You are on page 1of 30

WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.

COM

FM 31-1 8

E T OF TIE A RMY FIELD MANUAL

9
DEPAWTMEMT O F THE A Y
AUGUST 1 9 6 8
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM
"FM 31-18

FIELD
MANUAL
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF T H E ARMY
No . 31-18 WASHINGTON. D.C., BS Auyti.?t ID68

LONG-RANGE RECONNAISSANCE PATROL COMPANY

CHAPTER 1 . INTRODUCTION
Pavaarsph Pom

Purpose .... 1-1 3

Scope ..................................................... 1-2 3

Terminology ................ 1-3 3

2 .
GE.YERAL
Mission

...................... 2-1
6

Function

...................... 2-2 6

Orgnnizntion . . ..................... 2-3 6

Cnpnbilities . ..

.................... 2 4
1

Limitntions. .

.............. 2-6
7

..
Trnining....
... 2-G 8

Signni coniniunicntions ................


2-1 8

.
3 PLANNING AND PREPARATION
Genernl.........
... 3-1
12

Plnnning nnd prepnrntion ............................ 3-2 12

Coordination
. .

........................................ 3-3 13


.Control
....................... 3 4 14

Conibnt support
.................. 3-6 14

Combnt service support ..............


3-0 16

security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
16

4 . CONDUCT O F OPERATIONS
Genernl .............................................. 4-1 16

Reconnnissance an2 surveillnnce ....................... 4-2 10

. . .
.............
Target nequiaition 4-3 11

Tncticnl Dnmnge assessment nnd CBR monitoring ... 4-4 17

Operntionnl environments ......................... 4-6 17

Methods of patrol delivory


........................
.. 4-6 18

Pntrol reeovcry .............I .......................


4-7 19

Debriefing ..................................................
4-8 19

Planning nnd operation of provisional LRRP ....


4-9 20

6 . STABILITY OPERATIONS
General
.. 6-1 21

Planning concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 21

Preparation nnrl Coordination


........................ 6-3 21

LRRP operntions ................... 6 4 22

Post inission activities ................ 6 4 28

Combnt support.....
6 4 23

Combnt service support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


5-7 24

Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-8 24

Provisionnl LRRP
............ 6-9
24

APPENDIX .
A REFERENCES .................................................... 26

.
B PATROL S T E P S ............ 27

.

...............C
.........LRRP
................S
....O
....P..... 28

*Ihh m m u a l w p s r d a i FM 31.18. 13 January 1965 .


P A C 0 6668A 1
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

-
1-1. Purpose Developments Command Infantry Agency, Fort
Benning, Georgia 31906. Originators of pro-
This manual contains doctrine for the employ- posed changes which would constitute a sig-
ment of the TOE fieid army and corps Iong- nificant modification of approved Army doc-
range reconnaissance patrol (LRRP) com- trine may send an informs.tion copy, through
panies and those modified TOE (MTOE) and command channels, to the Commanding Gen-
provisional LRRP units formed by divisions eral, United States Army Combat Develop-
and separate brigades. It is designed for use by ments Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia,
field army, corps, division, and separate bri- 22060, to facilitate review and followup.
gade commanders, and members of LRRP
units. 1-3. Terminology
a. Long-Range Reconnaissance P a t r o l
1-2. Scope (LRRP). The LRRP is a military unit specially
a. The material contained herein provides organized, equipped, and trained to fuliction
information on the mission, organization, m d as an information-gathering agency responsive
equipment, capabilities and limitations, plan- to the intelligence requirements of the tactical
ning, training, and operations for orgariiza- commander. The LRRP consists of member8
tional and provisional LRRP units. Except qualified to perform reconnaissance, surveil-
where specified otheiwise, the TOE LRRP lance, and target acquisition within the dis-
company is used to illustrate principles and patching unit’s area of interest. The LRRP
procedures. MTOE and provisional LRRP units should not duplicate organic unit reconnais-
can adapt these methods to their particular sance patrols which proceed to an objective
situation, where appropriate. This manual ap- area to acquire certain information and then
plies t o nuclear and nonnuclear warfare; em- return when the specific mission has been ac-
ployment of, and protection from, CBR agents; complished: The LRRP is employed to main-
and stability operations. tain surveillance over enemy routes, areas, o r
b. This manual is intended f o r use with
specific locations beyond the capability of or-
ganic reconnaissance units for extended peri-
other manuals (app A ) . It contains doctrine
that is common to all areas of operations. ods, reporting all sightings of enemy activity
within the area of observation. This can be
c. Users of this manual are encouraged to done from a fixed position or reconnaissance by
submit recommendations to improve its clarity movement.
or accuracy. Comments should be keyed to the
b . Long-Range Reconnaissance P a t r o l
specific page, paragraph, and line of the text
in which the change is recommended. Reasons (LRRP) Compung.
should be provided for each comment to insure (1) The LRRP Company is a military
understanding and complete evaluation. Com- unit specifically organized, equipped, and
ments should be forwarded direct to Com- trained to perform LRRP missions. Located a t
manding Officer, United States Army Combat corps and field army (when authorized by
AGO 6663A 3
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

