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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background

Language is very important in human life. Language is means of communication. Without a language, a person cannot communicate with others. English is a language in the world. People call it an international language. Learning English is a must because it can help us to
develop our capability in speaking English. If we dont learn English, we couldnt know how to speak English properly so we can lose the direction of the right way in learning English. Language includes four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Writing is language activity that needs much cognitive concentration. In fact, writing English is different from writing Indonesian. One of the reason is the characteristics of English itself. For example, tenses, regular and irregular verb are not found in Indonesia. English language consists of phrases, clauses, and sentences. Sentences divided into one clause (called simple sentence) and more than one clauses. The sentences which have more than one clauses called multiple sentences. The multiple sentences divided into compound and complex sentence. In this report, we will explain about the complex sentence clearly.

B. LITERATURE 1. 2. 3. 4. What is Complex Sentence? What is the formula of Complex Sentence? What is the kind of Dependent Clause? Why it called Complex Sentence?

Chapter II

COMPLEX SENTENCES
Definition of Complex Sentences Complex sentence is a sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause (subordinating clause).

THE GENERAL PATTERN

One IC (Independent Clause) + at least one DC (Dependent Clause)

ex : Nicky and Fitri went to the movies after they finished studying. Independent clause Dependent clause

Dependent clause contains a complete subject and a complete verb, it called subordinating clause. A dependent clause always begins with a subordinate connective, presents secondary less important information, modifies the key idea in the main clause, controls reader focus. There are 3 kinds of dependent clause : 1. Adverb Clause 2. Adjective Clause 3. Noun Clause

Adverb Clause

Adverb Clause is a clause which have function as an adverb. There are two possibility in putting adverb in front of independent clause or in front of dependent clause. Adverb clause have many subordinating conjunction like :

after although as as if because

Before How If in order that Like

since so that than that unless

until what when where whereas

whether which while who why

The types of adverbial clause include: 1. Clause of Time Clause which shows the time. 2. Clause of Place Clause that indicates the place. 3. Clause of Contrast Clause that indicates the existence of a conflict between two events 4. Clause of Manner Clause which shows what happening 5. Clause of Purpose and Result Clause which shows the relationship intentions / objectives and outcomes. 6. Clause of Cause and Effect Clause indicating cause and effect relationships 7. Clause of Condition Clause that indicates the existence of requirements between the two events (events) are related.

ex : (a). Even though Faris gets an injury, he still plays football. (b). Faris gets sick because he plays football in winter (c). My sister is an excellent cook, while I cant even fry an egg. (d). I will be coming straight home after I go to the store. (e). I will not go even if you pay for my ticket.

If you are putting adverb clauses in front of independent clauses, you need comma like example (a), but if you putting adverb clauses in front of dependent clause you dont need use comma like example (b, d, e), but for while or whereas you have to use comma like example (c).

Adjective Clause

An adjective clause modifies or give information about a noun or pronoun. The adjective clause is introduced by a relative pronoun like, who, which, that, whose, whom, and sometimes when and where.
Example : 1. I'm taking golf lessons from Erika Lavery, who is a pro at the country club DC 2. Newton, Iowa, is the town where Barbara was born. DC 3. There is the house that I'd like to buy. DC 4. Larry's letter, which he mailed Tuesday, reached me on Thursday. DC 5. Mike, whose ancestors came from Ireland, marched in the St. Patrick's Day parade. DC

Noun Clause
A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun in the sentence. A noun clause may be used as a subject or direct object of the verb, as a predicate noun, as object of the preposition, or as an appositive. This kind begin with words like that, whether, if (informal), and question words such as who, which, what, where, when, why, how. Every direct quotation is a noun clause without an introductory word. Example noun clause :

Noun clause as a object She believed that the shell was extremely valuable. DC/noun phrase IC Noun clause as a subject Where she found that shell remains a secret
DC/noun phrase
IC

Noun clause as a subject complement

Her worst fear was always that someone would steal her shells.
DC/noun phrase IC

Another example of noun clause

She eventually forgot why she loved the shell so much


DC/noun phrase IC

CONCLUSION

Complex sentence is a sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause (subordinating clause). There are 3 kinds of dependent clause, such as adverb clause, adjective clause, and noun clause.

EXERCISE

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. Oki Baihaqqi Q : In Indonesian languange there are main clause and subordinating clause. Is it the same like DC and IC? A : Yes, it is because they have a same formula, just have the different name in Indonesian languange. 2. Dewi Shinta Q : In adjective clause they have relative pronoun. Does adjective clause have relative noun? A : No, doesnt. Relative Pronoun is just different name from where, who, which, that, whom, etc, so relative pronoun have same function like subordinating conjuction, but relative pronoun us used in adjective clause and subordinating conjunction in adverb clause. 3. Rizky Nugraha Q : Why in this sentence ; PNJ, where we study, is the most beautiful place ; we use two commas? A : We use two commas if the subject has 4. Nur Azijah Q : Does complex sentence is a cause effect sentence? A : Yes, it does. But, not all of complex sentence is a cause-effect sentence. It is cause-effect sentence if there is conjuction which explain about cause-effect, like, So, because, since, now that, etc. Example : Faris gets sick because he plays football in winter.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

tutor@uhv.edu www.eslpartyland.com/quiz.../lyricscss.htm
http://swarabhaskara.com/sentence-components/simple-compound-complex-sentences/ eslbee.com/sentences.htm www.google.com http://www.ucmo.edu/ae/writing/documents/TYPESOFSENTENCES.pdf