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Grant Clay Period 3 11/11/08 AP Psychology Outline Chapter 13: Stress, Coping, and Health ed !

"e#inition $lue % &'portant Points Green % &'portant People ( Contri)utions 1* $iopsychosocial +odel ! Physical &llness is caused )y an interaction o# )iological, psychological, and sociocultural #actors* ,* Health Psychology ! Ho- Psychosocial #actors relate to the pro'otion and 'aintenance o# health and -ith the causation, pre.ention, and treat'ent o# illness* 3* Stress ! Any Circu'stance that threatens or is percei.ed to threaten one/s -ell )eing and that there)y ta0 ones coping a)ilities* a* Stress has a Cu'ulati.e 1ature* )* 2he 3eeling o# Stress depends upon ho- one interprets a situation* c* Acute Stressors ! 2hreatening 4.ents that ha.e a elati.ely Short "uration and a clear 4ndpoint* d* Chronic Stressors ! 2hreatening 4.ents that ha.e a elati.ely 5ong "uration and 1o readily apparent 2i'e 5i'it* e* 6 2ypes o# Stress i* 3rustration ! &n any Situation -hen in -hich the Pursuit o# so'e Goal is th-arted* ii* Con#lict ! 7hen , or +ore &nco'pati)le +oti.ations or $eha.ioral &'pulses Co'pete #or 40pression* 1* Approach%Approach Con#lict ! Choice 'ust )e 'ade )et-een , Attracti.e Goals* ,* A.oidance%A.oidance Con#lict ! Choice 'ust )e 'ade )et-een , 8nattracti.e Goals* 3* Approach%A.oidance Con#lict ! A Choice 'ust )e 'ade a)out -hether to Pursue a Single Goal that has $oth Attracti.e and 8nattracti.e Aspects* #* 5i#e Changes ! Signi#icant Alterations in one/s 5i.ing Circu'stances that e9uire ead:ust'ent* g* Pressure ! &n.ol.es 40pectations or "e'ands that one $eha.e in a Certain -ay* 6* esponding to Stress a* Positi.e and 1egati.e 4'otions are 4'itted )y Stress* )* Positi.e 4'otions play a ;ey ole in helping people )ounce )ac; #ro' Stress#ul 4.ents* c* 4'otional Arousal helps Per#or' non Co'plicated 2as;s )etter and #aster #or a Period o# 2i'e, )ut doesn/t help Per#or' Co'plicated 2as;s )etter*

d* 3ight%or%3light esponse ! A Physiological eaction to a 2hreat in -hich the Autono'ic 1er.ous Syste' +o)ili<es the Organis' #or attac;ing =3ight> or 3leeing =3light> the 4ne'y* e* General Adaptation Syndro'e ! Hans Selye ! A +odel o# the $ody/s Stress esponse, Consisting o# 3 Stages: Alar', esistance, and 40haustion* #* Coping ! Acti.e 4##orts to +aster, educe, or 2olerate "e'ands created )y Stress* i* 5earned Helplessness ! Passi.e $eha.ior Produced )y 40posure to 8na.oida)le A.ersi.e 4.ents* ii* Aggression ! $eha.ior that is &ntended to Hurt So'eone, ?er)ally or Physically* iii* Catharsis ! 2he elease o# 4'otional 2ension* i.* &nternet Addiction ! Consists o# Spending an &nordinate A'ount o# 2i'e on the &nternet and &na)ility to Control Online 8se* .* "e#ense +echanis's ! 8nconscious eactions that Protect a Person #ro' 8npleasant 4'otions such as An0iety and Guilt* 1* +ost aren/t $ene#icial@ s'all &llusions are $ene#icial, not $ig &llusions* .i* Constructi.e Coping ! elati.ely Health#ul 4##orts that People 'a;e to "eal -ith Stress#ul 4.ents* 1* Con#ront Pro)le's "irectly* 4.aluate your Options so you can Sol.e your Pro)le's* ,* Appraise your Stress and Coping esources easona)ly* 3* 5earn to ecogni<e and &nhi)it Potentially "isrupti.e 4'otional esources to Stress* 6* +a;e 4##orts to 4ndure your $ody is not 4specially ?ulnera)le to the Possi)ility o# "a'aging 4##ects o# Stress* A* Stress 4##ects on Psychological 3unctioning a* Stress "isrupts Attention and +e'ory )* $urnout ! Physical ( 4'otional 40haustion, Cynicis', and a 5o-ered Sense o# Sel#%e##icacy that can )e )rought on gradually )y chronic 7or;% elated Stress* c* Stress Can also Pro'ote Personal Gro-th or Sel#%&'pro.e'ent* i* Stress can #orce People to "e.elop ne- S;ills, ee.aluate Priorities, 5earn 1e- &nsights, and Ac9uire 1e- Strengths* B* Stress 4##ects on Physical Health a* Psychoso'atic "iseases ! Physical Ail'ents that -ere to )e caused )y Stress and other Psychological 3actors* )* 2ype A Personality ! Personality -ith 3 4le'ents: =1> A Strong Co'petiti.e Orientation* =,> &'patience and 2i'e 8rgency* =3> Anger and Hostility* c* 2ype $ Personality ! elati.ely ela0ed, Patient, 4asygoing, A'ica)le $eha.ior* i* Anger ( Hostility in 2ype A Personalities leads to Heart "isease*

d* &''une esponse ! $ody/s "e#ensi.e eaction to &n.asion )y $acteria or other 3oreign Su)stances* i* Stress Ages &''une esponse Organis's* C* 3actors +oderating &'pact o# Stress a* Social Support ! ?arious 2ypes o# Aid and Succor Pro.ided )y +e')er/s o# one/s Social 1et-or;s* )* Opti'is' ! A General 2endency to 40pect Good Outco'es* c* Conscientiousness ! 2endency to ha.e Sel#% "iscipline and )e Care#ul in Actions* 8* Health%&'pairing $eha.ior a* S'o;ing opens up Possi)ility #or +any Health Pro)le's* i* On A.erage, S'o;ers die 13%16 Dears )e#ore 1on%S'o;ers* )* $ad "iets puts one at +ore is; #or Heart "isease, Hypertension, etc* c* 5ac; o# 40ercise increases Stress, and suscepti)ility to Cardio.ascular "iseases* d* Ac9uired &''une "e#iciency Syndro'e =A&"S> ! A "isorder in -hich the &''une Syste' is Gradually 7ea;ened and 4.entually "isa)led )y the Hu'an &''unode#iciency ?irus =H&?>*