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PAPER NO.

28902B

HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY


DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
Examination for the Degree of
Meng in Petroleum Engineering
Reservoir Simulation
Monday 17th April 1995

09.30

- 12.30

( 70% of Total marks )

NOTES FOR CANDIDATES


(1)

Answer ALL the questions and try to confine your answer to the space provided on the
paper.

(2)

The amount of space and the relative mark for the question will give you some idea of the
detail that is required in your answer.

(3)

If you need more space in order to answer a question then continue on the back of the
same page indicating clearly (by PTO) that you have done so.

(4)

The total number of marks in this examination is 262; this will be rescaled to give an
appropriate weighted percentage for the exam. The marks are relative and, together with
the space available, should give an approximate guide to the level of detail required.

(5)

There is a compulsory 15 minute reading time on this paper during which you must not
write anything.

(6)

You will be allocated 3 hours to complete this paper.

Q1.

List two uses of numerical reservoir simulation for each of the following stages of field
development.

(i)

At the appraisal/early field development stage


1.
(2)
2.
(2)

(ii)

At a stage well beyond the maximum oil production in a large North Sea field:
1.
(2)
2.

(2)

Q2.

At any stage in a reservoir development by waterflooding, the engineer may use material
balance calculations and/or numerical reservoir simulation. Under which particular cir
cumstances would you use each of these approaches?
(i) Material Balance?

(3)

(ii) Reservoir simulation?

(3)

Q3. Given all the problems and inaccuracies, which are known to exist in the application of
reservoir simulation, why do engineers still use it?

(2)
2

Q4
Water
injector
Water
injector

Producer

High k

Continuous or
Discontinuous
Shales ???

Low k

OWC

2000 m

Vertical scale
100 m

Reservoir X is a light oil reservoir (35 API) being developed by waterflooding. The reservoir
comprises a high average permeability massive sand overlying lower average permeability
laminated sands. The thickness of each sand is approximately equal and there are shales at the
interface of these two sands. However, the operator is uncertain if these shales are continuous or
discontinuous.
The following questions refer to Figure 1 above.
(i)

What would the main differences be between the cases where the shales in the above
reservoir were continuous and where they were discontinuous?

(4)

(ii)

Say briefly how you would go about investigating this using reservoir simulation.

(4)
3

(iii)

Suppose a reservoir engineer took 10 vertical grid blocks (NZ=10) in a simulation model
of this system. Would you expect the local (kv.kh) values in each of the main reservoir
sands to be similar or different? Explain your answer briefly.

Similar/different
(1)

Explain

(4)
(iv)

If this reservoir well had a gas cap, then gas coning might be a problem.

What is gas coning? Draw a rough sketch.

(4)
How would you use reservoir simulation to investigate this problem?

(4)
4

(v)

In which two ways would the grid used to investigate gas coning be different from that
which was used in the full field waterflooding simulation?

1.
(2)
2.
(2)

Q5.

Two of the main numerical problems/errors that arise in reservoir simulators are due to
numerical dispersion and grid orientation.

Explain each of these terms briefly saying - what it means, its origin and how we might get
round it. Draw a simple hand drawn sketch illustrating each.
(i)

Numerical Dispersion: Sketch

(5)
(ii)

Numerical Dispersion - Explanation?

(5)
5

(iii)

Grid Orientation - sketch

(4)
(iv)

Grid orientation - Explanation?

(4)
Q6.

A very simple single phase pressure equation is given by Eq. 1 below.


2
P P
= 2
t x

(i)

Eq. 1

Write down how this equation is discretised in an explicit finite difference scheme - briefly
explain your notation.

(4)

(ii)

If an implicit finite difference scheme was used to solve Eq. 1, then a set of linear
equations would arise which could be solved using either a direct or an iterative linear
equation solution technique. Briefly explain each of the bold terms above:

Implicit finite difference scheme

(4)
Set of linear equations

(4)
Direct linear equation solution technique

(4)
Iterative linear equation solution technique

(4)
7

Q7.

Statement: The Equations of Two Phase Flow can be derived easily simply by using
Material Balance and Darcys Law.

Explain this statement with reference to two phase flow - you do not need to actually derive the
equations and, indeed, you may not use any equations other than Darcys law.

(8)

Q8.

(i)

Draw a schematic sketch of a single grid block of size Dx by Dy by Dz, showing the
porosity f, the oil and water saturations So and Sw (only 2 phases present).

(2)

(ii)

(a)

Using the sketch in part (i) above, derive expressions for (a) the volume of oil in the grid
block, Vo; (b) the mass of oil in the grid block, Mo, introducing the formation volume
factor, Bo.
Vo?

(3)
(b)

Mo?

(3)

(iii)

Write an expression for the oil flux, Jo, saying briefly what it is, any units it might be
expressed in and explaining any terms you introduce.

(6)
9

Q9.

(i)

Name three ways in which a Black Oil reservoir simulation differs from a
Compositional simulation model.

1.

2.

3.

