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SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION TO POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE

NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION


In PT design, it is preferable to draw moment diagrams to the tensile face of the concrete section. The tensile face indicates what portion of the beam requires reinforcing for strength. When moment is drawn on the tension side, the diagram matches the general drape of the tendons. The tendons change their vertical location in the beam to follow the tensile moment diagram. Strands are at the top of the beam over the support and near the bottom at mid span. For convenience, the following slides contain moment diagrams drawn on both the tensile and compressive face, denoted by (T) and (C), in the lower left hand corner. Please delete the slides to suit the presenter's convention.

REVIEW:
FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

NEW:
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PRE-TENSIONING AND POST-TENSIONING

REVIEW OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

Critical Point for Cracking

Stages of Behavior
Uncracked Cracked (~Elastic) Ultimate

Moment

REVIEW OF REINFORCED CONCRETE


Large deflections due to cracking Mn My

Mcr

Steel is not engaged until after cracking

Curvature

REVIEW OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

Reinforcement is PASSIVE Steel crosses cracks, but does not prevent them

Suppose a R/C beam has too much cracking and too much deflection. How might you propose to fix it? (i.e. not replace it)

QUESTION TO PONDER

Tension (bending) + Compression (squeezing) = Net Zero Stress Sqeezed Before Loading (Pre-compressed): Pre-Compression (prestressing) + Tension (bending) = Net Zero Stress

Prestressing: Concrete pre-compressed before loading in bending (flexural tension)

HOW TO BUILD IT?


1. Pre-Tensioning: Steel tensioned before concrete is placed 2. Post-Tensioning: Steel tensioned after concrete is hardened Prestressing is ACTIVE can prevent cracks from forming

PRE-TENSIONING

1. Tension Strands 2. Cast Concrete Bond strands to concrete 3. Cut Strands Transfer force to concrete

POST-TENSIONING
Section

1. Cast Concrete with Duct 2. Feed Strands through Duct 3. Tension Strands 4. Grout Duct (or other corrosion protection)

POST-TENSIONING
Post-tensioning can take on any profile Draped configurations are much more common than straight tendons Why?

Force Transfer by Steel-Concrete bond

PRE-TENSIONING
Force Transfer at end anchor

Post-Tensioning

Strain Compatibility and Force Equilibrium: Steel held at length longer than it wants to be: Tension Concrete compressed shorter than it wants to be: Compression

Pre-Tensioned elements are often precast in a factory and shipped to the site Post-Tensioned elements can be cast and tensioned in the final location (cast-in-place). They can also be precast.

PRE-TENSIONING
INSTALL PRESTRESSING STRANDS

PRE-TENSIONING
TENSION STRANDS

PRE-TENSIONING
STRANDS AFTER TENSIONING

PRE-TENSIONING
INSTALL MILD REINFORCEMENT

PRE-TENSIONING
INSTALL INSERTS AND ASSEMBLIES

PRE-TENSIONING
SET FORM SIDES

PRE-TENSIONING
PLACE CONCRETE

PRE-TENSIONING
CURE CONCRETE WITH ACCELERATED METHODS

PRE-TENSIONING
REMOVE GIRDER FROM CASTING BED

PRE-TENSIONING
MOVE GIRDER TO STORAGE

PRE-TENSIONING
TRANSPORT TO JOBSITE

PRE-TENSIONING
GIRDERS IN FINISHED STRUCTURE

POST-TENSIONING
Ducts for Post-Tensioning

POST-TENSIONING

POST-TENSIONING

POST-TENSIONING

POST-TENSIONING

POST-TENSIONING

POST-TENSIONING

POST-TENSIONING
Stressing Strands: Single Strand: Monostrand Multiple Strands: Multistrand

HOW ARE STRANDS ANCHORED?


Cast against concrete at end of beam

HOW ARE STRANDS ANCHORED?


Concrete Anchor cast in concrete Duct Strand

POST-TENSIONING:
Bonded System (at high point) Unbonded System

PT Coating (grease) Grout

GROUTING POST-TENSIONED SYSTEMS


Vent Grout In Vent

POST-TENSIONING

STRUCTURAL EFFECT OF PRESTRESSING


True for Pre- and Post-Tensioning

Pre-Stressing
T C T

Applied Load
C T

Total Stress
C

=
Stress Limits

STRUCTURAL EFFECT OF PRESTRESSING


True for Pre- and Post-Tensioning

Service

Pre-Stressing
T C T C

Applied Load
T C

Total Stress
T C

Transfer

ECCENTRIC PRESTRESSING
Eccentricity in prestressing: - Desirable at midspan - Not productive, even detrimental, at end of span Strategies for pre-tensioned systems: - Draped / harped profiles Temporarily held in place before concrete is hardened - Debonding Not all strands are active at end of span Strategies for post-tensioned systems: - Install ducts in desired profile

COMMON CONFIGURATIONS
Pre-tensioning: Draped

Debonded

Post-tensioning:

PROBLEM FOR THOUGHT


Where should the prestressing be placed?
Tension

(T)

Moment Diagram

Tension

PROBLEM FOR THOUGHT


Where should the prestressing be placed?
Tension

Option 1

Moment Diagram

Tension

(T)

Good: Efficient at midspan Easy to construct

Bad: Counter-productive over support

PROBLEM FOR THOUGHT


Where should the prestressing be placed?
Tension

Option 2

Moment Diagram

Tension

Good: Efficient over support (T) Easy to construct

Bad: Counter-productive at midspan

PROBLEM FOR THOUGHT


Where should the prestressing be placed?
Tension

Option 3

Moment Diagram

Tension

(T)

Good: Efficient over support Efficient at midspan

Bad: Difficult to construct

PROBLEM FOR THOUGHT


Where should the prestressing be placed?
Tension

Option 4

Requires post-tensioning; very difficult to achieve by pretensioning (T)

Moment Diagram

No net eccentricity

Tension

No net eccentricity

SUMMARY: PRESTRESSED CONCRETE


Efficient use of materials concrete maintained in compression, crack control Smaller deflections/thinner members Longer spans Corrosion resistance Less material; reduced environmental impact