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DRAFT 1

12-6-06

A Phase Three Archaeological Assessment


of the Centipede Site, 8CR832,
Immokalee Road South Parcel, Collier County, Florida

by

Robert S. Carr, M.S., Principal Investigator


John G. Beriault, B.A., Co-Investigator
Phillip Mendenhall, B.A., Field Director
Craig Weaver, M.A., Field Director
Joseph F. Mankowski, M.A., Field Director
David Boschi, B.A., Field Director

Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc.


4800 SW 64th Avenue, Suite 107
Davie, FL 33314
(954) 792-9776
archlgcl@bellsouth.net

for
Bonita Bay Properties

AHC Technical Report #000


December 2006
2006.06
Table of Contents

List of Figures ii

Consultant Summary 1

Project Setting 3

Previous Research 7

Cultural Summary 11

Methodology 21

Summary of Centipede Site, 8CR832 23

Results and Conclusions 27

References Cited 32

Appendix 1: CR832 Field Specimen Log 39

Appendix 2. CR832 Phase Three Field Notes 48

Appendix 3: Florida Survey Log 56

Appendix 4: Centipede Site, 8CR832, Florida Site Form 59

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List of Figures

1. Map of the Immokalee Road South parcel area 2

2. 1874 plat map for Township 48S, Range 27E with modern 5
subject parcel boundaries superimposed

3. Color aerial orthophotograph of the Immokalee Road parcel area 6

4. Map of the Immokalee Road Parcel area showing locations of targets 24


and shovel tests

5. Map of the Centipede Site, 8CR832, area showing Phase 2 site 25


boundaries, shovel tests, and units in relation to Phase 3 Survey

6. Map of the Centipede Site, 8CR832, area showing 26

7 Map of the Centipede Site, 8CR832, area showing 27

8. View southwest 26

9. View southwest 26

10. North wall profile of Unit 29

11. 30

12. 30

13. 31

14. 31

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Consultant Summary

In January through August, 2006, the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy Inc.
(AHC) conducted a phase 3 archaeological assessment for Bonita Bay Properties of the
Centipede Site, 8CR832. The site is located in the east central part of the Immokalee
Road South parcel which is approximately 7 miles east of the communities of Naples
Park/Vanderbilt Beach in north central Collier County. Site 8CR832 was discovered
during Phase 1 work by AHC at Immokalee Road South in February, 2002 [Beriault,
2006]. The site was further assessed in Phase 2 investigations order to determine its
extent and significance [Beriault, Mankowski and Crump, 2005]. It was determined in the
Phase 2 work that the site was so unique and important to the understanding of area
prehistory that a further, more detailed assessment was needed to recover additional
information about site intensity, significance, and components.

This assessment was conducted to fulfill historic resource requirements for Lee County
and Florida's Chapters 267 and 373. This assessment was conducted in accordance with
Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-665), as
amended in 1992, and 36 C.F.R., Part 800: Protection of Historic Properties. The work
and the report conform to the specifications set forth in Chapter IA-46, Florida
Administrative Code.

The phase 1 assessment at Immokalee Road South included an archival review, a


pedestrian survey and shovel testing of the parcel. The phase 1 assessment resulted in the
discovery of ten previously unrecorded archaeological sites, 8CR830, 8CR831, 8CR832,
8CR833, 8CR834, 8CR835, 8CR836, 8CR837, 8CR838, and 8CR841 Most of these
discovered sites were interior “black dirt” midden deposits of various degrees of intensity
and extent. Two sites, 8CR836 and 8CR837, are a possible earthwork feature and a
constructed sand mound. No standing historic or modern buildings occur on the subject
parcel. The Centipede Site, 8CR832 was a particularly intense and deeply stratified black
dirt midden expressed as a slightly-elevated linear ridge vegetated with tropical
hardwood hammock elements. This site is potentially eligible for listing on the National
Register of Historic Places because deeply stratified interior midden sites are rare in
Collier County and in this part of Southwest Florida. Since this site was located within
an area of proposed development, a phase 2 assessment was conducted. The developer
later made a decision to preserve the site area.

This phase 2 scope of work included the systematic excavation of 55 gridded shovel tests
at 10 meter intervals on the cardinal points centering on New Datum which was given an
arbitrary 100N, 100E designation. Additionally, three 1-meter square test units were
excavated in areas of greatest archaeological intensity. This phase of work delineated and
established precise site boundaries and known areas of greater intensity within the site. It
was also demonstrated that 8CR832 was a regionally important site from a time period
(Late Archaic to middle Formative) not well understood in the interior of Southwest
Florida.

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Deeply stratified late Archaic to Formative period sites are rare in southwest Florida
(Collier County), and few of these sites have been recorded in the area. It is the
consultant’s opinion, based on available data, that site 8CR832 was of local and regional
significance and potentially eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic
Places. Since the site, at that time, was in a area scheduled for future development and
could not be preserved then Phase 3 excavations were recommended to mitigate for
adverse impacts that would have been caused by future development of the site.

Phase 3 work began January 6th, 2006 and ended August 29th, 2006. A two to four-person
field crew under direction of Joe Mankowski, Craig Weaver, Phillip Mendenhall, John
Crump, or Dave Boschi excavated thirty-one meter square test units across the site area.
These units were organized in three blocks or areas and were positioned using the datum
points established during Phase 2 work. The unit locations were chosen using data
acquired from Phase 2 shovel testing and by the ongoing Phase 3 work being performed.
Each of these test units was to be excavated by context or zone and by arbitrary levels.
The unit of measurement chosen for this phase of work was metric. The horizontal
boundary of the site was to be further determined by the extent of cultural materials. All
test units were dug to culturally-sterile sediments, which were generally to 28-38-inch
(70-108cm) depths.

Phase 3 excavations and investigations further confirmed the site is a complex deeply
stratified feature approximately 80 meters (250 feet) on a north south axis whose greatest
variable width on an east-west axis is approximately 23 meters (75 feet). The site is
roughly 1900 square meters (20000 square feet) approximately and consists of at least
two likely-overlapping areas or lobes, the northerly of which is the most intense and
extensive archaeologically. Thirty-one Phase 3 meter-square test units were placed in
three blocks spanning the entire site area. Phase 3 excavations investigated/removed an
estimated 2 percent of the total site area. These phase 3 test units yielded 168 field
specimen bags of archaeological material consisting of food shell; faunal bone; fiber and
sand-tempered ceramics; lithic, bone and stone tools; and other material.

Several distinct features, likely heath or pit areas were identified, photographed and
profiled and portions of the unscreened contents removed as a sample for C-14 dating
and other analysis. Several other problematic features such as concentrations of piled
limestone boulders were also noted and recorded.

It is believed that the Centipede Site, 8CR832 functioned as a multi-purpose campsite


with distinctive tool manufacturing and other specialized activity areas. The site location
in relation to a deep slough may signify it was a stopping-off point along a interior north-
south canoe route that followed drainage systems toward Lake Trafford and Corkscrew
Marsh. A human burial component was also noted, and this use of a interior campsite has
been noted in other area sites as well. The site may have seen multiple episodes of use in
adjoining and overlapping areas through time. Fiber-tempered and sand-tempered plain
ceramics together with basal aceramic zones strongly indicate occupation of the site took
place in the late Archaic to Formative periods c. 4000-500 years BP.

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It is the consultant’s opinion that recently-concluded Phase 3 work at the Centipede Site,
8CR832, was successful in the recovery of extensive and significant archaeological
material and information concerning the site. Phase 3 work further confirmed 8CR832 to
be an intensive and extensive late Archaic to Formative period campsite eligible for
listing on the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion ‘D’. The developer,
Bonita Bay Properties, plans to preserve the site in a green space area within a golf
course. Preservation guidelines are included in the Results and Conclusions section of
this report.

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Project Setting

The overall subject parcel is located in parts of Sections 29, 30, 31 and 32 in Township
48S, Range 27E immediately south of County Road 846 (Immokalee Road) in
northeastern Collier County (Figure 1). The 224.8-hectare (562-acre) project area is a
polygonal in shape with sides more or less oriented to the cardinal points. The subject
parcel is bordered by County Road 846 on the north and on the other sides by cleared fields,
residences, and undeveloped woodland. The relevant USGS maps are Corkscrew SW and
Belle Meade NW, Fla.

The parcel encompasses limited cleared land and cattle range, as well as natural areas of
and communities of palmetto, slash pine flatwoods, and oval marsh ponds and cypress
slough/head areas. Prior land-use includes a moderate amount of clearing, grading, and
ditching activity. The immediate region is low-lying to moderately elevated (10-15 feet,
NGVD) and vegetated in slash pine/saw palmetto flatwood “islands” surrounded by
cypress slough/strand systems and emerging cabbage palm groves containing scattered
circular/elongate grassy marshes.

The Immokalee Road South Parcel is situated in north central Collier County
approximately 12 miles east of the present-day coastline. The Northern Collier County
area has been rapidly developed over the last forty years. Large residential developments
and extensive commercial activities have changed the land use patterns from low-impact
livestock pasturage and agriculture to one of rapid urbanization. Much of this area was
alternating southern slash pine/saw palmetto flatwoods together with low pond cypress
forests, linear cypress sloughs, and cypress dome/pond features. In the immediate tract
area was a series of large diffuse and emerging cabbage palm hammock “islands”
covering several hundred acres, part of what was historically called the Curry Island
system. Bird Rookery Slough drained the country to the north and west of the subject
area To the south the drainage patterns were southwesterly through a series of cypress
sloughs. To the west between the coast and the interior were a series of linear sand hills
that were remnant Pleistocene marine terraces shaped by subsequent wind activity. Much
of the area considered in this report is at present woodland. But a considerable portion as
been impacted by human activities such as houses, small wholesale/retail nurseries
selling palms and other exotic plants and “improved pastures” for cattle, horses and other
livestock or by commercial farming. There is also the ever-increasing presence
throughout the tracts of invasive exotic plants such as meleleauca (meleleauca
quinquenervia) and Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius). In many instances the
presence of these exotics in a given area exceeds 50% of the vegetative biomass.

The vegetative community that dominated the subject tract was cabbage palm (Sabal
palmetto) hammock with several deep marshes, at present containing a few cypress
(Taxodium distichum) and a community of succulent marsh plants such as fire flag
(Thalia geniculata), arrowhead (Sagittaria spp.), and pickerelweed (Pontederia
lanceolata). Small stands or groves of pop ash (Fraxinus caroliniana) and buttonbush
(Cephalthanthus occidentalis) provide a woody midstory growth along marsh edges. In
the cabbage palm hammocks are remnants, alive and dead, of large slash pines (Pinus
elliotii var. densa). In portions of the parcel are large strand systems of bald cypress and

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pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens). In the southern portion of the subject parcel the
cabbage palms are in dense, low canopy formations. Many appear to be immature and
emerging from what may have been grass prairies or clearings. Toward the north and
western areas of the tract the cabbage palms form a dense and mature hammock with a
canopy height of as much as 40+ feet. It is in this area abutting several marsh ponds that
three of the eight sites were discovered. There are a series of discrete higher ground areas
containing concentrations of tropical hammock elements such as myrsine, wild coffee,
camphorwood (Myriacanthes fragrans), and hackberry (Celtis laevigata). Often these
areas are in close proximity to a seasonal water source such as marsh ponds or cypress
solution dome features. It was found during this survey that the portions of these areas
with groves or coppices of camphorwood and hackberry corresponded to a high degree
with interior black dirt middens of great intensity.

The geology of the Collier County area is characterized by fine-grained wind and wave
born sands overlying shelly marls. Most of the surfacial sands are characterized in the
Lee County Soil Survey as “hydric, level, poorly drained” and are fine-grained wind and
water-born deposits from the late Pleistocene/early Holocene. The Immokalee Road
South Parcel contains six soil types (Figure 4). Most of these are characterized as fine,
poorly drained sand or sandy loams. Many of these occur in the area as formations on
moderately elevated ground; others are depressional and are located in the ponds, sloughs
and cypress heads of the parcel.

Among the soils present on the subject parcel are: Riviera, limestone substratum-
Copeland fine sands; Hallandale fine sand; Riviera fine sand, limestone substratum; Fort
Drum and Malabar, high, fine sands; Boca fine sand: and Hallandale and Boca fine sands
(Figure 4). Gray and tan sands found extensively in the district usually overlie relict
marine deposits of shelly marl and marly limestone caprock that are part of Pleistocene
formations. Many of these formations are linked to the Caloosahatchee/Fort
Thompson/Coffee Mill Hammock series.

Marine marls contain lenses and deposits of clay intermixed with varying percentages of
sand. These clays may have been a source for ceramic manufacture by the Formative
period Native Americans. Mantling the Pleistocene sands are windblown deposits of
gray sands of varying depths. Areas of the parcel contain tan and gray sand surfacial
zones overlying a dense brown sand spodic horizon (often referred to as “hardpan”).
This formation is a zone of organic leaching accumulation. Occasionally, harder
“nuggets” or nodules of an iron oxide precipitate will be found in this zone, which is
sometimes a basal archaeological zone.

Limestone caprock can contain the index fossil bivalve, Chione cancellata, in quantity.
Many higher ground formations in the area appear to be bedrock unconformities that
consist of fully exposed tabular slabs of limestone caprock containing numerous rounded
solution holes.

For many years, the northeastern Collier County area had been dominated by low-
impact/low-density ranching and farming activities. Today, “improved” areas are
interspersed with undeveloped woodlands. In the last twenty years, the number of

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planned residential communities have increased at a steady rate of growth along State
Road 846, as in other parts of Collier County and southwest Florida in general.

The Centipede Site, 8CR832 is a particularly intense and deeply stratified black dirt
midden expressed as a slightly-elevated linear ridge vegetated with tropical hardwood
hammock elements, which include mature groves of camphorwood, large hackberry
trees, live oaks, and an understory of boston fern (Nephrolepsis sp.). The site is situated
slightly north of two prominent marsh ponds in an area that was formerly cypress swamp
but is now vegetated in an increasing percentage of emerging cabbage palms. The site
displays a prominent oval signature on detailed aerial photographs, which led to its
discovery during Phase one investigations. This site is one of a “cluster” of four sites
situated near the marsh ponds. These sites display moderate elevation in close proximity
to wetland areas that display extended hydroperiods (yearly flooding). The Indians likely
occupied the sites due to this proximity as wetlands both concentrated edible plants and
animals, and provided canoe transport routes during at least part of the year.

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Previous Research

Southwest Florida has been a focus of archaeological investigations since the 1880s,
although much of the early work was directed toward recovery of museum quality
artifacts rather than understanding cultural processes. Griffin (1988:48-50) discussed
some of the very early references to archaeological sites in south Florida. He noted that
these early reports were mostly casual observations, and few appear to refer to southwest
Florida, but rather refer to the southeast and Key West areas.

Kenworthy’s (1883) informal report on shell mounds and ancient canals was one of the
first reports of Southwest Florida archaeological sites. At about the same time as
Kenworthy’s investigations, Simons (1884) gave a narrative account of some of the very
large coastal shell middens, and Douglass (1885) provided further information about
prehistoric canals (although he did not accept that they were prehistoric). One described
canal near Gordon’s Pass is probably the Naples Canal (8CR59), and one further north
may be the Pineland Canal. Douglass’ diaries record excavations of a post-contact era site
(8CR41) on Horrs Island, as evidenced by the presence of European artifacts (Griffin,
1988:50-51). Douglass visited Lostman’s River and other areas in the Ten Thousand
Island area, and a visit to Horrs Island was briefly narrated in Douglass (1890).

In 1895 Durnford reported that cordage and other artifacts were recovered from a
mangrove muck pond on Marco Island (site 8CR49). The material was shown to
Cushing, who mounted a major project to recover more material from the site. Cushing
(1897) reported recovering wood and other perishable artifacts from the muck pond on
Marco Island, adjacent to a large shell works and midden village site. Publication of
illustrations of the spectacular finds generated a great deal of subsequent interest. Wells
M. Sawyer, a young artist accompanying the expedition, produced an excellent and
presumably accurate contour map for the entire Key Marco Shell Midden. This map is
valuable to present-day efforts in understanding many of the now obliterated features and
interpreting (reconstructing) the “architecture” of the shell midden. Widmer (1983) notes
that Cushing also focused attention on the nonagricultural chiefdom level of social
organization supported by the rich estuary and marine resources, although his
anthropological observations have remained overshadowed by the wealth of artifacts.