(6)
(ii)

Draw a simple sketch of a single grid block showing what is meant by a component and a
phase.

(4)

(iii)

Using the notation CIJ to denote the mass composition of component I per unit volume of
phase J (dimensions of CIJ are mass/volume), derive an expression - based on the
quantities labelled in your sketch in (ii) above - for the mass of component I in the grid
block.

(6)
10

(iv)

Give one example of (a) where you would use a Black Oil model and (b) where you would
use a Compositional simulation model.

(a)

Use Black Oil model?

(3)
(b)

Use Compositional model?

(3)

Q10. Figure 2: The figure below shows the basic idea of upscaling or Pseudo-isation.

"Fine" Grid Cross-Sectional Model

OIL

"Rock"
Propts.

"Coarse" Grid Upscaled or Pseudo-ised Model

"Pseudo-"
Propts.

With reference to Figure 2 above, answer the following:

11

(i)

What is meant by Upscaling with reference to the modelling of say a waterflood.

(2)
(ii)

What is the difference between rock relative permeabilities and pseudo-relative


permeabilities?

(4)
(iii)

In order to perform upscaling in reservoir simulation, we need both an Upscaling


Methodology and Upscaling Mathematical Techniques. Explain very briefly the
meaning of the bold terms.

Methodology

(4)
Techniques?

(4)

12

Q11. (i)

Sketch (roughly) a semi variogram for each of the following permeability models:

(a)

a correlated random field with a range of 100m and a sill of 10,000 mD2; and

(b)

a laminated system where the laminae are of constant width of 1cm and where the high
permeability = 2D and the low permeability = 1D. Label your sketches clearly.

(a)

(6)
(b)

(6)
(ii)

What can you deduce about the standard deviation of the correlated random field in (i)(a)
above.

(3)

13

(iii)

Sketch the correlogram for case (i) above.

(5)

Q12. Figure 3 below shows the sketch of simple 3 layer model.

k = 0.5 D

2 cm

k = 2.0 D

5 cm

k = 1.0 D

1 cm

(i) Calculate the effective permeability of the above model in the x-direction; show your working.

(5)

14

(ii)

Calculate the effective permeability of the above model in the y-direction, show your
working.

(6)
(ii) Suppose we put a very find grid (say of size 0.1 cm x 0.1 cm) on the 3 layer model in Figure 3
above. If we jumbled up all the grid blocks randomly so that the new model had no discernable
structure, would the new effective permeability be: greater than that in (i) and (ii)?; less than that in (i)
and (ii)?; in between these values? Explain your answer.

(6)

15

Q13. In miscible flow in a random correlated field, explain how the mixing zone grows with
time in each of the following cases (illustrate your answers with simple sketches):
(i) dispersive flow

(4)
(ii) fingering flow

(4)
(iii) channelling flow

(4)
(iv) On the same diagram below, sketch the expected type of fractional flow curve f(c) vs c) you
would expect for each type of flow.

(6)
16

Q14. In the Kyte and Berry pseudo-isation (upscaling) method, describe briefly (using a
diagram) how numerical dispersion is taken into account (no detailed mathematics is
required).

(10)
17

Q15. (i)

List the main categories in the hierarchy of stratal sedimentary elements - give one
short sentence explaining each of these.

(8)
(iii)

Describe which of the above length scales of sedimentary heterogeneity are likely to have
most significance for the following reservoir flow phenomena:

* Reservoir pay-zone connectivity:

(3)
* Gravity slumping or water over-ride:

(3)
* Vertical sweep efficiency:

(3)
* Residual/Remaining oil saturation

(3)

18

Frequency

Q16. You have been given the following distribution of core-plug permeabilities in a particular
reservoir unit which includes a higher permeability a fluvial channel sand overlying a
lower permeability deltaic sand:

100 400 600 800


Permeability (md)

With reference to Figure 4 above: (a) explain the probable reason that the permeability
distribution has the above form; (b) sketch the sort of permeability models (laminar, bed and
formation scale) you might use for the flow simulation of this unit.
(a)

(3)
(b)

(continue on the back of this sheet if necessary)

(10)
19

Q17. (i) Draw a sketch of water displacement of oil across the laminae in a water-wet
laminated system at (a) low flow rate (capillary dominated) and (b) high flow rate
(viscous dominated); in this sketch show where the residual remaining oil is and
give a sentence or two of explanation.

(a)

(8)

(b)

(8)

20

(ii)

Is the effective water permeability at residual (i) remaining oil saturation (across the
laminae) higher in case (a) or (b) in part (i) above? Explain.

(6)
(iii)

What are the implications of the results in (i) and (ii) above for upscaling in reservoir
simulation?

(6)

21

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Model Solutions to Examination

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8 Pages

Date:
Subject:

Reservoir Simulation
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
No.

Mk.

