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Introduction to the course: objectives and organization


Studying phrasal syntax, which is the objective of this course, means that we shall be concerned with the internal structure of various types of phrases as the smallest syntactic units. The course falls into four main parts. The first part introduces basic concepts and terms used in syntactic analyses. The second part is concerned with the structure of the verb phrase, i.e. with its main elements and their combinations. Part three concentrates in detail on the structure of the noun phrase, including the adjective phrase as one of noun phrase modifiers as well as determinatives. Finally, a brief discussion of the semantics and grammar of the adverb phrase as adverbial concludes the course. Some areas and particularly the last part! will involve a great deal of self-study. The assessment will be based on a written examination paper "#$! and an interview %#$-&#$!. The written part of the exam will include a tas' dealing with the tenseaspect-mood system of the (nglish verb including modality!. The reading list includes the following chapters and)or sections from* +uir', ,andolph, Sidney -reenbaum, -eoffrey .eech, /an Svartvi' 0123!. 4 5omprehensive -rammar of the (nglish .anguage. .ondon and 6ew 7or'* .ongman. % 4 survey of (nglish grammar %.%3-&& Phrases %.&8-83 9ord classes & :erbs and auxiliaries &.3%-3; The structure of verb phrases 0; The noun phrase 3 6ouns and determiners 3.0#-%3 <eterminatives 2 The semantics and grammar of adverbials 2.0-%& =utline of semantic roles 2.%8 -rammatical functions 2.%3-%" 4djuncts 2.&1-80 4djuncts of space 2.30-38 4djuncts of time 2.;2 Process adjuncts 2.22 Subjuncts 2.0%0-0%% <isjuncts 2.0&8 5onjuncts or e>uivalent chapters from* +uir', ,andolph, Sidney -reenbaum, -eoffrey .eech, /an Svartvi' 01;%!. 4 -rammar of 5ontemporary (nglish. .ondon and 6ew 7or'* .ongman.

Shorter in some cases radically abridged! overviews of these topics are available in* +uir', ,., S. -reenbaum 01;&!. 4 ?niversity -rammar of (nglish. .ondon* .ongman. -reenbaum, S., ,. +uir' 011#!. 4 Student$s -rammar of the (nglish .anguage. .ondon* .ongman.

1. On syntax
-rammar is a term very rich in meanings. =n one interpretation, grammar includes two areas* syntax and morphology. Syntax is a traditional term used to refer to the study of the rules determining the way in which words may be combined to ultimately form sentences in a language. @t is concerned with the structure of se>uences of words, units larger than words. The term comes from -ree' and literally means $putting together$. @nformally, syntax is about the togetherness of words and morphemes!. Syntax is usually opposed to mor-phology, which deals with the structure of words, i.e. with inflection and derivation of words. These units may be phrases or clauses and sentences. 5onse>uently, syntax may be viewed as having two branches* phrasal syntax and clausal syntax.

1.1. Phrasal syntax


1.1.1. Phrase as a descriptive device: Words vs phrases vs clauses

9hat evidence is there that phrase as a concept is really necessary for the ade>uate description of syntactic phenomena, i.e. that clauses and sentences are indeed made up of phrases and not simply of wordsA Bow many sentences can be made out of the following set of wordsA 0! cat, funny, a, collect, purple, boo', the, disturbed 9hy are sentences in %! well-formed but those in &! are notA %! a. 4 purple boo' disturbed the funny cat. b. The funny boo' disturbed the cat. c. 4 funny boo' disturbed the purple cat. d. The funny cat collected the purple boo'. e. 4 purple cat collected a funny boo'. f. The purple boo' collected a funny cat. g. The funny cat disturbed a purple boo'. &! a. C5at funny a collect purple. b. CDoo' purple the disturb funny.
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c. C5at purple the collect funny. @s a syntactic rule that appears to ade>uately describe %! and rule out &! and has the following format* 8! 4 well-formed (nglish sentence)clause may have the form* 4rt - 4dj - 6 - : - 4rt - 4dj - 6 in fact sufficientA @n other words, could it be hypothesiEed that categorial information associated with words may sufficeA =n this approach clauses)sentences have no internal structure apart from being left-to-right ordered strings of otherwise atomic elements, i.e. lexical items. This type of analysis can easily be proved to be severely inade>uate. First, the number of rules such rules specifying all the permitted linerar strings would be extremely large. Secondly, there is morphological and semantic evidence that phrase is a neces-sary concept. @s it possible to account for the grammar of the genitive clitic $s unless we postulate phrasesA 5f.* 3! a. This crown is the 'ing$s. b. This crown is the 'ing of (ngland$s. c. CThis crown is the 'ing$s of (ngland. d. CThis crown is very handsome$s. Semantic evidence for the postulation of phrases comes from the fact that we would not be able to account for the ambiguity of sentences li'e* "! Be hit the man with a stic'. unless we allow for some internal structural level between the word level and the clause)sentence level. (xplain the ambiguity. Further syntactic evidence may also be adduced concerning the distribution of various se>uences of words. For example, a phenomenon called preposing would be a real mystery unless we have the concept of phrase. ?nder appropriate stylistic conditions certain parts of the sentence may be preposed for emphasis. 6ow, how many and which words can be preposedA 9hy are resulting constructions in 2! grammatical and those in 1! ungramamticalA ;! a. @ can$t stand Fyour elder sisterG. b. @ simply will not tolerate Fthat 'ind of behaviourG. 2! a. F7our elder sisterG, @ can$t stand. b. FThat 'ind of behaviourG, @ simply will not tolerate. 1! a. C7our elder, @ can$t stand sister. b. C(lder sister, @ can$t stand your. c. CSister, @ can$t stand your elder. 0#! a. CDehaviour, @ will simply not tolerate that 'ind of. b. CThat 'ind of, @ will simply not tolerate behaviour.
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00! a. /ohn rang up his mother. b.C?p his mother /ohn rang. Pronominalisation is another of the whole series of syntactic pieces of evidence in support of phrasal structures. Thus pro-forms such as it function as pro-6P constituents and replace the whole 6P but not individual nouns. 6ow that we have seen that phrases are indeed necessary in syntactic analysis, we might as well try to define the notion. 9hat we have discovered by now is that words are inade>uate as units of syntactic analysis and that phrases are typically combinations of at least two words although in some models they may be simple and consist of a single word!. =n the other hand they are by definition smaller than clauses. 9e may thus assume that they are the smallest syntacic units. This means that phrase may be negatively defined as a grammatical unit occupying an intermediate position between the level of word and the level of clause. Dut still we have not in this way determined its actual siEe, or its defining features. Phrases are sometimes characteriEed as elements of syntactic structure, i.e. as groups of words, that lac' the subject-predicate structure typical of clauses. 9hy is this not enoughA 0%! Hy first boo' on synchronic linguistics Phrases are by definition internally structured units. 9ithin the structure of phrases we may distinguish between the central element or the head element on the one hand and dependent elements on the other. Hodifiers, complements, determinatives, etc. are particular types of dependents. <etermination is the term for the function of words or sometimes phrases! which in general, determine the 'ind of reference of a noun phrase* definite, indefinite, partitive or universal. Semantically, all 6Ps are determined in some way or other* they are either definite or indefinite in meaning. Bowever, some heads, notably proper nouns, are by their very nature inherently definite and need no overt determiner)deter-minative. Hodification is a largely optional function. Premodifiers precede the head, postmodifiers follow it. @n 6Ps, premodifiers follow determinatives. @n semantic terms, modifiers add specific information to the head, often restricting the reference of the head. Thus an 6P with a head modified has a more specific meaning than an 6P with an unmodified head. 5omplementation is the label employed to refer to a part of a phrase or clause which follows a word, and completes the specification of a meaning relationship which that word implies. 5omplementation may be obligatory or optional* 0&! a. Be deceived his father. b. CBe deceived 08! a. Be allowed me a respite. b. CBe allowed me!. 03! a. 4ll sales are subject to tax. b. C4ll sales are subject.
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The distinction between heads and dependents is motivated by the following facts* First, heads are normally obligatory, except in the special case of ellipsis, while dependents are often and prototypically! omissible. 0"! a. Several new crac's had appeared in the wall. b. 5rac's had appeared in the wall. 6ote that some dependents may not be omitted* 0;! a. Tom used the wrong method. b. ATom used the method. Bowever, omissibility is not a necessary condition for the dependent status, it is a sufficient one. Since dependents are not obligatory, we admit the posssiblity of a phrase being realised by a single word, i.e. of it being a simple phrase that can potentially be expanded. Secondly, the head often imposes restrictions on what 'inds of forms can occur as dependent* 02! very eager for success Bere the head eager determines)re>uires that its complement be introduced by the preposition, specifically by for, and not, say, by in or at. Similarly, heads li'e fact, idea, belief, knowledge can ta'e that clauses, so called appositive modifiers or content clauses as dependent, whereas the great majority of nouns cannot* 01! a. Be was obsessed with the idea that he was going to die. b. CBe was obsessed with the boo' that he was going to die. Thirdly, when two or three phrases are combined in a larger unit, any restrictions concerning their mutual compatibility or incompatibility affects only the heads of phrases, it has nothing to do with any of their dependents* %#! a. Be had recently gone >uite mad. b. Be had recently become >uite happy. c. CBe had recently gone >uite happy. Fourthly, only dependents can be realiEed by members of different word classes. =n the other hand, there is a systematic correlation between the type of phrase and its head in that the head of an 6P is always a noun or a pronoun. 1.1.2. ypes o! phrases Since phrases are often functionally e>uivalent to a single word, their head, they are thus classsified according to the part of speech of the 'ind of word to which is e>uivalent. 9e thus have noun phrases, which are functionally e>uivalent to a noun, verb phrases, which are functionally e>uivalent to verbs, etc. 4nother possible classification of phrases is in terms of optional and obligatory elements, i.e. with reference to their head. =ne type of phrase contains only one obligatory element which may be accompanied followed or preceded! by other
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optional elements. Such phrases contain their head that is indeed functionally e>uivalent to the whole phrase. Such headed phrases are called endocentric phrase. 4djective phrases and adverb phrases are examples of this type. Prepositional phrases, on the other hand, contain two obligatory elements* %0! a. @ went to .ondon. b. C@ went to. c. C@ went .ondon. 4lthough the preposition determines the primary meaning of the phrase and is more head-li'e, this type of phrase is considered nonheaded or exocentric. The remaining two major types of phrases, noun phrases and verb phrases, do not fit entirely into the either category. :erb phrases are headed in the sense that every fullblown :P exhibits a lexical or main verb, but not necessarily an auxiliary. The lexical verb appears to be more central in terms of meaning, but it cannot always stand alone if non-finite. For noun phrases, a determinative element appears to be obligatory. 6Ps can be headed by pronouns, if they happen to be personal pronouns they cannot be followed by optional elements. 4ll this means that phrases cannot be described by a single structural formula, and that various specific subclassifications accounting for deviations must be allowed. 4n interesting observation is that whenever a phrase in-volves a functional word as an obligatory element there are complications and uncertainties concerning the headedness of the phrase. Dy functional words we mean all those words belonging to closed classes. The distinction between open and closed classes concerns the division of parts of speech into two main groups. 5losed classes are prepositions, pronouns, determiners, conjunctions, modal verbs and primary auxiliary verbs. =pen classes are nouns, adjectives, full or lexical verbs, and adverbs. There are of course numerals and interjections but these have a marginal role from a grammatical point of view. 5losed classes are sets of items closed in the sense that they are only exceptionally extended by the adoption or creation of additional members. These items tend to be mutually exclusive and their meaning is closely related to the larger construction in which they appear. This is reflected in the traditional labels such as function words, grammatical words, structure words. @tems belonging to open classes share some grammatical and structural properties with other members, but the classes are open in the sense that they are indefinitely extendable* new items are constantly being added to the stoc', either through creation or adoption from other linguistics systems.

1.2. "u##ary o! phrase structures


:erb phrases consist of a main verb which either stands alone as the entire :P, or is preceded by up to four verbs in an auxiliary function* auxiliary)auxiliaries was been main verb san' sin'ing sun'
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The ship

has

may

must have

have been

been sin'ing being sun'

4ll 6Ps have head-words as their central elements. The head-word, a noun or a pronoun, is a word which determines the number agreement with the verb if the 6P appears in the subject position. The head-word is also the word to which other elements of the 6P, i.e. modifiers, refer, or on which they depend. 6Ps are endocentric phrases in that they invariably exhibit one head-word optionally accompanied by modifiers on both sides of it. determinative premodification head him Peter wedding girl fine warm days postmodification complementation

4lice$s that @ remember all those

with the red hair in the country last year than that that @ ever had that @ once had

a the a

better best good

story trip trip

There are several tests that can be invo'ed to chec' whether a given string is an 6P or not. 5left-sentence test consists roughly in the placement of what at the front of a sentence and an appropriate form of be at the end of it* 01! a. The wind blew off the roof. b. 9hat the wind blew off was the roof. c. 9hat blew off the roof was the wind. d. C9hat the wind blew was off the roof. ?nfortunately, this test wor's with non-human nouns only* %#! a. C9hat 'illed the fly was /ac'. 4nother test for 6P-hood is the passivisation test. 4djective phrase consist of an adjective as head, optionally preceded and followed by modifying elements. Sometimes an obligatory or optional complement is present* premodification The weather too head pleasant hot postmodification complementation to be enjoyable
;

was

incredibly

cold pleasant

enough

4dverb phrases are similar to adjective phrases with respect to their structural ma'e-up except that they are headed by an adverb* premodification >uite @ spo'e to him very as head yesterday often severely clearly indeed as @ could postmodification complementation

Prepositional phrases consist of a preposition obligatorily followed by a complement, which is normally a noun phrase* preposition prepositional complement for at on by lunch the corner of the street Saturday morning a strange coincidence

@ met her

$ead the passage and then choose the odd !or# out in each set listed belo%. @ sat down on a stone. @ was exhausted. Hy an'le was aching and leg muscles that @ never 'new existed were beginning to complain. The sun was casting long shadows and the silence worried me. There was no sign of the path, and no other trail loo'ed at all convincing. @ could not see a single house, there was no familiar landmar's, and the @ndus was only a glinting tric'le far below. @ felt tired, miserable and slightly frightened. @ sat for ten minutes without moving, unsure of what to do. 4ll options seemed e>ually unappealing. Then, immediately above me, @ heard gunshots. =n other occasions the noise might have been sinister. 6ow they seemed welcoming, almost homely. @ clambered upwards, and soon found a trac'. Following it around a bluff of roc' @ saw the source of the shots* a village of half-timbered huts clinging to the sheer hillside. 0 verb phrases % noun phrases shots & adjective phrases 8 adverb phrases tired, miserable and slightly frightened almost homely unsure of what to do e>ually unappealing following it never far below immediately above
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was exhausted could not see

was aching might have been

were beginning to complain

leg muscles that @ never 'new existed me casting long shadows no sign of the path the source of the

now 3 prepositional phrases

upwards

for ten minutes

on a stone for ten minutes without moving on other occasions almost homely

Identi!y all the phrases in the !ollo%ing text. @n a rare act of civic piety, .os 4ngeles flew its flags at half-mast this wee' in honour of <orothy IDuffyI 5handler, who died on /uly "th. The city$s mayor, ,ichard ,iordan, interrupted his holiday to say that Iher imprint will be part of .os 4ngeles for many centuries to come.I Identi!y the heads o! the !ollo%ing phrases. two other obstacles would 'eep the city$s growing ethnic diversity a new and even cleverer director many who applauded as he sang the rich did not need the latest polls home to rare fauna by her superiors

&o% #uch do you 'no% about %ord classes (parts o! speech)* +hoose the best options. 0 9e divide words into 4! two D! three 5! four broad categories, depending on whether these classes are relatively fixed or constantly changing. % 5losed word classes 4! have important grammatical functions D! often get new words added 5! consist largely of $lexical$ words. & The closed classes include 4! full verbs and modal verbs D! primary and full verbs 5! primary and modal verbs. 8 The open classes 4! are constantly gaining new words D! include mainly $grammatical$ words 5! include all verbs. 3 The terms $generic$ and $specific$ are applied to the meaning of 4! adverbial phrases D! noun phrases 5! prepositional phrases. " The terms $mar'ed$ and $unmar'ed$ relate to 4! inflection only D! meaning only 5! both inflection and meaning. ; =perator means 4! a finite verb phrase D! the auxiliaries in a verb phrase 5! the first or only auxiliary. Word classes. +o#plete the sentences %ith these %ords: adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, determiners, nouns, prepositions, pronouns, verbs 0 <ynamic, finite, full, transitive all describe JJJJJJJJJJ. % 5ollective, count, genitive, proper are used in describing JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. & 4ttributive, predicative, comparative, superlative relate to JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. 8 <emonstrative, interrogative, personal, relative describe different 'inds of JJJJJJJJJJJJ. 3 JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ often tell us how, when, where or why something happened. " Hany JJJJJJJJJJJ have meanings connected with place or time. They connect two
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units of a sentence together and show a relationship. ; The articles a)an and the are special 'inds of JJJJJJJJJJ. 2 JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ join words, phrases and clauses together. Some are coordinating and some are subordinating. +hoose the odd %ord out in each set , the %ord that does not belong to that particular %ord class. could are me after and college angry cause an afterwards may can every at because class hungry insist how badly should did ours during or grammar lonely must my friendly will has someone into too learn obviously persuade no now want was they upwards when teacher silly suggest whose soon

+lassi!y the highlighted %ords as parts o! speech. 0 @s it right to say that the right wrongs no manA % =ne cannot right all the wrongs in the world. & 5ure that cold with a drin' of hot lemon before you go to bed. 8 <rin' this >uic'K <on$t let it get cold. 3 Before the Fire, there had been a plague, the like of which had not been 'nown before and has not been seen since. -educe as #uch as possible about the %ords and structure o! the !ollo%ing non, sense: <egressably, the slem that +uisian had arvingly craduced thrammed a ranglin through both ma'les of wismy cluff so hort that umbody flapsed. Thereupon, the dramp nording the wendorous plorin stambored its tilfored cormel aside hypaxically till al the bohams could prentiously desorm.