Moore (1900, 1905, 1907) investigated a number of sites along the Collier/Lee County
coast, apparently attempting to find material comparable to Cushing’s finds. Although
Moore provided information about site locations and general contents, most of his work
was extremely crude and uncontrolled, by both contemporary archaeological standards,
and by modern standards.

The first attempt to systematically survey and investigate archaeological sites was
initiated by Ales Hrdliĉka, who visited a number of sites along the coast and tidal
mangrove estuaries in 1918, focusing on the Ten Thousand Island region (Hrdliĉka
1922). Hrdliĉka noted that southwest Florida was a distinct region within south Florida
and made an attempt to type sites by function.

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Matthew Stirling’s (1931,1933) excavation of a burial mound on Horrs Island represents
one of the first controlled excavations in Collier/Lee Counties (although he attempted
stratigraphic control, Cushing had little success in his wet site excavation). The site was
named the Blue Hill Mound, but it is not recorded under that name in the FMSF (either as
a primary or secondary name), so it is unclear exactly which site he excavated, although
it was probably site 8CR41 (McMichaels, 1982). These reports by Stirling are
preliminary, and apparently neither a final report nor a skeletal analysis has been
published.

John M. Goggin was the first to define a south Florida cultural area (Glades Area), and
describe south Florida ceramics (Glades ware), establishing a basis for later
archaeological work. He published an analysis of the ceramic sequence in south Florida
(Goggin, 1939, 1940). In later reports (Goggin, 1947, 1949a, 1949b), he formulated a
basic framework of cultural areas and chronologies that is still current (although
modifications with additional data have been made, see further discussion below).
Goggin (1949b) summarized much of this information in an unpublished manuscript,
which Griffin (1988) thoroughly described.

In passing, one unfortunate aspect of Goggin’s work was a dependence on informant


information for location of sites (especially interior sites) and he had a real concern that
existing sites would be looted. This concern resulted in his either deliberately or
incidentally reporting vague locational data for many sites. Some of these sites have
never been satisfactorily relocated, although a few have undoubtedly been re-recorded by
later investigators.

For several decades, much of the subsequent archaeological investigations in the region
took place in Lee and Charlotte Counties, especially in the Cape Haze, Charlotte Harbor
and Pine Island areas. It is rumored that Goggin had a “gentleman’s agreement” with
many of the other leading practicing Florida archaeologists of the time that the South
Florida area was his exclusive province to investigate. If this rumor is correct, it might
explain the neglect shown the southwest Florida area in the archaeological arena from the
end of World War II to Goggin’s death in 1964.

In 1956, Sears reported on a large village and mound complex at the mouth of Turner
River on Chokoloskee Bay south of Marco Island, and in 1967 he reported on the results
of a survey of the Cape Coral area (Sears, 1956, 1957). Laxson (1966) reported on
excavations at Turner River Jungle Garden site, which is upriver from the Turner River
site, although these have been confused in recent accounts.

Van Beck and Van Beck (1965) excavated three small test pits on Marco Island (at the
Marco midden, 8CR48) associated with the Cushing site (8CR49). The resulting
publication of this work was some of the first reported scientific archaeological work to
come from the southwest Florida area in nearly twenty years (Van Beck and Van Beck,
1965).

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In 1967 through 1969, Marco Island was extensively surveyed and a few sites were tested
through excavation by Cockrell, Morrell, and others (Morrell, 1969). No complete site
report was ever published, although an unpublished and incomplete manuscript is
available. Some of these sites were discussed in Cockrell’s master’s thesis (1970).
Widmer performed a survey of Big Key, John Stevens Creek, Barfield Bay, Blue Hill
Bay, and Collier Bay, which are proximal to Marco Island (Widmer, 1974). Widmer
eventually utilized his southwest coast experience to write a doctoral dissertation on the
Calusa that not only remains the definitive work on that group, but also explored the
relationship between subsistence adaptation and cultural evolution (Widmer, 1983).

In Lee County, Arlene Fradkin and other investigators from the University of Florida
began an ongoing involvement with the Pine Island Sound/Sanibel Island area in the
1970s. Her first investigations were at the Wightman site on northern Sanibel Island
(Fradkin, 1976).

Several archaeologists excavated at Horrs Island in the 1980s. McMichaels (1982)


reviewed sites on Horrs Island in a Master’s thesis. In 1983, Marquardt began a series of
investigations at Josslyn Key, Useppa Island, Pineland, Buck Key, Galt Island in Lee
County, and at Big Mound Key in Charlotte County (Marquardt, 1984, 1987, 1988,
1992). Marquardt and Russo have investigated Horrs Island in Collier County. A number
of the large shell midden village sites they excavated appear to be late Archaic, and they
expect to document a more elaborate social organization at these sites and larger
sedentary or semi-sedentary population sizes than previously known for that period
(Russo, 1990, and pers. comm.).

Most of these studies focused on the coastal sites, as have subsequent summaries and
discussions. Recent work on the interior has made significant advances in documenting
the extent and intensity of inland resources, especially in the Big Cypress and Everglades
parks (Ehrenhard et al., 1978, 1979; Ehrenhard and Taylor 1980; Ehrenhard et al., 1980;
Taylor and Komara 1983; Taylor, 1984, 1985). Griffin’s (1988) synthesis of the
Everglades Park data is the defining work on south Florida archaeology to date. Athens
(1983) summarized some of the results of the Big Cypress survey, but more analysis of
this data resource is needed.

Beriault and colleagues (1981) reported on salvage excavations at Bay West Nursery
(8CR200). Their description of the site includes a well known but rare and infrequently
documented Early and Middle Archaic use of ponds for cemeteries.

In 1995, Widmer and Story began an ongoing investigation at the Key Marco Midden
(Widmer, 1996). In the first season they excavated with the help of graduate students and
volunteers. The results of their work have appeared in the Florida Anthropologist.

In the last two decades the pressure of development, as well as a recognized need for
preservation or mitigation of prehistoric sites has led to a number of reports by
commercial cultural resource management consultants. While most of these reports are
limited in scope due to restriction to a small tract of land, many have produced useful

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summaries of regional archaeology, as well as insightful analysis of the relationship
between site types and location and ecotypes. (Almy and Deming, 1982, 1986a, 1986b,
1986c, 1987; Austin, 1987; Carr and Allerton 1988a, 1988b; Deming and Almy, 1987,
1988; Fay and Carr 1990; Fuhrmeister et al., 1990; Martinez, 1977; Miller and Fryman,
1978; Swift and Carr, 1989).

Arthur W. Lee, John Beriault and others in the Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
(SWFAS) have recorded and investigated a large number of archaeological sites in
Collier and Lee Counties. It is an ongoing effort of the Society to publish and disseminate
reports and manuscripts (Lee et al., 1993, 1997, 1998; Beriault, 1973, 1982, 1986, 1987;
Beriault and Strader, 1984). Many of these reports deal with small interior seasonal sites.
This avocationist society is one of the strongest voices for the protection of Collier and
Lee County archaeological resources, and they have been careful to document and
control their excavations, the majority of which are salvage operations on sites that have
been heavily impacted. In addition, Beriault has provided several unpublished
manuscripts as to site types and areas (Beriault 1982, 1987).

In 1997, SWFAS excavated at the Goodland Point Midden on the east end of Marco
Island. In 1995 and 1998, this same group of avocationalists worked with Dr. Widmer on
two locations at the Key Marco Shell Midden. Most recently in 1999, the group has
worked with the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy (AHC) in the recovery of
material during scientific excavations at the Olde Marco Inn, the Barnes House
property, the Seaman House Lot, and the Sunset Builders Lot, which are all located at the
Key Marco Shell Midden (8CR48) at the north end of Marco Island.

Recent Previous Research – Immokalee Road Area

In January to May, 1980 the Southwest Florida Archaeological Society (SWFAS)


conducted salvage work at the Bay West Mortuary Pond Site, 8CR200, a little over three
miles from the northern end of the current project. In 1989, SWFAS carried out a series
of controlled test excavations at the Mulberry Midden, 8CR697, 6 miles west. The
Archaeological and Historical Conservancy has investigated a number of sites near the
Immokalee Road. These sites were located in the development now called Eagles Nest in
a Phase I (and later investigated further in a Phase II) survey in 1994 (Carr, Steele, and
Davis 1994a and 1994b). Nine prehistoric sites, including four probable burial mounds
were discovered and surveyed. In 1998 and 1999 the AHC found two sites south of this
grouping and located a suspected seasonal campsite, the Persea Hope Site, 8CR797, 4.5
miles north of the road corridor. In 2002 to 2006 Phase 1 work was performed at the
subject parcel resulting in the discovery and preliminary delineation of ten prehistoric
sites, 8CR830, 8CR831, 8CR832, 8CR833, 8CR834, 8CR835, 8CR836, 8CR837,
8CR838, and 8CR841 (Beriault and Mankowski 2005). Most of these discovered sites
were interior “black dirt” midden deposits of various degrees of intensity and extent. Two
sites, 8CR836 and 8CR837, are a possible earthwork feature and a constructed sand
mound. In 2005 AHC performed a Phase 2 investigation of four of those sites (8CR831,
8CR832, 8CR834 and 8CR836), including the Centipede Site (Beriault, Mankowski and
Crump 2005). A systematic series of close-interval shovel tests were placed across the

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sites to better understand site elements, and several meter-square test units excavated to
sterile sediments in each. In 2006, additional Phase One investigations were performed
across the entire 560-acre parcel which included the systematic gridded excavation of an
additional 233 50cm square shovel tests in twenty east-west transects spaced at 100 and
200 meter intervals apart and in two additional discovered medium probability zones
(MPZs) (Beriault and Crump 2006). This additional work resulted in the discovery of no
additional sites.

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Cultural Summary

Stirling was the first to distinguish the indigenous prehistoric cultures of southern Florida
in 1936 by defining a Glades cultural area, including all of south Florida (Carr et al.,
1994b:9; Milanich, 1994:5-6). Griffin (1988) pointed out that this was not formulated as
a strict cultural area, but it was rather a geographic region with some common cultural
traits. Kroeber (1939), in a review of North American prehistory, utilized a slightly
different term, the “South Florida Area”, basing his definition on both environmental and
cultural factors. Subsequently Goggin delineated more particular boundaries for southern
Florida and divided the region into three sub-areas: “Okeechobee” around Lake
Okeechobee, “Tekesta” for southeast Florida and the Florida Keys, and “Calusa” for
Southwest Florida (Carr et al., 1994b:10; Goggin, 1947:114-127).

Following Goggin’s study, subsequent researchers have refined or altered the cultural
distinctions attributed to southern Florida’s prehistoric populations. There has been
criticism that Goggin’s names and definitions were based on historic accounts of the
main (proto) historic groups found in the respective regions and not on the archaeological
evidence of spatial, temporal, and cultural differences (Sears, 1966; Griffin, 1974; Carr
and Beriault, 1984; Griffin, 1988). Griffin, in particular, questioned the distinctions. He
believed that South Florida cultures varied only by local environmental conditions and
ceramic exchange rates. Griffin believed the inhabitants of prehistoric southern Florida
were mainly dwelling on the coast and that the interior was nearly uninhabited and under-
utilized. Griffin designated the entire southern Florida region as the “Circum-Glades”
area (Eck, 1997:5; Griffin, 1974:342-346). This new designation for the area was
furthered by a widely circulated book on Florida archaeology by Milanich and Fairbanks
(1980). Griffin later (1988) retreated to some extent from his earlier position as further
research (particularly by Ehrenhard, Carr, Komara, and Taylor in the Big Cypress and
Carr in the eastern Everglades in the 1970s and 1980s) showed abundant sites (and
concomitant use and habitation) in the interior and Everglades.

Carr and Beriault, in particular, have taken issue with the concept of a Circum-Glades
region. Carr’s research in the Big Cypress and Everglades and his subsequent analysis
demonstrating variation of key cultural markers (particularly in decorated ceramics)
formed the basis for this contention. There is abundant evidence for cultural (and
probably political or tribal) diversity in the various areas of south Florida. Carr and
Beriault particularly noted and defined differences between the lower southwest Florida
coast, which they termed the “Ten Thousand Island” region, and the area to the north,
which they called the “Caloosahatchee” region. This latter area they believed to be the
seat of the historic Calusa chiefdomship, although previous (and some subsequent)
researchers have called the entire southwest Florida from Cape Sable to the Cape Haze
peninsula (and beyond) in Charlotte County “Calusa”.

Griffin, in his definitive 1988 synthesis on Everglades archaeology, attempted to


reconcile and refine some of the conflict in the definition of south Florida prehistoric and
historic culture areas. As stated by Carr and colleagues (1994b), “the issue...appears in
part to be one of trying to determine the significance of regional and temporal variation,

16
rather than whether these differences are real.” There is evidence that changes through
time in regional political affiliations or realties makes any model not addressing this
complex issue two-dimensional. The Calusa hegemony that was in place by the time of
the arrival of Europeans may have begun as early as 800 AD in the Ten Thousand Island
“district” or area (Griffin, 1988:321; Carr et al., 1994b:12). There is currently ongoing
research to further refine present thought as to cultural affiliations in south Florida. It
would seem only a matter of time before new directions and emphases provide a more
accurate summation of south Florida cultural affinities.

Using the present models, the coastal zones of Collier County and southern Lee County
contain three distinct culture areas. Indian Hill on Marco Island lies thirty miles from the
projected interface by Carr and Beriault (1984) of the Caloosahatchee area (called the
“the ‘heartland’ of the Calusa”, Carr et al., 1994b:12) to the north, and the Ten Thousand
Islands area to the south. At a yet undefined point to the east lies the Okeechobee cultural
area, but the boundary, if it is a definite, fixed one, is likely to occur in the vicinity of the
Immokalee rise forty miles or more to the northeast of Indian Hill. Further work is in
progress by Carr to address the issue of where the southwest boundaries of the
Okeechobee culture area occur.

Temporal Periods and Adaptations

At the same time that south Florida archaeological cultural models have evolved over the
past 60-plus years, so have the temporal markers or framework on which we base
evolution of that culture. Much of this latter effort has resulted from comparisons made
between the recovered artifacts from the 100-year period of scientific and nonscientific
excavation and collection by the various individuals and institutions (and others)
enumerated in part above. This Floridian effort must be seen against the broader
background of archaeological work in eastern North America and the New World as a
whole. All of these efforts have been mutually complimentary and certainly not
exclusive.

In south Florida, the following periods and adaptations seem to be generally accepted.
Part of this chronology involving the later or Formative period is called the Glades
sequence in honor of Goggin, the greater part of whose work in defining the ceramic
sequence or markers has withstood the test of time and subsequent criticism (Goggin,
1939, 1947, 1949c). From Goggin’s day to present, pottery variability in form, substance,
and decoration has proven useful for providing time markers, at least during the
archaeologically-brief (+ 3500 year) period spanning the late Archaic and Formative
periods that it was produced. Other artifact types and their variations have, to present,
proven somewhat less reliable as absolute indicants of prehistoric age. Radiocarbon
dating, a phenomena of the last 30-plus years, provides, within the standard deviation
expressed in plus-or-minus years BP (before present), a relatively absolute date for a
given sample and provides a yardstick to measure traits or distinctions in provenienced
artifacts. Determining and adequately defining what traits we can discern against this
absolute is part of the ongoing function of the regional archaeological effort.

17
The following information is generalized and abbreviated. The dates are approximate;
transitions between periods are in reality more gradual that the manner they are expressed
for convenience.

Paleo Period (14,000 - 8,500 BP)

During the Paleo Period, the first Native Americans began moving into the southeastern
portion of North America and Florida. Most evidence of their presence in our state can be
reliably dated to about 10,000 BP.

There are no known Paleoindian sites in Collier County. Several are documented from
elsewhere in south Florida, including Warm Mineral Springs and Little Salt Springs in
Sarasota County (Cockrell and Murphy, 1978; Clausen and Gifford, 1975), Harney Flats
in Hillsborough County (Daniel and Wisenbaker, 1987) and the Cutler Fossil Site in
Dade County (Carr, 1986).

During this period, the terminal Wisconsian ice age, the climate was probably less
extreme, with cooler summers and warmer winters. The climate was also drier, and sea
levels were lower (Carbone, 1983; Allerton and Carr 1988a; Griffin, 1988).