1. Complete the sections above but do not seal until the examination is finished.
2. Insert in box on right the numbers of the questions attempted.
3. Start each question on a new page.
4. Rough working should be confined to left hand pages.
5. This book must be handed in entire with the top corner sealed.
6. Additional books must bear the name of the candidate, be sealed and be affixed to
the first book by means of a tag provided

PLEASE READ EXAMINATION REGULATIONS ON BACK COVER

Answer Notes
#

=>

indicates one of several possible answers which are equally acceptable.

[] =>

extra information good but not essential for full marks - may get bonus.

Model Solutions to Examination

Q1

(i)

1. To perform broad scooping calculations which examine different


development options e.g. waterflooding, gas flooding etc.

2. To extend initial material balance calculations by examining


some other spatial factor such as well-placement or aquifer effect.

(ii)
#

1. To assess additional field management options such as infill drilling,


pressure blowdown etc.

2. To take the improved history match model which can be developed


after same development twice and to use this to assess various IOR
strategies e.g. gas injection, WAG or chemical flooding.

Q2
(i)
#

Because of its inherent simplicity you would virtually always apply


single material balance to assess your field performance - to see if DP
decline tallies with estimated field size, sources of influx and
production.

(ii)
Would be used when a more complex development strategy requiring
spatial information is essential e.g. well placement, assessment of shale
effects, gravity segregation etc.

Q3
(#)

Because it is the only tool we have to tackle complex reservoir


development/flow problems which extends material balance. Clearly, it
is much better than simple material balance alone.

Q4
(i)
The shale continuity strongly affects the hi/lo permeability layer
vertical communication (both pressure and fluid flow). Thus, it will
affect the effective kv/kh (lower or zero for continuous shales) and
will strongly influence gravity slumping of water in a waterflood. In
the situation above with high k on top, some vertical communication will
help recovery.

(ii)
Set up a simple 2D cross sectional model with , say, 50 blocks in the x direction and 10 vertical grid blocks - 5 in each layer. Run waterflood
cases with and without shales - and some in-between cases with
transmissibility modifiers set beween Tz = 0.0 0.01 0.1 0.5 1.0.
Compare water saturation fronts and recoveries as fraction of pv
water throughput. Result will allow us to assess the effects of the
shales in the waterflood.

(iii)
Different

Model Solutions to Examination

The high perm massive sand would have a small scale kv/kh ~1 which
would result in a similar larger scale value. In the laminated sands, the
small scale (say core plug scale) would have a low kv/kh of say 0.1 to
0.01 and this would result in a correspondingly lower kv/kh at the grid
block scale.

(iv)

Well

Gas

Oil
and
Water

Gas

Oil
and
Water

= perforations
Gas Coning It is the drawdown of the highly mobile (low mg) gas into
the perforations. Pattern is shown here in figure. Causes high GOR
production at a level well above the solution gas value.

Set up a near-well r/z geometry fine grid - possibly 50 layers and


set reservoir near-well rock properties e.g. Layering, Tz modifiers,
Rel. perms. etc.

Perform simulations to look at issues such as effect of rate, vertical


communication, gas/oil/water Rel. perms. etc
Generally needs a fine Dr, Dz grid, often finer near the well where
most rapid changes of Sg and pressure with time occur.

(v)
1. The geometry would be different: r/z for coning and cartesian or
corner point for full field.

2. The fineness of the grid would be different. Very fine for nearwell; much coarser for full field.

(Dimensionality too 2D vs. 3D)

Model Solutions to Examination

Q5
(i)

(ii)
Numerical dispersion is the artificial spreading of saturation fronts
due to the numerical grid block structure in the simulation. It arises
because we take large grids to represent moving fronts. It can be
improved by refining the grid (globally or locally) or by using improved
numerical methods.

(iii)
Wells same distance
apart in Figs A and B
L
I

Fluid tends to
flow along (parallel)
to the grids

Fig A

Fig B
I = injector ;

P = producer

(iv)
The injected fluid tends to flow parallel with the grid from the
injector (I) to the producer (P) - see previous page. This means that
early breakthrough and poorer recoveries are seen in A then in B
above. i.e.
Fig B
Actual Recovery
Fig A
%00IP
Producer

Pv or Time

Q6
(i)

Model Solutions to Examination

(ii)
2 P
In this scheme the spatial term in Eq. 1 i.e.
would be specified at
x 2
the new time level n+1

A set of linear equations is the following type of equation (e.g.3x3system)

a11 X1 + a12 X2 + a13 X3 = b1


a21 X1 + a22 X2 + a23 X3 = b2
a31 X1 + a32 X2 + a33 X3 = b3

where X1, X2, X3 are unknown - the as are a matrix of known


coefficients and bs are a known right-hand side.

A direct solution method (e.g. Gaussian Elimination


Elimination) is an algorithm
with a fixed number of steps which will solve these linear equations
(under certain conditions). [Typically forward elimination is applied to
get an upper triangular A* matrix and back substitution is then easily
applied to get the X solution]

In contrast, an iterative technique starts with a first estimate of the


unknown vector X (0) where the (o) denotes 0th iteration: This is then
improved by some algorithm to a better and better solution of the
original linear equations i.e. X(1) X(2) X(V) until the method
converges e.g.