2. he structure o! the verb phrase


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2.1. "i#ple vs co#plex .P


The structure of the verb phrase may be represented in a number of ways. So far, it has been chiefly characteriEed in terms of auxiliary and lexical or main verbs. 4 verb phrase may be simple or complex* 0! a. Be wor's hard. b. 9or' harderK c. @t is important that he wor' harder. %! a. /ohn has wor'ed hard. b. /ohn should have wor'ed harder. The complex :P may be described in terms of the following four basic construction types* &! 4 D 5 < Hodal! Perfective! Progressive! Passive!

Type 4 Hodal! consists of a modal auxiliary and the base form of the main verb* 8! a. must examine b. will come Type D Perfective! consists of the primary auxilary have and the -ed participle of the main verb* 3! a. has examined b. has ta'en Type 5 Progressive! consists of the primary auxiliary be L the -ing participle of the main verb* "! a. is examining b. is ta'ing Type < Passive! consists of the primary auxiliary be L the - ed participle of the main verb* ;! a. is examined b. is ta'en These four basic constructions enter into combinatins with each other, but the order in which they can combine is indicated by the alphabetical symbols, 4, D, 5 and <, which label them. 6ot all the constructions need be present so that there may be gaps 45, 4<, 45<, D<!. (ach construction can be used only once* 2! 4D* 45* 4<* may have examined may be examining may be examined
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D5* has been examining D<* has been examined 5<* is being examined 4D5* may have been examining 4D<* may have been examined 45<* may be being examined D5<* has been being examined 4D5<* may have been being examined 6otice that in these combinations constructions are telescoped or fused into each other* 1! 4* auxiliary infinitive may L have M D* auxiliary L - ed partic. have been M L - ed <* auxiliary part. been examined

2.2. /inite vs non!inite .P


4nother way in which the structure of the verb phrase may be described is in terms of finite and nonfinite verbs. 4 finite verb phrase is a phrase in which the first or the only word is a finite verb, the rest of the verb phrase if any! consisting of nonfinite verbs. 4 nonfinite verb phrase contains nonfinite verb forms only. 1! a. to be swimming b. having jumped c. to have jumped d. having been dismissed Doth a finite verb phrase and a nonfinite verb phrase may be either simple or complex* 0#! a. swims b. to swim c. swimming 00! a. is swimming b. has been swimming c. will be swimming d. to be swimming e. to have been swimming Finite :Ps can be distinguished from nonfinite :Ps as follows* a. Finite :Ps can occur as the :P of independent clauses. b. Finite :Ps are tensed, i.e. they have tense contrast between present and past*
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0%! a. Be is a journalist b. Be wor'ed as a travel agent last summer. 0&! a. doing b. having done c. There is person concord and number concord between the subject of a clause and the finite verb phrase. 5oncord is most conspicuous with the present tense of be* 08! a. @ am here. b. 7ou are here. c. Be)she)it is here. d. 9e)They are here. 03! a. Be)She)/im reads. b. @)9e)7ou)They read. d. Finite :Ps contain, as their first or only word, a finite verb form which may be either an operator or a simple present or past form. Do-support is used in forming negative, interrogative and emphatic constructions with simple :Ps. The infinitive, the -ing participle, and the -ed participle are the nonfinite forms of the verb. Bence any phrase in which one of the listed forms is the first or the only word discounting of course the infinitive particle to! will be called a nonfinite :P. e. Finite :Ps have mood indicating the factual, non-factual or counterfactual status of the predication. @n contrast to the indicative, there are imperative and subjunctive. There is, in fact, a scale of finiteness ranging from the most finite :P, which is the indicative mood, to the infinitive, the least finite :P* 0"! a b c d e JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ indicative L L L L L subjunctive L A -A L imperative L --A L ----------------------------infinitive -----JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

2.0. +o#plex !inite verb phrase


The order in which the constructions can be combined has been illustrated in 2! above. The first step is to select the present or the past of the finite verb, then comes the selection of the rest. =n the whole, the more complex the :P pattern is, the less fre>uent it is in actual usage* 0;! a. has been being examined b. will have been being examined

2.0. +o#plex non!inite .Ps


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Since (nglish central modal auxiliaries are by definition finite and lac' any nonfinite counterparts, 4 cannot occur in nonfinite :Ps. This limits the number of available possible constructions* 02! D* to have examined having examined 5* to be examining FbeingG examining <* to be examined FbeingG examined D5* to have been examining having been examining D<* to have been examined having been examined 5<* to be being examined FbeingG being examined D5<* to have been being examined having been being examined 9herever a nonfinite participle :P should theoretically begin with the auxiliary be-ing, this participle being is omitted.

2.1. 2radience bet%een one and t%o .Ps


@f a a nonfinite :P follows a finite one, as in certain types of verb complementation, it is possible for the same construction to be repeated in each phrase* 01! a. 9e had hoped N to have finished by then. D L D b. @ am hoping N to be seeing her tomorrow. 5 L 5 There is nothing against two constructions occurring outside their normal ordering, provided they belong to two different :Ps* %#! a. @ was hoping N to have finished by then. 5 L D b. /ac' was believed N to have been 'illed. < L D< :ery complex possibilities, such as 4D5 L D5<, are extremely rare* %0! AThey must have been expecting N to have been being paid well. 9ith semi-auxiliaries it is possible to use the same construction twice* %%! a. Sarah and @ are going to be leaving tonight. b. The walls were supposed to be repaired.
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-escribe the structure o! the verb phrases in the !ollo%ing sentences. 0 (ven if the (? had a common defence policy, most (uropeans, apart from Dritain and France, would be aghast at the idea of applying it outside of (urope. % There is no reason, however, why 64T=$s (uropean members should not help 4merica out more in the world$s tight spots. & 4nd yet this is also precisely the reason why Hs Howlam should have trodden more warily, and expended less of her political capital on this single dispute. 8 For nearly ;# years, the P,@ has held on to power by hoo' or by croo'. 3 64S4 used this to convince 5ongress not to axe the @SS, on the ground that, among other things, the joint project would be cheaper for 4merica. " The state pension and health systems have recently been rejigged but not been given the real sha'e-up they badly need. ; Hoderate nationalists, their trust in .abour shattered, are losing faith that multiparty tal's will ever produce a settlement they can accept. /or# a co#plex verb phrase using sting as the #ain verb and may as the auxili, ary verb: 0 present, passive, modal % progressive, passive & participle, passsive 8 infinitive, modal, passive 3 infinitive, perfective, passive " progressive, passive, perfective ; modal, progressive 2 modal, perfective, progressive 1 participle, progressive, passive 0# perfective, passive JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

3se the #ost appropriate !or# o! the verbs in brac'ets. Tom* Putting down 'nife and for' after finishing all that was on his plate! 4h, that be! JJJJJJJJJJJJJ goodK @ not have! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ such a decent meal since @ dine! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ with the Polytopian ambassador ten years ago. Doth the food and the wine be! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ excellent. /ac'* @ am! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ glad you enjoy! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ your meal. @ often come! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ to this restaurant and @ always find! JJJJJJJJJJJJ the food very good. @ tell! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ about the place a long time ago by my friend Barry Simpson. @ 'now! JJJJJJJJJJJJJ him since @ be! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ a boy. Be always interest! JJJJJJJJJJJ in good food. Be found! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ the -ourmet$s 5lub in 01"#, @ thin'! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ.
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4nybody who ever thin'! JJJJJJJJJJJ about his language will have realiEed that it develop! JJJJJJJJJJ over a very long time. 9e cannot say that a language suddenly begin! JJJJJJJ on some particular day in the past. People all at once not start, spea'! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ a given language one fine morningK The speech of primitive men probably begin! JJJJJJJJJJ with uncouth grunts and groans, but we cannot be certain of this, for we not inherit! JJJJJJJJJJJJJ records of primitive speech, which come! JJJJJJJJJJJJJ into being long before men learn! JJJJJJJJJJJ how to write. 9hen we study! JJJJJJJJJJJJ our own language a little, we see that at various times in the past it ta'e! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ words and grammar from other languages.

0. 4oun Phrase
0.1. Introduction
0.1.1. he co#plexity o! the noun phrase ,ules or operations are said to be recursive if they may be repeatedly applied. Bow can this recursiveness be invo'ed to account for the indefinite complexity of noun phrasesA Study the following data* 0! a. The tall girl is Hary Smith. b. The girl was standing in the corner. c. 7ou waved to the girl when you entered. d. The girl became angry because you 'noc'ed over her glass. e. The tall girl standing in the corner who became angry because you knocked over her glasses after you waved to her when you entered is Hary Smith. f. The very tall girl standing in the far corner who became extremely angry because you knocked over her expensive glasses after you wave to her when you entered is Hary Smith. 0.1.2. he structure o! the noun phrase The structure of a complex noun phrase, and in fact of any noun phrase, may be described in terms of the following four constituent parts* %! -eter#iner(s) , Pre#odi!ication , &ead , Post#odi!ication Bow can the head of the noun phrase be definedA 9hat is the syntactic relation that the head contracts with elements outside the phrase that are illustrated belowA &! a. FThe tall girl standing in the cornerG is my sister. b. FThe tall girls standing in the cornerG are my sisters. 8! a. FThe tall girl in the corner who)Cwhich has a blue sweaterG is my sister.
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b. @ saw the tall girl in Fthe corner which)Cwho was full of peopleG. <o all noun phrases have headsA <eterminers may be overt or Eero. 9hat are the subtypes of determiners that may be defined in syntactic terms, i.e. in terms of their relative orderA Study the following data* "! a. all the furniture b. both those musicians ;! a. some new office furniture b. all those fine musicians 2! a. the many new offices b. the few survivors Bow can modifiers be defined with respect to their relative positionA 9hat 'ind of items may function as a premodifier and what 'ind of items as a postmodiferA 5onsider the following cases* 1! a. some expensive furniture b. some very expensive furniture c. some very expensive office furniture 0#! a. the car outside the station b. the car standing outside the station c. the car that stood outside the station d. a bigger car than that 4oun phrases: identi!ying the head. Identi!y the head nouns in the noun phrases pic'ed out in the !ollo%ing passage. DD5 weatherman Hichael Fish$s failure to give a warning of the great storm of =ctober 012; 0! was a spectacular example of how modern meteorology fails %! says the 5onsumer$s 4ssociation &! in a report 8! today. @t claims that the Het =ffice$s near monopoly on meteorology 3! casts a cloud "! over consumer interests, ;! and argues for an =ffice of Fair Trading investigation into the weather forecasting industry. 2! The association$s Which? magaEine report 1! stresses that forecasting 0#!
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is clearly improving overall, but it ta'es the Het =ffice 00! to tas' 0%! for failing to explain the weather 0&! in a user-friendly way. 08! @t says the language of isobars and anticyclones 03! is less important than $whether Suffol' should put out its washing$ and calls for better translation of what forecasts actually mean. 0"! Which? 0;! favours a new style of forecasting based on probability. 02! 5loser to the science of placing a bet on a horse 01! than a traditional forecast, %#! this would include phrases such as $there is a ;# per cent chance of rain in the South$ %0! rather than the more usual $there may be scattered showers$. Identi!y all the noun phrases in the !ollo%ing passage5 as illustrated %ith the !irst three 4Ps in the !irst sentence. +o##ent brie!ly on your procedure. 4ote that a noun phrase #ay be 6uite co#plex5 e.g. because another noun phrase #ay be e#bedded it (recursiveness). 9hen F5hesterG was Fa thriving portG, .iverpool was Fa small fishing villageG, but from the early 02th century, when the silting up of the <ee cut off 5hester$s trading lifeline, .iverpool began to grow into one of the biggest and most prosperous ports in the world. Dy 022# lines of doc's stretched for ; miles along the ban's of the Hersey, and 8# per cent of the world$s trade was carried in .iverpool ships. Today much of this vast industrial system has fallen into disuse, with the shift to bul'-carriers and containerisation, and for the first time it is possible to ta'e a closer loo' at this part of Dritain$s maritime history. Identi!y all the noun phrases in the !ollo%ing passages and describe their structure5 by speci!ying their heads5 deter#iners5 pre, and post#odi!iers. Drash and cheerful, Dlac'pool stretches in a long, multi-coloured ribbon by the sea, punctuated by three piers and dominated by the steel finger of the Tower. 7et li'e many other Dritish holiday resorts, Dlac'pool began as a small and undistinguished fishing village. @n 028# the seafront consisted of a single row of housesO but with the coming of the railway in 028", the opening of 5entral Station and the 6orth Pier in 02"& and the 9inter -ardens in 02;", the town$s future was established. The number of visitors increased from & million at the beginning of the present century to more than 2 million during the 01"#s. Today it is estimated that around " million different people visit Dlac'pool each yearO but because many people return time and again, the total is about 0" million a year.

02

Present-day Dlac'pool is probably best 'nown for its Tower, a landmar' which can be seen from 5umbria in the north to the hills of 6orth 9ales to the southwest. Duilt in 0218, it was for many years the highest building in Dritain, the 302 ft ascent gives a breathta'ing view of Dlac'pool and the surrounding coast, and the Tower also houses a circus, a ballroom, an a>uarium and an (ducational Beritage (xhibition, as well as bars and restaurants. 0.1.0. $estrictive and nonrestrictive #odi!ication 9hy are the modifiers in the following examples said to be restrictiveA 00! a. the tall girl standing in the corner b. the car outside the station c. 5ome and meet my younger daughter. 9hat ma'es the highlighted modifiers below non-restrictiveA 0%! a. Hary Smith, who is in the corner, wants to meet you. b. 5ome and see my beautiful wife. 5an heads be simultaneously modified restrictively and non-restrictivelyA 5f. the following* 0&! The tall girl, who is a dentist, is Hary Smith. 9hen is it possible for proper nouns to have restrictive modificationA Study the following examples* 08! a. the Springfield that is in Illionis b. the /ohnson who wrote the dictionary 9hich heads cannot be modified restrictivelyA 5hec' the following set of data* 03! a. Be li'es dogs, which surprises me. b. @ won$t see any person)anyone who has not made an appointment. c. Someone, who sounded like your mother, called to say she wanted to see you. 5omment on the type of modification found with heads with nonspecific determiners li'e any, all and every* 0"! a. C(very boo', which is written to deceive the reader, should be banned. b. C4ll the students, who failed the test, wanted to try again. c. 4ll the students, who had returned from their vacation, wanted to ta'e the exam. 0;! a. The students, who had all of them! returned from their vacation, failed the test. b. CThe students who had all of them! returned from their vacation failed the test.