One reason that possible Paleo period sites have not been discovered in Collier and Lee
Counties is that the shoreline may have been as much as 100 miles further west due to
lower sea levels. Drier conditions may have made the interior very inhospitable, and the
shallow estuarine and littoral sites that existed were flooded by post-ice age Holocene sea
rises.

Any possible interior sites from the Paleo Period may be unrecognizable due to lack of
diagnostic artifacts, subsequent reuse of site areas, low population density, and few
permanent camps. These and other factors may help explain the absence to date of
identifiable Paleo period sites in Collier and Lee Counties. On the other hand, the
southwest Florida coast south of Charlotte Harbor may have been uninhabitable during
this period due to an absence of key conditions for the successful hunting of large game,
a trait of the Paleo period.

Archaic Period (8,500 - 2,500 BP)

The Archaic period reflects a post-Pleistocene shift in adaptation marked by an increase


in the seasonal exploitation of a broad spectrum of food resources, a more restricted use
of territory due to regional specialization, and more semi-sedentary habitation sites. No
ceramics are known until the Late Archaic. During the Archaic, regional specializations
became more marked, not only with material culture but also with distinct local
utilization of local plant and animal resources.

As mentioned above, there is, as yet, no firm evidence of human presence in southwest
Florida during the Paleo period. This apparently is also true for the Early Archaic (8500-
7000BP), as there is evidence of an environment too arid to support scrub oak, and the
presence of shifting wind formed dunes (Watts, 1975; Widmer, 1983). No early Archaic
sites are known from southwest Florida (Allerton and Carr, 1988:14).

18
By about 6500 BP mesic conditions began to spread, although localized xeric conditions
continued (and still exist in some areas) through south Florida. Middle Archaic sites
dating from this time are rare, although the Bay West Nursery site (8CR200) in Collier
County and the Ryder Pond site (8LL1850) in Lee County near Bonita Springs provide
evidence of occupation, as do several sites in southeast Florida. The Bay West site is a
Middle Archaic cypress pond cemetery, associated with a lithic scatter. The Ryder Pond
site is a similar mortuary pond site surrounded by pine flatwoods (Carr and Heinz, 1996).
Beriault has also recorded several aceramic shell scatters in coastal sand hills (paleo
dunes), some of which may date to the Middle Archaic. Griffin (1988) summarizes
evidence indicating that despite the rise of available surface water, brackish estuaries and
other major modern landscape features had not formed, and population (or repopulation)
was still sparse.

During the Archaic period sea levels began to rise at a fairly rapid rate, estimated at 8.3
cm. per 100 years 6000-3000 BP, and 3.5 cm per 100 years afterwards (Scholl et al.,
1969), although whether sea levels were steadily rising or oscillating is still unclear (see
Griffin 1988; Allerton and Carr, 1990 for recent reviews of the literature). Data is
somewhat difficult to sort out as sea level rise was accompanied by both shore regression
and transgression in places. As conditions became wetter (and warmer) in the interior,
cypress swamps and hardwood sub-tropical forests established themselves by about 5000
BP (Carbone 1983, Delcourt and Delcourt 1981).

By late Middle or early Late Archaic times (4000 years BP) there were significant shell
mounds and middens on Horrs Island, Marco Island, and elsewhere in the coastal regions,
suggesting that the estuary system had been established and was being utilized to provide
the subsistence basis for denser populations and semi-sedentary settlements (Morrell,
1969; Cockrell, 1970). At Useppa Island in Lee County, excavations have provided
radiocarbon dates from pre-ceramic shell middens ranging between roughly 4900 BP and
5600 BP, suggesting that the Middle Archaic as well as Late Archaic periods saw a
growing dependence on shellfish resources (Milanich et al., 1984). There are aceramic
coastal sand hill and interior wetland sites as well, but these have not been demonstrated
to be Archaic despite some investigators equating aceramic with preceramic.
Radiocarbon dates for these sites would clarify this point.

Allerton and Carr (1988) noted that a number of stratified sites in the wet mangrove and
marsh areas of the Everglades, as well as on Horrs Island, contain Archaic preceramic
horizons, although it is unclear if aceramic was equated with preceramic. Additional
supporting evidence of interior use by Archaic peoples will provide a new dimension to
the archaeological understanding of Archaic resource utilization. Allerton and Carr point
out that if the wet tree islands were initially used by Archaic people, then at least some of
the hardwood hammocks in swamp environments were raised in elevation (with
subsequent changes in vegetation) due to human activities. Post-Archaic people
extensively utilized these hammocks and continued to advance their development as
distinct geomorphic features. This is obviously an area where additional archaeological
investigations have a potential to contribute to understanding the interaction of
geomorphic and cultural evolution in southwest Florida.

19
Toward the end of the Archaic there was the introduction of fiber-tempered pottery into
the archaeological record, often used as a marker of the Orange Phase, commencing at
about 4000 BP, either coincident with or soon after the development of the extensive
shell middens. The Late Archaic Orange Phase subsistence strategy is characterized by
intensive use of shellfish and marine resources, as well as being marked by an accelerated
trend toward regional specializations.

A number of the large shell middens on Marco Island (Cockrell, 1970), Horrs Island
(Russo n.d.), Cape Haze (Bullen and Bullen, 1956), and elsewhere date from this period
or earlier, as they contain fiber-tempered ceramics, although there are known aceramic
(preceramic?) levels below the Orange Phase deposits that may date to the Middle
Archaic. These shell middens are usually capped by deposits from later occupations as
well.

Formative Stage or Glades Periods (2500 BP - 500 BP)

The Formative or Glades adaptation, based on hunting, fishing, and the harvesting of
shellfish and plants, was similar to the Archaic, but was characterized by increasing
specializations in gathering strategies and tool-making. Earlier writers have typed this
hunter-gatherer society as primitive or “low-level” (Kroeber, 1939). However, there is
certainly evidence from the specialization of tools, from the beautifully-executed wood
carvings from Key Marco in Collier County and those from Fort Center near Lake
Okeechobee (Cushing, 1897; Sears, 1982), and from the historic accounts of the Calusa
hegemony, that the south Florida area had an advanced culture that Goggin (1964) has
called a “stratified non-agrarian society”.

The preceding Late Archaic late Orange phase (also known as the transitional phase) was
marked by changes in pottery, and terminated with the relatively rapid replacement of
fiber-tempered pottery with sand-tempered, limestone-tempered, and chalky “temperless”
pottery. It was also characterized by changes in ceramic style and often by reduction in
the size of stone projectile points.
The Formative Stage (beginning about 2500 BP) is divided in south Florida into the
Glades Periods sequence. Subsistence adaptation is marked by a narrowing spectrum of
resource use, as well as continued trends toward regional diversity and ecological
specializations, marked in part by the proliferation of inland resource extraction
encampments.

Formative Period cultural evolution eventually led to increased political sophistication,


perhaps initially of modest dimensions, but culminating in broad regional political
alliances and regulation of materials and goods (i.e. resources) between the coast and
inland areas (Milanich and Fairbanks, 1980). By protohistoric and contact times the
Calusa were the dominant tribal group, gaining broad political influence and at least
partial control over much of south Florida as far north as central Brevard County.
Historically, the main Calusa village has been regarded as “Calos” on Mound Key in
Estero Bay in Lee County, although 50 to 70 large villages were under direct Calusa
control by contact times (Griffin, 1988).

20
During the Formative Periods, village sites grew to the proportions of large multi-use
complexes, particularly along the coast and barrier islands of southwest Florida. Some of
the projected intra-site functions of the elements of these complex shellworks were as
temples, canals, causeways, temple and platform mounds, courtyards and watercourts.
Current research involving the excavating of large contiguous areas of these shell mound
complexes is beginning to establish demonstrable uses for the features of these large
sites, upon which heretofore were merely speculated (Widmer, 1996).

Tidal estuary rivers and inland hammocks along deep water sloughs, marshes, and
permanent ponds were seasonally visited for extraction of natural resources, and are now
marked by small to relatively large black dirt middens, some of which may have been
semi-permanent hamlets. The pine and cypress flatwoods appear to have supported few
sites, although areas around Lake Trafford and other rich interior areas developed
substantial sites, including sand mounds, and may be more similar to the Okeechobee
cultural area than to the coastal cultures.

In 1992, Dickel and Carr excavated an apparent Deptford Period burial mound (the Oak
Knoll Site) in the Bonita Bay Tract north of the Imperial River. Exotic trade items and
seventy or more human burials were among the material findings. The resulting
conclusions and subsequent surveying and testing of the Bonita Bay Shell works
(8LL717) suggest social stratification and complexity may extend further back into the
past than the Formative period (Dickel and Carr, 1992).

Coastal sites (shell middens) reflect a predominate dependence on fish and shellfish, wild
plant foods and products, and larger inland game. The inland sites show a greater reliance
on interior resources, including large, medium and small mammals, turtle, small
freshwater fish, alligator, snake, frogs, and, sometimes, freshwater shellfish. Interior and
coastal resource exchange can be documented by the consistent finds of moderate
amounts of marine shell in many interior middens, as well as interior resources in coastal
middens.

The Formative Stage (with a nod to Goggin) has been often termed the Glades cultural
tradition. Much of this “tradition” is focused on decorated ceramics, the minority in the
archaeological record, although the majority of recovered (rim) sherds are plainware.
However, despite this, pottery (and its decorations) is usually utilized as the major
temporal marker(s) for fitting sites into a temporal framework. Changes in pottery do not
represent mere changes in artistic motifs, but reflect inter- and intra-regional trade
contacts and outside cultural influences (possibly through exogamy, shifting of
populations, and even the through evolution of a culture through time). Whatever the
influences, the Glades tradition is continuous from post-Archaic times to contact times.

Despite the fact that exogamy is likely to have been practiced, traders or other specialists
probably moved between major cultural areas in small numbers, and genetic flow
probably accompanied cultural exchange, although perhaps not on the same scale. This
may have increased in later times due to use of traditional obligations of kinship and
intermarriage to stabilize alliances that were not codified into a formal legal system.

21
The following table has been modified from several sources, but it is predominantly
based on Milanich and Fairbanks (1980), Griffin (1988), and Allerton and Carr (1990).
Dates have been rounded somewhat and translated to Before Present (BP). There are
some differences of opinion in the dates, particularly about the timing of the Glades Ia
and Ib division.

TABLE 1: GLADES CULTURAL SEQUENCE

Glades Ia (2500 BP - 1500 BP) First appearance of sand tempered plain pottery,
but little else to mark a difference and the
preceding Late Archaic. Sand tempered plain
remains a predominate type throughout the Glades
sequence.

Glades Ib (1500 BP - 1250 BP) First appearance of decorated sand-tempered


ceramic (Ft. Drum Incised, Ft. Drum Punctated,
Cane Patch Incised, Turner River Punctate),
plainware common. Pottery rim grooving and
incision decorations become widespread.

Glades IIa (1250 BP - 1100 BP) First appearance of Key Largo Incised, Sanibel
Incised, Miami Incised, and plainware is common.
Distinction between ceramics of southeast and
southwest Florida becomes apparent. Ten
Thousand Island area distinct from Caloosahatchee
area. First mound construction- increased social
stratification? Population size may have
approximated that at contact.

Glades IIb (1100 - 1000 BP) First appearance of Matecumbe Incised; Key Largo
Incised common on east coast, Gordon’s Pass
Incised common on the west, and plainware
common throughout.

Glades IIc (1000 BP - 800 BP) First appearance of Plantation Pinched, but few
decorated wares with a preponderance of plainware
(there is some evidence of population reduction-
perhaps due to a cataclysmic event). Non-local
pottery (e.g. St. Johns Plain and Check Stamped,
Belle Glade Plain) appears.

Glades IIIa (800 - 600 BP) First appearance of Surfside Incised, increasing
quantities of St. Johns pottery (especially on East
Coast), and Belle Glade pottery.

Glades IIIb (600 BP - 500 BP) Glades Tooled rims appear (rare on West Coast),
zoned punctate designs, but general decline in
incised decoration. Belle Glade ceramics common

22
on west coast. St. Johns ware present but rare on
West Coast, common on East Coast.

Glades IIIc (500 BP - 300 BP) Continuation of IIIb ceramics, with


pronounced flaring of rims and embossing on
Glades Tooled ceramics. Mound burial
construction less common with intrusive burials
into existing mounds, appearance of European
goods, plainware common.

By European contact times (the first half of the 16th century), the southwest coast of
Florida was maintaining a vigorous, possibly expanding political chiefdom with a broad
network of alliances, as well as a rich and ancient cultural tradition without an
agricultural base. However, direct conflict with Europeans and, more importantly,
exposure to European diseases led to the rapid decline of the Calusa. By the mid 1700s
their numbers had greatly diminished. The remnants of this once-powerful tribe may have
left south Florida in the 1760s with the Spanish for relocation in Cuba. Others may have
become indistinguishable from Spanish Cuban fishermen who worked the great fishing
“ranchos” in the Pine Island Sound region catching and salting fish for export to Cuba.
Other groups of Native Americans may have fused with the Creek-derived Seminoles.

In the late 1700s, members of the Creek tribe were forced into Florida from Georgia and
Alabama. They were later called Seminoles, from the Spanish term “cimmarones”.
Pressures from colonial (and later) white encroachment on their traditional territories
forced them into the Big Cypress and Everglades area by the 1830s. By this time, most of
the cultural identity of pre-contact times had been lost, although some of the Calusa
subsistence strategies may have been partly adopted by Seminoles. A number of
Seminole period sites have been documented on earlier Glades middens. This
coincidence may in part reflect the paucity of high land in the interior (Ehrenhard et al.,
1978, 1979, 1980; Ehrenhard and Taylor, 1980; Taylor and Komara, 1983; Taylor, 1984,
1985). Older midden sites (particularly those called “black dirt” middens) can be rich
agriculturally as well as archaeologically, making these foci for historic Seminole
gardens and fruit groves.

Seminole periods in south Florida are divided into I (1820-1860), II (1860-1900) and III
(1900-1940) (Ehrenhard et al., 1978). Post-1940 Seminole camps are designated “Late
Seminole” in some reports. These designations reflect the different stages of Seminole
migration into south Florida, Seminole displacement and active conflict with the
expanding American culture, and the eventual refuge by Seminole remnants in Big
Cypress and Everglades regions. Military records, and, in particular, several sketch maps
by military personnel done in the 1830s and 1840s and the Ives military map of South
Florida (1856) shows evidence of investigations at and near “Malco Inlet”, “Casimba”,
“Good Land”, and “Cape Romans”.

23
Seminole Wars in the Southwest Florida Area

The advent of the Second and Third Seminole Wars (1834-38, 1855-58) disrupted the
peaceful settlement of the Southwest Florida region. There were a number of forts,
“temporary” and permanent, established along the Caloosahatchee River during this time.
Fort Dulaney was established at Punta Rassa near the mouth of the Caloosahatchee in
1837 and was occupied intermittently through 1841, and again in 1855. After a hurricane
destroyed Ft. Dulaney in 1841, Fort Harvie was established upriver. The name of this fort
was changed in 1850 by its commander General Twiggs to honor his new son-in-law,
Col. Abraham Myers. Fort Myers was thus created, and became the chief fort of the
region.

From this central administrative point, a line of forts was established up the
Caloosahatchee River. They were: Fort Denaud, Fort Adams, Fort Thompson, and Fort
Center on Fisheating Creek leading into Lake Okeechobee. Other forts and “temporary
depots” were established south into the Big Cypress Swamp such as Fort Simon Drum,
Temporary Depot Number One, Fort Doane, Fort Simmons, Fort Keis, Fort Foster, Fort
Shackleford, and others.

A number of military expeditions were sent south along the coast during the Second and
Third Seminole Wars with the objectives of interdicting trade in guns and ammunition
between the Seminoles and the Spanish-Cuban fishing community, and hunting and
capturing Indians. General Thomas Lawson, who had just been appointed Surgeon
General of the United States, commanded one of the early notable expeditions. Lawson’s
expedition left Fort Harvie (Fort Myers) in February 1838. Elements of Lawson’s
command explored the area in and around the Caxambas Point area, discovering two
abandoned Indian villages in the Blackwater River/Palm Bay area. Other expeditions
bivouacked at Cape Romano and Caxambas Point. Colonel Rogers, of the ill-fated
Parkhill expedition, wrote several dispatches from Cape Romano in the Caxambas area in
1858, describing the ambush of Captain Parkhill’s party at the headwaters of Turner
River. The Collier County Museum is the repository for a collection of military artifacts
purportedly found by a local collector near Indian Hill in the early 1960s. This material
may have originated with one of the various military expeditions stopping at Caxambas
Point.