Headqnarters, Department of the Army), the erations, this area may be stated as radius of
LRRP company consist.9 of a company head- interest.
Girarters and three patrol platoons. f. Area of Operations ( A O ) . Within the con-
(2) When specifically authorized by the text of LRRP operations, the A 0 is that por-
Department of the Army, modified TOE tion of an area necessary for military opera-
(MTOE) LRRP companies or detachments tions, either offensive or defensive, pursuant to
ma'. be formed to meet particular mission re- an assigned mission, and for the administra-
quirement,q which cannot be accomplished by tion incident to such military operations. In
existing LRRP units or other information- stability operations, this area may be started
gathering agencies. Conditions peculiar t o sta- as rUdizt.3 of opercltions.
bility operations may generate or increase the g. Stnbilitl/ Operatiw. Stnbility operations
need for MTOE LRRP units. are that type of internal defense and internal
c. Provisional Long-Range Reconnaissance development operations and assistance pro-
Patrol Units. Provisional LRRP units are vided by the Armed Forces to maintain, re-
those units organized and equipped from the store, or establish a climate of order within
commander's (division and separate brigade) which responsible government can function
exist,ing resources and specially trained to per- effectively and without which progress can-
form LRRP missions, not be aohieved.
cl. Area of Influsnce. The area of influence is 18. Tactical Area of Responsibilitv (TAOR).
The TAOR is a defined area in which respon-
th2i.t portion of the a,ssigned zone and the area
sibility is specifically assigned to a commander
of operations wherein a commander is directly
for tactical operations, control or monitoring
capable of influencing the progress or outcome of movement, development and maintenance of
of operations by maneuvers of his ground-gain- installations, and other activities as directed
ing elements or by delivery of firepower with by higher headquarters.
the fire support systems normally under his
control or command. In stability operations, i. Tactical Operations Center (TOC). The
this area may be stated as raditcs of infizience. TOC is a grouping of those elements of the gen-
eral and special staff concerned with the cur-
e. Area of Interest. The area of interest is rent tactical operations and the tactical aup-
that area of concern to the commander (includ- p r t thereof.
ing the area of influence and areas adjacent j . Forwa,li Operational Bdse (FOB). The
thereto) extending into enemy territory to the FOB is a base established to facilitate control
objectives of current or planned operations. of the operating patrols, It is located at the
This area also includes areas occupied by most secure forward position m d may consist
enemy forces which could jeopardize the ac- of the LRRP platoon headquarters, one base
complishment of the mission. In stability op- radio sLltion, and a reaction force, if required.