9hat is the most typical position for the most restrictive types of modificationA
01

02! 4ny person who wishes to see me must ma'e an appointment. 9hich of the two types of modification tends to be given more prosodic emphasis than the headA 01! a. Susan is my (.<(, daughter. b. /ohn is my .4P7 son. c. my beautiful 9@F( 4oun #odi!iers. "ay %hich o! the highlighted noun #odi!iers are (a) restrictive5 (b) non,restrictive: 0 Hy poor old mother suffers from arthritis. % Ber devoted elder daughter ta'es care of her. & 9here did you get that beautiful carpet in the hallA 8 -eorge was wearing a sports shirt, light cotton slac's and open-toed sandals. 3 @ often see men who went to school with me. " The great fire of !!! started in the house of a ba'er. ; =h, you sensible man. "ood old Benry. 2 4n old proverb says* Ill news travel apace. 1 5uEco is still a thriving city, its Inca buildings merged into the buildings of the #paniard. 0# 4 >ueue of long-haired, strangely dressed youths formed up outside our stately theatre. 00 The man who called here last night must have been /eremy Taylor. 0% /eremy Taylor, who called here last night, left this message for you. 0& The theatre to which we were taken was the oldest one in Paris. 08 The theatre, to which we were taken every week, was a great delight to us. 03 4ll these articles, which have been given to us by well-wishers, are to be sold to raise money for the club. 0" 4ll the articles you see here have been sold. 0; The students whose names are below the line on this list must sit the examination again. 02 The demonstrators, whose names had already been taken by the police, refused to move. 01 ,oses do very well in my garden, which is a perfect paradise in $une. %# Hany things grow in my garden which I never planted in it. 0.1.1. e#porary and per#anent #odi!ication The modification in noun phrases may be seen as permanent or temporary. 9hat is generally the tendency for premodification in this respectA %#! a. a corteous man b. a timid man c. Ca ready man 0.1.7. he explicitness o! post#odi!ication

%#

@n general, premodification is to be interpreted an most fre>uently, can only be interpreted! in terms of postmodification. Bow can the following premodified phrase be paraphrased by means of postmodification ma'ing the relations between the head and the modifier explicit and non-ambiguousA %0! an oil man (xplicitness in postmodification varies considerably. =rder the following 6Ps in terms of the degree of explicitness of postmodifiers. %%! a. the taxi outside b. the taxi which is waiting outside c. the taxi waiting outside 8xplicitness in #odi!iers. 9a'e the post#odi!ier in each o! these sentences #ore explicit by replacing it (a) by t%o di!!erent participle clauses5 then (b) by t%o di!, !erent relative clauses: 0 <o you 'now the man with the overcoatA % @ don$t recogniEe the man in the garden. & The President will only sha'e hands with the people in the front row. 8 5hildren at school will have first priority. 3 This boo' by Bertford will give you all the facts. " The new house was built with money from wealthy land-owners. 3na#biguous use o! #odi!iers. 8xplain the absurdity o! the sentences belo% in ter#s o! noun phrase #odi!iers and adverbial adjuncts. hen rephrase each sen, tence. 0 @ have discussed the >uestion of stoc'ing the new pig farm with my staff. % .oo' at that silver cup which my daughter won for dancing on the mantelpiece. & @ have to give a lecture on the disposal of industrial waste to students of engineering. 8 .ast wee' an eighteenth century chair was bought by a dealer with beautifully carved legs for only forty pounds. 3 7ou can buy a copy of this boo' on breast-feeding at your local boo'store. " There are so many different washing machines on the mar'et that you would be well advised to consult an expert on the ma'e. ; 4 radish has been grown by one of our members the siEe of a turnip. 2 There is more to 4mbridge than the mas' of the biEarre behind which our old-world village tries to hide.

0.2. Post#odi!ication by !inite clauses


0.2.1. ypes o! post#odi!ying !inite clauses Two major types of postmodifying clauses can be distinguished, relative clauses and appositive clauses* 0! The news that appeared in the papers this morning was well received.
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%! The news that the team had won calls for a celebration. Bow can the the two types be distinguishedA &! a. The news which appeared in the papers this morning was well received. b. CThe news which the team had won calls for a celebration. ,elative clauses can be adnominal 0!, or sentential 8!* 8! They are fond of sna'es and liEards, which surprises me. 6ominal clauses contain their antecedent. They function as clausal subjects or objects. 9hat are the differences between the first and the second typeA ?se the following examples* 3! a. They are fond of sna'es and liEards, and that surprises me. b. CThe news was well received, and it appeared in the papers this morning. In these 6uotations !ro# he :ast o! the Wine by 9ary $enault5 underline the relative pronouns and their antecedents5 and state the type o! each relative clause. 0 The country people, whose farms were being burned, poured into the city. % 9hen @ was born he was still alive, which is no reason for foolish youths to as' whether @ remember him. & Hy father decided to name after him the child that was being born. 8 4t the bac' were the stables, where my father 'ept his two horses. 3 4ny progress @ made was a signal for her anger. " Hy grandfather, in whose image @ see the god Poseidon, was growing infirm. ; 4s for me, @ was one of those who grow late. 2 @ used to hear things said by the slaves, who had their own reasons to hate her. 1 Dut those are nearly the worst days that @ remember. 0# 7ou will refrain from hubris, which the gods hate. 9atch the !irst clause %ith the sentential nonrestrictive relative clauses. 0 @ had to travel first class,... % @t snowed heavily last night,... & The car uses very little petrol,.... 8 Be didn$t get up until after 2 o$cloc',... 3 The food in the hotel was not very good " Be 'ept complaining about everything,... ; Doth the girls were late,... 2 Hichelle always did very well at school,... a... which meant we had to cancel the match next day. b ... which meant we had to eat out in the evenings. c. ... which really annoyed everyone. d. ... which certainly pleased her mother. e. .... which means it is >uite cheap to run. f. which meant he was almost late for wor' g. ... which meant we had to leave without them. h. ... which was very expensive
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0.2.2. +haracteristics o! relative clauses Part of the explicitness of relative clauses lies in the specifying power of the relative pronoun. @t may be capable of* a. showing concord with its antecedent, b. indicating its syntactic function by means of case. &.%.%.0. -ender concord 9hich relative pronouns are capable of showing gender concordA 9hat is the basic contrast that may be expressedA "! a. /oan, who... b. .ondon, which.. c. the boy)people who... d. the fox)animal which e. the human being who... f. the human body which... g. the fairy who... h. the unicorn which... 9hy do we occasionally find deviations from the above general rulesA ;! a. ,over, who was bar'ing, frightened the children. b. This is the baby which needs inoculation. c. The committee who were)which was responsible for this decision... 9hich principle is at wor' with coordinated antecedents of mixed genderA 2! a. The people and things which amuse her most... b. The things and people who amuse her most... &.%.%.%. 5ase in the relative pronoun 9hat is the relation that relative pronouns can indicate with personal antecedents by means of different case formsA 1! a. The woman whose daughter you met is Hrs Drown. b. The girl to whom he spo'e is /ulia. c. The girl who spo'e is /ulia. &.%.%&. ,elative pronoun as adverbial The relative pronoun can be replaced by special adjunct forms for place, time and cause* 0#! a. That is the place where he was born. b. That is the period when he lived here.
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c. That is the reason why he spo'e. 9hich nouns are possible as antecedents of such relativesA Such relative clauses introduced by these adjunct forms are also called adverbial relatives. +o#plete these sentences by adding when5 where5 whose5 or why. 0 This is definitely the place JJJJJJJJJ @ left it. % <o you remember the time JJJJJJJJJ we got lostA & There must be a good reason JJJJJJJJJJ he$s late. 8 They are building a hospital in the street JJJJJJJJJ we live. 3 PeterA @s he the one JJJJJJJ car you borrowedA " 5an you give me any reason JJJJJJJJ @ should help youA ; 5arl is the one JJJJJJJ des' is next to mine.

0.2.0. $estrictive relative clauses &.%.&.0. 5hoice of relative pronoun The choice of relative pronoun is jointly determined by the following three factors* a. the relation of the relative clause to its antecedent* restrictive or nonrestrictive* 00! a. The woman who is approaching us seems to be somebody @ 'now. b. The Dible, which has been retranslated, remains a bestseller. 9hich relative pronouns occur in nonrestrictive relative clauses, and which ones in restrictive clausesA b. the gender type of the antecedent* personal or non-personal* 0%! a. the person who @ was visiting b. the boo' which @ was reading c. the function of the relative pronoun as subject, object, complement, or adverbial including its role as prepositional complement!, or as a part of a clause element i.e. as a determiner)possessive!. That differs from wh-series in that* a. it has no gender mar'ing and thus is independent of the personal or non-personal character of the antecedentO b. it has no objective formO c. it has no genitive.
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The choices with respect to the syntactic functions and gender type of antecedent are summariEed as follows* 0&! a. S?D/(5T who person that C# They are delighted with the which boo' that has just appeared. C# b. =D/(5T who m! person that he has appointed. # They are delighted with the which boo' that she has just written. # c. 5=HP.(H(6T She is the perfect accountant This is not the type of modern house which Cwho her predecessor was not. Cthat which Cthat my own is. C# has been appointed.

d. 4<:(,D@4. Be is the policeman at whom the burglar fired the gun. who m! that the burglar fired the gun at. # on which @ was ill. that # @ was ill on!.

She arrived the day

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@ ma'e ca'es the way

in which that my mother made them. #

&.%.&.%. ,elative pronoun as subject and object 9hich relative pronouns are possible as* a. subjects, b. objects of transitive verbsA 9hat preferences may be observedA 08! a. People who live in new houses... b. People that live in new houses... 03! a. CThe table # stands in the corner has a bro'en leg. b. CThe man # stands over there @ 'now. 0"! A4nybody # does that ought to be loc'ed up. 0;! a. There$s a table # stands in the corner. b. @t$s Simon # did it. 02! 4ll 4nything (verything that stri'es you as odd... that! you find odd...

01! %uch that has been said tonight will soon be forgotten. %#! There was little that interested him at the motor show. %0! She must be one of the most remar'able women that ever lived. that is available. %%! They eat the finest food that)# money can buy.

&.%.&.&. ,elative pronoun as object and prepositional complement 9hat tendencies can be observed with personal antecedents of pronouns functioning as objects and prepositional complementsA %&! a. People that)# @ visit)spea' to... b. People who&m' @ visit)spea' to... 9hat may influence the choice of a pronoun that is object or prepositional complement, particularly if the antecedent is nonpersonalA Study the following examples* find %8! @ have FFinterests outside my immediate wor' and its problemsG which @ interesting.G %3! @$ll ta'e you to Fthe building Fthat all elderly university teachers preferGG.
%"

%"! 9ho$s drun' Fthe mil' F# @ boughtGGA

&.%.&.8. ,elative pronoun as adverbial 9hen the relative pronoun is the complement of a preposition the whole functioning as an adverbial!, some choice exists in placing the wh-pronouns. The preposition may be P@(< P@P(< together with the relative pronoun or ST,46<(<, i.e. left with the verb. 9hat about that or EeroA %;! The lady %2! the table which that # who m! that # towards whom the dog ran the dog ran towards under which the boy crawled the boy crawled under

9hat happens with prepositions as particles of prepositional verbsA 9hat about prepositions dealing with temporal and abstract relationsA %1! That$s the boo' # he$s been loo'ing for. &#! AThat was the meeting that! @ 'ept falling asleep during. $elative clauses. $eplace the relative pronoun that by who, whom, which or zero: 0 This is the house that /ac' built. % Be loo's li'e a dog that has lost its tail. & <anny, our dog that followed us all the way from Scotland, has just died. 8 <on$t believe everything that you read in the newspapers. 3 Dabies that were born prematurely had little chance of survival. " 5hildren that disobey their parents should be punished. ; Hurray was the sole survivor from a famous ship that san' on her first voyage. 2 Hurray was the only person that survived the disaster. 1 The party that was responsible for this extraordinary piece of legislation is now out of office. 0# The party that were responsible are now trying to repair the damage. he sentence here is the o!!icer to %ho# I spo'e can have !our variations5 viz: a. b. c. d. here is the o!!icer %ho# I spo'e to. here is the o!!icer %ho I spo'e to. here is the o!!icer that I spo'e to. here is the o!!icer I spo'e to.

2ive as #any variations o! that 'ind as possible !or the !ollo%ing:


%;

0 Bere is the article about which @ was spea'ing. % Bere is a boo' which will tell you all about it. & @s this the boo' from which that >uotation was ta'enA 8 @s Thompson the man to whom you were referringA 3 Be is a man for whom @ have the greatest respect. " @s this really the house in which Sha'espeare was bornA ; That was the very day on which @ first saw Hary. 2 @ shall always remember the way in which you received us that evening. 1 @t was a century during which the country suffered continually from wars. 0# This is a matter concerning which you would be well advised to consult a lawyer. ;oin up the in!or#ation given5 so that in each case you have one sentence containing relative clauses. 8xa#ple: "o#e people underta'e long journeys. hey %ill re#e#ber these journeys all their lives. "o#e people underta'e long journeys 0<that<%hich they %ill re#e#ber all their lives. 0 Travellers on the Trans-Siberian railway ta'e 2 days 8 hours %3 minutes on the journey. The Trans-Siberian railway stretches from Hoscow to the Pacific =cean. <uring this journey there are 1; stops. % The $@ndian-Pacific$ railway crosses 4ustralia from Perth on the @ndian =cean to Sydney on the Pacific. @ts reputation is perhaps less fearsome than the TransSiberian. & @t covers a distance of %,%;# miles 8,&3% 'm!. =f these, %1; miles 8;2 'm! across the 6ullarbor Plain are dead straight. This is the longest straight stretch of railway in the world. 8 The journeys appeal to a certain type of traveller. 4 certain type of traveller is not in a hurry. To this type of traveller the journey, not the arrival, matters. 3 -ary Sowerby 5anada! and Tim 5ahill ?S4! drove a four-wheel drive pic'-up truc' from ?shuaia 4rgentina! to Prudhoe Day 4las'a, ?S4! in 012; in just under %8 days. Tim 5ahill was -ary Sowerby$s co-driver and navigator. From ?shuaia to Prudhoe Day is a distance of 08,;&1 miles %&,;%# 'm!. /ust under %8 days is a record time for the journey. " They were however surface freighted over the <arien -ap. <arien -ap is between 5olombia and Panama. Bere the Trans-4merican highway does not exist.

0.2.1. 4onrestrictive relative clauses 9hich relative pronouns are used in nonrestrictive clausesA 5onsider the following* &0! a. S?D/(5T who @ spo'e to <r Spols'y, details. Cthat was unwilling to give further
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C# which ACthat has only just been reviewed, was published a year ago. C#

This excellent boo',

b. =D/(5T whom Awho @ spo'e to <r Spols'y, C# This excellent boo', which ACthat C# Freda has only just received for review, was published a year ago. Cthat @ met after the in>uest.

c. 5=HP.(H(6T 4nn is a vegetarian, which Cwho Cthat C# no one else is in our family.

which She wants low-calorie food, Cthat C# d. 4<:(,D@4. This is a new type of word processor,

this vegetable curry certainly is.

about which there has been so much publicity. which Cthat there has been so much publicity about. C# 6onsubject who is considered far worse than in restrictive clauses. Bow can we distinguish nonrestrictive relative clauses from restrictive clausesA &%! a. Then he met Hary, who invited him to a party. b. That$s the girl that! he met at the party. &&! Then he met Hary, who invited him to a party. and she invited him to a party. she invited him to a party.

which was snow-bound. &8! Be got lost on Snowdon,it was snow-bound. when it was snow-bound.
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4on,restrictive and sentential relative clauses. Identi!y the antecedent o! the !ollo%ing relative clauses: 0 9e were ta'en every wee' to the theatre, at which new plays were constantly being produced. % 9e were ta'en every wee' to the theatre, which was a great delight to us. & 9e went to the theatre every wee', which was our one relaxation. 8 The singer gave five encores, for which he received enthusiastic applause. 3 Be gave five encores, all of which were >uite new to the audience. " Be gave five encores, which was a very generous ac'nowledgement of the welcome he had received. ; They spent two nights on the mountainside, which was swept by biting winds. 2 They spent two nights on the mountainside, which was an ordeal for the hardiest of them. 1 9e test every bottle of DuEE in our laboratories, which is why it is so reliable. 0# 9e apply a laboratory test to every bottle of DuEE, which is then hygienically cor'ed. ;oin the sentences belo% using %ho5 %hose5 or %hich. 9a'e sure that the relative clause goes next to the %ord it gives extra in!or#ation about. 0 @ met /ane$s father. Be wor's at the university. % Peter is studying French and -erman. Be has never been abroad. & 7ou$ve all met Hichael 9ood. Be is visiting us for a couple of days. 8 Hichael 9ood is one of my oldest friends. Be has just gone to live in 5anada. 3 9e are moving to Hanchester. Hanchester is in the north-east. " Hanchester is in the north-east. @t is one of (ngland$s fastest growing towns. ; @$ll be staying with 4drian. Bis brother is one of my closest friends. 2 This is 4drian. 9e stayed in 4drian$s house for our holidays. 0.2.7. =ppositive clauses The appositive clause differs from the relative clause in that* a. the particle that is not an element in the clause structure, but a conjunctionO b. the nonrestrictive appositive clause has the same introductory item as the restrictive, ie* that, it cannot be Eero and it cannot be replaced by whichO &3! She rejected their excuses, even this last one, that investigations had ta'en several wee's. c. the head of the noun phrase must be a general abstract noun such as fact, Q idea(proposition( reply( remark( answer, etc. &3! b. The fact that he wrote a letter to her suggests that he 'new her. c. The belief that no one is infallible is well-founded. d. @ agree with the old saying that absence ma'es the heart grow fonder. The head and the appositive clause may be lin'ed with the copula be*
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&"! a. The fact is that he wrote a letter to her. b. The belief is that no one is infallible. Beads are often nominaliEations. <eterminers are often definite articles, heads themselves are normally in the singular. The nominaliEation determiner L head! may be separated from the appositive clause* &;! a. The suggestion that the new rule &should' be adopted came from the chairman. b. The suggestion came from the chairman that the new rule &should' be adopted. 6onrestrictive appositive clause differ mar'edly from relatives in that they are introduced by that, in spite of their nonrestrictiveness* &2! This last fact, namely! that that is obligatory, should be easy to remember. (xpressions such as namely vi)! or that is to say can be optionally introduced as indicators of nonrestrictiveness. $e%rite the in!or#ation so that in each case you have a single sentence con, taining a noun > an appositive clause. 0 People sometimes suggest that we are not e>ual. This ma'es some people very angry. 4ny... % Some people explain that accidents are often nobody$s fault. Dut many people do not accept this. Hany people... & @ was told that there are more scientists alive today than have ever lived before. @s that a factA @s it a... 8 Scientists say that there are a lot of blac' holes in the universe. @ don$t understand this theory. @ don$t understand the... 3 The universe started with a big bang. There is also that idea. There is also the.. " =f course we hope to rid the world of poverty. Dut can weA @s there any... ; 6eil 4rmstrong remar'ed when he stepped on the moon, $That$s one small step for a man, one giant leap for man'ind.$ (veryone remembers this. (veryone remembers 6eil 4rmstrong$s... 2 Sha'espeare observed that $all the word$s a stage$. @$m not sure whether @ agree. @$m not sure whether @ agree with... $ephrase each o! the sentences belo%5 using a !active abstract noun > appositive clause. "ay %hether the clause so !or#ed is (a) restrictive or (b) non,restrictive: 0 @t is still believed in some countries that the earth is flat.
&0

% @t is true that the earth is round, and that has been evident to every astronaut. & 5olumbus assumed that the land he had discovered was the eastern extremity of 4sia, but this was soon proved wrong. 8 5olumbus reported that there was a 'ing in the south who owned great >uantities of gold, and this lured many explorers to the search of (l <orado. 3 People suspect that smo'ing has something to do with cancer* this rests on several 'inds of evidence. " 9hen scientists argued that cigarette smo'ing may increase one$s chances of developing cancer of the lung, this was not well received. ; 7ou may have gone to sleep during my lecture but that does not exempt you from writing this essay. 2 7ou went to sleep during the lecture, and this fact suggests that you should go to bed earlier. 1 7ou excuse yourself by saying people 'eep as'ing you out, but @ cannot accept that. 0# @ 'now that @ can always call upon you for support, and that is a great comfort to me.

