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60.

Alkaline mucous glands are found in the sub mucosa of the: a) b) c) d) Ileum Jejunum Duodenum Cardiac region of the stomach Fundic region of the stomach

61.Which of the following is not a function of the liver a) b) c) d) Production of bile Detoxification of drugs Storage of glucose Storage of Vitamin C

62. The gallbladder: a) b) c) d) Produces bile Is attached to the pancreas Stores and concentrates bile Produces cholecystokinin

63. The majority of the absorption of digested nutrients occurs in the: a) b) c) d) Stomach Ileum Jejunum Cecum

64. Which of the following sphincters is under voluntary control? a) b) c) d) e) Pyloric Cardiac Hepatopancreatic Internal anal External anal

65. High doses of antibiotics can destroy the bacterial flora of the large intestine. This can result in impaired: a) b) c) d) Absorption of protein Blood coagulation Bone resorption Respiratory control 1

66. Look at the following layers of the alimentary canal. Arrange them from closest to the lumen to farthest from the lumen. a) b) c) d) Serosa Mucos Muscularis externa Submucosa

67. Which structure thickens in certain regions of the alimentary canal in order to act as a sphincter a) b) c) d) Circular layer of the muscularis mucosae Longituidnal layer of the muscularis mucosa Circular layer of the muscularis externa Longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa

68. The 3 pairs of extrinsic salivary glands are the: a) b) c) d) Parotid, sublingual, and ethmoidal Parotid, buccal, and submaxillary Parotid, submandibular, and buccal Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual

69. Which of the following is correct. a) b) c) d) e) Adult incisors lack dentin Adult incisors lack enamel Adult premolars lack cementum Adult premolars lack enamel None of the above

70. At the junction between the esophagus and the stomach, the epithelial lining changes abruptly from __________________ to _________________. a) b) c) d) Nonkeratinized stratified squamous; simple columnar Simple columnar; nonkeratinized stratified squamous Nonkeratinized simple squamous; stratified columnar Stratified columnar; nonkeratinized simple squamous

71. Histologically, the stomach wall is unique because it contains: a) b) c) d) No lamina propria 1 extra layer in its muscularis mucosae 1 extra layer in its muscularis externa An adventitia in addition to a double-membraned serosa 2

72. Human egg and sperm are similar in that: a) b) c) d) About the same number are produced per month They have the same degree of motility They have the same number of chromosomes They are about the same size

73. The testosterone-producing cells of the testes are called: a) b) c) d) Sertoli cells Granulosa cells Spermatogonia Leydig cells

74. The testicular cells most involved with the construction of the blood-testes barrier are the: a) b) c) d) Sertoli cell Granulosa cells Spermatogonia Leydig cells

75. An oocyte surrounded by one layer of squamous follicle-like cells is most likely a: a) b) c) d) Primordial follicl Primary follicle Secondary follicle Graafian follicle

76. The rounded region of the uterus superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes is the: a) b) c) d) Ampulla Fundus Corpus Isthmus

77. Primary oocytes are: a) b) c) d) Haploid Diploid Polyploid Aneuploid

78. Consider the following 3 tubes. Which is the correct order sperm travels through them. a) Epididymis 3

b) Oviduct c) Ejaculatory Duct 1, 3, 2 3, 1, 2 2, 1, 3 2, 3, 1 79. Which of the following is correct relative to the female anatomy? a) b) c) d) The vaginal orifice is the most dorsal of the 3 openings in the perineum The urethra is between the vaginal orifice and the anus The anus is between vaginal orifice and the urethra The urethra is the more ventral of the 2 openings in the vulva

80. Sertoli cells produce: a) b) c) d) Mucus Androgen-binding protein Testosterone FSH

81. Spermatogenesis BEGINS in the: a) b) c) d) Epididymis Uterine horn Rete testes Seminiferous tubules

82. The site of oogenesis is the: a) b) c) d) Ovary Ovum Oocyte Oviduct

83. In the 1st phase of the menstrual cycle: a) b) c) d) Oogonia differentiate into primary oocytes The thickness of the stratum basalis decreases dramatically The Graafian follicle ruptures The dominant follicle is opsonized 4

84. During ovulation, all of the following occur Except: a) b) c) d) Rupture of the Graafian follicle Estrogen production reaches its lowest point FSH and LH plasma levels surge Corpus luteum is formed