4
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

CHAPTER 2

GENERAL

-
2-1. Mission 2-2, Function
a. The p i m a r y mission of long-range recon- Long-range reconnaissance patrol companies
naissance patrols is to enter specified areas are organized, equipped, and trained for em-
within enemy-held territory to observe and re- ployment in all types of geographical environ-
pol.% enemy dispositiovqs instaliations, and ac- ments. However, the1 may receive special
tivities. equipment and training prior to commitment in
a specific area. LRRP companies are provided
b. This mission will not be relegated to sec-
on the basis of one per field army headquartera
ondary importance by the pressure of addi- and one per corps when authorired by Head-
tional tasks. quarters, Department of the Army. A platoon
c. Spwifically, an LRRP may be employed may be detached from the LRRP company and
to-
placed in support of divisions, separate
(1) Determine and repork the st.ren&h, brigades, armored cavalry regiments, or other
equipment, disposition, organization, and move- subordinate corps or field army units on a
ment of cnemy forces; determine location mission basis.
of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons de-
livery systems, nuclear weapon storage sites, 2-3. Organization
reserves, command posts, and key installations. The LLRP company, TOE 7-157, consists of
(2) Perform reconnaissance and surveil- a company headquarters and three patrol pla-
lance of specific sites, routes, or areas, and toons (fig. 2-1).
determine enemy movement patterns. a. Company Headquarters. The company
( 3 ) Conduct tactical damage assessment headquarters consists of a headquarters sec-
and perform CBR monitoring. tion which includes administrative, mess, sup-
(4) Provide information on possible drop ply, and parachute-rigger support; a transpor-
zones and landing zones for airborne and air- tation and .maintenance section; an operations
mobile operations. section; and a communications platoon. The
LRRP company headquarters is responsible for
(6) Operate in enemy-held territory to the tactical employment of the LRRP platoons
locate targets for airstrikes and ground attack
and for reporting the information gathered,
and act as a ground component of long-range
survey systems. (1) Hedr/m?.ters section. The headquar-
(6) Deploy on periphery of area of o p ters section provides the personnel for com-
eration (AO) to detect enemy’s attempts to mand of the company and for normal com-
break contact and evade friendly forces. pany-level administrative support functions.
In addition to his normal command functions,
(7) Maintain surveillance over suspected the company commander maintains clo6 liai-
infiltration routes and avenues of appronch. son with the staff of the unit to which he is
(8) Perform other appropriate ground assigned, attached, or placed in support to in-
information callection functions, 119 required. clude participation in patrol plaming. Al-
A00 6603A
5
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

LRRP Co

Co HQ Potrol Plat

2
HQ Sec

22
TronsaMoInt

0
Sec
18 2 8 1
Comm Plat

I 32 I
Plot HQ

2 I
Patrol

5c
t ==-
t 1 LL -
BaseRadio 7
0 5
Plat HQ sto

though the G2/S2 is his primary point of con- (c) Coordinating the delivery, supply,
tact, planning for communicntions support and and recovery of patrols to include the use of
patrol delivery and recovery requires detailed Army and A i r Force aircraft for these pur-
coordination with other members of the staff. poses.
(2) Transpo~tationand maintenance sec- ( d ) Reporting the operational status of
tim. This section performs organizational committed and uncommitted p&ols, as re-
maintenance on, and provides repair parts for, quired.
vehicles organic to the company. I t furnishes ( e ) Briefing patrols and personnel in-
transportation for unit personnel and equip- volved in delivery, supply, and recovery.
ment for which other transportation is not (f) Debriefing patrols and coordinating
provided. the debriefing by the controlling headquarters,
( 3 ) Operations section. The operations when required (FM 21-75).
section plans and coordinates the activities of (g) Providing after-action reports to
.committed patrols. Specific duties of the sec- controlling headquarters, as required.
tion include : ( h ) Establishing liaison with control-
( a ) Analyzing the assigned mission,
ling headquarters, as required,
and making detailed plans for patrol employ-
ment. (i) Maintaining knowledge of the cur-
(a) Receiving and reporting informa- rent enemy situation in the area of interest of
tion obtained from committed patrols. Unless the controlhg headquarters.
otherwise specified, information is forwarded (4) Conimunications platoon. The com-
immediately to the intelligence section of the munications platoon maintains communication
controlling headquarters for processing and with committed patrols and relays reported in-
interpretation. formation to the operations section. "he com-

