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# 3.

## or the price of high speed flight

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## 1. We can divide the flow field around a missile into 2 regions

2. Typically the fore body is the responsibility of the aerodynamist while the base comes under the propulsion engineer. Why ?

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3. There are three main contributions to the missiles drag Type Viscosity of air Shape of forebody Exhaust and wake Cause

## 3.1.1 Skin friction drag

The skin friction drag is the downstream resultant of all shear (viscous) forces experience by the fore body

## 2. It is dependent on the amount of wetted area

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3. A quick estimate of the skin friction drag is to take the viscous drag of a flat plate with the same surface area, length and Reynolds number as the missile Viscous drag coefficient for a flat plate CDfp 0.043 / (Rel)1/6 for Re ~ 106 - 107

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Exercise : Derive an approximation for the skin friction drag coefficient of a missile of length l and diameter d ( = 2 r)

CDf

## 3.1.2 Pressure drag

Pressure drag is the downstream resultant of all the pressure forces on the forebody

## 2. So which part of the forebody will contribute significantly to pressure drag ?

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3. You can observe the high pressure at the missiles nose even when the missile flies at a small angle of attack

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3. For lower speeds, pressure drag can still be more significant than skin friction drag. 4. Unless the object is streamlined

## 3.1.3 Base drag

Base drag is the drag resulting from the wake or dead air region behind the missile.

1. Base drag is less of a problem during powered flight but during free flight it can account for as much as 50% of total drag.
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## Question : Is there a catch for missiles ?

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## 2. This is known as the transonic drag rise

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3. Missiles have to pass through this transonic drag rise to get to supersonic speeds

## 3.3 Drag reduction using sweepback

1. Critical aerodynamic surfaces are swept back to reduce this transonic drag rise

## 2. This works because ...

M velocity vector

wing
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## Example : WWII German missiles

V1 straight wings
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## Me 262 first operational jet fighter

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## What is the moral of the story ?

Example : So what can you deduce from the sweep back angle ?

Maverick AGM = 80 o

Bloodhound SAM = 26 o

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It would seem that the sweep angle doesnt provide much info ... = 26o

Mn M

= 16o

Near Mach 1,

is equal to

## What does this mean ?

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A : slender body

C : Equivalent body of revolution for wing-body B D : Pinched body A, i.e. lower drag c/o B
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## B : Wing-body combination with higher drag

This concept was first applied to the F102 to achieve supersonic flight

## But is it commonly used in missiles now ?

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