h|s arrest. W|th|n f|fteen (1S) days from promu|gat|on of [udgment,
however, the accused may surrender and f||e a mot|on for |eave of
court to ava|| of these remed|es. ne sha|| state the reasons for h|s
absence at the schedu|ed promu|gat|on and |f he proves that h|s
absence was for a [ust|f|ab|e cause, he sha|| be a||owed to ava|| of sa|d
remed|es w|th|n f|fteen (1S) days from not|ce. (6a)


I. romu|gat|on, Mean|ng
lor purposes of a crlmlnal case ln Lhe Lrlal courL when we say
promulgaLlon, Lhe accused has Lo be presenL ln courL for Lhe
readlng of [udgmenL, LhaL ls promulgaLlon.

II. Not|ce Cf romu|gat|on
1o whom should noLlce of promulgaLlon be served?
Genera| ku|e: As much as posslble, Lo Lhe accused personally.
Lxcept|on:
o lf ln [all: Lo Lhe warden
o lf ouL on ball: Lo Lhe bondsman.
o lf aL large: Lo hls lasL known address

III. Who Must 8e resent
A. Accused must be present
Genera| ku|e: 1he accused should be presenL.
Lxcept|on: ConvlcLlon for llghL offenses

8. |a|nt|ffs need not be present

C. Iudge or C|erk of Court w||| read the promu|gat|on
Genera| ku|e: !udge who ruled over Lhe case, or Lhe clerk of
courL (lf [udge ls absenL or ouLslde Lhe provlnce or clLy) ls Lhe
one who promulgaLes.
Lxcept|on: lf accused conflned elsewhere, Lhe execuLlve [udge
ln Lhe 81C who has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe place of conflnemenL



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IV. Ia||ure of Accused to Appear
lf Lhe accused falls Lhe appear, Lhere wlll sLlll be promulgaLlon.
1he [udgmenL wlll be recorded, and LhaL has Lhe effecL of
promulgaLlon.
Powever, lf such absence ls un[usLlflable, Lhen Lhe accused
Lhereby forfelLs all hls remedles.
o lf he appears wlLhln 13 days from Lhe promulgaLlon and
glves reasonable explanaLlon, he may sLlll avall of all Lhe
remedles.

IV. kemed|es
MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon
MoLlon for new 1rlal
Appeal
noLe: 1hese remedles are noL avallable when Lhe accused was
acqulLLed.

VI. romu|gat|on |n tr|a| courts v|s--v|s appe||ate courts
ln Lhe CA and SC you wlll noL be requlred Lo appear, you wlll noL
recelve a noLlce of promulgaLlon.
(CourL of Appeals) ln Lhe appellaLe courLs promulgaLlon means,
lf a declslon ls rendered by a ulvlslon, lL wlll be forwarded Lo Lhe
ulvlslon Clerk of CourL, he wlll Lhen lssue a noLlce of
promulgaLlon conLalnlng LhaL on such and such a daLe Lhls
ulvlslon of Lhe CA rendered a ueclslon.




VII. romu|gat|on Cf Iudgment In C|v|| v. Cr|m|na|

C|v|| Case Cr|m|na| Case
Manner ueclslons of Lhe clvll courLs are
served. 1hey are noL
promulgaLed.
ueclslons are
promulgaLed.
Appearance ls noL requlred Appearance ls requlred.
Grounds
for Mk
?ou can flle for an M8 lf Lhe
[udgmenL ls conLrary Lo law, lL ls
noL supporLed by evldence, Lhe
amounL of damages awarded ls
excesslve.
Lrrors of facL or law
whlch requlre no
furLher proceedlngs.
Grounds
for MN1
1. lAML - fraud, accldenL,
mlsLake, excusable negllgence
2. newly dlscovered evldence
1.Lrrors of facL or
lrregularlLles ln Lhe
proceedlngs LhaL wlll
pre[udlce Lhe rlghLs of
Lhe accused
2. newly dlscovered
evldence

Sect|on 7. Mod|f|cat|on of [udgment.
A [udgment of conv|ct|on may, upon mot|on of the accused, be
mod|f|ed or set as|de before |t becomes f|na| or before appea| |s
perfected. Lxcept where the death pena|ty |s |mposed, a [udgment
becomes f|na| after the |apse of the per|od for perfect|ng an appea|, or
when the sentence has been part|a||y or tota||y sat|sf|ed or served, or
when the accused has wa|ved |n wr|t|ng h|s r|ght to appea|, or has
app||ed for probat|on. (7a)

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I. Iudgment may be mod|f|ed before |t becomes f|na| and executory
Lxcept|on: When Lhe correcLlon lnvolves clerlcal errors

II. When [udgment becomes f|na|
1. AfLer lapse of perlod Lo appeal
2. SenLence has been parLlally or LoLally saLlsfled or served
3. Accused walved hls rlghL Lo appeal
4. Accused applled for probaLlon

Sect|on 8. Lntry of [udgment.
After a [udgment has become f|na|, |t sha|| be entered |n accordance
w|th ku|e 36. (8)

I. Def|ned
lL ls a recordlng of a [udgmenL LhaL has aLLalned flnallLy ln Lhe
books of enLry of [udgmenL.
o ln slmple words Lhe reglemenLary perlod has lapsed.
1he rule ls Lhe same ln Lhe Lrlal courL and ln Lhe appellaLe courL.

Sect|on 9. Lx|st|ng prov|s|ons govern|ng suspens|on of sentence,
probat|on and paro|e not affected by th|s ku|e.
Noth|ng |n th|s ku|e sha|| affect any ex|st|ng prov|s|ons |n the |aws
govern|ng suspens|on of sentence, probat|on or paro|e. (9a)