6 AGO MESA
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM
munications platoon may operate as a compo- operations section. The patrol leader is a key
nent of, or i n coordination with, other com- man in the planning, preparation, and execu-
munications elements of the ccnti*ol~nghend- tion of LRRP missions. The su~cessof LRRP
quarters. Specific responsibilities of the com- operations will depend largely on how well he
munications platoon include- performs and influences the performance of
( a ) Monitoring patrol frequencies on his patrol. He should he alerted early in the
a continuous basis. planning stage of the mission to allow time
(0) Transmitting messages to patrols. for him to complete nLcessary actions.
(c) Transmitting messages to other
base stations. 2 4 . Capabilities
( d ) Recording all messnges transmitted The organization, strength, and equipment of
and received. an LRRP is based on its assigned mission and
( 8 ) Relaying reported information to
the environment of the operational area. An
the company operations section, or direct to LRRP has the capability to-
the liaison officer in the case of a detached a. Conduct training and preparation for i t s
patrol platoon. assigned missions.
( f ) Performing organizational mainte- b. Be committed in specific locations within
nance on all radios organic to the company. enemy-held territory by stay-behind methods,
0. P a t d Platoon. Each of the three patrol or he delivered by land, wator, or air, to in-
platoons consists of a platoon headquarters clude parachute.
and eight patrols. The platoon is organized, c. Operate in enemy-held territory for
equipped, and trained to perform reconnais- several days.
sance, surveillance, and target acquisition mis- d. Establish comrnunicationa between the
sions. The platoon normally operates under
company base stations or the controlling head-
company control. In some operational areas,
quarters and other operating patrols directly
it may be desirable to augment the patrol with
or through an aerial relay link.
selected indir:enous personnel.
(1) Platoon hedqmrters. The platoon E . Conduct operations in inclement weather
headquarters provides assistance to the com- and over difficult terrain,
pany operations section in planning the em- f . Operate with austere support.
ployment of patrols. The platoon leader de-
tails patrols for assigned missions and insures 0. Be recovered by air (to include Skyhook
their availability a n d operational readiness. He techniques), land, or water; to linkup with
accompanies patrol leaders during aerial re- advancing forces: or to return, using escape
connaissances and assists in selecting LZ's, and evasion techniques.
DZ's, and PZ's. During insertion, he flies in the 11. Be equipped and trained for employ-
command and control aircra€t and will exer- ment in any theater of operations.
cise overall control of the insertion. While pa-
trols are operating, the platoon leader will 2-5. limitations
supervise the functioning of the FOB and be
prepared t o conduct extractions. Uncommitted An LRRP may be limited by the following con-
platoon headquarters personnel may be used siderations:
for liaison purposes. a. Mobility is normally restricted to foot
(2) Patrols. A patrol consists of one pa- movement in the area of operations.
trol leader, one assistant patrol leader, two b. Use of radio and active electronic surveil-
radio operators, and one scout observer. All
lance devices makes the patrol vulnerable to
committed patrol8 normally operate directly enemy detection.
under company control or platoon control if
detached, and report information obtained c. All supplies and equipment for which a
through the base radio station to the company need can be anticipated should be carried by
AGO GG63A 'I
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

