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University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Physics PHYS161 Physics for Chemical Engineers Test 2, 12 May, 2011 Name:Solutions.

Student Number: Time: 40 minutes Marks: 39

This paper consists of 13 multiple-choice questions, each carrying 3 marks. Use the answer sheet to place a cross on the letter of the alternative which you consider to be the most appropriate answer for each question. The last page has equations that you may use.
g = 9.8 m/s2

1. A 50-kg block rests on a horizontal surface. The coefficient of static friction = 0.50, while the coefficient of kinetic friction is = 0.35. A force of 250 N is applied horizontally to the block. A) B) C) D) E) Ans: The block remains at rest. The block moves and continues to move at constant velocity. The block accelerates to the right. The block does not move until the force is increased to greater than 490 N. No conclusions can be drawn concerning the movement of the block from the information given. C

0.50 50 9.8 245 0.35 50 9.8 171.5 Since applied force is 250 N which is greater than max, the block will accelerate to the right.

2. Consider what happens when you jump up in the air. Which one of the following is the most accurate statement? A) You are able to spring up because the earth exerts a force upward on you that is stronger than the downward force you exert on the earth. B) It is the upward force exerted by the ground that pushes you up, but this force can never exceed your weight. C) Since the ground is stationary, it cannot exert the upward force necessary to propel you into the air. Instead, it is the internal forces of your muscles acting on your body itself that propels the body into the air. D) When you push down on the earth with a force greater than your weight, the earth will push back with the same magnitude force and thus propel you into the air.
on you and you exert a force on the earth. You go up because E) When you jump up the earth exerts a force .

Ans:

For you to jump up in the air, the ground must exert a force on you which must be greater than your weight. Hence you must push down on the earth with a force greater than your weight, and the reaction to this will be the force which the earth exerts on you upward and of the same magnitude.

3. A car is travelling at a speed of on a straight road on a sunny day and safely comes to stop in a distance by the driver using his ABS brakes ( brakes being applied without locking the wheels of the car). If the car is travelling along the same road at the same speed, but on a rainy day on which the coefficient of static friction is half of that on a sunny day, the stopping distance will now be A) Ans: B

B) 2

C) /2

D)

E) 4

On sunny day: 2 On rainy day: 2 2 1 2 2 2


2 0 2 0 2

4. A mass m2 = 1.5 kg rests on a horizontal table. The coefficients of friction between m2 and the table are = 0.3 and = 0.25. The mass m2 is attached by strings to masses m1 = 2.5 kg and m3 = 4.5 kg as shown. Masses m1 and m3 hang freely.

The system is initially held at rest. After it is released, the acceleration of m2 is closest to A) 1.9 m/s2 Ans: A B) 2.4 m/s2 C) 3.0 m/s2 D) zero E) 13 m/s2

For : 1 For : 2 For : 3 Adding eqn. (1) and eqn. (2) : 4 Adding eqn. (3) and eqn. (4) : 4.5 0.25 1.5 2.5 9.8 / 1.87 / 4.5 1.5 2.5

5. A horizontal force F is used to push an object of mass m up an inclined plane. The angle between the plane and the horizontal is . The normal reaction force of the plane acting on the mass m is A) B) C) D) E) Ans: mg cos + F cos mg cos mg cos + F sin mg cos F cos impossible to determine because the coefficient of friction is not given. B

Referring to the above diagram, F is taken to be horizontal to the plane. cos

6. A system comprising blocks, a light frictionless pulley, a frictionless incline, and connecting ropes is shown in the diagram below. The 9-kg block accelerates downward when the system is released from rest.

630

430 630

4 430

The tension in the rope the 4-kg block is closest to A) 42 N B) 30 N

connecting the 6-kg block and

C) 36 N

D) 39 N

E) 33 N
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Ans:

Referring to the above diagram: For 9 : 9 9 1 For 4 : 430 4 2 For 6 : 630 6 3 Adding eqn. (1) and eqn. (2) : 9 430 9 4 13 4 Adding eqn. (3) and eqn. (4) : 9 430 630 6 13 19 9 1030 9 5 4 19 19 19 From eqn (4) 4 9 430 13 7 13 4.2 41.8 19 7. A proud new Jaguar owner drives her car at a speed of 25 m/s into a bend in the road. The coefficients of friction between the road and the tyres are 0.70 (static) and 0.40 (kinetic). What is the minimum radius of curvature for the bend in order for the car not to skid? A) 3.5 x 102 m B) 64 m C) 2.1 x 102 m D) 1.6 x 102 m E) 91 m

Ans:

25 / 91 0.70 9.8 /

8. A ball of mass m is suspended from a rope of length R. The ball is set into freely swinging circular motion in a vertical plane. The centripetal acceleration of the ball at the top of the circle is 13g (where g is the acceleration due to gravity). The centripetal acceleration of the ball at the bottom of the circle is closest to: A) 10g Ans: E Referring to the diagram: 13 1

B) 16g

C) 15g

D) 18g

E) 11g

Subtracting eqn (1) from (2): 2


13

11

11

9. A block slides a certain distance down an incline. The work done by gravity is W. What is the work done by gravity if this block slides the same distance up the incline? A) B) C) D) E) Ans: W zero W Gravity cannot do work; some other force does the work. The work cannot be determined unless the distance traveled is given. C

Since the distance traveled down the plane is the same as that travelled up the plane, the amount of work done by gravity on the block is the same in both cases. However, the work done by gravity on the block is negative when it moves up the plane, because the displacement is in opposite direction to the gravitational force.

10. The weight of an object on the moon is one one-sixth sixth its weight on the earth. A body moving with a given speed on the moon has kinetic energy equal to K. If the body moves with the same speed on earth, what would be its kinetic energy, in terms of K ? A) K Ans: A

B) (1/6) K

C) 6 K

D) (1/36) K

E) 36 K

On the moon - On the earth, the mass is the same, and the speed is also the same. The kinetic energy is 1 2 11. A motorcycle of mass m starting from rest can attain a speed v after an amount of work W is performed by its engine. If the amount of work done by the engine is increased to 4W what would be the final speed ed of the motorcycle (again starting from rest)? A) 4 v Ans: B B) 2 v C) 16 v D) (1/16) v E) ( 1/2) v

kinetic energy theorem, we have Using the work-kinetic 1 1 0 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 0 2 2 1 1 2 2 4W 4 4 2 2 2 kg block slides from point A down a frictionless curve to point B. After the block passes point B, 12. A 6.0-kg a friction force opposes the motion of the block so that it comes to a stop 2.5 m from B.

What is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the surface after position B? B A) 2.5 B) 0.40 C) 0.30 D) 0.20 N E) 0.5 N
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Ans:

Using the conservation of mechanical energy for the motion from A to B, we have 1 1 1 0 0 2 2 2 2 For the motion from B to C, where the block comes to a stop, we have 1 1 1 0 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 0.4 2 2 2.5 13. A body is acted upon by a force of 10 N and undergoes a displacement in the direction of the force in accordance with the relation x = 3t2 + 2t, where x is the displacement in meters and t is in seconds. The rate at which the force is doing work at the instant t = 2 s is A) 14 W Ans: D 3 2 6 2 B) 12 W C) 120 W D) 140 W E) 160 W

Instantaneous power is 6 2 2 10 6 2 2 / 140 W