Immokalee Road Area History

The area near the road corridor began to be developed by the early 1950s. With the
completion of work on the Immokalee Road (CR846) by 1957, the area was opened to
development, some of it agricultural in the form of large cleared vegetable fields and
cattle range. Much of the ranching was done by local families such as the Pipers,
Whiddens, Johnsons and Roberts. In 1962, Palm River Estates was created 8 miles
northwest, followed in 1966 by Willoughby Acres, whose name and Streets paralleled
those of Willoughby, Ohio. By the 1970s other area developments followed, including
upscale communities such as Quail Creek. SR 951 was constructed by 1964 and was
linked in part with the development of the northern Golden Gate Estates area, a huge grid
of over 984 miles of paved roads. An elevated pad for the maintenance of equipment was

24
placed at what would later become the intersection of Vanderbilt Beach Road (CR 862)
and CR 951. By the late 1980s Golden Gate Estates east of CR 951 would become a rural
community of several thousand homes established on 2 ½ to 5-acre lots. In 1992, the
Olde Florida Country Club was established followed by other community golf courses
such as Vanderbilt Pines and Calusa Grove. The Vanderbilt Beach Road extension,
CR862, was completed circa 1986. Large developments such as Village Walk, The
Vineyards and Island Walk were begun by the mid 1990s. The entire area of the
Immokalee Road corridor is currently in a state of rapid flux and growth.

25
Methodology

Summary of Phase 1 and 2 Assessments

The phase 1 assessment of the Centipede Site 8CR832 included a review of relevant
archives and literature. This included, but was not limited to, studying previous
archaeological reports for sites in north central Collier County, reviewing information
from the Master Site File in Tallahassee concerning nearby sites, and examining USGS
maps of the project area. A review of the Labins database of land surveys also was
conducted (Figure 2). In addition, color and black and white aerial photographs (some
dating back to 1963) from the project area, which could aid in revealing anthropogenic
changes to the topography and floral communities, were interpreted. A site search with
the Florida Division of Historic Resources determined that there were no recorded
archaeological sites occurring in Section 29, Township 48S, Range 27E. The Phase 1
work at Immokalee Road South identified ten previously unrecorded prehistoric sites,
including the Centipede Site, 8CR832 found throughout the 562-acre parcel (Beriault and
Crump 2006). The Centipede Site is scheduled to be preserved in a future green space
area. However, because of a request by the developer, Bonita Bay Properties, a phase 2
assessment was conducted in order to determine the extent and significance of the site.
The phase 2 archaeological assessment of the Centipede Site, 8CR832 was performed to
assess the extent and significance of this site. The investigations included the excavation
of shovel tests at 10-meter (31-foot) intervals across the site in order to collect material
for analysis, more precisely determine site boundaries, and based on density of material,
to determine the placement of three one-meter square units. Units were excavated by
arbitrary 10-cm (4-inch) levels.

The Phase 2 assessment employed 55 gridded shovel tests at 10 meter intervals on the
cardinal points centering on New Datum which was given an arbitrary 100N, 100E
designation. Additionally, three 1-meter square test units were excavated in areas of
greatest archaeological intensity. This phase of work delineated and established precise
site boundaries and known areas of greater intensity within the site. It was also
demonstrated that 8CR832 was a regionally important site from a time period (Late
Archaic to middle Formative) not well understood in the interior of Southwest Florida
(Beriault, Mankowski, and Crump 2005).

Research Design

The phase 3 archaeological assessment of the Centipede Site, 8CR832 was performed to
further assess the elements and significance of this site, again, at the request of the
developer. Phase 3 goals involved opening up by controlled excavation a large, extensive,
and representative portion of the site to recover a significant and provenienced sample of
archaeological material and exposing any features that would help in the future
determination of the significance of 8CR832. The investigations involved the ultimate
excavation of thirty one (Phase Two and Three) meter square test units across the site in
order to collect material for analysis, more precisely determine site components, and
based on density of material and other features, to ascertain prehistoric activities at the

26
site. It was also anticipated that an extensive collection of shell debitage, faunal remains
and artifacts might be recovered to give a better understanding of the habitation
patterning, resource procurement, and intra-site elements during the late Archaic to
Formative Periods in an intense black-dirt midden a considerable distance inland from the
coast. Insights into intra-site patterning and the possible disposition of site elements
within a likely seasonal encampment were some of the possible and likely achievable
research goals attempted by the Phase 3 work at 8CR832.

Fieldwork

Two datum points had been established on or near the site during Phase 2 work. The first
was a nail placed in a large hackberry tree in the north-central part of the site area. From
this initial datum, at a distance of 20 meters ENE, a second datum (a flagged stake), was
established within the site area and given arbitrary coordinates of 100N, 100E. It was
from this second datum that the systematic gridded coordinates of each of the thirty-one
meter square units was assigned.

Phase 3 work began January 6th, 2006 and ended August 29th, 2006. A two to four-person
field crew under direction of Craig Weaver, Phillip Mendenhall, John Crump, or Dave
Boschi excavated thirty-one meter square test units across the site area. These units were
organized in three blocks or areas and were positioned using the datum points established
during Phase 2 work. The unit locations were chosen using data acquired from Phase 2
shovel testing and by the ongoing Phase 3 work being performed. Each of these test units
were to be excavated by context or zone and by arbitrary levels. The unit of measurement
chosen for this phase of work was metric. The horizontal boundary of the site was to be
further determined by the extent of cultural materials. All test units were dug to
culturally-sterile sediments, which were generally to 28-38-inch (70-108cm) depths. At
least two walls (generally the north and east) of each unit were profiled. Most of the
excavated sediments were screened through ¼” mesh screening.

Phase Two work had determined the site boundary, and twenty pin flagged points (A-S)
had been established in a clockwise direction, each located at the first negative test hole
of the first two consecutive negative holes determined from the systematic shovel testing.
Project surveyors from Agnolli Barber and Brundenge Engineering Inc. produced an
accurate scaleable survey map which included the placement of these boundary points,
datum points established by AHC personnel.

Excavation Methodology

Site Delineation: Due to multiple excavation phases, all known units and shovel tests
were plotted to one single datum, labeled as New Datum. The fixed site position for the
New Datum is North 100, East 100. The Previous Datum’s new position is North 89.5,
East 87.5. Prior to excavation, pin flagged boundary points established in Phase 1 and 2
testing, were replotted to the New Datum.

27
Surface Indicators: Site boundaries were established using a combination of arboreal
indicators and positive versus negative shovel test or excavation units. The site main
arboreal flora includes cabbage palm sabal palmetto and camphorwood, Myriacanthes
fragrans.

Unit Placement: Units were placed on two bisecting lines running north/south and
east/west across the site. The extreme south end of the site contains a block of four units
to explore a possible earlier occupation level in context 3 (see below). Units were placed
in this manner in order to gain a more comprehensive view of artifact distribution and
volume, relative context horizon levels, and bedrock/concretion depths.

Units running east/west on the N100 line were set apart from each other at 2,4, or 6 meter
intervals depending on terrain (e.g. felled trees, rocks, etc.). Due to its extreme length,
units running north/south were set at varying intervals close to sub-datum points.

Unit Excavation: All excavation units were 1x1 meter in size, orientated towards
magnetic north. Unit datums and site location are set in the southwest corner. Profile
depth was based on the top of the nail and a distance was measured to the ground surface
in each cardinal corner and center. Depths were taken at the beginning of each level and
the close of each unit. Additional measurements were taken for feature location, natural
solution hole depth, and artifact/C14 location.

Each unit was excavated by soil context or horizon. Context 1 includes any floral debris
and the immediate topsoil (Ao/A horizons). Context 2 is Midden soils, a dark gray to
black sandy silt to loam. Context 3 is an “ashy” nutrient leachment or concretion soil that
is light gray to gray, sandy silt to compacted loam (E soils). Context 4 is a yellow-brown
medium sandy horizon found only at depths past 50 cm (B soils). If a given context in a
unit exceeded a depth of 10 to 12 centimeters, the context was divided into 2 or 3 levels
to show any difference that might arise at different depths. Each feature was also given a
separate number and level.

Unit extensions: A total of three units were given an additional 1x1 meter extension to
expose surface or subsurface features. Each of the three unit extensions were regarded as
a separate unit and given their own unit designation.

Soil Sampling: Soil samples were taken at random intervals throughout the site from the
excavation units. All contexts are represented by at least 1 soil sample. Additional soil
samples were taken from each feature, new context, and large natural solution hole.
Additional C14 samples were taken where available.

Collection Methodology: Each context collection, feature collection, and unusual


artifacts was given an individual collection bag and Field Specimen number. All faunal
remains and shell were collected from a ¼ inch screen, using dry-screening methods.
Ceramic pottery is separated with in the field specimen bag to avoid damage and
contamination to the artifacts. All ceramics were counted on site due to the fact that some
will break or separate during storage and transportation offsite.

28
Photography: All site photos were taken using an Olympus Camedia C-3020 digital
camera with a 3.2 mega pixel resolution. Each received an opening photo, level opening
photo and closing photo. Additional photos were taken for features, general site layout
and feature/artifact close-ups. All photos (accept general site photos) were taken with a
photo board and north arrow.

Unique Problems: Initial excavation of the thirty-one units found semi-solid to rocklike
marly gray concretionary zones in most of the units excavated in the northern portion of
the site. The solution was to select several units for follow-up work under direction of
Dave Boschi from August 23rd to August 29th, 2006 where “muscular” excavation
techniques were employed to excavate/break through the zone of concretion to take these
units to sterile sediments. A pickax had to be employed in these endeavors, together with
hammers and chisels. The material was broken up as best could and screening was
always attempted if not always with absolute success. It was discovered that the
concretion contained fairly intense and important cultural material in the form of faunal
material, ceramics, and midden elements. This effort at examining the concretion was
terminated when human remains were encountered in Unit 30.

Collections

One hundred sixty-eight field specimens (FS 1-168), primarily of midden elements and
artifacts, were collected during all phases of work. All collected specimens were taken to
the AHC Lab at Davie for analysis.

29
Site Summary

Site Name: Centipede Site

Site Number: 8CR832

Location: Township 48S, Range 27E, Section 29

Environmental Setting: Mixed swamp forest: cabbage palm island

Site Type: Midden

Site Function: Habitation/resource procurement

Description: The Centipede Site, 8CR832 is a particularly


intense and deeply stratified black dirt midden
expressed as a slightly-elevated linear ridge
vegetated with tropical hardwood hammock
elements, which include mature groves of
camphorwood, large hackberry trees, live oaks, and
an understory of boston fern (Nephrolepsis sp.). The
site is situated slightly north of two prominent
marsh ponds in an area that was formerly cypress
swamp but is now vegetated in an increasing
percentage of emerging cabbage palms. The site
displays a prominent crescent/oval signature on
detailed aerial photographs, which led to its
discovery during Phase one investigations. This site
is one of a “cluster” of four sites situated near the
marsh ponds. These sites display moderate
elevation in close proximity to wetland areas the
display extended hydroperiods (yearly flooding).
The Indians likely occupied the sites due to this
proximity as wetlands both concentrated edible
plants and animals, and provided canoe transport
routes during at least part of the year. Elevation is
+40 cm. above surrounding country. It is a very
unusual midden feature. The site is 23 meters (75
feet) east-west and 90 meters (300 feet) north-south.
The site is characterized as a ridge that extends in a
northwest-southeasterly direction for at least 250
feet. Average width is 20 meters (60+ feet).
Archaeological material was found at depths of up
to 75 cm. below ground surface.

Chronology: Prehistoric; very likely Late Glades to late Archaic

30
Periods (c. 4500-500 BP)

Collections: Split deer long bone fragments, snake and turtle


bone, other faunal bone; fragments of large Busycon
contrarium “dipper”; Busycon contrarium gorget;
Melongena corona shell; Mercenaria clam shell
fragments; fiber-tempered, sand-tempered, and
possibly St. Johns (chalky) ceramics; antler tine
tool; sunray venus; Cardium shell; sharks teeth;
other marine shell (FS 1-158)

Preservation Quality: Good to excellent

Estimated Site Size: + 32,000 sq. ft.

Significance: Site is of local and regional significance and is


considered potentially eligible for listing on the
National Register of Historic Places based on
Criterion ‘D’ for sites “that have yielded, or may be
likely to yield, information important in prehistory
or history.”

31
32
33
34
Results and Conclusions

Phase three work at the Centipede Site, 8CR832 in the Immokalee Road South Parcel
resulted in the excavation throughout the site of 31 meter-square units in three blocks
which were in the north, central, and southern portions of the site. These units were
excavated to sterile sediments or limestone caprock in most instances and follow-up work
was performed to recover concretionary formations in several units in the north-central
areas. It is believed this phase of work recovered sufficient information in the form of
data and artifacts that the site can be developed as part of a residential golf course in the
parcel.

The Centipede Site, 8CR832, has been proven to be a large interior midden situated on a
bedrock unconformity in a cypress slough/strand system called the Curry Island Slough
that likely provided egress by canoe from coastal areas and the large interior marshes,
drainages and lakes such as Bird Rookery and Corkscrew Strand and the Lake Trafford
drainage. A series of midden and other sites follow the interior drainage sloughs. To the
immediate north are burial mounds and a series of constructed mounds flanking a central
plaza area called the Woodpecker Site, 8CR000 discovered by AHC in 1994 (Carr and
Steele, 1994). Constructed mounds and deeply stratified interior middens suggest long
continuous and intense occupation of the interior strand areas and provide the very real
possibility that significant numbers of prehistoric Indians were living on a year-round
basis in the interior. These people were likely based on semi-permanent habitation sites
while using seasonally relevant hunting/gathering strategies and relying heavily on
coastal marine resources carried inland by foot or canoe.

The intensive excavation of units has revealed a thick deposition and demonstrated this
interior midden was likely occupied over a considerable period of time. Most units
revealed two or more distinct horizons: a late Archaic ceramic and preceramic occupation
(c. 4500-2500 BP) with a small but significant chipped stone lithic component and an
early Formative period occupation likely extending into at least the Glades II period (c.
2500-1000 BP). Marine resources imported from the coast played a significant role in
both of these occupations beginning by at least the later portion of the late Archaic. Deer
hunting and the processing/splitting of deer long bones for marrow-extraction and the
creation of bone pins and points was important throughout the long occupation of the site.
Although most late Archaic deposits are preceramic and thus aceramic, the discovery of
fiber-tempered ceramics in at least one unit indicates an occupation at the site during the
very late Archaic at the time of the introduction of ceramics into Southwest Florida.

Among the lithic material recovered from the site was a chipped stemmed stone biface,
likely a projectile point or knife. This point was symmetrical with very few flake scars
and was made of a very low-grade chert or even limestone. Another unit in the southern
portion of the site yielded chert debitage and a likely deer antler billet for striking off
flakes during lithic tool production. Most finds of lithics occurred in aceramic lower to
basal contexts in the site stratigraphy and are likely at least late Archaic in age.

35
The Centipede Site contained a moderate to high intensity of faunal bone, often in patchy
concentrations and in various stratigraphic contexts. Much of the bone was from
relatively small animals, reptiles, mammals, amphibians, and birds, but there was a
significant percentage, found at all levels and contexts, of split deer long bone, together
with deer teeth, deer mandibles, etc. In addition to the split bone, several nearly intact or
fragmentary deer bone pins or points were recovered in all strata and site areas suggesting
the hunting and processing of deer was a long standing and important activity. Much of
the faunal bone were from animals typically found in marsh/slough/pond environments,
and the Centipede Site is in close proximity to two very prominent marsh ponds with
long hydroperiods. It is very likely the positioning of the site has a relation to location of
these marsh features, and it is likely intensive harvesting of plant life and animals
occurred in the marshes by the Indians inhabiting this and the several other adjacent sites.
The bone from several units exhibited a burnt appearance suggesting the remains may
have been thrown or fell into fires around the time of harvesting.