the patrol, since resupply from outside sources individual and unit proficiency and serve as
may reveal the location of the patrol. the basis for further training. Training should
be progressive rather than repetitive, with
(1. Dclivcry and recovery operations a r e con-
ducted in enemy-held territory and are difficult emphasis on practical application and cros8-
because of the requirements for secrecy, time- training once basic a n d special skills have been
liness, security, and accuracy of location. learned. Specific guidance concerning training
objectives, subject matter, and phasing is given
e. Organic medical capability is limited tc in ATP 7-157 and in other pertinent publica-
individual first aid when patrol elements are tions listed in appendix A.
used independently, but may be augmented by
b. Experience suggests t h a t normally about
x company nidman if the mission requires it. eight months are required to produce an effec-
tively trained and reliable LRRP unit. How-
2-6. Training ever, this time span can be compressed some-
u. Training must be a paramount considera- what based upon prior training and level of
tion if LRRP units ape to aCCfmpliSh their mis- pr0ficienr.y of patrol members. Commanders
$ions. Personnel assigned to these units should contemplating forming provisional LRRP units
bc selected from well-qualified, highly moti- should consider such factors a s mission re-
vated volunteers. In the L R R P company, all quirements, responsiveness of operational
members are airborne qualified. In addition to LRRP units, personnel turnover, training time,
parachute qualification, selected personnel and availability of instructors and facilities.
should be trained in SCUBA tcchniques, so These factors should be carefully weighed in
that company training cnn be given should it terms of their impact on the parent unit's
be necessary. Moreover, the company com- primary combat mission.
mander, operations officer, platoon leaders, and
patrol Icaders should be ranger- and CBR- 2-7. Signal Communications
qualified. Previous ranger, special forces, or a. Geitevnl. Once a patrol is positioned in
similar training is also desii-able for other the planned location, prompt reporting of re-
LRRP comp:my members. Areas f o r training quired information is the most important as-
emphasis should include patrolling (with spe- pect of LRRP operations. Communication pro-
cial focus on point and area reconnaissance pa- cedures, plans for implementation of alternate
trols), engineer terrain reconnaissance, com- communication procedures, and the importance
bat survcillance, airmobile and airlanded op- of accurate reporting must be thoroughly un-
erations, rough terrain parachute operations, derstood by every member of the LRRP unit.
tarxet acquisition, folwnrd observer proce- Tactical communications doctrine contained in
dui*es, w e of night vision devices, and other FM 24-1 is applicable to LRHP company com-
special technical aids f o r collecting informa- munications.
tion. Members should be experts in evasion
escape, survival, communications security and 0. LRR P Com?)un)tCommunications.
procedures, and advanced first aid procedures (1) Radio. Radio is the principal means
including manual transportation of the sick of communication in the LRRP company (fig.
and wounded. I n order to properly report their 2-2). In the company area, it is supplemented
observations of the enemy, patrol members by wire and messenger to provide a more effi-
must be proficient in the principles of intelli- cient and secure communicntions system.
gence informat'on collection, land navigation, ( a ) Communication with committed
map reading, tactical terrain analysis, and spot patrols is accomplished through any one of
reporting. They must also be fa:niliar with the three base radio stations. Because of the
enemy tactics, organization, uniforms, weap- type radios employed, atmospheric conditions,
ons, equipment, and logistical systems. Real- distances involved, frequency prediction, radio
istic long-range reconnaissance, surveillance, wave propagation, skip distance, and sky and
and target acquisition exercises should be in- srounc! wave frequency limitations, i t is nee-
corporated into L R R P unit training tq evaluate essary to employ three separate base radio

8 AGO 6863A
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

Hlgh Powor

DME ST.ATION NO 3
Figlive 2-2. T ~ p radio
e mtE, LRRP comparr~,

stations. These three stations are identical and RATT net which has either a voice or CW
are emplaced in depth to the rear of the corps capability.
(army) CF >wen. Base station No. 1, nearest (c) Communication with uncommitted
the FEBA, is located a t the LRRP CP near patrols and company headquarters e1ement.q is
the corps (army) CP and is lhe net control accomplished through the company wire sys-
station (NCS). Six patrols are ,asaimed the tem.
same primary frequency; the 24 patrols may
use one frequency assigned to all for emergency ( d ) The LRRP company operates a
use. All base stations monitor these four pri- station in an F M radio net of the higher or
mary frequencies and the emergency fre- supported headquarters as designated by that
quency. If a patrol transmission skips station unit.
No. 1, then usually one (or both) of the other (2) W i m Wire is used for internal dom-
two base stations will receive the message; if munication within the LRRP company head-
they do not, hear station No. 1 acknowledge quarters, and is normally used to transmit in-
the patrol's message, they v i l l then acltnowl- formation reported by the committed patrols
edge the message and trammit it to station No. from the base station CW radio to the opera-
1 or to the LRRP operations section via the tions section, and from the operations section
company operations RATT net for decoding to the intelligence section of the controlling
and dissemination into intelligence channels. headquarters.
Radio transmissions will be encrypted in an
approved cryptographic syskm. Each patrol (3) Messengev. Mounted and dismounted
will have its own cryptographic key to preclude messengers are used to deliver maps, overlayN,
compromise of messages of other patrols in the sketches, and reports to and from the con-
event of capture. trolling headquarters. The company liaison
( b ) Communication among base sta- officer or p!atoon leaders may be used to carry
tions and the company operations section is important messages, particularly when an oral
accomplished tiirough the company operations explanation of the situation is required.
AGO bb63A 9
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