/ X(V+1) - X(V)/ < small number TOL. [Methods such as the Jacobi, LSOR,
etc. are examples of this].
Q7
In block (i, j), then material balance
can be applied for each phase (e.g.
oil and water) for 2-phase flow.
mo
mw

mo
i, j

Mass
Accumulation of

Amount that

Amount that

oil over time

flows in over

flows out over

Dt

Dt

Dt

But amount that flows in/out is given by the pressure differences


between blocks i.e.

A.k.kro ( So )
Qoil ( i -1, j ) ( i , j )
Po - Poi -1 j

mo

i - 1 ij
2

Thus the two phase Darcy Law supplies the relation for volumetric flow
rate and pressure in the grid block. These volumetric flows can be
converted to MASS flows (x by density) and then put into the material

10

Model Solutions to Examination

balance equation to obtain a conservation equation and in pressure


equation for oil and water.

\ Material Balance + Darcys Law => 2-phase Flow Equation.

Q8
(i)

(ii)

(a)

Vo = Dx Dy Dz f So

(b)

11

(iii)

Q9

1. The black oil model essentially treats a phase (o,w,g) as the basic
conserved unit or pseudo component

2. Compositional models are based more correctly on the conservation


of components (CH4, C10, H2O etc.) - the black oil model simply treats
gas dissolution in oil through Rso - gas solubility

3. The compositional models incorporate a full PVT description of the


oil whereas the black oil model relies on the simple Rso type treatment.

12

Model Solutions to Examination

(iii)

(iv)
#

(a) Waterflood calculations in a low GOR - say 30 API - oil reservoir


with pressure maintenance.

(b) CO2 injection in a - say 36 API - light oil system [Condensate


system - gas recycling etc]

Q10
(i)
Upscaling in a waterflood essentially means getting the correct
(effective) parameters (-e.g. rel. perm.) for the larger scale grid blocks
which will reproduce a correct fine grid model.

(ii)
Rock relative permeabilities are meant to be the intrinsic
representative properties of a representative piece of reservoir rock
at the small (i.e. core plug) scale.

Pseudo rel. perms. are effective properties at the larger (usually


gridblock) scale which incorporate other effects and artefacts (e.g.

13

numerical dispersion, heterogeneity etc..) in addition to the intrinsic


rock rel. perms.

(iii)
Methodology
This is a geologically consistent approach to the task of upscaling. i.e.
data collection, sedimentological framework,

[The function of the methodology is to get the geologically + fluid]


mechanically right answer.

Techniques?
These refer to the actual mathematical algorithm to go from a fine
grid coarse grid. E.g. Kyte and Berry, Stones method, two phase
tensors etc

[N.B. This just needs to reproduce the fine grid result - even if it is
WRONG - at the coarse scale]

14

Model Solutions to Examination

Q11

(i)

(ii)
It takes a lag distance of about the range to see the field variability
(standard dev. - i.e. ~ 100mD) of the field.

15

(iii)

lag

Q12
(i)

(ii)
The effective permeability is clearly the harmonic (thickness weighted) average as follows:

16

Model Solutions to Examination

(iii)
The keff in the randomised model would be between the two answers
in (i) and (ii) above (the answer in (ii) being the lower).

e.g. Strictly in a randomised distribution of permeability the average


value tends to the geometric average (kg) in 2D
kg - is less than the arithmetic (along layer) answer.
kg - is greater than the harmonic (across layer) answer.

Q13
(i)
Note - we take the same contour values (c= 0.1, 0.5, 0.8) in all sketches
below.

17

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

18

Model Solutions to Examination

Q14 With no maths

Consider only ACTUAL flows of Qw and Qo across this interface


interface only. Thus, if the fine grid water (say) flows have not
reached the coarse grid interface

then Qw = 0. => set krw= 0

When there is oil or water flow e.g. water flow.

19

Q15
(i)
Lamina The simplest unit within which we can assume (almost)
homogeneous k. (length mm m)
Lamina set A collection of the above (cm m) e.g. core.

hi k
lo k

Bedform How lamina sets are joined together geometrically to


form 3D beds.

20

Model Solutions to Examination

Eroded/? top sets

e.g.

Tabular cross-bedding

2m

~50cm

Bottom sets

or climbing ripples

Para-sequence/sequence-stacks of bedforms

(ii)

Para sequence - sequence scale

At parasequence - sequence - also bed form influence

Para sequence - bed form

Lamina set - bed form

Q16
(a) There is a double peak - the bimodality probably arises from the
lower perm plugs from deltaic sands, and the higher permeability plugs
from the fluvial channel.

21

(b)

laminated sand
pseudo

Tightly laminated
deltaic sands
A
Crossbeddes
fluvial
channel
-stacked crossbeds

2 Scale pseudo-isation - inclined cross bed pseudo A


- bedform pseudo B

Q17
(i)

(a)

hi

lo

hi

lo

hi

lo

Slow Flow
CAPILLARY DOMINATED

Water flow direction

High water Sw in
LOW perms in a
water-wet system

Sw

HIGH "remaining"
oil in hi k
Spontaneous water inhibition into the LOW k laminae occurs in
Pc-dominated flow. This traps oil in the HIGH k laminae behind the
front where it is well above "residual" but it can't move because the
Rel. Perm. to oil in the low k water-filled laminae is so low.