0.0. Post#odi!ication by non!inite clauses


0.0.1. Post#odi!ication by ,ing participial clauses 9hat is the syntactic function of the relative pronoun in relative clauses cor-responding to postmodifying -ing clausesA 0! The person who will write will be writing writes is writing wrote was writing

reports is my colleague.

%! The person writing reports is my colleague. &! a. The dog barking next door sounded li'e a terrier. b. 4 tile falling from a roof shattered into fragements at his feet. 4re there any restrictions on the type of verbs that can occur in this type of modificationA 8! This is a li>uid with a taste resembling that of soapy water. @n all instances, the antecedent head corresponds to the implicit subject of the nonfinite clause. 5an aspect be overtly expressed with this type of postmodificationA 3! a. the man who wor's)who is wor'ing behind the des'. b. the man wor'ing)Cbeing wor'ing behind the des' "! a. The man who has won the race is my brother. b. ACThe man having won the race is my brother. ;! A4ny person having witnessed the attac' is under suspicion.
&%

Bow can the tense be recoveredA 2! a. <o you 'now the man tal'ing to my sisterA $who is tal'ing...$ b. <id you 'now the man tal'ing to my sisterA $who was tal'ing...$ 1! the man sitting next to her)next to her on that occasion

0.0.2. Post#odi!ication by ,ed participial clauses 4gain, the correspondence between -ed clauses and relative clauses is limited to those relative clauses in which the relative pronoun functions as subject* 0#! The car being! repaired by that mechanic... 00! The car that will be repaired is being! repaired by that mechanic. was being! repaired

Postmodifying -ing and -ed clauses are usually restrictive. 9hat differences may be observed between the two concerning the voiceA 0%! a. The train which has arrived at platform is from 7or'. b. ACThe train arrived at platform is from 7or'. 9hat ma'es postmodifers in 0&-08! more acceptableA 0&! The train recently arrived at platform is from 7or'.

08! 4 man *ust gone to India+*ust come from the meeting told me about it. 9hich aspectual oppositions can be expressed in -ed clausesA 03! a. The food which was)has been eaten was meant for tomorrow. b. The food which is being eaten was meant for tomorrow. c. The food eaten+being eaten was meant for tomorrow. 0"! a. The food which has been eaten was meant for tomorrow. b. ACThe food having been eaten was meant for tomorrow. 0.0.0. Post#odi!ication by in!initive clauses This type of postmodifying clauses also allow correspondence with relative clause. 9hat syntactic functions of relative are found in corresponding relative clausesA 0;! a. The man to help you is Hr /ohnson. S $who could help you$! b. The man for you! to see is Hr /ohnson. = $who m! you should see$! c. The thing for you! to be these days is a system analyst. 5 $the thing that people will try to be these days is a system analyst$!
&&

d. The time for you! to go is /uly. 4 $at which you should go$! @f the relative pronoun in a correspondent finite clause functions as adjunct, i.e. complement of a preposition, a more formal possibility is to introduce the relative pronoun and than have the infinitive clause. The preposition cannot be stranded if the clause is finite* 0;! e. the way in which to do it Cwhich to do it in to do it Cto do it in

Bow is the subject of infinitive postmodification recoveredA @nfinitive postmodifiers differ from other clausal postmodifers in allowing the ellipsis of an entire adjunct phrase* 02! a. the place b. She is not a person Crelying. on whom to rely. one can rely on. for one! to rely on. Cstaying. at which to stay. you should stay. for you! to stay at!.

9hy is the following sentence ambiguousA 01! Be is the best man to choose. 9hat possibilities are found concerning the variety of moods and aspectsA %#! a. the man to see... b. the man you should)must)ought see... %0! a. The man to meet to be meeting is 9ilson. to have met

b. Be is the best man to choose)to be chosen. 0.0.1. 4onrestrictive post#odi!ication by non!inite clauses Postmodification by means of nonfinite clauses may also be nonrestrictive* %%! a. The apple tree, swaying gently in the bree)e, was a reminder of old times. $which was swaying...$!
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b. The substance, discovered almost by accident, has revolutioniEed medicine $which was discovered...$! c. This scholar, to be seen daily in the British %useum, has devoted his life to the history of science. $who can be seen...$! <o initially placed nonrestrictive nonfinite postmodifiers differ in their implicit semantic range from those that follow the headA %%! e. Discovered almost by accident, the substance has revolutioniEed medicine. %&! a. The woman wearing such dark glasses, obviously could not see clearly. b. The woman, who was wearing... c. The man, because he was wearing... 0.0.7. =ppositive #odi!ication by in!initive and , ing clauses 4ppositive postmodification is not found with -ed clauses. @t is >uite common with infinitive clauses* %8! The appeal to give blood received strong support. This type of postmodification may also be nonrestrictive* %3! This last appeal, to come and visit him, was never delivered. 4 common feature of infinitive appositive clauses is that they have implicit subjects to be inferred from the context, unless they are introduced prepositionally* %8! b. The appeal to us)for us to give blood... 9hat is the typical function of appositive -ing clausesA %"! a. @$m loo'ing for a job driving cars. b. 9e can offer you a career counselling delin,uents. <o appositive postmodifications by means of an infinitive clause always have corresponding finite clause as appositionA %;! Be lost the ability to use his hands. of using his hands. Cthat he could use his hands.

4re there any observable tendencies in the choice between to-infinitive clause and preposition usually of! L -ing clauseA %2! 4nn has the will to win)Cof winning. %1! agreement disinclination proposal resolution decision inclination readiness un!willingness determination invitation refusal will
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&#! Their chance to go)of going abroad was lost. &0! chance obligation power aim necessity freedom opportunity impossibility possibility need plan intention responsibility

&%!

&&! She found the ris' Cto lose)of losing money too great. &8! hope, probability, prospect, ris' +onvert the participle clause into a relative clause in each o! these sentences. 0 4t the station, we were met by a man carrying a copy of The Times. % Be was accompanied by a porter weighing at least 03# 'ilos. & 4 car, coming unexpectedly out of a side street, crashed into us. 8 9e collided with a car driven by a young man without a licence. 3 4ny driver not having a licence ought to be sent to jail right away. " The train standing at platform six is for Drussels and =stend. ; 4ny article left in this bus was ta'en at once to the .ost Property =ffice. 2 4ny dutiable articles not declared to the 5ustoms will be liable to confiscation. 1 Presents costing less than ten pounds in all may be imported duty free. 0# 4nyone not hearing that noise must have been stone deaf. 00 (verybody, hearing the noise, jumped up in alarm. 0% The castle, burnt down in the sixteenth century, was never rebuilt. +onvert the in!initive clause in each exa#ple into a relative clause. 0 The next train to arrive is from (dinburgh. % The first man to fly non-stop across the 4tlantic was /ohn 4lcoc'. & 9as 5ortes the first (uropean ever to see the Pacific =ceanA 8 The best man to see for your eye trouble is the Professor of =phtamology. 3 The man for /ohn to spea' to first is the <irector of the Huseum. " The cheapest place to eat at is the cafeteria. ; 7ou$ll find the best time to get there is just after twelve. 2 The way to get to the head of the >ueue is to slip in through the 'itchen. 1 9ill you buy me a magaEine to read on the journeyA 0# Bere is something for you to do while you$re waitingA 00 The only thing left to consider now is how to get away without being seen. 0% The last problem, to be considered at our next meeting, is how to invest the money. $e%rite these sentences5 using a noun phrase %ith in!initive clause as post#odi, !ier. 0 9e planned to cross the river at night but failed. % =ur appeal for volunteers for another attempt was greeted with enthusiasm. & 9e thought the idea that we should create a diversion upstream was a good one. 8 9e did not wish to waste lives in another frontal attac'. 3 =ur allies promised to send reinforcements but did not do so.
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" 9e felt they were cowardly to hesitate to come to our aid. ; @t was disgraceful that they should refuse to fulfil their promise. 2 This only made us more determined to succeed on our own. 1 Heanwhile, we were not disturbed when the enemy threatened to attac' us. 0# 6or were we deceived when they proposed that we should call a truce. $e%rite the sentences by changing the !inite relative clauses into non!inite !or#s. 3se ,ing !or#s5 ,ed !or#s5 or to,in!initives as suitable. 0 The man who wrote the obituaries is my friend. % 4ny coins that are found on this site must be handed to the police. & The next train that arrived was from 7or'. 8 Hillions of insomniacs could benefit from a new techni>ue which may cure sleeplessness, which is based on $thought-jamming$. 3 The idea is that a simple word li'e the, which is repeated under the breath three or four times a second, can bloc' stimulating thoughts and induce sleep. " This anti-insomnia techni>ue which is being tested by researchers from 5ambridge offers pill-free hope for millions who suffer from sleeplessness. ; @t is based on a theory that the brain has a 'ind of $memory traffic control$, which has been called $the central executive$, and that this controls information that enters the brain. 2 The 5ambridge team believes that with insomniacs $the central executive$ insists on finding tas's when nothing that is particularly interesting is happening. 1 The team decided to loo' for ways in which they could provide a steady flow of information into the brain, which would prevent it from loo'ing for other tas's that it could do. 0# The age old techni>ue of counting sheep as a method that may induce sleep re>uires concentration and stimulates thoughts about the imaginary sheep. 00 ,epeating a boring little word li'e the is so dull that the only thing that most people can do is to go to sleep. 0% Tests that have been specially designed to try out the theory were carried out under controlled conditions. 0& 4 third of those who were tested had >uic' success. Dut other people stayed awa'e. They were able to mouth simple words while still thin'ing other thoughts. 08 There is still wor' that needs to be done.

0.1. Post#odi!ication by prepositional phrases


0.1.1. $elation to #ore explicit #odi!iers Prepositional phrases as postmodifiers may be considered a further degree of reduction of finite relative clauses* 0! a. The car was standing outside the station. b. the car which was standing outside the station c. the car standing outside the station d. the car outside the station

9hat is the structure of prepositional phrasesA

&;

%! a. P

PP 6P

outside across &! the face of the man in the car outside the station

the station the street

4re there any restrictions concerning the range of prepositions introducing postmodifying phrasesA 5hec' the following* 8! a. the road to -incoln b. this boo' on grammar c. the information about the easy payment plan d. a labyrinth of roads e. action in case of fire f. a delay pending further in,uiry

<oes a general paraphrase by means of be-predication li'e the ones in 0! e. and 8! b,$ exhaust the range of possible meaning relations between the head and the postmodifierA 0! 8! 3! d. the car outside the station e. The car is outside the station. b.$ The boo' is on grammar. a. the university as a political forum b. The present for $ohn costs a great deal. c. The man for the *ob is /ohn. d. The woman with the child is /oan. e. The woman with child is /oan. f. the man with a red beard g. the girl with a funny hat a.The university is acting)regarded as a political forum b. The present is for /ohn. c. The man is right)best for the job)CThe man is for the job. d. The woman accompanied by a child. e. The woman is with child, i.e. pregnant. f. the man who has a read beard g. the girl who has a funny hat

"!

Post#odi!ication by prepositional phrases. $eplace each prepositional phrase by a relative clause that %ill #a'e the #eaning o! the post#odi!ication #ore explicit: 0 4 house by the church % 4 picture by a famous artist & The plane for Hoscow 00 4 man of my ac>uaintance 0% The flint wall of our cellar 0& 4 man of strong will
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8 9arm clothes for Hoscow 3 4 land for all seasons " The man for the job ; The man with your wife 2 The man with a gun 1 4 man of property 0# The people of 4sia

08 The man without a hat 03 4 student from Portugal 0" 4 >uotation from Sha'espeare 0; @nstructions in case of fire 02 The pleasure of your company 01 The rule of majority %# 4 /ac' of all trades

Post#odi!ication by prepositional phrases. /ill in the gaps %ith suitable prepositions5 and underline the noun phrase that the prepositional phrases are part o!. @f you have a row JJJJJJJJJJ your family today, you could end up with a cold by the end JJJJJJJJJ the wee'. ,esearch JJJJJJJJ psychologists suggests that joyless days full of irritation JJJJJJJJJJ a social 'ind can lead to a wea'ening JJJJJJJJJ the disease-fighting immune system, and that four days JJJJJJJJJJJ a row your system can become too wea' to stop cold viruses from attac'ing. The theory is the latest study JJJJJJJJ the effects JJJJJJ mental well-being JJJJJJJ physical well-being. Such effects has already been found for a number JJJJJJJJ serious diseases. Typically those who have problems expressing emotions JJJJJJJ anger or who have suffered traumatic experiences after the death JJJJJJJJ a spouse appear to be most at ris'. 6ow a similar effect has been found JJJJJJ the common cold. 4 hundred clerical staff JJJJJJJJ a tax office JJJJJJJJJ the north JJJJJJJJ (ngland were as'ed to 'eep a diary JJJJJJJJJJ their health, their moods and what sort JJJJJJJJJJJ day they had. 4fter ten wee's, seventeen volunteers had colds. @t then emerged that four days JJJJJJJ contracting the cold, there had been a mar'ed drop JJJJJJJJ diary entries recording friendly relations JJJJJJJJ their spouses, and an increase JJJJJJJJ the number JJJJJJJ social annoyances. The researchers believe that all this shows a definite lin' JJJJJJJJJ mood and infection. So - if you don$t want a cold, don$t get annoyedK +o#plete the sentences belo% %ith one o! the !ollo%ing nouns plus a preposition: basis objection grudge fall control trouble cruelty campaign opposite 'nowledge freedom genius excuse choice strain news

0 @f you had a JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ marrying for love or marrying for money, which would you doA % 9hat is the JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ $timid$A @s it $bold$ or $brave$A & The 4frican elephant will be extinct within twenty years if an international JJJJJJJ the ivory trade is not started immediately. 8 <o you have any JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ my par'ing my car in front of your houseA 3 The JJJJJJJJJJJJJ chewing gum is that it loses its flavour too >uic'ly. " @ 'now you have a cold, but that$s no JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ not doing your homewor'. ; @f you have to deal with overseas clients, a JJJJJJJJJJJJJ foreign of languages is very useful.
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2 Perhaps the three most important human rights are JJJJJJJJ hunger, fear and persecution. 1 @n our class, we can do as we li'e* our teacher has no JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ us at all. 0# The ,SP54 is concerned with prevention of JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ animals. 00 =verweight people should not jog, because it puts a great JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ their hearts. 0% Since the salmonella scare there has been a considerable JJJJJJ consumption of eggs. +hoose an appropriate noun and add a suitable preposition to !ill in the gaps in the !ollo%ing sentences. 0 Bis car was involved in a terrible JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJ another vehicle. % She made a generous JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJ the collection. & The child has a great JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJ mathematics. 8 Be expressed absolute JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJ the inade>uate teaching he had received. 3 The government placed an immediate JJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJ all imports from that country. " The man had made ade>uate JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJ his family in his will. ; Be bears a terrible JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJ the people who attac'ed him. 2 =n that point @$m in JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJ Hr Hc5abe. 1 This re>uires a JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJ public spending. 0# 9ill the ?.6. JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJ whaling accomplish anythingA /ill in the #issing prepositions. 0 5ritics JJJJ 4ustralia and 6ew Pealand panned the first performances JJJJ his tour, and while his ,achmaninoff 5< is more listenable than his live recitals, it$s still muddy, noisy, raggedly - and boring. % 4lthough a period JJJJ sustained low prices may test farmers$ and politicians$! enthusiasm JJJJ freedom to farm, in the long run the change JJJJ policy should ma'e 4merica$s productive farmers even more so. & The big news JJJJ the hearing$s first day was that /ohn Buang, a central figure JJJJ the <emocrat$s foreign money machine, may choose to testify before Hr Thompson$s committee in exchange JJJJ limited immunity JJJJ prosecution. 8 4nd yet he suffers a curious sort JJJJ neglect - a literary giant relegated to the nursery, often in bowdleriEed translations that bear but sad resemblance his masterful originals. 3 @ point out to them that <enmar' considered ma'ing an official protest JJJJ the 4merican movie, claiming that it veered sharply from the facts JJJJ 4ndersen$s life. " @n addition the ships carried more than 0,%## passengers and crew, all hopeful of safe passage JJJJJ hostile seas, comforted by an arsenal JJJJ 088 cannons aboard.

