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INTRODUCTION :

Transport of transportation is the movement of goods and people from one location to another. Transportation plays a major role in the economy, which increases the production efficiency and links to the logistics system. There are many different modes of transportation, however, they are devided into 3 basic types depending on over what surface they travel: land, water, and air.

Water transport is one of the oldest means of transport in India. Prior to the advent of rail and road transports, goods and people were moved from one place to another through water transport. Since there is almost very small cost involved in the construction and maintenance of waterways this transport system is always cheaper. According to one estimate the construction of each km of railway and road needs an investment of Rs. 1.0-1.5 crores and Rs. 0.60-0.75 crore respectively whereas only Rs. 0.10 crore is required to develop same length of waterways. Their development is faster and maintenance cost much lower. Waterways are of two types: (a) Inland waterways, and (b) Sea ways or ocean ways also called shipping. Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances. Methods of transportation fall into three categories:

Aqueducts, which include pipelines, canals, and tunnels, container shipment, which includes transport by tank truck, tank car, and tank ship, and towing, where a tugboat is used to pull an iceberg or a large water bag along behind it.

Due to its weight, the transportation of water is very energy intensive. Unless it has the assistance of gravity, a canal or long-distance pipeline will need pumping stations at regular intervals. In this regard, the lower friction levels of the canal make it a more economical solution than the pipeline. Water transportation is also very common along rivers and oceans.

Air transport is the fastest mode of transport which has reduced distances and converted the world into one unit. But it is also the costliest mode of transport beyond the reach of many people. It is essential for a vast country like India where distances are large and the terrain and climatic conditions so diverse. Civil Aviation in India started in 1911 when Mail (Dock) was for the first time carried by air from Allahabad to Naini. In 1920 the organised air transport service was started. In 1927 Civil Aviation Department was set up on the recommendation of Air Transport Council. In 1932 Tata Airways Limited introduced air services between Karachi and Lahore. In 1928 Flyings Clubs were opened in Delhi, Karachi, Kolkata and Mumbai. Aviation is the design,
development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. The word "Aviation" was coined by french writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863, from the verb "avier" (synonymous flying), itself derived from the Latin word "avis" ("bird") and the suffix "-ation".

CONTENT : Water

transport is the process of transport a watercraft, such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat, over a body of water, such as a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. The need for buoyancy unites watercraft, and makes the hulla dominant aspect of its construction, maintenance and appearance. Ship transport is primarily used for the carriage of people and non-perishable goods, generally referred to as cargo.

In the 1800s the first steam ships were developed, using a steam engine to drive a paddle wheel or propeller to move the ship. The steam was produced using wood or coal. Now most ships have an engine using a slightlyrefined type of petroleum called bunker fuel. Some ships, such as submarines, use nuclear power to produce the steam. Recreational educational craft still use wind power, while some smaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers, or in the case of jet boats, an inboard water jet. Inshallow draft areas, hovercraft are propelled by large pusher-prop fans. or Although slow, modern sea transport is a highly effective method of transporting large quantities of non-perishable goods. Commercial vessels, nearly 35,000 in number, carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2007. Transport by water is significantly less costly than air transport for trans-continental shipping. A cargo ship sailing from a European port to a US one will typically take 10-12 days based on water currents and other factors. Sea transport remains the largest carrier of freight in the world.

1. Important for Foreign Trade: Current volume of India's trade is quite large and it is likely to further expand for the sake of economic development of the country. So, its importance cannot be under-rated. 2. Foreign Exchange: Shipping has also enabled the country to save enough of foreign exchange. Foreign exchange is of utmost importance for country's economic development. India has already been facing acute foreign exchange shortage. 3. Defense: Development of shipping is essential for the defense of the country also. It is regarded as second line of defense. 4. Cheap Means of Transport: Water transport is the cheapest means of transport. Oceans and rivers are the free gifts of nature. No cost is involved in their construction unlike that of railways and roads. 5. Transport of Heavy Goods: Heavy and bulky goods can be transported at little cost through water transport. 6. Useful during Natural Calamities: During natural calamities like floods, heavy downpour etc. when rail or road transport is disrupted, water transport alone is possible. 7. Less maintenance Cost: Compared to other means of transport, maintenance cost of water transport is very little.

1. Limited Area: Area of water transport is restricted. Rivers and oceans are free gifts of nature. Accordingly the operational area remains fixed. Unlike railways and roads, man cannot construct waterways.

2. Slow Speed: It is a slow means of transport. Failure of monsoon results into fall in the water-level of rivers making navigation difficult. 3. Less Safety: As against other means of transport, it is less safe. Danger of sinking of boats and ships always looms large.

The aircraft is the second fastest method of transport, after the rocket. Commercial jets can reach up to 875 kilometres per hour (544 mph), single-engine aircraft 175 kilometres per hour (109 mph). Aviation is able to quickly transport people and limited amounts of cargo over longer distances, but the disadvantage is high costs and energy use. Air freight has become more common for products of high value; while less than one percent of world transport by volume is by airline, it amounts to forty percent of the value. Time has become especially important in regards to principles such as postponement and just-in-time within the value chain, resulting in a high willingness to pay for quick delivery of key components or items of high value-toweight ratio. In addition to mail, common items send by air include electronics and fashion clothing.
1. High Speed: It is a high speed means of transport. Passengers and goods can be transported speedily from one place to the other. 2. Transport of Costly and Light Goods: It is convenient to send costly, light and perishable goods through air transport. 3. Minimum Cost: Unlike railways and road transport there is no need to spend any money on the construction of any track or road. One has only to construct air-ports. 4. Free from Geographical Constraints: Mountains oceans and rivers create no obstruction to air transports. 5. Useful for Agriculture: Aeroplanes are used to make aerial spray of pesticides and insecticides. 6. Strategic Importance: It has great strategic significance. Soldier, arms and ammunition can be airlifted to the troubled spots.

I. Risky: Air transport is the most risky form of transport because a minor accident may put a substantial loss to the goods, passengers and the crew. The chances of accidents are greater in comparison to other modes of transport. II. Very Costly: Air transport is regarded as the costliest mode of transport. The operating cost of aero-planes are higher and it involves a great deal of expenditure on the construction of aerodromes and aircraft. Because of this reason the fare of air transport are so high that it becomes beyond the reach the common people. III. Small Carrying Capacity: The aircrafts have small carrying capacity and therefore these are not suitable for carrying bulky and cheaper goods. the load capacity cannot be increased as it is found in case of rails. IV. Unreliable: Most of the air transport are uncertain and the unreliable because these are controlled by weather condition. It is seriously affected by adverse weather conditions. Fog, snow and heavy rain weather may cause cancellation of some flights. V. Huge Investment: Air transport requires huge investment for construction and maintenance of aerodromes. It also requires trained, experienced and skilled personnel which involves a substantial investment.

CONCLUSION :

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