22

Model Solutions to Examination

(b)

hi

lo

hi

lo

hi

lo

VISCOUS DOMINATED
WATERFRONT

"Fast" Flow
of water

Water flow direction

High water Sw
LOW perm in a
water-cut system

Sw

Note at Viscous dominated conditions a water front goes through


which reduces the oil in all layers to its local "residual" level.
Recovery of oil is better in this case since it is not "stranded" by
downstream capillary imbibition.

(ii)
It is higher in case (a) for the reasons already explained.
[I give a slightly over-detailed answer to part (a) and (b) above].

(iii)
The central implications are twofold.

(a) The two phase pseudo relative perms. are highly anisotropic for
such laminar systems. Along and across layer water displacement in
laminar system gives widely different pseudos.

23

Along

Across

(b) The levels of remaining oil can be vastly different in laminar


systems which, in simulation/upscaling, moves the pseudo rel. perm. end
points. (see above).

24

Model Solutions to Examination

25

Course:- 28117
Class:- 28912

HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY


DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
Examination for the Degree of
Meng in Petroleum Engineering
Reservoir Simulation
Tuesday 20th April 1999
09.30 - 13.30
( 100% of Total marks )

NOTES FOR CANDIDATES


1.

This is a Closed Book Examination.

2.

15 minutes reading time is provided from 09.15 - 09.30.

3.

Examination Papers will be marked anonymously. See separate instructions for


completion of Script Book front covers and attachment of loose pages. Do not write your
name on any loose pages which are submitted as part of your answer.

4.

This Paper consists of 1 Section.

5.

Attempt all Questions.

6.

Marks for Questions and parts are indicated in brackets

7.

This Examination represents 70% of the Class assessment.

State clearly any assumptions used and intermediate calculations made in numerical
questions. No marks can be given for an incorrect answer if the method of calculation is
not presented. Be sure to allocate time appropriately.

Q.1: Consider the following statement which is made referring to a reservoir development plan
for a field which has been in production for some time:
A reservoir engineer should always apply Material Balance calculations and should usually but not always - use Numerical Reservoir Simulation.
(i) Why should you always perform some sort of material Material Balance calculations ?
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................

(4)

(ii) What is the main disadvantage of using material balance calculations in reservoir
development?
..............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................

(2)

(iii) In the above context, explain when you would use Reservoir Simulation and when you may
not use it. Give an example of each case.
When you would use Reservoir Simulation + Example:
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................

(4)

When you may not use Reservoir Simulation + Example:


..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................

(4)

Q.2: Various types of 2D and 3D grids are used in reservoir simulation calculations. Describe
what you think the best type of grid is for performing calculations on each of the reservoir
processes described below and say why.
Reservoir processes:
(i) Modelling of likely gas and water coning and its effect on (vertical) well productivity in a
light oil reservoir with a gas cap and an underlying aquifer;
(ii) Simulating a large number of options in an injector/producer well pair in a gas injection
scheme where the objective is to look at the effects of formation heterogeneity on gas - oil
displacement and to develop some pseudo relative permeabilities to use in a full field model;
(iii) Carrying out an appraisal of an entire flank of a complex faulted field which has several
injector and producer wells.
(i) Which grid?............................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................... (4)
Why?...........................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................... (4)

(ii) Which grid?............................................................................................................................


..................................................................................................................................................... (4)
Why?...........................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................... (4)
(iii) Which grid?..........................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................... (4)
Why?..........................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................... (4)

Q.3: Numerical dispersion and grid orientation are two of the main numerical problems that
occur in reservoir simulation. Explain in your own words, with the help of a simple sketch,
the meaning of each of these terms:
(i) Numerical dispersion ? Sketch:

(5)
Numerical dispersion ? Explanation:
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (5)
(ii) Grid orientation ? Sketch:

(5)
Grid orientation ? Explanation:
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (5)
5

Q4.

Figure 1 below shows the results of a series of 6 waterflooding and gas flooding
calculations (labelled A - F) in a 2D vertical cross-sectional numerical simulation model.
Results are plotted as Oil Recovery at 1PV Injection vs. 1/NZ , where NZ is the number
of vertical grid blocks in the simulation. Assume (a) that the number of grid blocks in the
x-direction (NX) is sufficiently large and is constant in all calculations; and (b) that the
axes of the graph are quantitative.
Figure 1

2D cross-section
Key
gas injection
waterflood

No. vertical grid


blocks = NZ

Oil recovery
at 1PV
injection

60%
A
50%

D
E

40%
F
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Inverse number of grid blocks (1/NZ) -->

Answer the following questions:


(i) How many vertical grid blocks (NZ) were used in case F? .........