Much of the shell refuse collected from the site was in the form of fairly robust lightning
whelks, and much of this material was fragmentary and believed to be debitage from tool
making activities. Several specimens of possible shell vessels of “dippers” were
recovered, and it was suggested by one of the excavators (Mendenhall) that at least some
of these could have functioned as excavating tools. Large lightning whelks may have
been chosen for transport inland as they would yield the greatest return in meat content
and then be available for tool creation. A surprising quantity of atlantic bay scallops
(Argopecten irradians) was also observed. Many of these had a pierced hole through the
base of the shell near the umbo or hinge. Most scallop shells recovered from coastal
middens tend to have a food extraction breakage pattern of chipped or broken lips, so it is
possible the small rounded holes in the scallop shells from the Centipede Site may be to
create a tool, possibly a net weight. Material from other bivalves such as quahog clam
(Mercenaria campechiensis) and sunray venus (Macrocalista nimbosa) was also
observed. A type of advantageous knife created by the notching or serration of the lips of
sunray venus shells can be noted frequently among the recovered shells. One highly-
curated shell artifact in the form of a circular whelk shell gorget with two biconically
drilled holes near the rim was recovered from the west-central portion of the site.. Several
sharks teeth were recovered that were apparently used as cutting edged tools or drill tips.
None of this specimens exhibited drill holes near the base of the tooth to facilitate
hafting.

The sites each contain zones of sterile and culturally generated soils interbedded with
pinnacled limestone caprock and loose boulders and a gray marly concretion near the
caprock which is believed generated/created by soil processes acting on limey midden
elements, usually at the interface between the sandier soils and limestone. This material
can achieve a rock-like consistency. Cultural zones can extend through and beneath the
concretion, frequently into solution holes and deep declivities. Nearly all the twenty-six
excavated meter-square test units had three to five nearly horizontal strata or contexts.

These can be expressed as gray, dark gray, brown or nearly black soils with various
percentages of sand or marly concretion present. The darker the coloration and the siltier

36
the texture of the soil, the more likely, as a rule, there will be a significant cultural
element present. Nearly all units contained a surface zone averaging 10-15cm. of a gray
or dark gray sandy aeolian (windblown) soil. The texture of the soil was described as
“loose” or “dry”. This soil has accreted since the sites were abandoned. Very little
cultural material was noted in this zone, and what was present there was usually found
toward the bottom of this context and may have been repositioned naturally by tree-fall or
animal activity.

The following or next context is usually represented as a 20-35cm thick zone of


moderately to highly intense cultural deposition usually expressed as a silty dark gray,
cocoa-brown to nearly black midden soil. Amounts of sand were more moderate in this
layer. Faunal bone, marine shell and ceramics constituted a higher percentage in this
context than in all others. Often, this zone seemed more compacted, and it was noted that
most of the pottery sherds recovered were of small size (less than 3cm. across) suggesting
intense foot traffic. In several of the units this context had two distinct components based
on presence or absence of ceramics. Several units saw a dramatic decrease in ceramics
toward the bottom portion of this context, although several units, particularly in the
southerly portion of 8CR832 saw ceramics continue as an important component to nearly
the base of the unit below this context. In at least one unit in the southern portion of the
site there was a 5cm culturally sterile zone in this context suggesting occupation had
shifted to another portion of the site or that the site may have been abandoned for a time.

The third context observed throughout the two sites was a lighter colored, less-silty, more
marly 10-30cm, thick zone, frequently containing concretionary elements. In many units
to the north and central portion of the site this context was greatly reduced, at times only
represented by a few centimeters directly above limestone caprock. Ceramics were
frequently present in far lesser quantities in this context or not at all. Several units found
a fluorescence of faunal remains in the top portion of this context. In most units faunal
bone was at least moderately present but declining with depth. There was a fluorescence
in several units of marine shell often in patchy concentrations. One unit produced a
concentration of scallop shells, but without the piercing noted in this species in other
units.

The final fourth context present in the majority of units was expressed as a marly gray
increasingly sandy or limey 10-30cm. zone with decreasing but often still significant
amounts of faunal bone. One or two pieces of sand-tempered plain ceramics were found
in at least two units at this point, but their presence may be explained by relocation due to
animal burrowing or tree fall. Most units with deep fissuring or solution holes saw faunal
material continue down into those features. This area can contain patchy formations of
gray marly or hardened concretion often extending across the entire unit and encrusting
solution holes. The hardened concretion areas seemed restricted to the central and
northerly portions of the site, usually those areas exhibiting a limestone caprock
substrate. A culturally sterile basal substrate of marly gray sand at c. 55-79cm was
reached in several of the units in the southern site area.

37
The presence of loose or seemingly piled or positioned limestone boulders were noted in
at least two units. It was determined that many of these formations were likely natural
disturbances from tree fall. Indeed, Hurricane Wilma in late 2005 created many fallen
trees throughout the site and adjacent hammock, and the fallen trees brought loose rock
and significant amounts of soil in their root balls. One rock concentration, designated
Feature Four by the excavators, was in apparent relation to a large basin-shaped
depression in the limestone caprock in adjacent Units 34 and 36.

Other features noted and given numbers were two or more large symmetrical oval
solution holes with prominent raised lips or upper edges and undercut sides/walls. It is
unclear if these features were intentionally used for a purpose by the site inhabitants
although a slight increase in intensity of site elements was observed in at least one of the
solution holes.

It was noted that relatively few small rounded solution holes occurred in the limestone
caprock of the site and that these appeared to be natural formations and not artificially
created. Only one possible post mold feature was reported in all the units, an 8cm circular
area of stained soil in a unit in the southern portion of the site.

A large quantity of sand-tempered plain ceramics was recovered from nearly all the units
in nearly all portions of the site. The lack of incised or other decoration makes
determination of the specific Formative Glades periods represented difficult. Some of this
ceramic may be non-local ware and is identified
as___________________________________. Much of the ceramics recovered from the
site was deteriorated and friable and the wet conditions together with the consolidation of
concretion may explain poor preservation.

Three human premolars from two separate units represent the known human remains
uncovered. None of this material indicated the presence of intentional burial as human
tooth loss was a common occurrence. However, in Unit 30, in situ human bone was
discovered and the excavation halted. The presence of at least one finding of large
carnivore remains was noted in Unit 30 in the central portion of the site.

The Centipede Site, 8CR832, has been proven by this work to be a large, deeply
stratified, intense and archaeologically important and significant interior midden
occupied sporadically over a long time span by Indians likely traveling the linear slough
system in which it is found. The presence of in situ human remains suggests at least one
intentional burial was placed in the site. The developer, Bonita Bay Properties plans to
preserve the site area as undisturbed green space in a future in a future golf course.

The following guidelines should be followed in the protection/preservation of the


Centipede Site, 8CR832: to be completed by Bob…

38
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Morrell, RL
1967 Florida site form for site 8CR107.

1969 Fiber-tempered Pottery from Southwestern Florida. Abstract of presented paper,


American Anthropological Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, on file at
AHC.

Russo, M
1990 Report I on Archaeological Investigations by the Florida Museum of Natural
History at Horrs Island, Collier County, Florida. FMSF 2353.

Scholl, DW, FC Craighead, and M Stuiver


1969 Florida Submergence Curve Revisited: Its Relation to Coastal Sedimentation
Rates. Science 163: 562-564.

Sears, WH

45
1956 The Turner River Site, Collier County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist
9(2):47-60.

1966 Everglades National Park Archaeological Base Mapping Part I. Unpublished,


FMSF MS# 1009.

1967 Archaeological Survey of the Cape Coral Area at the Mouth of the
Caloosahatchee River. The Florida Anthropologist 20: 93-102.

1982 Fort Center: An Archaeological Site in the Lake Okeechobee Basin. Gainesville:
University of Florida Press.

Simons, MH
1884 Shell Heaps in Charlotte Harbor, Florida. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report
for 1882: 794-796.

Stirling, MW
1931 Mounds of the Vanished Calusa Indians of Florida. Smithsonian Institution
Explorations and Field Work for 1930: 167-172.

1933 Report of the Chief. Bureau of American Ethnology Annual Report 48:3-21.

1936 Florida Cultural Affiliations in Relation to Adjacent Areas. In Essays in


Anthropology in Honor of Alfred Louis Kroeber. Berkeley: University of
California Press, pp 351-357.

Swift, A and RS Carr


1989 An Archaeological Survey of Caxambas Estates, Collier County, Florida.
Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Miami, FL. AHC Technical Report
#13.

Taylor, RC
1984 Everglades National Park Archaeological Inventory and Assessment Season 2:
Interim Report. National Park Service, Southeast Archaeological Center,
Tallahassee, Florida.

1985 Everglades National Park Archaeological Inventory and Assessment Season 3:


Interim Report. National Park Service, Southeast Archaeological Center,
Tallahassee, Florida.

Taylor, RC and G Komara


1983 Big Cypress Preserve Archaeological Survey: Season 5. National Park Service,
Southeast Archaeological Center, Tallahassee, Florida.

Van Beck, JC and LM Van Beck


1965 The Marco Midden, Marco Island, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 16:1-20.

46
Widmer, RJ
1974 A Survey and Assessment of Archaeological Resources on Marco Island, Collier
County, Florida. Ms on file, FMSF #265.

1983 The Evolution of the Calusa, a Non-agricultural Chiefdom on the Southwest


Florida Coast. Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, distributed by
University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

1996 Recent Excavations at the Key Marco Site, 8CR48, Collier County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 49:10-26.

Williams, JL
1837 The Territory of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

47
Appendix 1. Immokalee Road South Field Specimen Log – Centipede Site 8CR832 –
Phase Three Investigations

FS Log
Project: Centipede Phase III Project #2006.06
Site Name: Centipede Site Number: 8CR832
Excavators: CW=Craig Weaver, JH=Jarrod Haymon
Contents: General Collection

FS Unit Coordinates Level Context Depth Date Excavator


(cmbd)
24 10 E100 N102 1 Midden 10-20 1-6-06 CW/JH
25 10 E100 N102 2 midden 20-30 1-10-06 CW/JH
26-A 10 E100 N102 3 Midden 30-40 1-11-06 CW/JH
26-B 10 E100 N102 3 Gray sand 30-40 1-11-06 CW/JH
27-A 10 E100 N102 4 SE midden 40-50 1-11-06 CW/JH
27-B 10 E100 N102 4 SE gray sand 40-50 1-11-06 CW/JH
27-C 10 E100 N102 4 NW midden 40-50 1-11-06 CW/JH
27-D 10 E100 N102 4 SW gray sand 40-50 1-11-06 CW/JH
28-A 10 E100 N102 5 SE midden 50-60 1-11-06 CW/JH
28-B 10 E100 N102 5 SE gray sand 50-60 1-11-06 CW/JH
28-C 10 E100 N102 5 NW brown sand 50-60 1-11-06 CW/JH
28-D 10 E100 N102 5 SW gray sand 50-60 1-11-06 CW/JH
29-A 10 E100 N102 6 SE gray sand 60-70 1-12-06 CW/JH
29-B 10 E100 N102 6 NW brown sand 60-70 1-12-06 CW/JH
29-C 10 E100 N102 6 SW gray sand 60-70 1-12-06 CW/JH
30 11 E100 N112 1 Midden 10-20 1-13-06 CW/JH
31-A 11 E100 N112 2 Midden 20-30 1-16-06 CW/JH
31-B 11 E100 N112 2 Gray sand 20-30 1-16-06 CW/JH
32-A 11 E100 N112 3 Midden 30-40 1-16-06 CW/JH
32-B 11 E100 N112 3 Gray sand 30-40 1-16-06 CW/JH

Field Provenience Description Collector Date


Specimen Collected
Number
1-32 Units 10-11 Craig
Weaver(
CW)/Jarr
od
Haymon
(JH)
33 Unit 12, Level 1, 0- Context 1 and 2 Phillip 4/12/06
20cm Mendenh
all (PM)
34 Unit 12, Level 2, 20- Context 3 PM 4/13/06
41cm
35 Unit 13, Level 1, 0- Context 1, general PM 4/13/06
21 cm collection

48
36 Unit 15 , Level 1 , Context 1, general PM 4/14/06
0- 20 cm collection
37 Unit 12 , Level 2 , Basal limestone stemmed Peer 4/13/06
20 - cm point Halverso
n (PH)
38 Unit 14 Level 1 - 0- Context 1, general PH 4/14/06
10cm collection
39 Unit 15 Level - 20- Context 2, general PM 4/17/06
cm collection
40 Unit 14 Level 2 - Context 2, general PH 4/17/06
10-25cm collection
41 Unit 15 Level 2 - Bone pin from outside PM 4/17/06
cm feature
42 Unit 15 Level 3 - Level 3, Feature 1 general PM 4/17/06
24-34cm collection
43 Unit 15 Level 3 - Feature 1 soil sample PM 4/18/06
24-34cm
44 Unit 15 Level 4 - Level 4, Feature 1, general PM 4/18/06
34-40cm collection
45 Unit 15 Level 4 - Level 4 soil sample (non PM 4/18/06
34-40cm ash)
46 Unit 15 Level 4 - Level 4 from Feature 1, PM 4/18/06
40-60cm compacted Context 3
47 Unit 14 Level 4 - Level 4, Context 2, PH 4/18/06
25-35cm disturbed
48 Unit 15 Level 4 - Level 4, Context 3 (ash PM 4/18/06
40-60cm layer?), compacted
49 Unit 16 Level 1 - 0- General collection PM 4/19/06
12cm
50 Unit 16 Level 1 - 0- Feature 1, Context 1 PM 4/19/06
12cm
51 Unit 16 Level 2 - General collection, Context PM 4/19/06
12-20cm 2
52 Unit 16 Level 2 - General collection, Context PM 4/19/06
12-20cm 2
53 Unit 17 Level 1 - General collection, Context PH 4/20/06
0-20cm 1
54 Unit 16 Level 3 General collection in PM 4/20/06
Feature 1 only
55 Unit 17 Level 2 - General collection, Context PH 4/20/06
20-25cm 2
56 Unit 18 Level 1 - 0- General collection, Context PM 4/21/06
20cm 1
57 Unit 18 Level 2 - General collection, Context PM 4/24/06
20- cm 2
58 Unit 18 Level 3 - General collection, Context PM 4/24/06

49
20-34cm 2
59 Unit 18 Level 3 - Broken bone pin, Context 2 PM 4/25/06
50cm
60 Unit 18 Level 3 - General collection, Context PH 4/25/06
20-40cm 2
61 Unit 18 Level 4 - General collection, Context PM 4/25/06
54cm ?
62 Unit 17 Level 4 - General collection, Context PM 4/25/06
54- cm ?
63 Unit 18 Level 4 - Large bone pin, 2 fragments PM 4/25/06
57cmbd
64 Unit 18 Level 4 - Rodent nest(?) found at PM 4/25/06
59cmbd bottom of rodent hole
65 Unit 18 Level 4 - Soil Sample PM 4/25/06
55-60cm
66 Unit 20 Level 1 - General collection PM 4/26/06
cm
67 Unit 19 Level 1 - 0- General collection PH 4/26/06
13cm
68 Unit 20 Level 2 - 2- Limestone celt, burnt PM 4/26/06
7cmbd
69 Unit 20 Level 2 - Feature 2 only PM 4/26/06
6cm
70 Unit 19 Level 2 - General collection PH 4/27/06
13-24cm
71 Unit 19 Level 2 - Pierced shell gorget PM 4/27/06
19cmbd
72 Unit 20 Level 2 - 6- Context 2, non feature PM 4/27/06
28cm
73 Unit 20 Level 2 - Broken bone pin found in PM 4/27/06
28cmbd Feature 2
74 Unit 20 Level 3 - Context 2/3 interface, in PM 4/27/06
28-50cm Feature 2
75 Unit 19 Level 2 - 2 bone pins PH 4/27/06
13-24cm
76 Unit 19 Level 2 - Possible fire-cracked rock PH 4/27/06
13-24cm
77 Unit 20 Level 4 - Context 3 in Feature 2 PM 4/28/06
50-60cm
78 Unit 22 Level 1 - 0- General collection, Context PM 4/28/06
14cmcm 1
79 Unit 22 Level 1 - 5- Possible shell pendant PM 5/1/06
13cmbd
80 Unit 22 Level 2 - General collection PM 5/1/06
14-22cm
81 Unit 22 Level 2 - 3 shell pendants or shells PM 5/1/06