$e%rite the !ollo%ing !inite post#odi!ying clauses as (a) non,!inite clauses and<or (b) prepositional phrases.
8#

0 People who live in glass houses shouldn$t throw stones. % @n some countries, thieves who are caught in the act lose their hands. & She made clothes which were designed to make you feel good. 8 The man who stands on the street corner usually 'nows where places are, but he never goes. 3 9e prefer vegetables that have been organically grown. " Bis hope, that he would be rescued, began to fade. ; Be foolishly carried a gun which he could scare people with. 2 9e had reached the point from which there was no turning back. 1 4 cruel letter followed which he intended to break my heart. 0# The few hours which remained at our disposal were precious. 0.1.2. he choice bet%een the of,construction and the genitive construction :ery fre>uently, there is a regular correspondence between an of-phrase and the inflected genitive* ;! a. The ship has a funnel. @t is red. b. The ship has a red funnel. c. The ship.s funnel is red. d. The funnel of the ship is red.

9hat is the difference between the two in structural and functional termsA 2! the our the city$s population

The choice between the genitive construction and the of-con-struction is determined by a series of factors including* 1! a. lexical factors b. relational factors c. objective vs subjective relation d. syntactic factors e. communicative factors

a. :exical !actors 9hich gender classes favour the inflected genitiveA 0#! a. 4nn$s car Cthe car of 4nn b. the lady$s car ACthe car of the lady c. the dog$s collar Athe collar of the dog d. the family$s car the car of the family e. The roof of this house Cthis house$s roof

9hich non-personal nouns allow both constructionsA


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00!

a. 5hina$s population the population of 5hina b. the world$s economy the economy of the world

9hat motivates the following acceptability distributionA 0%! a. C5hina$s map b. A5hina$s climate c. A!5hina$s roads d. 5hina$s economy the map of 5hina the climate of 5hina the roads of 5hina the economy of 5hina

Specific lexical noun heads, li'e edge, length, end, surface, etc. also influence the choice between the constructions* 0&! She stood at the water$s edge)the edge of the water. b. $elational !actors 9hich meaning relations between two nouns that can never be expressed by means of genitive constructionA 08! a glass of water 03! this 'ind of research c. Objective vs subjective relation @f the element to the right of the verb is involved in the paraphrase, i.e. its object, as in 0"-0;!, we spea' of objective relation. @f the predication involves an element to the left of the verb, i.e. its subject, as in 02-01! we spea' of subjective relation. 0"! 0;! 02! 01! a. the imprisonment of the murderer b. Someone! imprisoned the murderer. a. a woman of courage b. The woman has courage. a. the arrival of the train)the train$s arrival b. The train arrived a. the funnel of the ship b. The ship has a funnel Ca water$s glass Cthis research$s 'ind

-enerally, with the objective relation, the of-construction is preferred if the verbpredicate relation is not overt* 0;! %#! c. Cthe courage$s woman a. the love of power b. Someone loves power. b. Cthe power$s love a. men of science
8%

%0!

b. Hen study science. c. Cscience$s men 9hat ma'es the inflected genitive possible in the example belowA 0"! c. the murderer$s imprisonment <oes the factor of overt vs covert subject-predicate relation influence the choice of con-structions with subjective relationA %%! a. the activity of students b. the students$ activity c. The students are active. a. the War /e,uiem of)by Dritten b. Dritten$s War /e,uiem c. Dritten composed the War /e,uiem.

%&!

Bow can the following data be accounted forA %8! a. the joy of his return b. Chis return$s joy c. Bis return give joy. a. an angel of a girl b. Cthe)a girl$s angel c. The girl is an angel.

%3!

9hy is the following of-phrase ambiguousA %"! The reminiscences of the Prime Hinister were very amusing. The ambiguity is usually resolved in the context, but in general it seems that where an of-phrase can be interpreted objectively, it will be so interpreted unless there is a counter-indication* %;! a. the examination of the firemen %2! a. the scrutiny of the tenants 9hat enforces a subjective interpretation belowA %2! b. the examination of the experts The genitive construction that can be interpreted subjectively, will be so interpreted unless there is a counterindication* %1! a. the fireman$s examination b. the tenants$ scrutiny

9hy is the objective interpretation preferred belowA &#! the student$s examination 9hat ma'es the following examples une>uivocalA &0! a. the man$s examination of the student b. the man$s examination by the student c. the man$s examination by the doctor
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d. "yntactic !actors =ther modifiers in the noun phrase may influence the choice between the genitive and the of-construction* ,estrictively postmodified noun must occupy the second position, and this influences the choice of the appropriate construction. 9hat rules out the of-construction in the following exampleA &%! a friend$s arrival which had been expected for several wee's 9hat is the natural interpretation of the followingA &&! the arrival of a friend, which had been expected for several wee's 9hy is the of-construction the natural choice belowA &8! the arrival of a friend who had been studying at a -erman university @n some cases, group genitive is possible, where the geni-tive mar'er is affixed to the last item of the postmodification. 9hat ma'es group genitive$s less acceptableA &3! a. the Ring of Spain$s armada b. the man in the corner$s hat c. 0?the lady @ met in the shop$s hat

e. +o##unicative !actors The choice between the two constructions my be influenced by the linear organiEation of the utterance in discourse. For example, the decision to give some elements more prominence of focus, may result in using one or the other construction* &"! a. The spea'er said that, among the global problems that face us now, the chief one is the world$s economy. Feconomy in focusG b. Be went on to say, however, that in order to succeed we must first tac'le the economy of the industrialiEed nations, which is the basis for the sound economy of the world. Fworld in focusG 0.1.0. he ?post,genitive? State the conditions on this double genitive construction* &;! an opera of :erdi$s &2! an opera of my friend$s &;! &1! b. Can opera of a composer$s Ca funnel of the ship$s

88

8#!

a. 4 friend of the doctor$s has arrived. b. 4 daughter of Hrs Drown$s has arrived. c. 4ny daughter of Hrs Drown$s is welcome. d. CThe daughter of Hrs Drown$s has arrived. a. Hrs Drown$s Hary b. CHary of Hrs Drown c. CHary of Hrs Drown$s

80!

Specify the circumstances under which one of these conditions may get relaxed* 8%! a. this hand of mine b. that dog of Peter$s

6ote the different meanings* 8&! 88! a. a painting of my sister$s b. a painting of my sister a. a student of /espersen b. a student of /espersen$s

+o#plete the sentences using the %ords in brac'ets %ith the possessive #ar'er or %ith the of,phrase. 0 9e had to leave the cinema early so we didn$t see JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. the end)the film! % Bave you seen JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJA the new film)Steven Spielberg! & 9e met Sue and Fran' at JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. the party)Sarah! 8 Bave you repaired JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJA the wheel)the bicycle! 3 Hy flat is on JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. the top floor) the house! " The bus crashed into JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. the bac')my car! ; 9e heard the news from JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. a friend)the woman who wor's in the post office! 2 There$s a hospital at JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. the end)this road! 1 The police want to interview JJJJJJJJJJJ. the manager)the Dlac' 5at 5lub! he !ollo%ing titles all use the of,construction. Which could be acceptably re, phrased using the genitive* 0 The <ay of the /ac'al % The 5all of the 9ild & <eath of a Salesman 8 The Song of Solomon 3 The Hayor of 5asterbridge " The Prisoner of Penda ; The 4dventures of Philip 2 The <iary of a 6obody 1 4 Tale of Two 5ities 0# 4 Sleep of Prisoners :ondon land#ar's. 3se the underlined %ords to %rite sen,tences about %here to !ind so#e !a#ous :ondon land#ar's. 3se a genitive structure or the of, construction5 as appropriate:

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0 a corner reserved for the tombs and monuments of poets in 9estminster 4bbey! % a cathedral dedicated to St Paul in the 5ity! & the $Bouses$ where Parliament conducts its business at 9estminster! 8 the famous club for travellers in Pall Hall! 3 a par' in honour of postmen near the -eneral Post =ffice! " an obelis' called a needle! - not in fact connected with 5leopatra on the (mban'ment, near 5haring 5ross! ; the ,oyal 4cademy, a society devoted to fine arts in Piccadilly! 2 the waxwor's museum founded by Hadame Tussaud near Da'er Street! 1 the museum about childhood in Dethnal -reen! 0# The most famous tower in .ondon, begun in the eleventh century at Tower Bill! 00 4 column commemorating 4dmiral 6elson in Trafalgar S>uare! 0% 4 gate through which traitors used to be ta'en to prison and often execution! at Tower Bill! 0.1.1. =pposition %ith of,phrase Some of-phrases are not ordinary postmodifiers* 83! the ,epublic of 5roatia 8"! The news of the team$s victory 83! b. 5roatia is a republic. c. This republic that @ mean! is 5roatia 8"! b. The team$s victory is a news. c. The news is the team$s victory. Such of-phrases are considered prepositional appositions. 6ote that there is often an obvious parallel with clausal appositive postmodifiers* 8"! d. the news that the team had won e. the news of the team$s having won

There is a special type of prepositional appositives* 8;! a. the fool of a policeman b. an angel of a girl c. this jewel of an island

82! <et L 6Sg L of L indefinite article L 6 82! a. a)that)this)that)his fool of a policeman b. CAthose fools of policemen c. the fool of a)Cthe policeman

9hich of the two nouns functions as the notional headA 81! a. The policeman is a fool. b. The girl is an angel. c. This island is a jewel. Ber brute of a brother $Ber brother is a brute$

3#!

The se>uence B(4< L of L a corresponds to an adjective* 30! a. the foolish policeman


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b. the angelic girl c. This jewel-li'e island 0.1.7. $estrictive and nonrestrictive prepositional post#odi!ication Prepositional phrases may be restrictive or nonrestrictive in both appositional and nonap-positional functions* 3%! a. The course on 1nglish grammar starts tomorrow. Fnonappositional, restrictiveG b. The course( on 1nglish grammar, starts tomorrow. Fnonappositional, nonrestrictiveG c. The ,uestion of student grants was discussed yesterday. Fappositional, restrictiveG d. The ,uestion( of student grants, was discussed yesterday. Fappositional, nonrestrictiveG

There are certain limitations* nonrestrictive PPs are rare and rather aw'ward.

0.7. 9inor types o! post#odi!ication


0.7.1. Post#odi!ication by an adverb phrase 4dverb phrases as postmodifiers of nouns refer to time or place* 0! a. The road back is dense with traffic. b. The way out was hard to find. c. The people behind were tal'ing all the time. a. The road which leads bac' to .ondon was dense... b. The way which leads out of the auditorium...

%!

Some such adverb phrases may be used either as pre- or as postmodifiers* &! a. his homeward journey b. his journey homeward

0.7.2. Postposed adjectives Postposed adjectives come in three main types, depending on what re>uires the postposition* a. the head of the 6P 8! @ want to try something different. b. the postmodification or complementation of the adjective* 3! a play popular in the 234s
8;

c. the particular noun-adjective combination* "! a. the heir apparent b. a 'night errant

a. Postposed adjectives #odi!ying inde!inite heads 9hich indefinite items can be postmodified in this wayA ;! a. 4nybody younger would have done better. b. anything sweet c. something nice d. nobody else e. somewhere else f. anywhere exciting

b. he post#odi!ication or co#ple#entation o! the adjective as the cause o! post #odi!ication @n what respect are the following adjective phrases heavyA 2! a. a mista'e typical of beginners b. the student born in .ondon c. a person busy cutting trees

Postposition is here obligatory except with hyphenated compounds!* 1! 0#! a. Ca typical of beginners mista'e a. a typical-of-beginners mista'e

9ith coordinated adjectives, either pre- or postposition is allowed* 00! a. a both typical and common mista'e b. a mista'e both typical and common

9hen a head is non-restrictively modified by a coordinate string of adjectives, it is common to have them postponed* 0%! 4 man, timid and hesitant, approached the official. (ven a single restrictively modifying adjective may be postponed if it is itself modified by an adjunct but not by the intensifier very!* 0&! a. 5 man always timid is unfit for this tas'. b. C5 man very timid is unfit for this tas'.

c. Particular noun,adjective co#binations re6uiring postposition This type consists of a number of fixed phrases based on French or .atin models. They may also be considered compound nouns.
82

08!

a. president elect b. battle royal c. lion rampant d. postmaster general e. attorney general

9hat ma'es them syntactically different from other adjectives in postpositionA 03! a. Cthe president newly elect b. the president newly elected c. the newly elected president d. Cthe heir still apparent e. Cthe battle very royal

$e%rite the !ollo%ing5 using the adjectives !ro# the list to replace the %ords in italics. 9a'e any other changes necessary. @ou %ill need so#e o! the %ords #ore than once. absent involved certain late concerned present conscious proper elect

0 =ur newly elected chairman ta'es over immediately % because our former chairman resigned suddenly last September for health reasons. & Host of the people who were there at the meeting are delighted, 8 but some people that I.m not going to name!, 3 people who were not at the meeting, have telephoned to say that they should have had postal votes. " They say the only correct thing to do now is hold another election, which is ridiculous. ; =ne of our difficulties is we do not always have the up-to-date addresses of all our members. 2 The secretary is aware of the problem. 1 9e once wrote to a member saying that his subscription was overdue 0# and we had a letter from a very distressed lady saying her husband, who had died recently, had always paid on time. In the !ollo%ing 6uotations5 identi!y the positions o! the adjective and co##ent on the#. 0 Buman beings are the only animals of which @ am thoroughly and cravenly afraid. -.D. Shaw! % The first rule in buying 5hristmas presents is to select something shiny... the wariest person will often mista'e shininess for expensiveness. P.-. 9odehouse! & The /abberwoc', with eyes ablaEe, came... .ewis 5arroll! 8 ,esignation, open eyed, conscious, and informed by love, is the only one of our feelings for which it is impossible to become a sham. /oseph 5onrad! 3 The towers of high-rise council flats, superficially similar, stac'ed li'e a social wor'er$s handboo', with separated wives, unmarried mothers, latch-'ey children. Halcolm Dradbury! 0.7.0. 4ouns as postposed ?#ode? 6uali!iers 6ouns may function in another model of postposition in (ng-lish, so-called mode >uali-fier, confined to cuisine*
81

0"!

a. .obster 6ewburg b. veal papri'a

0.A. 9ultiple post#odi!ication


Hultiple postmodification arises through* a. more than one modification applicable to a single headO b. a modification applicable to more than one headO c. by simultaneous application of more than one modification to more than one head. a. 9ore than one #odi!ication applicable to a single head 0;! a. the man in the corner b. the man tal'ing to /ohn c. the man in the corner tal'ing to /ohn d. the man in the corner A! and tal'ing to /ohn c. a hierarchical relation FFFthe manG Fin the cornerGG tal'ing to /ohnG the man in the corner 01! tal'ing to /ohn

02!

c. coordinated structure FFthe manG FFin the cornerG and! Ftal'ing to /ohnGGG the man in the corner and! tal'ing to /ohn

b. 9odi!ication applicable to #ore than one head 4 modification may apply to more than head. 5oordinated complex 6Ps sharing the same postmodifier string as in %#! a. may be brought together by multiple-head rules permitting the determiner to apply to both heads* %#! a. the man in the corner and the woman in the corner b. Fthe Fman and womanG Fin the cornerGG

c. "i#ultaneous application o! #ore than one #odi!ication to #ore than one head This type of construction is a combination of multiple post-modification in a. and b.* %0! a. the man and woman in the corner tal'ing to /ohn
3#

The 6Ps in the postmodifer may themselves be modified, which results in >uite complex 6Ps* %%! a. the man in the corner b. the corner nearest the door c. the man in the corner nearest the door b. the man and woman in the corner nearest the door tal'ing to /ohn

%0!