(3)

(ii) Do the simulated waterflood and gas flooding calculations become more optimistic or
pessimistic as we take more vertical grid blocks in the calculation?
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (4)

Q4. (continued)
(iii) Extrapolate each of the calculations to NZ --> for both the waterflood and the gas flood
on Figure 1. Estimate the % recovery for each and the incremental recovery of the gas flood
compared with the waterflood. Comment on the implications of your result for carrying out a
gas flooding project in this reservoir.
Estimations...........................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (6)
Comment:
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (4)

End of Q.4
Q5. on next page

Q. 5

Figure 2 below shows a control volume - block i - for single-phase compressible flow in
1D. The quantities qi+1/2 and qi-1/2 are the volumetric flow rates of the fluid at the
boundaries of block i. All grid blocks are the same size in the x-direction (x) and the
cross-sectional area is constant, A = y.z (where y and z are the block sizes in the yand z-directions). The density and porosity are denoted by symbols - and respectively.
Figure 2

i-1
Area
=A
= y. z

i+1

q i-1/2

qi-1/2

x
x
With reference to the above figure,
(i) Write a clear mathematical expression for the change in mass in block i over a time step t
due to flow:
Change in mass due to flow over time step t =
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (6)

(ii) Write a clear mathematical expression for the change in mass in block i from the beginning
of the time step to the end (i.e. the accumulation):
Difference in mass in block i over time step t =
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (6)

(iii) Considering the above two expressions, what equation can you now write from material
balance ?
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (6)

Q.5 (continued)
(iv) Are there any assumptions in the equation you have just written in part (iii) above? Briefly
explain.
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (4)
(v) Now use the single-phase Darcy Law in the equation you wrote in (iii) above and show how by taking Limits x, t --> 0 - you obtain the pressure equation for single-phase compressible
flow: Show the steps you take.

(8)
(vi) If you have written down the answer to part (v) above correctly, then you should have
written down a non-linear partial differential equation (PDE). What does non-linear mean in
this context and explain in physical terms what the main problem is with this sort of equation.
Non-linear?...................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (4)
The problem?...............................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (4)
9

Q.6: (i) From the four assumptions listed below, show clearly how Equation 1 arises from the
non-linear equation you derived in Q.5 part (v) above. Indicate clearly where you use each
of the assumptions in your derivation.
2
P P
=
2
t x

Equation 1

The term is a constant (Greek kappa - not permeability, k). Other quantities which may be
used are Cf - the fluid compressibility, - the density; k - the permeability; - the fluid viscosity;
- the porosity.
Assumptions:

1. The rock is incompressible.


2. Permeability (k) and viscosity () are constant.
3. The fluid has a constant compressibility, C f =

1
.
P

P
4. Pressure gradients are small - hence 0
x
2

(i) Answer:

(12)
(continue on the back of this page if necessary indicating that you have done so)
10

Q.6 (continued)
(ii) From your answer to part (i) above, write down what constant is in terms of the other
constants.
= .............................................................................................................................................. (4)
(iii) Using the notation in Figure 3 below, apply finite differences to Equation 1 above and define
the discretised spatial derivative at the new time level, (n+1) (i.e. an implicit method). Show each step
in your working and show clearly how this leads to a sparse set of linear equations.
Figure 3

P in+1

n+1

x
Time
level

All x and
t fixed.

P in

n
i-1

i+1

Space --->

(12)
(continue on the back of this page if necessary indicating that you have done so)
11

Q.6 (continued)
(iv) We can write down the set of linear equations that arises from applying finite differences to
the flow equations as follows:
A.x = b

Equation 2

where A is a matrix, x is the vector of unknowns and vector b is known. Write out Equation 2
explicitly for three equations and rearrange these to show how a simple iterative scheme can be
formulated. Say very briefly how this is solved. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of
an iterative scheme.

(continue on the back of this page, if necessary, indicating you have done so)
(10)

12

Advantage?......................................................................................

(2)

Disadvantage?.................................................................................

(2)

Q.7: The oil flux, Jo, into and out of a grid block is shown in Figure 4 below. Other quantities
are denoted as follows: Oil saturation So; porosity, ; Formation volume factor, Bo; Oil
density at standard conditions, osc; Darcy velocity of oil, vo (similar quantities apply to the
water phase).
Figure 4

Oil Flux
Jo

Jo
z

x
x

x + x

(i) Write an expression for the oil flux, Jo, giving any possible units.

(6)
(ii) The concentration of oil, Co, is defined as the mass of oil per unit volume of reservoir. Write
an expression for Co in terms of the quantities defined above.

(6)
13

Q.7 (continued)
(iii) Prove that, in 1D two-phase flow, then for the oil phase:
(Jo/x) = - (Co/t)

Equation 3

showing your working clearly.