50
14-24cm w/small holes
82 Unit 22 Level 3 - General collection PM 5/1/06
24- cm
83 Unit 21 Level 1 - General collection PH 5/1/06
10-23cmbd
84 Unit 21 Level 2 - General collection PM 5/2/06
23- cm
85 Unit 23 Level 1 - 0- General collection PM 5/2/06
8cm
86 Unit 21 Level 2 - Bone pin PH 5/2/06
23cmbd
87 Unit 23 Level 2 - General collection PM 5/2/06
8cm
88 Unit 23 Level 1 - Conch “spade”/scoop PM 5/2/06
10cmbd
89 Surface find, N94 / Shell PM 5/2/06
E50
90 Unit 23 Level 2 - 2-hole shell pendant PM 5/3/06
15cmbd
91 Unit 23 Level 3 - General collection PM 5/3/06
22-28cm
92 Unit 24 Level - 1 - General collection PH 5/3/06
0-15cm
93 Unit Level 1 - 0- General collection PM 5/4/06
15cm
94 Unit 25 Level - 14- General collection PM 5/4/06
29cm
95 Unit 24 Level 2 - General collection PH 5/5/06
15-25cm
96 Unit 24 Level 2 - Pierced shell PH 5/5/06
15-25cm
97 Unit 24 Level 3 - General collection PH 5/5/06
25-30cm
98 Unit 25 Level 3 - General collection PH 5/5/06
29-40cm
99 Unit 25 Level 3 - General collection PM 5/8/06
40cm
100 Unit 26 Level 1 - General collection PH 5/8/06
10-18cm
101 Unit 25 Level 3 - Antler billet and 4 chert PM 5/8/06
45cmbd flakes
102 Unit 25 Level 4 - Soil sample PM 5/8/06
40-50cm
103 Unit 25 Level 5 - General collection PM 5/8/06
50cm
104 Unit 26 Level 2 - General collection PH 5/10/06

51
18-25cm
105 Unit 26 Level 2 - Soil sample, Context 2 PH 5/10/06
18-25cm
106 Unit 25 Level 5 - Soil sample, Context 4 PM 5/10/06
50-60cm
107 Unit 27 Level 1 - 5- General collection and PM 5/10/06
15cm faunal jawbone
108 Unit 27 Level 2 - 15 General collection PM 5/11/06
- cm
109 Unit 26 Level 3 - General collection PH 5/11/06
25-40cm
110 Unit 26 Level 3 - Bone pin PH 5/11/06
25-40cm
111 Unit 26 Level 4 - General collection PH 5/12/06
40-45cm
112 Unit 27 Level 3 - General collection, Context PM 5/12/06
27-40cm 3
113 Unit 26 Level 5 - General collection, Context PH 5/12/06
45-60cm 4
114 Unit 27 Level 4 - General collection, Context PM 5/12/06
40-50cm 3
115 Unit 27 Level 5 - General collection, Context PM 5/13/06
50-60cm 3 and 4
116 Unit 26 Level 6 - General collection, Context PH 5/15/06
60-73cm 4
117 Unit 26 Level 6 - Soil sample PH 5/15/06
60-73cm
118 Unit 28 Level 1 - 6- General collection, Context PM 5/15/06
16cm 1
119 Unit 28 Level 2 - General collection, Context PM 5/16/06
16-23cm 2
120 Unit 29 Level 1 - 3- General collection, Context PH 5/15/06
17cm 1
121 Unit 28 Level 3 - General collection, Context PM 5/17/06
21-31cm 3
122 Unit 30 Level 1 - 5- General collection, Context PM 5/18/06
20cm 1
123 Unit 29 Level 2 - General collection PH 5/18/06
14-31cm
124 Unit 29 Level 3 - General collection PH 5/18/06
26-45cm
125 Unit 29 Level 3 - Soil sample, Feature 3 PH 5/18/06
26-45cm
126 Unit 30 Level 1 - 5- Soil sample, Context 1 PM 5/18/06
20cm
127 Unit 30 Level 2 - General collection, Context PM 5/19/06

52
18-24cm 2
128 Unit 30 Level 2 - Possible human premolar PM 5/19/06
18-24cm
129 Unit 29 Level 4 - General collection, Context PH 5/18/06
44-60cm 4
130 Unit 30 Level 3 - General collection, Context PM 5/19/06
22-27cm 3
131 Unit 30 Level 3 - Possible human premolar PM 5/19/06
22-27cm
132 Unit 30 Level 3 - Soil sample, natural PM 5/19/06
22-27cm solution hole only, Context
3
133 Unit 31 Level 1 - 3- General collection, Context PH/PM 5/22/06
20cm 1
134 Unit 31 Level 2 - General collection, Context PH/PM 5/22/06
20-33cm 2
135 Unit 31 Level 3 - General collection, Context PM 5/23/06
33-43cm 3
136 Unit 31 Level 4 - General collection, Context PH/PM 5/23/06
43-60cm 3/4
137 Unit 32 Level 1 - 2- General collection, Context PH/PM 5/23/06
12cm 1
138 Unit 32 Level 2 - General collection, Context PH/PM 5/24/06
13-29cm 2
139 Unit 32 Level 2 - Soil sample, Context 2 PH/PM 5/24/06
13-29cm
140 Unit 32 Level 3 - General collection, Context PH/PM 5/24/06
29-57cm 3
141 Unit 32 Level 4 - General collection, Context PH/PM 5/24/06
57-75cm 3/4
142 Unit 33 Level 2 - 9- General collection, Context PH/PM 5/26/06
28cm 2
143 Unit 33 Level 3 – General collection, Context PM 5/26/06
25-38 cm 3
144 Unit 34 Level 1 - 2- General collection, Context PH/PM 5/29/06
15cm 1
145 Unit 34 Level 2 - 4- General collection, Context PM 5/29/06
34cm 2, Level 2
146 Unit 34 Level 3 - General collection, Context PM 5/29/06
34-40cm 3, Level 3
147 Unit 34 Level 4 - Natural solution hole PM 5/30/06
cm collection
148 Unit 34 Level 4 - Natural solution hole – soil PM 5/30/06
cm sample
149 Unit 34 Level 4 - Context 3, Feature 4, NW PM 5/30/06
40cm area

53
150 Unit 34 Level 4 - Context 3, non, feature SW PM 5/30/06
39cm area
151 Unit 35 Level 1 - General collection, Context PH 5/31/06
cm 1
152 Unit 36 Level 1 - General collection, Context PM 5/31/06
cm 1
153 Unit 30 Level Panther humerus(?) PM 6/2/06
3/bedrock - cm
154 Unit 36 Level 2 - General collection, Context PM 6/2/06
cm 2
155 Unit 36 Level 2 - General collection, Context PH 6/2/06
cm 2
156 Unit 36 Level 3 - General collection, Context PH 6/2/06
cm 2
157 Unit 36 Level 4 - General collection, Context PH 6/2/06
cm 3
158 Unit 36 Level 3 - General collection, Context PM 6/2/06
cm 3
159 Unit 30, Context 5 General Collection Dave 8/23/06
Boschi/
M. Smith
160 Unit 23, N00, E51, General Collection Dave 8/24/06
Level 4 Context 5 Boschi/
M. Smith
161 Unit 23, N00, E51, General Collection Dave 8/24/06
Level 5 Context 6 Boschi/
M. Smith
162 Unit 24, N00, E47, General Collection Dave 8/24/06
Level 4 Context 5 Boschi/
M. Smith
163 Unit 24, N00, E47, General Collection Dave 8/24/06
Level 4 Context 6 Boschi/
M. Smith
164 Unit 32, N50, E84, General Collection Dave 8/25/06
Level 4 Context 6 Boschi/
M. Smith
165 Unit 33, N50, E84, General Collection Dave 8/28/06
Level 5 Context 6 Boschi/
M. Smith
166 Unit 31, N40, E84, General Collection Dave 8/28/06
Level 5 Context 5 Boschi/
M. Smith
167 Unit 12, N00, E88, General Collection Dave 8/29/06
Level 3 Context 5 Boschi/
M. Smith
168 Unit 13, N00, E85, General Collection Dave 8/29/06

54
Level 3 Context 5 Boschi/
M. Smith

55
Appendix 2. Test Unit Descriptions – Centipede Site 8CR832

Unit 10 1 meter x 1 meter, excavated from 1/6/06 to 1/13/06 by Craig Weaver and Jarrod
Haymon

Unit 10 was placed in the northeastern portion of the site area (Block 1) with the
southwest corner of the unit at: N102, E100 from the primary datum (N100, E100). The
unit was sited on ground rising to the west near the east side of the site. The unit datum
was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 100 N, 88E. The
unit was dug by centimeter level in 6 levels. At that point excavation was suspended as
only minor amounts of soil remained but were unreachable down narrow solution holes.
Level One (0-10cm) contained abundant roots and was dark silty grayish brown soil. A
moderate amount of marine shell, faunal bone and ceramics were recovered. Level Two
(10-20cm) saw a dramatic increase in cultural material. The soil was darker black and
sandier than Level One. Areas of caprock were beginning to be exposed at the end of this
level. By 25cm depth, caprock was reached over nearly the entire unit excepting several
solution holes. Level Three (20-30cm) was dug only in solution holes in the SE and NW
portions of the unit. Black midden soil continued to just before the bottom of the level,
replaced by gray sandy soil. Inward sloping holes make excavation difficult. Some faunal
bone and a worn human tooth recovered. Level 4 (30-40cm) has three solution holes
bagged separately with some faunal bone and shell recovered. Level 5 (40-50cm) sees
continued bagging of small amounts of faunal bone and shell from the three solution
holes. Level Six (50-60cm) completed, still with some faunal bone and excavation of
Unit 10 ends. A planview and north and south wall profiles are drawn of unit.

Unit 11 1 meter x 1 meter, excavated from 1/13/06 to 1/16/06 by Craig Weaver and
Jarrod Haymon

Unit 11 was placed in the northeast portion of the site area (Block 1), a distance of 12
meters from the primary datum at: N112, E100. The unit was dug by centimeter level in 3
levels and then terminated. Level One (0-10cm) was dark gray-brown silty soil with a
moderate amount of faunal bone and marine shell. Level Two (10-20cm) intergraded to a
light gray marly sand with a high density of faunal bone and shell. Level Three (20-
30cm) saw a rapid falling off of the density of cultural material and advent of caprock
along much of the unit. Material from darker midden was bagged separately from the
sandy gray context. Level 3 was nearly but not completed.

Unit 12 1meter x 1meter, excavated from 4/12 to 4/14/06 by P. Mendenhall/P. Halvorsen

Unit 12 was placed in the northeast portion of the site area (Block 1), a distance of 12
meters from the primary datum at 275°. The unit was sited on ground rising to the west
near the east side of the site. The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The
datum coordinates were: 100 N, 88E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by
context. There were three contexts in two levels. The first and second contexts can be
described as gray topsoil to dark gray/black silty sand and extended from surface
(averaging 6 cm) to c. 19 cm depth. Context 3 extended from 19cm to 36cm average and

56
can be described as blackish silty sand. Irregularities in the unit extended from 35cm
average to marly limestone caprock as deep as 57cm in one solution hole. Contest 1
yielded cultural material in the form of marine shell and ceramics and large faunal bone
fragments. Context 2 and 3 contained the densest amount of artifacts. The greatest
intensity of cultural material occurred at c. 25cm depth in Context 3. The bottom of Unit
12 was somewhat irregular with an average depth across limerock of 36cm. Four distinct
solution holes or depressions were noted. Significant artifacts were noted and were a
flaked projectile point/biface of limestone and a lightning whelk dipper found in the
northwest and northeast quadrants of the unit. General notes on the unit indicated that a
moderate to heavy amount of cultural material was collected and that Level 1 was
recorded containing two contexts because the transition between the two was negligible
in appearance . No prominent cultural features were noted. Upon conclusion of
excavation, the floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Three
photographs were taken of the unit during excavating. The unit was reopened 8/29/06
under direction of Dave Boschi and excavated through gray concretion to 72cm depth.
Two large whelk shells were located and their positions mapped.

Unit 13 1meter x 1meter, excavated from 4/13 to 4/14/06 by P. Mendenhall

Unit 12 was placed in the northeast portion of the site area (Block 1), a distance of 3
meters west of Unit12. The unit was sited on highest elevated ground near the east side of
the site. The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates
were: 100 N, 85E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were three
contexts in two levels. The first and second contexts can be described as gray topsoil to
dark gray/black silty sand (midden context) and extended from surface (averaging 3 cm)
to c. 23 cm depth. Context 3 extended from 23cm to 38cm (greatest depth) and can be
described as sterile bedrock mixed with fine gray sand. An irregularity in the unit
extended from 23cm average sloping to the northeast corner of the unit to marly
limestone caprock as deep as 38cm. Contest 1 yielded cultural material in the form of
marine shell and faunal bone with no lithics or ceramics. Context 1 and 2 contained the
densest amount of artifacts. The greatest intensity of cultural material occurred at c.
14cm depth in Context 1/2. The bottom of Unit 12 was somewhat irregular with an
average depth across limerock of 25cm. One distinct solution depressional area was
noted. No significant artifacts were noted and there was an absence of ceramics or lithics
in the unit. General notes on the unit indicated that a small amount of cultural material
(faunal bone)was collected together with modified marine shell refuse. No prominent
cultural features were noted. Upon conclusion of excavation, the floor and the north wall
of the unit were profiled and drawn. Three photographs were taken of the unit during
excavating.

Unit 14 1meter x 1meter, excavated from 4/14 to 4/19/06 by P. Halvorsen

Unit 14 was placed in the northeast portion of the site area (Block 1), a distance 3 meters
west of Unit 13. The unit was sited on high ground near the geographic center of the site.
The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were:
100 N, 82E. The unit was dug by 10-centimeter level and by context. There were three

57
contexts in five levels. The first and second contexts can be described as gray topsoil to
dark gray/black silty sand and extended from surface (averaging 6 cm) to c. 13 cm depth.
The other contexts were dark gray to black silty midden soil/ with variable components
of sand . As the excavator, P. Halvorsen described sequencing of Levels/Contexts:
“Context 2 hit bedrock in the southern half of the unit. In the NE quadrant Context 2
transitions into Context 3, but in the NW quadrant it continues into what appears to be a
solution hole. Level 3 will consist of the excavation of Context 3 and Level 4 will consist
of a continuation of Context 2 on down.” Level 2 (Context 2) extended from c.13cm
toc.24cm depth. Context 3 extended from c.24cm to as much as 37cm average and can be
described as blackish silty sand. Levels 4 and 5 (Context 3) extended from c. 37cm to
62cm depth into a depressional area filling most of the northeastern quadrant of the unit.
These contexts were largely culturally sterile and were a gray marly sand. Context
contained the densest amount of cultural material. The greatest intensity of cultural
material occurred at c. 24-27cm depth in Context 2. General notes on the unit indicated
that faunal bone was nearly the sole recovered cultural material with no observed
ceramics or other artifacts. No prominent cultural features were noted. Upon conclusion
of excavation, the floor and the west wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Five
photographs were taken of the unit during excavating.

Unit 15 1meter x 1meter, excavated from 4/14 to 4/19/06 by P. Mendenhall

Unit 15 was placed in the northeast portion of the site area (Block 1), a distance of 3
meters west from Unit 14. The unit was sited on high ground near the geographic center
of the site. The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum
coordinates were: 100 N, 79E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context.
There were two contexts in four levels. The first context can be described as dark gray-
brown silty loam with small amount of limestone and extended from surface (averaging 3
cm) to c. 24 cm depth. Context 2 extended from 19cm to 60cm and was a more marly
gray soil found exclusively in Feature One, a large oval, regularly-shaped solution hole
with unusual raised rim measuring (at top) 43cm N-S by 63cm E-W. The feature is
entirely within Unit 15. Contest 1 yielded cultural material in the form of marine shell
and faunal bone fragments with caprock appearing in the southeast corner of the unit.
Context 2 within Feature One yielded ceramics, marine shell and large pieces of faunal
bone. The greatest intensity of cultural material occurred at c. 25cm depth in Context 2.
The bottom of Unit 15, outside Feature One, was somewhat level with an average depth
across limerock of 24cm. One significant artifact was noted and was a fragmentary bone
pin found just outside Feature One. General notes on the unit indicated that a moderate to
heavy amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural material, especially
ceramics had ended by 43cm. No prominent cultural features were noted except for two
distinct areas of gray concretion on the east and west portions/walls of Feature One.
Upon conclusion of excavation, the floor and the south wall of the unit were profiled and
drawn. Four photographs were taken of the unit during excavating.