Post#odi!iers. rue or !alse* 0 Postmodifiers are single words, phrases and clauses standing after the head of a noun phrase. % The commonest postmodifier is the relative clause. & 9e use non-finite clauses, adverbials and adjectives as postmodifiers. 8 #ome- and any-compounds, li'e something, often ta'e a postmodifier. 3 Hany a-series adjectives stand after their nouns. " Hany adjectives ending in -able)-ible can only stand after their nouns. ; The phrases the appointed time and the time appointed mean the same. 2 The phrases the written message and the message written mean the same. 1 4djectives followed by a complement can follow nouns. 0# 4djectival postmodifiers resemble reduced relative clauses. In the !ollo%ing 6uotations !ro# The Country Girl by 8dna O?Brien5 identi!y the !or#s o! post#odi!ication. 0 There were wheel ruts on either side of it from carts that went up and down each day. % Fields of corn at the side of the house and bamboo trees thic' and luxuriant along the water$s edge. & The passed the hotel with window frames rotting and doors scratched from the claws of young and nervous dogs. 8 $There$s trouble brewing,$ said /ac'. Be spo'e as if it were the end of the world. 3 9e passed the -reyhound Botel, where Hrs =$Shea was polishing the 'noc'er. " @t was Daba, loo'ing glorious on her new puce bicycle. ; Their house was li'e a doll$s house, with two bow windows downstairs and circular glower-beds in the front. 2 The shouting, high and fierce, came up through the ceiling. 1 Be went inside to drin' elegant glasses of sherry. 0# =h, there is someone to loo' after you - Hrs Dur'e from the cottages.

0.C. =pposition
0.C.1. he nature o! apposition

.inguistic units are considered to be appositive, i.e. to be in apposition, if they have identical reference* 0! 5nna( my best friend, was here last night. %! 6aul $ones( the distinguished art critic, died in his sleep last night.
30

4nother possibility is for the reference of one 6P to be included in the reference of the other* &! 5 neighbour( 7red Brick, is on the telephone. 4pposition is thus analogous to a copular relationship* %! b. Paul /ones was the distinguished art critic. &! b. Fred Dric' is a neighbour. 4pposition is similar to nonrestrictive postmodification, particularly to nonrestrictive rel-ative clauses* 0! b. 4nna, who is my best friend, was here last night. 9hy cannot apposition always be considered a reduced version of nonrestrictive modification by relative clausesA 8! a. Bere is a letter from /ohn, who wants a *ob in -ondon. b. CBere is a letter from /ohn, a job in .ondon.

0.C.2. /ull and partial apposition @n its narrowest sense the term apposition is applied to structures if the following three conditions are met* 3! i. (ach of the appositives can be separately omitted without affecting the acceptability of the sentenceO ii. (ach item fulfils the same syntactic function in the resultant sentencesO iii. @t can be assumed that there is no difference between the original sentence and either of the resultant sentences in extralinguistic reference. &! c. 4 neighbour is on the telephone. d. Fred Dric' is on the telephone.

Structures that fail to satisfy any of the above conditions are termed partial apposition. 5f.* "! a. 5n unusual present was given to him for his birthday, a book on ethics. b. 5n unusual present was given to him for his birthday. c. C9as given to him for his birthday, a book on ethics. d. 5 book on ethics was given to him for his birthday.

9hich conditions are not met in the following examplesA ;! 2! a. 8orman $ones( at one time a law student, wrote several best-sellers. b. 6orman /ones wrote several best-sellers. c. 4t one time a law student wrote several best-sellers. a. The reason he gave( that he didn.t notice the car till too late , is unsatisfactory. b. The reason he gave is unsatisfactory. c. That he didn.t notice the car till too late is unsatisfactory. d. &The fact' that he didn.t notice the car till too late is unsatisfactory.
3%

2!

0.C.0. "trict and %ea' apposition The appositives may belong to the same general syntactic class, e.g. 6P L 6P* 1! 7ootball( his only interest in life, has brought him many friends. Such apposition is called strict apposition. @f appositives belong to different syntactic classes, e.g. 6P L - ing clause, they are said to be in wea' apposition* 0#! 9is only interest in life( playing football , has brought him many friends.

0.C.1. 4onrestrictive and restrictive apposition

4pposition may be restrictive or nonrestrictive. The appositives in nonrestrictive apposition are in separate information units. Bow is this fact indicated in speech and in writingA 00! a. Hr 5ampbell, a lawyer, was here last night. b. Hr 5ampbell the lawyer was here last night.

@n nonrestrictive apposition, the two items contribute relatively independent pieces of in-formation, with the first appositive usually acting as the defined expression, the second ap-positive having the defining role, but these may on occasion be difficult to distinguish. The defining item is mar'ed as parenthetic by punctuation or intonation. 0%! a. The President of the company, Hrs .ouise Parsons, gave a press conference after the board meeting. b. Hrs .ouise Parsons, the President of the company, gave a press conference after the board meeting.

0.C.7. +o#binations o! apposition types The three types of distinction discussed above apply in combination* 0&! full apposition partial apposition strict apposition wea' apposition nonrestrictive apposition restrictive apposition i. Feither omissibleG Fonly one omissibleG Fsame syntactic classG Fdifferent syntactic functionG Fdifferent information unitG Fsame information unitG

08!

full, strict, nonrestrictive

6aul $ones( the distinguished art critic, died in his sleep last night.
3&

ii.

full, wea', nonrestrictive

6laying football( his only interest in life , has brought him many friends. iii. full, strict, restrictive

%y friend 5nna was here last night. iv. full, wea', restrictive

The ,uestion whether to confess or not troubled the girl. v. partial, strict, nonrestrictive

5n unusual present was given to him for his birthday, a book on ethics. vi. partial, wea', nonrestrictive

9is explanation( that he couldn.t see the car, is unsatisfactory. vii. partial, strict, restrictive

6ext Saturday, financial expert Tom Timber will begin writing a wee'ly column on the national economy. viii. partial, wea', restrictive 9is claim that he couldn.t see the car was unsatisfactory.

0.C.A. 8xplicit indicators o! apposition

4 number of expressions can be inserted between appositives to indicate explicitly nonrestrictive apposition* 03! Bow can a solution be found to the current disease of contemporary society, namely the international economic crisisA Some common indicators are* 0"! that is to say, that is, i.e. namely, viE to wit in other words or, or rather, or better and as follows for example, for instance, say, including, included, such as especially, particularly, in particular, notably, chiefly, mainly, mostly of

38

+o#plete these authentic 6uotations by adding the !ollo%ing appositive phrases in the right places. a. a fast-rising blot on the (uston road b. the latest word in anti-fraud 'now-how c. the police device for immobiliEing illegally par'ed cars d. the willingness of academics to pay tribute to the leaders of bloodthirsty regimes e. those richer than himself f. them or us g. Hillie 0 Three diplomatic cars were among the first 8" victims of the wheel clamp when it came into operation in .ondon in 012&. % Hurauchi has a low opinion of the scramble by the new rich for (uropean art. & The Dushes$ spaniel is the latest in a long line of 9hite Bouse pets. 8 @t was gang warfare. 9e had to 'ill them or they would have 'illed us. 3 Be greatly disli'es the Dritish .ibrary building. " 4ustralia$s new plastic ban'note still cannot cope with earlier forms of technology. People leaving the S 0# note in trouser poc'ets have found that it shrin's when ironed. ; The feting of the dictator$s wife by the polytechnic is a classic example of a peculiar phenomena.

0.D. Pre#odi!ication
0.D.1. ypes o! pre#odi!ying ite# .exical items of a wide range and indefinite complexity and interrelationship may precede a noun head to form a noun phrase whose modification is generally less explicit than that of postmodification. Premodification can be restrictive and nonrestrictive. The major types of premodifying items* 0! a. adjective 9e also met her delightful family. b. participle They never found the missing report. Bave you reported the stolen carA c. noun @ hate city traffic . @n addition there are some minor, less fre>uent, types of premodification by* d. genitive @ visited his fisherman's cottage. e. adverb and other phrases
33

9e have round-the-clock service. d. sentence She has as'ed I don't know how many people to the party.

0.D.2. $estrictive and nonrestrictive pre#odi!ication 4lthough there are few formal indicators as to whether a premodification is restrictive or nonrestrictive, a number of generaliEation may be made. 4dverb and prepositional phrases and sentences as premodifiers tend to be restrictive and to be given more prosodic prominence than the head of the 6P. 9hen there is no postmodification, the head, as a rule, is given the prosodic prominence* %! a. my ugly 6=S( @f prominence is given to a premodifier, the item in >uestion must be restrictive* &! @ want the D.?( bag. 9hy is a phrase li'e %! b. normally nonsensical, and what 'ind of context is needed for it to ma'e senseA %! b. my ?-ly nose <o proper names normally need restrictive premodificationA @s the premodification below restrictive or nonrestrictiveA 5omment. 8! <o you mean the :enT;<:y /ichmond or the =ir"I8ia /ichmond+oneA Typically, nouns and adjectives are stative, and verbs dynamic. 9hen used as modifiers, most adjectives and nouns describe permanent characteristics while most participles de-scribe temporary characteristics. 9hat can be predicted in light of the fact that the prehead modifying position is strongly associated with relatively permanent characteristicsA

0.D.0. Pre#odi!ication by adjectives 4 premodifying adjective or rather adjective phrase! can itself be premodified, particularly if it is the first item after the determiner* 3! 9is really ,uite unbelievably delightful cottage Some intensifiers tend to be avoided with premodifying adjectives. 9hat is the stylistic value of so in premodification corresponding to "! a.A "! a. Bis cottage which is so beautiful
3"

b. Bis so beautiful cottage 9ith indefinite determiners, including Eero, so is replaced by such, or else so L adjective would be placed before the determiner* "! c. such a beautiful cottage d. so beautiful a cottage

Bow is clause negation transferred to premodifying structureA 9itness the following* ;! a. Bis behaviour was not very courteous)not unpleasant. b. his not very courteous behaviour c. his not unpleasant behaviour

4onpredicative adjectives There are several classes of peripheral non-central! adjectives that cannot be used in pre-modification, and, conversely, some that cannot be used predicatively i.e. some restricted to attributive or premodifier position only!. The first group comprises so called @6T(6S@F7@6- adjectives or @6T(6S@F@(,S. They have a heightening effect on the noun they modify, or conversely, a lowering effect. 4t least two semantic subclasses may be distinguished that are subject to constraints on predicative use* 4. (mphasiEers have a general heightening effect* 2! 1! a. a true scholar b. CThe scholar is true. a. a pure fabrication b. CFabrication is pure.

Some further examples are* 0#! a. plain nonsense b. a clear failure c. a real hero d. a certain winner e. a definite loss f. the simple truth g. an outright lie h. sheer arrogance

D. 4mplifiers scale upwards from an assumed norm, and are central adjectives if they are inherent and denote a high or extreme degree* 00! 0%! a. a complete victory b. The victory was complete. a. a great destruction b. The destruction was great.

@f they are noninherent, amplifiers are attributive only* 0&! a. a complete fool
3;

b. CThe fool is complete. 08! a. a firm friend b. )CThe friend is firm.

<omplete here refers to the completeness of the folly, and firm to the firmness of the friendship. 4mplifiers are attributive only also when they are used as emphasiEers* 03! 0"! a. total nonsense b. CThe nonsense was total. a. total destruction b. The destruction was total.

Further examples of amplifier adjectives used attributively only* 0;! a. utter folly b. the absolute limit c. an extreme enemy d. a complete stranger e. a close friend f. his entire salary g. a great supporter h. a perfect stranger i. a strong opponent j. total irresponsibility

Hany of these intensifying adjectives can be related to intensifying adverbs* 02! 01! %#! a. Be is a true a scholar. b. Be is truly a scholar. a. @t was a clear failure. b. @t was clearly a failure. a. @t is utter folly to do so. b. @t is utterly foolish to do so.

Some intensifying adjectives have homonyms that are central adjectives, occurring in both positions* %0! %%! a. @ dran' some pure water. central adjective! b. The water is pure. a. That is pure fabrication. intensifier! b. CThe fabrication is pure.

Secondly, there are ,(ST,@5T@:( or .@H@T(, adjectives. They restrict the reference of the noun exclusively, particularly, or chiefly* %&! a. a certain person b. his chief reason c. the principal objection d. the exact answer e. the same student f. the sole argument
32

g. the only occasion h. the specific point The third group of adjectives used attributively only comprises 4</(5T@:(S ,(.4T(< T= 4<:(,DS* %8! %3! %"! %;! %2! %1! &#! a. my former friend b. formerly my friend a. an old friend b. a friend of old a. past students b. students in the past a. a possible friend b. possibly a friend a. occasional showers b. showers occasionally a. a big eater b. someone who eats a lot a. a hard wor'er b. someone who wor's hard

Finally, there are <(6=H@64. 4</(5T@:(S, i.e. some adjectives used attributively only that are derived from nouns by means of the following suffixes* &0! -ar, -an, -en, -al, -ic, -ly &%! a. polar bear b. urban population c. earthen pottery d. tidal wave e. atomic scientist f. yearly income

Hany such adjectives are nongradable. Some further examples* &&! a. criminal lawyer c. the criminal court b. his poetic input d. the nasal cavity

4gain there may be homonyms* &8! &3! a. this poetic image b. This image is very poetic. a. her nasal pronunciation b. Ber pronunciation is nasal.

$e%rite the !ollo%ing sentences using a cognate adverb !or each o! the highlighted adjectives.
31

0 Peter and @ have a close wor'ing relationship. % The heaviest rains fall in 6ovember and February. & The security system re>uires weekly chec's. 8 Tracy was a clever liar. 3 She is a smart dresser.

0.D.1. Pre#odi!ication by participles Pre#odi!ication by ,ing participles The possibility of premodification by an - ing participle depends chiefly on the potentiality of the participle to denote a permanent or characteristic feature* 0! a. She has a very interesting mind. b. Ber mind interests me very much.

4lthough there are some -ing premodifiers that do not allow intensifiers such as very, cf. %!, intensification is generally possible, as in 0!, or even obligatory, as in &!* %! &! a. a roaring bull b. Ca very roaring bull a. Be was a very reassuring person. b. ABe was a reassuring person.

Bead nouns may also play an important role in acceptability of certain - ing premodifiers* &! 8! c. Be greeted me with a very reassuring expression)smile)loo'. a. a smiling person b. a smiling face

9hy is only postmodification allowed belowA 3! a. C9ho is the wandering manA b. 9ho is the man wandering down the streetA

9hat explains the following acceptability judgements, particularly in Dr(* "! AThe approaching train is from .iverpool. ;! Be was frightened by an approaching train. 2! AThe barking dog is my neighbour$s. 1! @ was awa'ened by a barking dog. 9hat ma'es 0#! b. and 00! a. and b. acceptable with the definite articleA 0#! 00! a. a proposal offending many members b. the offending proposal a. The beginning student should be given every encouragment. $beginners in general$! b. the developing countries
"#

Pre#odi!ication by ,ed participles The same re>uirement concerning the potentiality of the participle to denote a permanent or characteristic feature can be observed with -ed participial modifiers. This type of premodification may be interpreted actively or passively but, as with postmodification, the former is rare* 0! a. the immigrant who has arrived b. Cthe arrived immigrant

There are some exceptions* %! a. a retired teacher)manager b. the vanished treasure c. reduced)fallen)increased prices d. risen costs

9hen is actively interpreted -ed premodification more acceptableA 5hec' the following data. a. the newly-arrived immigrant b. our recently-departed friend c. a well-read woman F$a woman who has read a lot$G d. a soft-spoken person F$a person who spea's softly$G 9hen the interpretation is passive, it is important to distinguish between the passive referring to a process from the so-called statal passive or pseudo-passive!. 9hat differences are illustrated in the following examplesA 8! a. some complicated machinery b. The machinery is complicated. c. ) The machinery was complicated by someone. d. ) Someone complicated the machinery. &!

Host -ed participles have passive meaning, and only a few will readily admit the perma-nent reference prere>uisite for premodifying use* 3! a. The wanted man was last seen in 5ambridge. F$he man goes on being wanted by the police$G b. CThe found purse was returned to its owner. Fthe purse was found at a particular moment$G

9hy is premodification by lost possible in 3! c.A 3! Similarly* "! a. the defeated army b. a damaged car c. a broken vase c. a lost purse F$a purse that has been lost$G

Some exceptions* ;! a. Ca sold car b. Ca built house c. Ca mentioned article


"0

d. Ca described man 9hen are there exceptions acceptable in premodificationA 2! a. a recently-sold car b. a well-built house c. the above-mentioned article d. a carefully described man

Hodifiers in -ed may be directly denominal, i.e. adjectives derived from nouns and not participles with verbal force, in which case they do not re>uire any adverbial modification* 1! a. a bearded man b. the vaulted roof c. a wooded hillside

There are constraints on the productivity of such premodifiers. Bow can the following data be explainedA 0#! a. Ca powered engine b. a powerful engine c. a diesel-powered engine a. Ca legged spider b. a leggy spider c. a long-legged spider

00!