85. Which of the following would be the most likely site of fertilization? a) b) c) d) Ovary Uterine tube Fundus of uterus Cervix

86. Human chorionic gonadotropin: a) b) c) d) Begins to be produced 4 months after fertilization Is produced by the prostate gland Is produced by the corpus luteum Is present only if a successful fertilization has occurred

87. If you took a drug that inhibited the reabsorbtion of Na+ in the PCT, you would: a) b) c) d) Have an increased urine output Have a decreased urine output Have a decreased plasma [bilirubin] and become jaundiced Have decreased absorption of fats and have grey-white feces

88. Podocytes make up the: a) b) c) d) Visceral layer of the nephron Visceral layer of the glomerulus Visceral layer of the renal capsule Visceral layer of the Bowman's Capsule

89. Glucose is: a) b) c) d) Filtered, reabsorbed, and secreted Filtered, and reabsorbed, but not secreted Filtered, and secreted, but not reabsorbed Filtered, and neither secreted nor reabsorbed

90. Place the following in the correct sequence from the initial formation of urine to its elimination from the body.

a) b) c) d) e) f)

Major calyx Minor calyx Nephron Urethra Ureter Collecting duct

91. While the kidneys process about 180L of blood-derived fluids per day, the amount that actually leaves the body is: a) b) c) d) 50%, or 90L 100%, or 180L 10%, or 18L 1%, or 1.8L

92. The ____________ artery sits on the boundary between the cortex and the medulla of the kidney. a) b) c) d) Lobar Interlobar Arcuate Segmental

93. The fluid in the capsular space is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of: a) b) c) d) Glucose Sodium H+ Albumin

94. Aldosterone causes: a) b) c) d) Decreased K+ in the urine Increased Na+ in the urine Increased urine output Decreased urine output

95. Creatinine is a: a) b) c) d) Chemical that is typically not secreted Substance typically found in greater amounts in renal arteries than in renal veins Building block for complex carbohydrates 2 of the above are correct 6

96. Which of the following is not one of the 3 external coverings of the kidney? a) b) c) d) Renal capsule Adipose capsule Renal fascia Renal adventitia

97. In humans, the thirst center is located in the: a) b) c) d) Adrenal cortex Pons Hypothalamus Medulla Oblongata

98. Hormonal control of urinary excretion primarily affects: a) b) c) d) Bowman's capsules DCTs and collecting ducts PCTs and Loops of Henle Urinary Bladder

99. The plasma protein concentration of a patient with untreated glomerulonephritis Would be expected to be: a) b) c) d) Greater than normal Less than normal Normal All of the above

100. Which of the following is NOT a function of atrial natriuretic peptide? a) b) c) d) It acts to decrease aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex It acts to increase urine output It acts to increase blood pressure It acts to decrease ADH release

111. Parathyroid hormone acts to: a) b) c) d) Decrease calcium absorption in the gut Decrease calcium reabsorption in the renal tubules Increase plasma calcium levels Increase osteoblast activity

112. 7.0 is the normal pH of the: a) b) c) d) Blood in the renal artery Blood in the testicular vein Urine Fluid within a typical cell

113. The addition of a strong acid to the extracellular fluid would result in the increased Formation of: a) b) c) d) NaHCO3H2CO3 OHAll of the above

114. Which of the following could cause excessive urine output a) b) c) d) Hyperaldosteronism Hypersecretion of ADH Hyperventilation Severe hypoinsulinemia (as associated with Type I Diabetes Mellitus)

115. The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ____________ buffer system. a) b) c) d) Phosphate Hemoglobin Bicarbonate Protein

116. An attempt to compensate for plasma acidosis: a) b) c) d) Breathing rate and depth will increase Breathing rate and depth will decrease Breathing rate will increase and depth will decrease Breathing rate and depth will not change since only the renal mechanism can deal with acidosis

117. The pH of blood varies directly with: a) b) c) d) HCO3H+ Pco2 None of above

118. What portion of the male urinary tract contains some stratified squamous nonKeratinized epithelium a) b) c) d) Membranous urethra Prostatic urethra Spongy (penile) urethra All of the above

119. The micturition center is located in the: a) b) c) d) Pons Medulla Cerebellum Basal Ganglia

120. The vasa recta create the osmotic gradient in the kidney's medulla. a) b) c) d) This statement is true This statement is false because the PCT creates the gradient This statement is false because the DCT creates the gradient This statement is false because the loop of Henle creates the gradient