Unit 16 1meter x 1meter, excavated from 4/19 to 4/20/06 by P. Mendenhall

58
Unit 15 was placed in the northeast portion of the site area (Block 1), adjacent and to the
south of Unit 15. The unit was sited on high ground near the geographic center of the site.
The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 99
N, 79E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were two contexts in
three levels. The first context can be described as dark grayish midden soil with broken
limestone extending to 3-4cm above caprock base and extended from surface (averaging
6 cm) to c. 12 cm depth. Context 2 extended from 12cm to 30cm average and near
41cmbd near the north side of unit closest to Feature One in Unit 15 and was a light gray
silty to hardened clay-like (concretion?). Contest 1 yielded moderate cultural material in
the form of ceramics and faunal bone fragments with caprock appearing in the southeast
corner of the unit. Context 2 in proximity to Feature One (Unit 15) yielded a large
quantity of ceramics (112 body sherds, 2 rim sherds) and possible worked lithic material
in the form of a scraper and debitage from tool manufacture. Different (lesser) intensities
of ceramics and faunal bone were observed in the south portion of the unit away from
Feature One (Unit 15). The greatest intensity of cultural material occurred at c. 20cm
depth in Context 2. The bottom of Unit 15, outside Feature One, was somewhat level
with an average depth across limerock of 22cm. One significant artifact was noted and
was a suspected stone scraper found just outside Feature One. General notes on the unit
indicated that a moderate to heavy amount of cultural material was collected and that
cultural material, especially ceramics had ended by approach to caprock at 41cm. One
prominent cultural feature was noted south of Feature One – a concentration of piled
stones immediately south of the feature rim. Upon conclusion of excavation, the floor and
the south wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Three photographs were taken of the
unit during excavating.

Unit 17 1meter x 1meter, excavated from 4/19 to 4/25/06 by P. Halvorsen

Unit 17 was placed in the northeast portion of the site area (Block 1), 3 meters north of
Unit 15. The unit was sited on high ground near the geographic center of the site. The
unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 103 N,
79E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were three contexts in
four levels. The first context can be described as dark grayish loose top soil many roots
and granules of limestone and extended from surface (averaging 7 cm) to c. 20 cm depth.
Context 2 extended from 20cm to 26cm average and near 39cmbd near the southeast side
of unit and was a brown soil containing midden elements. Contest 1 was relatively
culturally sterile. Context 2 in proximity to a single irregular solution hole in the
southeastern portion of the unit yielded a moderate quantity of ceramics (11 body sherds,
no rim sherds). In the bottom of Context 2 there was no observed ceramics and faunal
bone was seen to markedly increase in the neck of the solution hole feature. This bone
was generally small and likely from small animals. The greatest intensity of cultural
material occurred at c. 23cm depth in the top portion of Context 2. The bottom of Unit
17, outside the solution hole in the southeast corner, was somewhat level with an average
depth across limerock of 24cm. No significant artifacts were noted that the solution hole
was not regarded as a potential cultural feature as it was irregular and had no pronounced
rim or lip as Feature One in Unit 15. General notes on the unit indicated that a moderate
amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural material, especially ceramics

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had ended by approach to caprock at 39-62cm. Upon conclusion of excavation, the floor
and the south wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Five photographs were taken of
the unit during excavating.

Unit 18 1meter x 1meter, excavated from 4/21 to 4/26/06 by P. Mendenhall

Unit 18 was placed in the northeast portion of the site area (Block 1), 5 meters west of
Unit 15. The unit was sited on high ground near the geographic center of the site. The
unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 100 N,
74E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were three contexts in
four levels. The first context can be described as dark grayish top soil with broken
limestone and extended from surface (averaging 12 cm) to c. 20 cm depth. Context 2
extended from 20cm to a depth of as great as and was a black midden soil. Context 3,
particularly near the base of Feature 2 was a light gray marly soil, possibly a
consolidating concretion. Context 1 yielded moderate to intense cultural material in the
form of ceramics, large pieces of marine shell and a large quantity of faunal bone
fragments with caprock appearing in the southwest corner of the unit by 20cmbd. Context
2 in proximity to and into Feature Two ( a large oval natural solution hole in the
northwest quadrant of the unit) initially yielded very little cultural material but then
yielded a large quantity of ceramics and burnt and split faunal bone. Different (lesser)
intensities of ceramics and faunal bone were observed in the basal portions of Feature
Two, but with ceramics extending to 54cmbd. The greatest intensity of cultural material
occurred at c. 24cm depth in Context 2. The bottom of Unit 18, outside Feature Two, was
somewhat undulating with caprock elevations varying from 14-29cmbd. No significant
artifacts were noted. General notes on the unit indicated that a moderate to heavy amount
of cultural material was collected within the Feature Two solution hole below the rim/lip
and that cultural material, especially ceramics had continued to approach to caprock at
54cm. No prominent cultural features were noted. Upon conclusion of excavation, the
floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Five photographs were taken
of the unit during excavating.

Unit 19 1meter x 1meter, excavated from 4/19 to 4/20/06 by P. Halvorsen

Unit 19 was placed in the northwest portion of the site area (Block 1), slightly to the west
of Phase two Unit 8. The unit was sited on high ground west the geographic center of the
site. The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates
were: 100 N, 69E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were two
contexts in two levels. The first context can be described as loose grayish midden soil
with many roots and extended from surface (averaging 8 cm) to c. 14 cm depth. Context
2 extended from 14cm to c.24cmbd and was sandier, darker than normal and contained
large amounts of midden. Contest 1 yielded light amounts of cultural material in the form
of faunal bone fragments. Context 2 yielded a moderate quantity of ceramics (12 body
sherds, no rim sherds) and a “pierced shell medallion”. Large quantities of what were
believed to be fire-cracked rock were found in the first few centimeters of the context..
The greatest intensity of cultural material occurred at c. 18cm depth in Context 2. The
bottom of Unit 19 was somewhat pinnacled with depths varying across limerock from 18-

60
30cmbd. One significant artifact was noted and was a pierced shell medallion. General
notes on the unit indicated that a moderate to heavy amount of cultural material was
collected in the top portion of Context 2. No prominent cultural features were noted.
Upon conclusion of excavation, the floor and the south wall of the unit were profiled and
drawn. Five photographs were taken of the unit during excavating.

Unit 20 1meter x 1meter, excavated from 4/26 to 4/28/06 by P. Mendenhall

Unit 20 was placed in the northeast portion of the site area (Block 1) adjacent to and
north of Unit 18 and shares large Feature 2 solution hole. The unit was sited on high
ground near the geographic center of the site. The unit datum was established in the
southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 101N, 74E. The unit was dug by
centimeter level and by context. There were three contexts in four levels. The first
context can be described as dark grayish top soil and extended from surface (averaging 3
cm) to c. 10 cm depth. Context 2 and 3 were exclusively inside Feature 2. Context 2
extended from 10cm to 28cm average and near 50cmbd near the southwest corner of unit
in the northerly extension of Feature Two (north of Unit 18 and was a dark gray to
blackish silty midden soil. The interface between Context 2/3 was mottled with soils of
both contexts. Context 3 was a light gray-brown fine sandy silt. Contest 1 yielded a large
intact marine shell bivalve half shell and what is believed to be a limestone celt described
as “not completed or broken”. No ceramics were present in Context 1 and only a
moderate amount of faunal bone. Context 2 in proximity to Feature Two yielded a large
quantity of turtle bone and two pieces of fiber-tempered ceramics, one recovered as deep
as 35cmbd. Much of the faunal bone found in this context was unburnt, but some was
split. Most faunal bone was recovered at 28-34cmbd. Very little faunal bone was
recovered after 50cmbd. Context 3 had very little cultural material present. The bottom of
Unit 21, outside Feature Two, was somewhat level with an average depth across limerock
of only 8-11cmbd. One significant artifact was noted and was a suspected limestone celt.
Two sherds of fiber-tempered ceramics and a broken bone pin were recovered well
within Feature 2. General notes on the unit indicated that a moderate amount of cultural
material was collected and that cultural material, especially ceramics had ended by
approach to caprock at 50-60cm. One prominent cultural feature was noted – the northern
half of Feature Two – a large oval solution hole. Upon conclusion of excavation, the floor
and the west wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Six photographs were taken of the
unit during excavating.

Unit 21 1meter x 1meter, excavated 4/28/06 by P. Halvorsen

Unit 21 was placed in the northwest portion of the site area (Block 1) west of Unit 19.
The unit was sited on high ground west of the geographic center of the site. The unit
datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 100N, 64E.
The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were two contexts in two
levels. The first context can be described as loose grayish top soil and extended from
surface (averaging 12 cm) to c. 23 cm depth. Context 2 extended from 12cm to as much
as 32cm and was a darker gray midden soil. Contest 1 yielded a small amount of faunal
bone in the transition to Context 2. Context 2 yielded a large quantity of faunal bone and

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31 body sherds of ceramics (which were described as degraded and friable). A bone pin
was also recovered from this context. Limestone caprock occurred at fairly shallow
depths throughout the unit. The bottom of Unit 21, outside Feature One, was somewhat
level with an average depth across limerock of only 28-36cmbd. One significant artifact
was noted and was a bone pin. General notes on the unit indicated that a moderate
amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural material, especially ceramics
continued to approach to caprock. No prominent cultural features were noted. Upon
conclusion of excavation, the floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and
drawn. Three photographs were taken of the unit during excavating.

Unit 22 1meter x 1meter, excavated 4/28/06 to 5/2/06 by P. Mendenhall

Unit 22 was placed in the northwest portion of the site area (Block 1) south and west of
Unit 21. The unit was sited on high ground west of the geographic center of the site. The
unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 99N,
58E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were three contexts in
three levels. The first context can be described as loose grayish top soil and extended
from surface (averaging 3 cm) to c. 13 cm depth. Context 2 extended from 13cm to as
much as 24cm and was characterized as a medium gray to light gray fine silty midden
sand. Context 3 extended from c. 24cm to as much as 30cmbd and was a fine gray silty
sand. Contest 1 yielded a small amount of faunal bone in the upper portions of the
context and then intensified with depth to a large quantity of faunal bone concentrating
around 99.4N, 56.6E together with a large quantity of marine shell, including scallop
shells with holes in the bases near the umbos. Context 2 yielded a large quantity of
marine shell particularly in the upper 5-6cm of the context. Context 3 yielded very little
cultural material besides some shell and was sterile at 47cmbd. The unit was taken down
in one solution hole as deep as 61cmbd. Another small natural solution hole was noted in
the northeast corner of the unit. Limestone caprock occurred at fairly shallow depths
throughout the unit. The bottom of Unit 22, outside two solution holes, was somewhat
level with an average depth across limerock of only 16-30cmbd. One significant artifact
assemblage, several pierced scallop shells was noted. General notes on the unit indicated
that a moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural material,
extended to 47cmbd in two solution holes. No prominent cultural features were noted.
Upon conclusion of excavation, the floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and
drawn. Three photographs were taken of the unit during excavating.

Unit 23 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/2/06 to 5/3/06 by P. Mendenhall

Unit 23 was placed in the northwest portion of the site area (Block 1) south and west of
Unit 21. The unit was sited on western upper slope west of the geographic center of the
site. The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates
were: 100N, 51E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were three
contexts in three levels. The first context can be described as loose grayish top soil and
extended from surface (averaging 2 cm) to c. 10 cm depth. Context 2 extended from
10cm to as much as 22cm and was characterized as a darker gray fine silty midden sand.
Context 3 extended from c. 22cm to as much as 29cmbd and was a fine gray silty sand

62
with calcified shell, limestone rocks and loose bedrock. Contest 1 yielded several large
pieces of marine shell, including a possible lightning whelk dipper. No ceramics were
observed. Context 2 yielded more marine shell including an intact medium-sized
lightning whelk together with large pieces of faunal bone. Context 3 yielded very little
cultural material besides some shell and had one natural solution hole extending to
46cmbd. noted in the northeast corner of the unit. Limestone caprock occurred at fairly
shallow depths throughout the unit. The bottom of Unit 22, outside two solution holes,
was somewhat level with an average depth across limerock of only 25-28cmbd. One
significant artifact was noted, a possible lightning whelk dipper. General notes on the unit
indicated that a moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural
material, extended to c. 25cmbd and ended just above caprock level. No prominent
cultural features were noted. Upon conclusion of excavation, the floor and the north wall
of the unit were profiled and drawn. Four photographs were taken of the unit during
excavating. Excavation of this unit resumed 8/23/06 under direction of Dave Boschi.
Opening was in gray sand/silt context with a closing of that context at 70cm. depth, then
followed by pale beige sand w/orange staining with a closing (sterile) depth of 97cm.

Unit 24 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/3/06 by P. Halvorsen

Unit 24 was placed in the northwest portion of the site area (Block 1) south and west of
Unit 23. The unit was sited on western upper slope west of the geographic center of the
site and was the westernmost unit excavated on the site. The unit datum was established
in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 100N, 47E. The unit was dug by
centimeter level and by context. There were three contexts in three levels. The first
context can be described as loose grayish top soil and extended from surface (averaging 5
cm) to c. 15 cm depth. Context 2 extended from 15cm to as much as 28cm and was
characterized as a darker gray fine silty midden sand. Context 3 extended from c. 28cm to
as much as 30cmbd and was a fine gray silty sand largely culturally sterile. Context 1
yielded few artifacts. No ceramics were observed. Context 2 yielded more marine shell
than faunal bone and contained a feature comprised by three large rounded rocks
described as one at 14cmbd. And two at 20cmbd. Centered approximately at 100.4N,
47.45E.. 15 body sherds of sand-tempered plain ceramics were also recovered. Context 3
yielded very little cultural material. Limestone caprock occurred at fairly shallow depths
throughout the unit. The bottom of Unit 24 had no solution holes, was somewhat level
with an average depth across limerock of only 27-30cmbd. General notes on the unit
indicated that a moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural
material, extended to c. 25cmbd and ended just above caprock level. One prominent
cultural feature, three round stones in close association, was noted. Upon conclusion of
excavation, the floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Four
photographs were taken of the unit during excavating. Excavation resumed under
direction of Dave Boschi on 8/24/06. The zone of gray concretion was penetrated with a
closing depth on that context at 54-60cm. Zone of beige sand was excavated to sterile
levels to 92-94cm depth.

Unit 25 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/4/06 to 5/10/06 by P. Mendenhall

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Unit 25 was placed in the extreme south-central portion of the site area (Block 2)
approximately 50 meters south and a little west of the main datum. The unit was sited on
central ridge of the geographic center of the site and was one of the two southernmost
units excavated on the site. The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The
datum coordinates were: 47N, 80E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context.
There were four contexts in five levels. The first context can be described as loose
grayish topsoil and extended from surface (averaging 8 cm) to c. 13 cm depth. Context 2
extended from 13cm to as much as 30cm and was characterized as a gray fine silty
midden sand. Context 3 extended from c. 30cm to as much as 41cmbd and was a fine
gray lighter, drier silty sand with much fewer artifacts in the upper portion but more
artifacts in the form of lithics, antler tool material and moderate amounts of marine shell
in the lower portion. Context 4 was a fine sandy mottled brown/yellow brown silt.
Contest 1 yielded few artifacts, very little faunal bone and marine shell, and seven sand-
tempered plain sherds in the southeast corner of the unit. No ceramics were observed.
Context 2 yielded split faunal bone, a chert primary flake and a sharks tooth. 18 body
sherds of sand-tempered plain ceramics were also recovered. Context 3 yielded very little
cultural material with 3 sherds of sand-tempered plain ceramic in the upper portion of the
context. At this level was a 4-5cm thick zone of nearly sterile sand suggesting
interruption in the occupation of this portion of the site. In the second level of Context 3
an antler billet and 4 chert flakes were recovered near the center of the unit together with
moderate amounts of marine shell and split deer long bone. Other faunal bone was sparse.
Unit 25 was excavated to 60cmbd without reaching limestone caprock. Most cultural
material had declined to a few small fragments of shell by this depth. General notes on
the unit indicated that a moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that
cultural material, extended to c. 50cmbd and ended at slightly below that point. Upon
conclusion of excavation, the floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and
drawn. Seven photographs were taken of the unit during excavating.