@f the -ed participle has a by-agent phrase or other prepositional construction, postmodi-fication is the only possibility* 0%! a. the defeated army b. the army defeated by the enemy c. Cthe defeated by the enemy army d. Cthe by the enemy defeated army e. the army defeated for the lack of ammunition f. Cthe defeated for the lack of ammunition army g. Cthe for the lack of ammunition defeated army

Some unmodified -ed participles in fixed expressions are found in postposition* 0&! a. the amount demanded)asked b. the earliest inventions known c. the services rendered

Some participles have different meanings in different positions. (xplain the differences in the following* 08! 03! 0"! a. the people concerned b. a concerned expression a. the students involved b. the involved >uestion a. jobs wanted b. wanted persons

Participles of prepositional verbs usually follow the head*


"%

0;!

a. the sum agreed upon b. the pages referred to c. an event unheard of

Paraphrase the ite#s highlighted in the sentences belo%: 0 The 5ommander was pacing the >uarter-dec' with the navigating officer. % @ read (dgar 4llan Poe$s tales with a sort of shackled fascination. & @ learned to climb the tree with a 'ind of absent-minded dexterity. 8 The paid servants had their specified position in the household. 3 The roses grew in great perfumed masses all over the garden. " @ too' a couple of furnished rooms in :incent S>uare. ; The French tutor was a charming young lady. 2 The outstanding discovery of sunspot activity was made by a -erman chemist. 1 Be concluded that sunspots vary in a fairly well-defined cycle of about eleven years. 0# Bong Rong is a mainly <antonese-speaking city. 00 This writer ma'es his point with terrifying emphasis. 0% Sheila is the adopted daughter of a well-'nown ban'er. 0& 7ou have a standing invitation to come with us at any time. 08 The 5hief felt thoroughly lost in the crowded streets of .ondon. 03 4 surprising factor has been the political energy of the Swiss. +o#plete the !ollo%ing5 using pre#odi!ying participles > nouns , but only %here possible: 0 Some plays today disgust me. There are ... % The play was very entertaining. @t was ... & (dward Fox$s performance amaEed us. Be gave ... 8 @ admire him for the way he timed his acting beautifully. @ admire (dward Fox$s ... 3 @ don$t li'e people who arrive late. @ ... " The language of some plays rather surprises me. Some plays contain ... ; =ne man was really shoc'ed and left. =ne ... 2 The children behind us were tal'ing, which was a nuisance. The ... 1 The scene that opened the play was brilliant. The ... 0# 9e got ice-creams in the interval and ate them. The ... 00 @ don$t usually buy a programme because @ won$t pay the prices they demand. The ... are too high. 0% 9e always reserve our seats. 9e always have ... 0& The plot was rather complicated. The play had ... 08 The play ended with $twist$ that was not unrelated. There was ... 03 9e certainly were not expecting that ending. That was certainly ...

"&

he sentence This book interests people very much can be rephrased as This is a very interesting book. Indicate by Yes %hether each o! the sentences belo% can be re,phrased %ith the participle as pre#odi!ier5 and add i! the participle can be #odi,!ied by very: 0 This news has alarmed me very much. % -eorge is a man who amuses me. & These people are very amused. 8 That story is most astonishing. 3 Those children behave themselves. " Those children behave themselves well. ; Those students seem very bored. 2 There are many faces in the room that loo' bored. 1 That candle is burning. 0# That man is always drin'ing. 00 This report encourages us. 0% This is an agreement that will last. 0& 9e have a supply of fuel but it is limited. 08 Those seats are reserved. 03 Those clients were very satisfied. 0" That man seems surprised. 0; This result is totally unexpected. 02 These circumstances worry me. 8xplain the di!!erence in !unction bet%een the t%o %ords highlighted in each o! the !ollo%ing pairs o! sentences: 0 % & 8 3 " a. Hary and /ohn were married >uietly last year. b. They were married when @ first met them. a. Hary is charming. b. The sna'e-charmer is charming a cobra. a. That story is interesting. b. The spea'er is certainly interesting his audience. a. The man painting that picture is a real artist. b. Be is painting it extremely well. a. 7ou are embarrassing the ladies. b. 7our stories are embarrassing. a. /ohn is promising you too much. b. 6evertheless, he is a promising young man.

+hange the !or# o! the phrase belo% so that the post#odi!iers beco#e pre#odi!iers: 0 a house that has been built well % the article which has been mentioned above & an improvement that is needed badly 8 a secret that has been 'ept closely 3 wealth that has never been told " cruelty such as we have never heard of before ; central heating fired by oil 2 girls with blue eyes 1 a man with red nose 0# a censor with a heavy hand 00 a tiger with teeth li'e sabres 0% a boat with a flat bottom

"8

0.D.7. Pre#odi!ication by nouns 6ouns found in the premodifying slot are often so closely associated with the head that the whole is often considered as a compound. 9hat tests may be invo'ed to distinguish themA 0! a. his $life story b. a $dish cloth c. a $#ussex man a. an ,iron $rod b. ,life im$prisonment c. a ,#ussex $village a. She wants an oak table but @$d prefer a teak one. b. CThat$s not an oak tree but an elm one.

%!

&!

@n most cases, there is a correspondence between pre-head nouns and postmodification by prepositional phrases, regardless of whether these are premodifying nouns or compound constituents* 8! 3! "! ;! a. his life story b. the story of his life a. a dish cloth b. a cloth for dishes a. an iron rod b. a rod of iron a. a #ussex village b. a village in #ussex

9hy are some premodifying structures corresponding to post-modification by PPs are of doubtful acceptability or even unacceptableA 2! 1! 0#! 00! 0%! 0&! 08! a. the road to -incoln b. the -incoln road a. this boo' on grammar b. this grammar boo' a. a man from the electricity company b. Aan electricity company man a. passengers on board the ship b. Aship passengers a. action in case of fire b. Afire action a. the house beyond the church b. ) the church house a. two years before the war b. ) two war years
"3

03!

a. a tree by the stream b. Ca stream tree

Phrases li'e 0#-0%! b. are slightly more li'ely to be used anaphorically, i.e. after the ex-plicit relationship has been fully clarified* 0"! 4* Today a man from the electricity company called. D* =h, so what did the electricity company man sayA 9hich important factor for the availability of premodification is illustrated belowA 0;! 02! a. The table in the corner was laid for the dinner. b. The corner table was laid for the dinner. a. The man in the corner spo'e to me. b. CThe corner man spo'e to me.

6ot all noun premodifiers have prepositional phrases as analogues* 01! a. consumer goods b. ) goods for)of the consumer

@n some cases both constructions are acceptable but have different meanings. (xplainK %#! %0! a. a glass of wine b. a wine glass a. a box of matches b. a matchbox

9hat are the main types of prepositional paraphrase of noun L noun combinations, applicable to both syntactic phrases and compoundsA S=?,5( - ,(S?.T a. a metal sheet b. a sheet of metal P4,T - 9B=.( a. a clay soil b. soil with clay P.45( a. a top drawer b. a drawer at the top a. a garden fence b. a fence round the garden T@H( a. a morning train b. a train in the morning P?,P=S( a. a dish cloth b. a cloth for dishes 9B=.( - P4,T
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%%!

%&!

%8! %3!

%"!

%;!

%2!

a. a board member b. a member of the board

4part from the change in the degree of the explicitness, the constructions with pre modifying nouns may differ from postmodifiers formally. 9hat differences can you detect in the material belowA %1! &#! &0! &%! &&! &8! &3! &"! a. officials in the 6entagon b. 6entagon officials a. life in a village b. village life a. a chair with arms b. an armchair a. decay of teeth b. tooth decay a. a girl who is! ten years old b. a ten-years-old girl a. inflation amounting to two digits b. two-digit inflation a. a bill worth ten dollars b. a ten-dollar bill a. a ten day absence b. a ten-day absence c. a ten days absence d. a ten day.s absence

The use of singular is found even with some pluralia tantum nouns* &;! &2! a. a sharpener for scissors b. a scissor sharpener a. a press for trousers b. a trouser press

Bowever, the use of the plural attributive construction is on the increase, particularly in Dr(* &1! a. careers guidance b. a grants committee c. a new systems analyst d. an appointments officer

The motivation for 'eeping the plural may be to preserve semantic differences, i.e. to ex-clude the number ambiguity. These are so-called $exclusive plurals$* 8#! 8#! a. a career girl b. a careers girl a. a branch supervisor b. a branches supervisor
";

highly institutionaliEed plurals are retained* 80! a. parks department b. the heavy chemicals industry c. Scotland 7ard$s =bscene 6ublications S>uad d. the Dritish Huseum 6rints and Drawings -allery

9hy some pluralia tantum 'eep their plural mar'ers in pre-modificationA 8%! a. a goods train b. ) a good train

Secondly, there are premodifying plurals denoting variety. There is a tendency for more generic terms to be plural and more specific terms to be singular* 8&! 88! a. soft drin's manufacturer F$soft drin's as a 'ind of drin's$G b. car manufacturer a. entertainments guide F$'inds of entertainment$G b. theatre guide

There are cases of $temporary institutionaliEations$, when things are mentioned for the second time* 83! a. The idea of levels has been a major issue for a long time. b. the levels idea

4 special instance of temporary institutionaliEation is the use of plurals in headlines to re-fer to topical issues* 8"! a. The 9atergate tapes affair b. The 9hite Bouse tapes mystery

+onvert each o! the phrases belo% by using the pattern head > post#odi!ying phrase: 0 water supply % a motor-bus service & a repair personnel 8 the life sciences 3 fish protein production " a space probe ; a radio signal 2 a power station 1 pea' power 0# price rise rate 00 graphite bloc's 0% ground-water possibilities 0& surface hydrology 08 storage capacity 03 the dam foundation 0" a diversion canal 0; landing-gear components 02 the impact strength 01 the volume change %# accident preventing legislation

0.D.A. Pre#odi!ication by genitive 9hy are noun phrases li'e 0! are ambiguousA (xplain. 0! a. a fisherman$s cottage b. an old man$s bicycle

5omment on the difference in structure when further premodification is added*


"2

%!

a. these nasty women$s clothing b. this nasty women$s clothing

(xplain the grammaticality of multiple modification below* &! 8! his old friend$s delightful but crumbling cottage a. these nasty women$s excentric clothing b. Cthis nasty women$s excentric clothing c. this nasty excentric women$s clothing

0.D.C. Pre#odi!ication by adverb and other phrases Beads of noun phrases may be premodified by adverb phrases and other types of phrases* 0! %! She travelled to many far-away places. a. round-the-clock service b. an up-to-date timetable

4part from a few institutionaliEed examples such premodifiers tend to be restricted to col-lo>uial language* &! an away match

0.D.D. Pre#odi!ication by sentences 5ases of premodification by sentences are often >uite collo>uial* 0! @ visited his what-you-call-it cottage. =nly a handful of such premodifiers have become institutionaliEed* %! a do-it-yourself job 0.D.E. $elative se6uences o! #odi!iers 9hen there are several premodifiers with a single head, there arises the >uestion of their relative ordering* 0! %! &! a. a thin dark face b. a dark thin face a. my gas cigarette lighter b. Cmy cigarette gas lighter a beautiful little old blue ornament

Pones between the determiner and the head* 8! a. @ P,(5(6T,4.


"1

@@ @@@ @: b. <(T this first @

5(6T,4. P=ST5(6T,4. P,(B(4< @@ important @@@ long @: French B(4< novel

Prehead modifiers include the least adjectival and most nominal premodifiers* 3! a. adjectives with a proper noun basis denoting nationality, provenance, and style* 5merican( "othic b. other denominal adjectives with a relation to nouns, often with the meaning $consisting of$, $involving$, or $relating to$* annual( economic( medical( social( political c. nouns* tourist attraction!, >orkshire women!, college student! 4djectives in the prehead Eone are generally non-central* "! a. all those medical students b. Call those very medical students c. CThe examinations are more medical than...

9hat happens if items from the same group co-occurA ;! a. local economic interests b. the annual linguistic meeting

Premodifiers in the prehead Eone normally cannot be coordinated* 2! a. the local waterboard authorities b. Cthe local and waterboard authorities

9hich of the items in 3! comes closest to the headA 1! a. tourist attractions b. .ondon tourist attractions c. 4frican tourist attractions

Postcentral Eone @@@! accomodates participles and colour and age adjectives* 0#! a. a carved -othic doorway b. some interloc'ing 5hinese designs c. a blac' dividing line d. a green carved idol e. an old blue dress f. a really very young physics student

Pone @@ includes all the central, gradable adjectives. 9ithin the class of central adjectives, simple adjectives normally precede those derived from verbs, which in turn precede those derived from nouns*
;#

00!

a. a tall attractive woman b. a long sleepy loo'

9ithin the class of simple, nonderived central adjectives, the order is largely arbitrary but adjectives denoting siEe, length, and height normally precede other items* 0%! a. a small round table b. long straight hair

(motive, evaluative or subjective adjectives in this central Eone precede other central ad-jectives* 0&! a. beautiful warm weather b. beautiful long hair

08! Det the a general small grey age colour participle provenance noun green carved crumbling -othic jade church denominal head idol tower

@n the precentral Eone, we find* 03! a. emphasiEers* certain( definite( plain b. amplifiers* absolute( entire( extreme( perfect c. downtoners* feeble( slight

The general pragmatic principle responsible for the order of premodifiers seems to be the subjective)objective polarity. <ifferent hypotactic relations of premodifiers may upset the normal order based on morphology and semantics* 0"! a. dirty Dritish boo's b. Dritish dirty boo's

9hen two nouns premodify, one which corresponds to the head as object to verb will fol-low one relating to an adverbial relation* 0;! 02! a. my gas cigarette lighter b. Cmy cigarette gas lighter a. a city bread delivery b. Ca bread city delivery

9here an adverbial L verb se>uence has prior institutionaliEed status, this unit may be pre-modified by an object* 01! a. a pressure coo'er b. a vegetable pressure coo'er

;0

;oin the !ollo%ing sentences5 #a'ing a single noun phrase as subject5 object or co#ple#ent o! the !irst verb. 0 7ou are an old man. 7ou are very silly. % Poisoning is a painful way to die. @t is a slow way. & @t was a large cat. @t was a PersianO it was blueO it was long-haired. 8 Perhaps @$m a very vain woman. Perhaps @$m old. Perhaps @$m very arrogant. 3 4 hand'erchief lay on the ground. @t had spots on it, which were red and white. @t was a man$s. @t was dirty. " @t was a thought-provo'ing play. @t was >uite entertaining. ; The herd consisted of Frisian cattle. They were blac' and white. 4lso /ersey cattle. They were light brown. 2 The communities met the Flemish-spea'ing community, also the French-spea'ing community!. 1 6o one wants a 01"#s computer. @t is slow and clumsy. @t is capricious. @t is completely out-dated. 0# Be adopted an attitude. @t was rec'less. @t was hysterical. The rec'lessness was unnatural. /ro# each o! the !ollo%ing sets o! data5 !or# one phrase co#posed entirely o! (deter#iners >) pre#odi!iers > head %ord: 0 two chairsO made of oa'O beautifully-carved % your blue, old scarfO the sil' one that you bought in /apan & this pot - round, small, made of iron, used for coo'ing 8 the murder that too' place in the villa by the side of the river 3 their mas's to 'eep out the smogO neat, white " stamps for insurance, several thousand, unused, stolen recently ; all these shells, walnut shells, shrivelled, bro'en 2 a famous school, teaching medicine, in Scotland 1 the cultivator that sells best in the country 0# a cottage in the country, very pictures>ue though crumbling slightlyO roof of thatch 0.D.10. 9ultiple pre#odi!ication The three types of multiple modification observed with postmodifiers also apply to premodifiers. 0! a. his brilliant boo' b. his last boo' c. his last brilliant boo' d. his brilliant last boo' a. the new table b. the new chairs c. the new table and chairs a. Be writes long papers. b. Be writes boo's. c. Be writes long papers and boo's. d. Be writes boo's and long papers. e. Be writes excellent boo's and long papers. f. Fexcellent boo'sG and Flong papersG g. Fexcellent Fboo's and long papersGG h. some excellent boo's and some long papers i. excellent boo's, and long papers
;%

%!

&!