121. The main solute component of urine is: a) b) c) d) Urea Glucose Agglutin Urobilinogen

122. Which of the following is incorrect? a) b) c) d) Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorption of Na+ Aldosterone stimulates the secretion of K+ Aldosterone affects water reabsorption Aldosterone is made in the hypothalamus and released from the anterior pituitary

123. The majority of reabsorption occurs in the: a) b) c) d) Renal capsule Proximal convoluted tubule Collecting duct Ascending limb of the loop of Henle

124. Which of the following is found in the renal medulla? a) b) c) d) Renal pacemaker cells Islets of Langerhans DCT Loop of Henle

125. Which of the following would not be secreted from the ISF into the filtrate? a) b) c) d) Organic acids Amino acids Organic bases Creatinine

126. Urine with a high concentration of C6H12O6 is: a) b) c) d) Normal because this compound is filtered and secreted but not reabsorbed Normal because this compound is filtered and reabsorbed but not secreted Abnormal because this compound is filtered and secreted but not reabsorbed Abnormal because this compound is filtered and reabsorbed but not secreted

127. Which of the following is incorrect concerning ADH? a) b) c) d) Its production is regulated by plasma osmolarity Its activity is affected by alcohol It acts on the collecting duct and decreases its permeability to water It is stored in the posterior pituitary

128. Which of the following is not a unit of the nephron? a) b) c) d) Bowman's capsule PCT DCT Medullary papilla

129. Consider the following structures: a) b) c) d) e) Bowman's capsule Collecting duct PCT DCT Loop of Henle

What is the order filtrate follows as it flows through the nephron

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130. The kidneys are located: a) b) c) d) Retroperitoneally Only within the epigastric region Superior to the liver All of the above

131. Which of the following is a function of the kidneys? a) b) c) d) Release of hormones Maintenance of plasma pH Maintenance of plasma [electrolyte] Gluconeogenesis

132. Which of the following is part of the renal corpuscle? a) b) c) d) Glomerulus PCT DCT Collecting duct

133. Where do new epidermal cells come from a) Subcutaneous layer b) Stratum basale c) Stratum corneum d) Dermis? 134. The maintenance of constant body temperature would be difficult without the actions of the a) Apocrine glands b) Meibomian glands c) Sebaceous glands d) Eccrine glands 135. Which of the following is NOT a function of skin

a) Respiration b) Excretion c) Sensation

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d) Thermoregulation 136. Which pigment is responsible for a tan's brown color a) melanin b) carotene c) hemoglobin d) bile 137. What is redness of the skin called a) pallor b) carotenemia c) erythema d) jaundice 138. Skin sensitivity characterized by intense itching & inflammation: a) urticaria b) pruritis c) shingles d) psoriasis e) eczema

139. Viral infection that follows nerve pathways, producing small lesions on the overlying skin: a) urticaria b) pruritis c) shingles d) psoriasis 140. Severe itching of the skin: a) urticaria b) pruritis c) shingles d) psoriasis 141. Chronic skin disease characterized by red flat areas covered with silvery scales: a) urticaria b) pruritis c) shingles d) psoriasis

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142. The epidermis is ----------- to the dermis. a) superficial b) deep c) lateral d) medial 143. Acne is an infection of which type of gland a) sudoriferous b) sebaceous c) ceruminous d) meibomian 144. What is the medical term for baldness a) alopecia b) pemphigus c) verruca d) dermatitis 145. Which skin disorder is caused by an accumulation of bile pigment in the blood? a) pallor b) cyanosis c) jaundice d) carotenemia 146. Which are affected in basal cell & squamous cell carcinomas a) epidermal cells b) dermal cells c) melanocytes d) adipocytes 147. Which protein makes up a major component of bone matrix? a) keratin b) collagen c) melanin d) calcium 148. Where does bone growth occur in children? a) center of bone shafts b) epiphyseal plates c) medullary cavities d) epiphyseal lines

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149. Which bone forms the back & parts of the base of the skull? a) parietal bone b) temporal bone c) occipital bone d) sphenoid bone

150. Freely movable joints are also called a) fibrous joints b) cartilaginous joints c) diarthroses d) amphiarthroses

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