(10)
(continue on the back of this page, if necessary, indicating you have done so)

14

Q.7 (continued)
(vi) State the two-phase Darcys law for oil using (Po/x) for the pressure gradient and kro for the
relative permeability, and substitute this into Equation 3 above and derive the oil conservation
equation.
Two-phase Darcy Law for the oil phase (in terms of Darcy velocity, vo)

(4)

Oil conservation equation:

(8)
End of Q.7

15

Q.8 In three-phase flow (oil, water and gas), we can define a gas flux, Jg, and a gas concentration,
Cg, in exactly the same way as was defined for oil in Q. 7 above.
(i) Explain physically why the gas flux and the gas concentration are more complicated than the
corresponding quantities for the flow of oil or water.
.........................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... (4)
(ii) Using Rso and R to denote the gas solubility factors, derive expressions for Jg and Cg showing
your working.

(12)
(continue on the back of this page, if necessary, indicating you have done so)
16

Q. 8 (continued)
(iii) Use your expressions for Jg and Cg in the conservation Equation 3 (for gas) to write down the
first step in obtaining the conservation equation for gas.

(6)
End of Q.8
Q.9: Explain what history matching is in a reservoir simulation of a field saying briefly how it is
done and what can go wrong.
History matching? How is it done? What can go wrong?
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................(10)
(continue on the back of this page, if necessary, indicating you have done so)
17

Q.10 (i) Write down the formulae for the arithmetic (ka), harmonic (kh) and geometric (kg) averages
of a permeability field with permeabilities k1, k2, .... kM. The number of data points you have = M.

ka =

kh =

kg =
(10)
(ii) State how you would use these averages for calculating the effective permeabilities in the
horizontal and vertical directions in the models in Figures 5(a) and 5(b) below.
Figure 5
(a)

(b)

For Figure 5(a): Horizontal keff & Vertical keff :

(8)
18

Q.10 (continued)
For Figure 5(b): Horizontal keff & Vertical keff :

(8)
(iii) Calculate the effective permeability for flow across the laminae in Figure 6 below. Show your
working.

20 mD, 1 cm

100 mD, 2 cm

10 mD, 1 cm

Figure 6

...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................(6)

End of Q.10

19

Q.11 The diagram in Figure 7 below shows a grid consisting of 2 coarse grid blocks, with 7 x 3 fine
blocks in each of these coarse blocks.
Figure 7

i=1 2

3 4

6 7

9 10 11 12 13 14

j= 1
2
z

3
x

Suppose you are calculating the pseudo relative permeabilities for the left coarse block using the
Kyte and Berry method. Assume that you have all the necessary information (saturations, pressures,
flows etc.) from a fine-scale (3x14) simulation.
(i) Show clearly on Figure 7 which part of the grid you would use for calculating the following
quantities and give a brief sentence of explanation:
the average water saturation

(3)

...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................(4)

the average pressure gradient

(3)

...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................(4)

the total flows of oil and water

(3)

...........................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (4)
(ii) What is the formula for the average water saturation?
Sw =

20

(5)

Q. 11 (continued)

(iii) What is the weighting for the average pressure? Give a brief sentence of explanation.
(5)

..........................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................ (3)

(iv) What is the formula for the total flow of water?

qw =

(5)

End of Q.11

21

Q.12 (i) By means of a simple sketch, show how a cubic packing of spherical grains is arranged.
Sketch:

(4)
(ii) Use the sketch to help you calculate the specific surface of the sample per unit volume of solid,
Ss (in m2/m3).
Specific surface - working:

Specific surface per unit volume of solid, Ss = ..................... m2/m3


(6)
(iii) If the grain radius is taken to be 10m, determine the porosity () of the sample

Porosity working:

Sample porosity () = .........


22

(6)

Q.12 (continued)
(iv) If the grain radius was 100m instead of 10m, what would the porosity () of the sample now
be?

Porosity = .................................................................................................................................... (3)

(v) What do the results of parts (iii) and (iv) above suggest concerning the porosity of cubic sphere
packs?

Ans.............................................................................................................................................

(2)

(vi) Write down the Carman-Kozeny equation in terms of the grain diameter (D), porosity (), and
the specific surface per unit volume of solid, Ss
Carman-Kozeny equation:

k=

(6)
(vii) Taking the grain radius to be 10 m and the tortuosity of the sample to be T=1, calculate an
approximate permeability in Darcies for a cubic packing of spheres (NB Use the porosity found in
Q.12 part (iii) in this calculation) .
Working:

Permeability = ................. Darcies. (1 Darcy = 1x10-12 m2)

(6)
23

Q.13 (i) Describe the meaning of the term contact angle and draw a rough sketch to illustrate
your answer

Contact angle?...................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
(4)
Sketch

(4)
(ii) If an oil/water meniscus is at equilibrium in a cylindrical capillary tube, what is the equation
that relates the capillary pressure, Pc, to the tube radius R and the contact angle ?

Pc=

(5)

What is this reduced form of the equation called?