8xpand the !ollo%ing phrase so as to #a'e it clear %hat %ords are being #odi!ied by %hat: 0 a short, red-haired man % a short-haired fox terrier & a small, sparsely-furnished office 8 a totally committed, self-effacing man 3 pretty good entertainment expenses " two attractive flat-roofed villas ; attractive two-bedroomed apartments 2 elegant period town houses 1 school careers adviser 0# new, reasonably-priced leather jac'ets Pre#odi!iers. rue or !alse* 0 Premodifiers are words that stand before the head in a noun phrase. % 4djectives, participles, nouns and compounds are used as premodifiers. & 9e do not use adverbs as premodifiers. 8 9ith two or more premodifying adjectives we normally place and before the last. 3 This does not apply if the adjectives describe different 'inds of >ualities. " Premodifying adjectives themselves cannot be premodified. ; 9e often use nouns, including the genitive, to premodify a head noun. 2 -enitives are premodifiers only when they have specific meaning. 1 @ntensifiers li'e rather can be premodifiers. 0# Premodifying adjectives cannot stand in random order. Identi!y the pre#odi!iers in the noun phrases o! these 6uotations. 0 4n (nglishman$s way of spea'ing absolutely classifies him. 4lan /. .erner, %y 7air -ady % The trouble with senior management @ notice as an outsider, is that there are too many one-ulcer men holding down two-ulcer men$s jobs. B,B <u'e of (dinburgh & 4ll dress is fancy dress, is it not, except our natural s'ins. -.D. Shaw, #aint $oan 8 <eath is the only pure, beautiful conclusion of a great passion. <.B. .awrence, 7antasia of the ;nconscious 3 (lgar$s 4 Flat symphony is the musical e>uivalent of St Pancras Station. Sir Thomas Deecham

1. -eter#iners
1.1. -eter#inatives and deter#iners
6Ps used in discourse have reference to the linguistic or situational context. This reference that a praticular 6P has is indicated by its determinative element. This determinative function is typically realiEed by a set of closed-class items, or determiners, but it may also be realiEed by a phrase e.g. $s genitive as complex determinative!. These determinatives occur before the head, i.e. before its premodifiers, if there are any. Three classes of determiners could be distinguished* 0!. a. Predeterminers e.g. half, all, double! b. central determiners e.g. articles!
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c. postdeterminers e.g. cardinal and ordinal numerals, many, few, etc.! These three classes have been established on the basis of their mutual combinalbility* only the order s! a L b L c, a L b, b L c, and a L c, but not Cc L b L a, or Ca L c L b, etc.

1.2. +entral deter#iners


9hat factors determine the use of articles with common nounsA 9hat is the phonetic realiEation of the definite and indefinite articleA 4rticles are not the only possibility for determining nouns* there are items li'e some, any, this, that, etc. 4re central determiners mutually exclusive with each otherA 5onsider the following data* %! a. Ca the boy b. Ca some boy

Thus, central determiners are in a choice relation paradig-matic! and not in a chain relation syntagmatic one!. 9hile articles have no other function independent of the noun they precede, most other de-terminers have the additional function of pronouns* determiner function &! 8! a. @ want some ice. b. 9hat$s that thingA pronoun function b. Bere$s some for you. b. That$s our computer.

There are certain cooccurrence restrictions between articles and common nouns* 3! a. the pen b. the pens c. the music a. a pen b. Ca pens c. Ca music a. C# pen b. # pens c. # music

"!

;!

The central determiners can be divided into 3 types with respect to their cooccurrence with the noun classes a. singular count, b. plural count, and c. noncount nouns* type 2! 4 D 5 sg count L L L pl count L L noncount L L ;8

< (

L -

Type 4* <eterminers of singular count, plural count and noncount nouns i. the definite article the* 1! 9here do you wnat me to put the chair)the chairs)the furnitureA ii. the possessive pronouns as determiners* my, your, our, her, its, their* 0#! Bave you seen my suitcase)my suitcases)my luggageA iii. the relative determiners whose and which* 00! a. The lady whose car you hit was furious. b. 5all again at 00, by which time the meeting should be over.

iv. the wh-determiners in -ever* 0%! a. :ote for whichever proposal you thin' most favourable. b. For whatever reason, don$t be late again. c. Whosever idea this may be, @ don$t li'e it.

v. the interrogative determiners what, which, whose* 0&! a. What colourA b. Which informationA c. Whose ideas are theseA

vi. the negative determiner no* 08! a. 9e have no problem)problems with violence here. b. The sign said $8o parking$.

Type D* <eterminers of plural count nouns and noncount nouns i. Eero article* 03! a. There were people everywhere. b. <o you want to play chessA

ii. the assertive determiner some and the nonassertive determiner any* 0"! a. @ want some rolls)bread, please. b. Bave we got any rolls)bread for brea'fast tomorrowA

#ome is here unstressed. Strongly stressed some can occur also with certain singular count nouns, especially temporal nouns* 0;! I#ome .day he will get his scholarship.

;3

9hen stressed some has the meaning $a certain$, it can also cooccur with other singular count nouns* 02! $#ome odd person as'ed for you on the phone.

iii. the >uantitative determiner enough* 01! @ haven$t got enough e,uipment)tools to do the job.

Type 5* <eterminers of singular count nouns and singular noncount nouns. The demonstrative determiners this and that* %#! Bave you read this)that bookA Type <* <eterminers of plural count nouns. The demonstrative determiners these and those* %0! Bave you seen these)those playsA Type (* <eterminers of singular count nouns* i. the indefinite article a)an* %%! Bave you got a penA ii. the universal determiner every and each* %&! @ want to interview every)each student individually. 1very is exceptional among central determiners in that it occasionally allows a genitive or possessive determiner to precede it* %8! Bis every action shows that he is a very determined young man. %3! Ca)the every action iii. the nonassertive determiner either* %"! 7ou can par' on either side. iv. the negative determiner neither* %;! 8either party accepted the arbitration proposal.

1.0. Predeter#iners
Predeterminers, which can occur before certain central determiners, include* i. all, both, and half These predeterminers can occur before the articles, de-monstrative determiners and possessive determiners*
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%2!

a. all the! girls b. half an hour c. both those cars d. all my time

Since they are themselves >uantifiers, they cannot cooccur with other $>uantitative$ determiners li'e every, n!either, each, some, etc. @n addition to functioning as predeterminers, all, both and half also function as pronouns, and may ta'e partitive of-phrases. 5ll and both but not half! can occur after the head, either immediately or in medial adverb position i.e. be floated!* %1! a. 4ll students were accepted. b. 4ll the students were accepted. c. 4ll of the students were accepted. d. The students were all accepted. e. AThey all were accepted.

ii. the multipliers li'e double, once, twice, three times, etc.* %1! a. double the sum b. twice my salary

?nce, twice, and three, four, etc. times can cooccur with the determiners every, each, and less commonly per, to form distributive expressions of fre>uency with a temporal noun as a head* &#! once twice three each four five iii. the fractions one-third, one-fifth!* &0! one-third of! the time The indefinite article can replace the one* &%! iv. such, what* &&! a. Such a surpriseK b. 9hat a fine dayK a third of the time a every times day wee' month year decade

Predeterminers are mutually exclusive except in the combination all such!* &8! a. all girls b. both girls
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c. Call both girls &3! 4lthough every attempt is made to find suitable foster-homes for the children, it cannot be assumed that all such placements will be successful.

1.1. Postdeter#iners
Postdeterminers follow predeterminers or central determiners if such determiners are present!, but they precede any adjectives and other premodifying items. Postdeterminers include* 4. cardinal numerals D. ordinal numerals and $general ordinals$ li'e last, etc.! 5. closed-class >uantifiers <. open-class >uantifiers =. +ardinal nu#erals ?ne cooccurs with singular count nouns, and the other cardinal numerals cooccur with plural count nouns. @n many contexts, one may be regarded as a stressed counterpart of the indefinite article* &"! @ would li'e a)one photocopy of this article. The indefinite article cannot cooccur with one, but the definite article can* &;! a. Ca one boo' b. the one boo' c. the two boo's

B. Ordinal nu#erals and ?general ordinals? (li'e last5 etc.) There is a one-for-one relation between ordinals and cardinals* &2! a. one - first b. two - second c. three - third

The general ordinals include next, last, past, an!other, additional and further. =rdinals cooccur with count nouns and usually precede any cardinal numbers in the 6P* &1! a. the first two days b. another three wee's

+. +losed,class 6uanti!iers Two groups of closed-class >uantifiers can be distinguished* i. many, a! few, and several cooccur only with plural count nouns*
;2

8#!

There were

too many only a few very few several

mista'es in your essay.

ii. much and a! little cooccur only with noncount nouns* 80! a. She hasn$t got much money. b. She has only got a! little money.

@n the case of a! few and a! little, there is positive)negative contrast according to whether the indefinite article is used or not* 8%! a. Be wrote a few boo's. F$some, several$G b. Be wrote few boo's. F$not many$G

-. Open,class 6uanti!iers This is a large class of phrasal >uantifiers which function semantically li'e the closedclass >uantifiers, but most of which consist of a noun of >uantity lot, amount, etc.! fol-lowed by of and often preceded by the indefinite article. 4lthough the >uantity nouns loo' li'e the head of a noun phrase, there are grounds for treating the whole expression as a complex determiner. 5onsider the fact that te verb regularly has number concord with the second noun, rather than the first in examples li'e* 8&! a. .ots of food was on the table. b. There was lots of food on the table.

Some of these expressions e.g. plenty of! can cooccur with both noncount and plural count nouns* 88! The room contained plenty of a lot of lots of students)furniture.

=thers are restricted to >uantifying only noncount nouns, or plural count nouns* great good deal large! >uantity small! amount great! large! good!

83! The chest contained a

of money

8"! The hall contained a

number of students.

@t is usual for them to be modified by a >uantifying adjective obligatorily with deal!. In the !ollo%ing 6uotations5 underline the noun phrases5 identi!ying the class o! the head (count5 singular5 non,count5 etc.) and identi!ying the group o! any
;1

deter#iners (article5 de#onstrative nu#eral5 possessive5 6uanti!ier5 wh,%ord5 etc.). 0 There is only one religion though there are a hundred versions of it. -.D.S. 6lays 6leasant( 6reface! % 4lmost all our misfortunes in life come from the wrong notions we have... Stendahl, $ournal! & The cruellest lies are often told in silence. ,... Stevenson, =irginibus 6ueris,ue! 8 9hat an artist dies in me. (mperor 6ero, dying words! 3 @t is a terrible thing for a man to find out that all his life he has been spea'ing nothing but the truth. =scar 9ilde, The Importance of Being 1arnest! ;oin the sentences into one %hich includes a noun phrase containing all the stated or i#plied deter#iners. 0 7ou have three sisters. @ li'e them all. % 7ou made a first offer. The final amount was double. & 7ou sold me some wine. Bave you got any moreA 8 9e won$t do it today. 9e$ll do it some day. 3 Ta'e the tablets each day. Ta'e them three times. " @ have alot of firends. =nly a few of them are 9elsh. ; Hy next salary is due. Balf of it is committed already. 2 Two letters were illegible. They were the last. 1 6ow he has this latest problem. 9e$ve heard too much of it. 0# There are two. 9hich one do you wantA $e%rite the !ollo%ing using !e%5 a !e%5 little or a little in place o! the highlighted %ords5 #a'ing any other changes necessary. 0 9ardly any women nowadays want to spend hours coo'ing, and even fewer want to spend all day in the 'itchen. % Some people say they$re not interested in food, and a small number actually mean it. & 5raEy starvation diets offer hardly any prospect of success. 8 @t is all right to have some butter, but try to cut down the amount. 3 #ome people do overeat, but not as many as you might thin'. " 5 small amount of salt is all right, isn$t itA ; There$s not much chance of 'eeping slim, unless you stic' to a diet. 2 Hany people enjoy foreign restaurants, but not many people 'now anything about Tibetan food. Insert appropriate articles. Hr Durton was JJJ first French teacher @ had, and he was also JJJ most extraordinary person in JJJ school. Be always wore JJJ dirty sports jac'et with JJJ very large hand'er-chief in JJJ top poc'et. Be was always JJJ last to arrive in JJJ room, usually about ten minutes after JJJ rest of JJJ school had begun JJJ lessons. Be was JJJJ fat, slow person with JJJ very loud voice, who seemed to spend most of JJJ lesson tal'ing to himself, JJJ best part of JJJ lesson was when he fell asleep, which usually happened aboutonce JJJ wee'. =nce we managed to go out of JJJ room >uietly, and left him asleep at JJJ des' auntil JJJ next class arrived. rue or !alse* 0 <eterminers form part of the premodification system in the noun phrase. % <eterminers usually follow adjectives.
2#

& Some determiners are never used with others. 8 <eterminers can stand in random order. 3 The count)noncount distinction affects our choice of determiners. " There are three main groups of determiners. ; Post-determiners stand after their nouns. 2 4rticles and demonstratives are two sub-classes of determiners. 1 Possessive pronouns are another sub-class. 0# wh-determiners are part of the central group.

7. =dverb phrase
7.1. 2ra##atical !unctions o! adverb phrases as adverbials
@n terms of their grammatical function, adverb phrases can function as modifiers or as ad-verbials. 4s adverbials they, and other items functioning as adverbials, fall into 8 main categories* a. 4djunct b. Subjunct c. <isjunct d. 5onjunct

7.2. =djuncts
Hore than other adverbials, adjuncts have grammatical properties resembling the sentence elements subject, complement, and object. .i'e them, adjuncts can be the focus of a cleft sentences* 0! FBildaGS helped FTonyG= Fbecause of his injuryG4. %! a. @t was 9ilda that helped Tony because of his injury. b. @t was Tony that Bilda helped because of his injury. c. @t was because of his in*ury that Bilda helped Tony.

The parallel extends to the potentiality for being the focus of subjuncts* &! a. ?nly Bilda helped Tony... b. Bilda helped only Tony... c. Bilda helped Tony only because of his injury.

The same applies to elicitation by >uestion forms* 8! a. Who helped TonyA b. Who m! did Bilda helpA c. Why did Bilda help TonyA

@rrespective of their position in a clause, adjuncts come within the scope of predication ellipsis or pro-forms, exactly li'e other post-operator elements. Therefore the following pairs are virtually synonymous* 3! a. @n 0120, -race became a teacher and so did Bamish. b. -race became a teacer in 0120 and Bamish became a teacher in 0120.
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a. Fred carefully cleaned his teeth but /onathan didn$t. b. Fred carefully cleaned his teeth but /onathan didn$t carefully clean his teeth.

5learly, adjuncts are integrated into the clause structure. 4djuncts come in a large number os subtypes* manner adj-uncts, process adjuncts, place adjuncts, instrument adjunct, time adjuncts, adjuncts of space, etc.

7.0. "ubjuncts
The label subjunct is applied to adverbials which have, to a greater or lesser degree, a sub-ordinate role in comparison with other clause elements* ;! This play presents visually a sharp challenge to a discerning audience. 2! Be fairly SP,46- at her with his >uestion. =isually here refers to respect, i.e. it should be paraphrased by $as a visual experience$. 7airly means in 2! $it is no exaggeration to say$. 6ote that both items may also function as adjuncts in different sentences 9e was treated fairly!. Subjuncts are parenthetical elements, i.e. they ae not as firmly integrated into the clause structure. They are often, separated from the rest of the clause* 1! 7rom a personal point of view, he is li'ely to do well in this post. Subjuncts do not respond to any of the above four tests for adjunct status. Sentences either move away from the original subjunct meaning or they are unacceptable* 0#! a. @t is visually that this play achieves a sharp challenge... Fa shift to adjunct reading, i.e. a different meaning obtainsG b. C@t was fairly that he sprang at her...

Semantically, they come as viewpoint subjuncts, courtsey subjuncts, item subjuncts, emphasiEer subjuncts, intensifiers and focusing subjuncts.

7.1. -isjuncts
.i'e subjuncts, disjuncts are grammatically distinct from adjuncts in terms of the four tests above* 00! #adly, the storm destroyed the entire tobacco crop. 0%! 7our son is not, in all frankness, succeeding in his present job. 9e again note that formally one and the same item may be either disjunct or adjunct* 0&! <r Fox sat sadly in her room. <isjuncts are syntactically more detached and in some respects $superordinate$, i.e. they seem to have a scope that extends over the sentence as a whole. They seem to express comments on the sentence that hosts them, and come in two types* style disjuncts and content disjuncts. The former convey the spea'er$s comment on the style and form of what is being said and defining in some way the conditions under which $authority$ is being as-sumed for the statement* 08! a. 6ersonally, @ don$t approve of her.
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b. #trictly speaking, nobody is allowed in here. c. =ery frankly, @ am tired. The latter type of disjuncts, content disjuncts, ma'e an observation on the actual content of an utterance and on its truth conditions* 03! a. To the disgust of his neighbours, Hr Forster neglects his children. b. Wisely, Hrs /ensen consulted her lawyer. c. To my regret, she did not see' nomination.

7.7. +onjuncts
.i'e subjuncts and disjuncts, the adverbials called conjuncts are gramamtically distinct from clause element-li'e adjuncts in not responding to the four tests above. 5onjuncts are more li'e disjuncts in having a relatively detached and $superordinate$ status when compared with other clause elements. 5onjuncts have the function of conjoining or lin'ing independent units rather than one of contributing another facet of information to a single integrated unit. 0"! She may be unable to attend the meeting. 7ou should nonetheless send her the agenda.

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