Unit 26 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/5/06 by P. Halvorsen

Unit 26 was placed in the extreme south-central portion of the site area (Block 2)
approximately 50 meters south and a little west of the main datum. The unit was sited on
central ridge of the geographic center of the site and was one of the two southernmost
units excavated on the site. The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The
datum coordinates were: 47N, 83E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context.
There were four contexts in six levels. The first context can be described as loose grayish
top soil and extended from surface (averaging 5 cm) to c. 18 cm depth. Context 2
extended from 18cm to as much as 29cm and was characterized as a gray fine silty
midden sand. Context 3 extended from c. 29cm to as much as 60cmbd and was a fine
ashy white material with moderate amounts of artifacts in the lower portion. Context 4
was a mottled ashy white marly silt. Contest 1 yielded few artifacts. No ceramics were
observed. Context 2 yielded large pieces of shell and some faunal bone. A few body
sherds of sand-tempered plain ceramics were also recovered. Overall the midden deposit
was less dense than the center of the site. Context 3 yielded very little cultural material
with some faunal bone and a bone pin fragment. Context Four saw a continuation of
faunal remains and marine shell that continued to 61cmbd. A portion of the unit was

64
taken down to 71cmbd into a sterile, hard-packed layer of soil. Unit 26 was excavated to
60cmbd without reaching limestone caprock. Most cultural material had declined to a few
small fragments of shell by this depth. General notes on the unit indicated that a
moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural material, extended to
c. 61cmbd and ended at slightly below that point. Upon conclusion of excavation, the
floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Seven photographs were
taken of the unit during excavating. The unit was reopened under direction of Dave
Boschi 8/29/06 through beige sand to a sandy limestone caprock to 85cm depth.

Unit 27 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/10/06 to 5/13/06 by P. Mendenhall

Unit 27 was placed in the extreme south-central portion of the site area (Block 2)
approximately 50 meters south and a little west of the main datum. The unit was sited on
central ridge of the geographic center of the site and was 3 meters north of Unit 25. The
unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 50N,
80E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were four contexts in
five levels. The first context can be described as loose grayish top soil heavily disturbed
by roots and extended from surface (averaging 5 cm) to c. 15 cm depth. Context 2
extended from 18cm to as much as 27cm and was characterized as a gray fine silty
midden sand. Context 3 extended from c. 27cm to as much as 51cmbd and was a fine
ashy white material with moderate amounts of artifacts in the lower portion. Context 4
was a mottled ashy white marly silt extending to 63cmbd. Contest 1 yielded few artifacts
characterized as deer mandible and long bone fragments with some marine and terrestrial
shell. No ceramics were observed. Context 2 yielded large pieces of lightning whelk
shell, a bone pin fragment, and some faunal bone. 47 body sherds of sand-tempered plain
ceramics and 3 rim sherds were also recovered in a patchy distribution. Context 3 yielded
very little cultural material with 8 sherds of thick, fragile STP pottery different from the
above level. Context Four saw a continuation of faunal remains and marine shell, but no
ceramics, that continued to 63cmbd. Unit 27 was excavated to 63cmbd without reaching
limestone caprock. Most cultural material had declined to a few small fragments of shell
and bone by this depth. General notes on the unit indicated that a moderate amount of
cultural material was collected and that cultural material, extended to c. 63cmbd and
ended at slightly below that point. Upon conclusion of excavation, the floor and the north
wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Seven photographs were taken of the unit
during excavating.

Unit 28 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/15/06 to 5/17/06 by P. Mendenhall

Unit 28 was placed in the south-central portion of the site area (Block 2) north of the old
road crossing the site and a little west of the main datum. The unit was sited on central
ridge of the geographic center of the site and was 25 meters south of the Block 1 units.
The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were:
75N, 79E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were three
contexts in three levels. The first context can be described as loose grayish top soil and
extended from surface (averaging 6 cm) to c. 16 cm depth. Context 2 extended from
16cm to as much as 23cm and was characterized as a gray fine silty midden sand.

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Context 3 extended from c. 23cm to as much as 28cmbd and was a fine ashy white
material with moderate amounts of artifacts in the lower portion. Context 4 was a marly
gray soil with a loose limestone gravel continuing to limestone caprock. Contest 1
yielded few artifacts characterized as some marine and terrestrial shell. 17 pieces of sand
tempered plain ceramics were observed. Context 2 yielded 48 body sherds of sand-
tempered plain ceramics and loose limestone gravel. Context 3 yielded very little cultural
material with 3 small sherds of STP pottery and some faunal bone and marine shell. Unit
27 was excavated to 31cmbd reaching limestone caprock. Most cultural material had
declined to a few small fragments of shell and bone by this depth. General notes on the
unit indicated that a moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural
material, extended to c. 31cmbd and ended at caprock. Upon conclusion of excavation,
the floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Four photographs were
taken of the unit during excavating.

Unit 29 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/15/06 to 5/18/06 by P. Halvorsen

Unit 29 was placed in the extreme south-central portion of the site area (Block 2)
approximately 50 meters south and a little west of the main datum. The unit was sited on
central ridge of the geographic center of the site and was 3 meters north of Unit 25. The
unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 50N,
83E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by context. There were four contexts in
four levels. The first context can be described as loose grayish top soil and extended from
surface (averaging 5 cm) to c. 16 cm depth. Context 2 extended from 16cm to as much as
31cm and was characterized as a gray fine silty midden sand. Context 3 extended from c.
31cm to as much as 45cmbd and was a mottled ashy white material with moderate
amounts of artifacts in the lower portion. Context 4 was a mottled ashy white marly silt
characterized as a hardpan mottled with Context 3 extending to 60cmbd. Contest 1
yielded few artifacts characterized as one body sherd of ceramics and small faunal bone.
Context 2 yielded a ceramic concentration of 55 pieces of highly friable sand-tempered
plain ware at: 50.4N, 83.4E at 27cm depth. Context 3 yielded very little cultural material
with one sherd of STP and a circular soil stain, 8cm N-S and 8cm E-W, given a
designation of Feature 3. Context Four saw a continuation of faunal remains and marine
shell, but no ceramics, that continued to 60 cmbd. Unit 28 was excavated to 60cmbd
without reaching limestone caprock. Most cultural material had declined to a few small
fragments of shell and bone by this depth. General notes on the unit indicated that a
moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural material, extended to
c. 60cmbd and ended at slightly below that point. Upon conclusion of excavation, the
floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Six photographs were taken
of the unit during excavating.

Unit 30 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/17/06 to 5/19/06 by P. Mendenhall

Unit 30 was placed in the south-central portion of the site area (Block 2) approximately
20 meters south and a little west of the main datum. The unit was sited on central ridge of
the geographic center of the site and was 10 meters north of Unit 28. The unit datum was
established in the southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 85N, 79E. The unit was

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dug by centimeter level and by context. There were three contexts in three levels. The
first context can be described as dark brown loamy soil and extended from surface
(averaging 5 cm) to c. 20 cm depth. Context 2 extended from 20cm to as much as 24cm
and was characterized as a gray fine silty midden soil with loose limestone gravel.
Context 3 extended from c. 24cm to as much as 27cmbd and was a light gray silty soil.
Contest 1 yielded few artifacts in the first 5cm but intensity increased with depth.
Cultural material can be characterized as one plain rim sherd of ceramics and small
faunal bone, some of which was burnt and cracked, and very little marine shell. Context 2
yielded no ceramics but possible human material characterized as a premolar and long
bone was found at 23cmbd. And at: 85.5N, 79.2E. Context 3 yielded very little cultural
material with one more human tooth and a small amount of faunal bone and shell. Unit
30 was excavated to 27cmbd reaching limestone caprock. Most cultural material had
declined to a few small fragments of shell and bone by this depth. General notes on the
unit indicated that a moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural
material, extended to c. 27cmbd and ended at that point. Upon conclusion of excavation,
the floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Five photographs were
taken of the unit during excavating.

Unit 31 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/19/06 to 5/23/06by P. Mendenhall and P.


Halvorsen

Unit 31 was placed in the northeast portion of the site area (Block 1) east of Unit 12. The
unit was sited on the eastern upper slope east of the geographic center of the site and was
the easternmost unit excavated on the site. The unit datum was established in the
southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 100N, 92E. The unit was dug by
centimeter level and by context. There were four contexts in four levels. The first context
can be described as loose grayish top soil and extended from surface (averaging 6 cm) to
c. 20 cm depth. Context 2 extended from 20cm to as much as 33cm and was
characterized as a darker gray fine silty midden soil. Context 3 extended from c. 33cm to
as much as 43cmbd and was a light gray silty loam largely culturally sterile. Context 4
interspersed near the bottom/interface of Context 3 as a yellow brown fine sand,
compacted. Context 1 yielded few artifacts, a small amount of deer bone and some shell.
No ceramics were observed. Context 2 yielded more marine shell and faunal bone and no
ceramics. Context 3 yielded very little cultural material, only some marine shell
fragments. Context 4 saw the recovery of two grooved black stones as possible artifacts.
The bottom of Unit 31 was made 60cmbd. General notes on the unit indicated that a
small to moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural material,
extended to c. 50cmbd and. No prominent cultural features were noted. Upon conclusion
of excavation, the floor and the north wall of the unit were profiled and drawn. Five
photographs were taken of the unit during excavating. Unit was reopened 8/29/06 under
direction of Dave Boschi and excavated through gray concretion zone to 101 cm depth.

Unit 32 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/23/06 to 5/24/06 by P. Mendenhall and P.


Halvorsen

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Unit 32 was placed in the extreme north-central portion of the site area (Block 3). The
unit was sited on the northern upper slope east of the geographic center of the site and
was the northernmost unit excavated on the site. The unit datum was established in the
southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 150N, 84E. The unit was dug by
centimeter level and by context. There were four contexts in four levels. The first context
can be described as loose grayish top soil and extended from surface (averaging 2 cm) to
c. 12 cm depth. Context 2 extended from 12cm to as much as 29cm and was
characterized as a darker gray fine silty midden soil. Context 3 extended from c. 29cm to
as much as 57cmbd and was a fine gray silty sand largely culturally sterile. Context 4 was
a compact light gray silt with yellow brown blotches and was excavated to 75cmbd.
Context 1 yielded few artifacts, a small amount of marine shell and faunal bone. No
ceramics were observed. Context 2 yielded more marine shell and faunal bone, but still
less than most other units. 3 body sherds of sand-tempered plain ceramics were also
recovered. Context 3 yielded very little cultural material; the pottery present (2 body
sherds) were believed redeposited by root activity. Context 4 was an uneven transition
from Context 3. Limestone with natural solution holes was manifested at the bottom of
this context. The bottom of Unit 32 had several solution holes, but could not be mapped
due to density of concretion. General notes on the unit indicated that a small to moderate
amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural material, extended to c.
52cmbd and ended just above Context 4. Upon conclusion of excavation, the north wall
of the unit was profiled and drawn. Five photographs were taken of the unit during
excavating. The unit was re-opened 8/24/06 under direction of Dave Boschi with Context
5 (gray concretion zone) opened at 73-76cm depth and closed at sterile sediments at 103-
108cm depth.

Unit 33 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/25/06 to 5/26/06 by P. Mendenhall and P.


Halvorsen. Unit was reopened under direction of Dave Boschi on 8/28/06 and closed at
98cm depth, first trough gray concretion then under beige sand/limestone caprock
context.

Unit 34 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/26/06 to 5/31/06 by P. Mendenhall and P.


Halvorsen

Unit 34 was placed in the north-central portion of the site area (Block 3). The unit was
sited on the central ridge slightly west of the geographic center of the site and was 10
meters south and slightly west of Unit 33. The unit datum was established in the
southwest corner. The datum coordinates were: 131N, 82E. The unit was dug by
centimeter level and by context. There were three contexts in four levels. The first
context can be described as loose gray top soil and extended from surface (averaging 8
cm) to c. 15 cm depth. Context 2 extended from 10cm to as much as 34cm and was
characterized as a darker gray fine silty midden soil. Context 3 extended from c. 34cm to
as much as 41cmbd and was a fine whiter silty sand extending into one or more
solutioned depressions. Only part of the unit was excavated to pedestal Feature Four, a
symmetrical pile of rocks located in the north-central portion of the unit and dropping to
the west into a large depressional area. Context 1 yielded few artifacts, only small
amounts of faunal bone and shell. Context 2 yielded small moderate amounts of marine

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shell and faunal bone. One body sherd of sand-tempered plain ceramics was also
recovered. Much of the northern unit area was left unexcavated to pedestal an emerging
pile of rocks designated Feature 4. Context 3 yielded small amounts of marine shell and
faunal bone. No ceramics were observed. Context 3 continued into a natural depression to
the west of the Feature 4 rock pile. General notes on the unit indicated that a small to
moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that cultural material, extended to
c. 56cmbd and ended just above the bottom of the deepest depressional area which was at
limestone caprock. Upon conclusion of excavation, the unit bottom and the north and
west walls of the unit were profiled and drawn. Four photographs were taken of the unit
during excavating.

Unit 35 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/30/06 to 6/2/06 by P. Halvorsen

Unit 35 was placed in the north-central portion of the site area (Block 3). The unit was
sited on the central ridge area at the geographic center of the site and 10 meters north of
the Block 1 cluster of units. The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The
datum coordinates were: 115N, 80E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by
context. There were three contexts in four levels. The first context can be described as
loose grayish top soil and extended from surface (averaging 4 cm) to c. 12 cm depth.
Context 2 extended from 12cm to as much as 42cm and was characterized as a darker
gray fine silty midden soil. Context 3 extended from c. 14cm to as much as 56cmbd and
was a fine gray silty sand deposited in various solution holes. Context 1 yielded few
artifacts, bird faunal bone was noted at the transition to Context 2, but little else. No
ceramics were observed. Context 2 yielded large quantities of marine shell and faunal
bone, including two or more lightning whelk “digging tools” at 6-7cmbd at centered at
115.7N, 80.4E. Very little sand-tempered plain ceramics were recovered. Context 3
yielded very little cultural material; the pottery present (2 body sherds) were believed
redeposited. The bottom of Unit 35 had extensive concretion present. General notes on
the unit indicated that a small to moderate amount of cultural material was collected and
that cultural material, extended to c. 55cmbd. Upon conclusion of excavation, the unit
bottom and the north and west wall of the units were profiled and drawn. Six photographs
were taken of the unit during excavating.

Unit 36 1meter x 1meter, excavated 5/31/06 to 6/2/06 by P. Mendenhall

Unit 36 was placed in the extreme north-central portion of the site area (Block 3). The
unit was sited on the central ridge west of the geographic center of the site and was north
and adjacent to Unit 34. The unit datum was established in the southwest corner. The
datum coordinates were: 132N, 82E. The unit was dug by centimeter level and by
context. There were three contexts in three levels. The first context can be described as
loose grayish top soil and extended from surface (averaging 4 cm) to c. 16 cm depth.
Context 2 extended from 16cm to as much as 43cm and was characterized as a darker
gray fine silty midden soil. Context 3 extended from c. 20cm to as much as 60cmbd and
was a fine gray silty sand deposited in solution holes. Context 1 yielded a moderate
amount of cultural material, marine shell and faunal bone and three sherds of STP
ceramics. Context 2 yielded less material because of rocks present in most of the context.

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3 body sherds of sand-tempered plain ceramics were also recovered. Context 3 yielded
little cultural material; one sherd of STP pottery and a small amount of faunal bone and
marine shell. Limestone with natural solution holes were manifested at the bottom of this
context, and the loose rocks continued slightly into the southwestern corner of the unit
from Feature 4, Unit 34. The bottom of Unit 34 had several solution holes, but could not
be mapped due to advent of rain on the last day of the excavation. General notes on the
unit indicated that a small to moderate amount of cultural material was collected and that
cultural material, extended to c. 60cmbd. Upon conclusion of excavation, the unit was not
profiled and drawn due to rain and time constraints. Three photographs were taken of the
unit during excavating.

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