..................................................................................................................................................... (3)

24

Q. 13 (continued)
(iii) Oil is introduced at the inlet face of the water-filled pore network shown in Figure 8 on the
next page. The numbers on Figure 8 refer to pore radii (in microns, m). The pores are taken to be
capillary tubes and are water-wet, the contact angle is = 60o in every pore and the oil/water
interfacial tension is 80 mN/m. The capillary pressure of the system is gradually increased and oil
begins to invade the network.
Shade in the pores that become oil-filled at each of the 4 capillary pressure values Pc1, Pc2, Pc3
and Pc4 in Figure 8 (NB 14.7 psi = 105 Newtons/m2).

Show any working out below:

25

Q. 13 (continued)

Figure 8: Shade in the pores that become oil-filled at each of the 4 capillary pressure values Pc1,
,
c
2
5
2
Pc3 and Pc4 below (NB 14.7 psi = 10 Newtons/m ).

Pc1= 0.6 psi

15
11

2
1

Oil

Water
10

20
3

3
12

12

Pc2= 1.2 psi

15
11

2
1

Oil

Water
10

20
3

3
12

12

Pc3= 3.0 psi

15
11

2
1

Oil

Water
10

20
3

3
12

12

Pc4= 10.0 psi

15
11

2
1

Oil

Water
10

20
3
12

3
12

(20)
26

Q.14 (i) Explain the differences between a drainage flood and an imbibition flood at the porescale, paying particular attention to the roles played by pore size, film-flow and accessibility to
the inlet (sketch each displacement in the boxes provided below to illustrate your answer).
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................

(10)

(continue on the back of this page, if necessary, indicating you have done so)

Imbibition
Sketch

(4)
Drainage
Sketch

(4)
27

Q. 14 (continued)
(ii) The strongly water-wet network in Figure 9 below is initially completely filled with oil and the
capillary pressure is so high that no water can currently imbibe. If the capillary pressure is slowly
decreased, so that water can invade via film-flow and snap-off, how is the residual oil distributed at
the end of imbibition (i.e. when Pc=0)? Shade in the residual oil using the network template
provided in Figure 10. The numbers on the bonds again refer to the tube radii in microns (m).
Note this network is deliberately different from that in Figure 8. Also, oil cannot enter the water
reservoir due to the presence of a water-wet membrane.
Figure 9
Initial distribution of oil

15
11

2
1

Water

Oil
10

20
3

3
12

12

Figure 10

Answer: Template for final oil distribution (shade in appropriately)

15
11

2
1

Water

Oil
10

20
3
12

3
12

(8)
End of Q.14

28

Q15. You have been supplied with the table of mercury injection data below.

Table 1
Mercury
saturation
0

P c (air/mercury)
(psia)
2

Oil saturation Pc(oil/water)


(psia)
0

0.2
0.4
0.5

4
5
6

0.2
0.4
0.5

0.6
0.8
0.9

7
20
60

0.6
0.8
0.9

(i) Sketch the air/mercury capillary pressure curve using the axes provided

(6)
(ii) Write down the equation used to re-scale mercury injection data to oil/water systems and use it
to complete Table 1 (assume the following values for interfacial tensions and contact angles:
mercury/air = 360x10-3 N/m, oil/water = 60x10-3 N/m, mercury/air = oil/water = 0o
Equation:

(6)
Now complete Table 1 at the top of this page

(8)
29

Q. 15 (continued)
(iii) Plot the oil/water capillary pressure curve using the axes provided below
Sketch.

(5)

(iv) Write down the equation that determines the Leverett J-function from capillary pressure datai.e. complete the following equation:

J(Sw) = Pc(Sw) x ..........................................

(Q. 15 is continued on the next page)

30

(5)

Q. 15 (continued)
(v)
Using the capillary pressure data shown below in Table 2, calculate an appropriate J-function
and complete the table below : assume the values k = 100 mD, = 0.1, interfacial tension, =10
x10-3 N/m, and contact angle, = 0o. Choose any suitable units but label your sketch clearly.
Sketch the J-function below.

Table 2
Complete the table
Wa te r S a tu ra tio n P c (p s ia )
1
0
0.8
2
0.6
4
0.5
6
0.4
10
0.2
20

J (S w)

(6)
Write down the form of the J-function here:

J(Sw)=
(4)

Sketch the J-function here:

(6)
31

Q.16 (i) Name the two most popular tests used to determine the wettability of a reservoir rock.
The .................................................................. Test

(2)

The .................................................................. Test

(2)

(ii) Give the three rules of thumb that can often be used to distinguish between water-wet and
oil-wet relative permeability curves.
Rule 1 ................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................(4)

Rule 2 ................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................(4)

Rule 3 ................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................(4)
(iii) Capillary pressure curves in Figure 11 below have been measured on two different core samples.
The two plots are shown below. Use your knowledge of wettability variations at the pore scale to
answer the following:
Figure 11
Pc

Pc

Sw

(A)

Sw

(B)

(iv) Which sample is probably the more water-wet? Explain your choice.
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................(6)
32

Q.16 (continued)
(v) Give a physical explanation for the negative leg shown in the capillary pressure curve in Figure 11(A).
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
(6)

(End of examination paper)

Total number of marks possible = 462

33