(4) Visual. All forms of visual communi- should provide for aircraft to be aloft monitor-
cation will be used, to include both visible and ing the patrol F M frequency. Personnel m n -
invisible light (infrared) sources during the ning aircraft spe$ically designated for this
hours of darkness. Visual communications are airborne relay must be thoroughly briefed on
especially usoful for transmitting short prear- the patrol mission and general location.
ranged messages and will be used habitually for (3) All patzol members must be trained
marking landing sites and diding in terminal in voice procedure, in the use of brevity, yre-
control of aircraft used for delivery and re- arranged, and map coordinate codes, and in the
covery of patrols. Active infrared systems may operation of the equipment used for burst
also bc used to send coded messages. transmissions of prerecorded CW transmis-
( 5 ) Sourd. Because of the requirement sions. The senior radio operator assigned tn
for stealth, secrecy, and deception, sound sig- each patrol will be the intermediate speed CW
nals are seldom used by LRRP. radio operator. It is desirable that the other
radio operator and observers be trained as CW
c, PatTol Conmunication Equipment awl operators.
P>,ocedv,res. (4) Transmission time is held to a mini-
(1) The primary radio for communicn-
mum by use of the equipment used for burst
transmission; use of prearranged mwangc,
tion from the patrols to the b a e stations is
brevity, and map coovdinnte codes; and by
a portable SSB radio with auxiliary equipment transmitting only necessary information. The
for burst transmission of prerecorded CW mes-
transmission site of the patrol is changed fre-
sages. The base stations are equipped with both
quently and, if possible, for each contact.
medium and high power SSB RATT radio sets
capable of CW and voice operation. The burst (6) Routine reports and information not
transniission modo is used whenever possible immediately required are transmitted at pre-
for all trafic from patrol to base station. arranged, random times. Flash reports of sig-
Manual CW operation is an alternate means nificant enemy information, requesta for im-
used in case of failure of the message sender. :tfiediate support, and emergency transmissions
When manila1 CW is used, the length of mes- may be made any time at the descretion of the
sages nhonld be reduced by a prearranged mes- patrol leader but are subject to the controlling
sage or brevity code. Manual CW is used as the unit SOP. The radio set a t the controlling head-
primary method of transmitting from base sta- quarters or base station continually monitors
tion to patrols. m i m e d frequencies to receive calls from pa-
trols a t other than prearranged times. Each
(2) T w o P M portable radios are provided
to each patrol for communication between the LRRP should incorporate within the encrypted
patrol OP and the patrol base where the SSB portion of each report nn identifying mark
portable radio is located if a separate OP has (memorized by the patrol) to preclude the
to be established. The FM portable radio may enemy from transmitting false report9 should
also be used for communicating with the air- a patrol and its cryptographic key be captured,
craft transporting the patrol, and betwcm pa-
(6) The message sender should be used
trols operating in the same area. This radio
for the tmnsmission of reports concerning-
is designated as the alternate means of radio
communication if the SSB portable radio be- ( a ) Enemy information, including type,
comes inoperative. If this situation develops, number, activity, location, and direction of
the patrol will transmit over the short-range movement of enemy forces and times of sight-
radio at prearranged, random times, using a ing.
designated proword to establiah contact with
the aircraft. The F M radio in the aircraft will ( b ) Status nnd location of patrols.
be used to retransmit the message to the base (c) Instructions for rendezvous with
skition or to other patrols operating in the aircraft and deviations from planned opera-
same area. SOP for units employing LRRP tions.
10 A 0 0 5583A

WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

(e) Temin and weather information. ( h ) Ttktical damage n#W.iment and'


' '

( f ) Emergency supply or recovery


' CBR monitbrini.
messages.

11
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

CHAPTER 3

PLANNING AND PREPARATION

-
3-1. General (4) Broad guidance on routes and alter-
nate routes to patrol position, landing zones,
An LRRP mission must be specific and must or drop zones, as applicable.
support the mission of the force for which the
operation is to be performed. If more than one (6) Any restrictions imposed upon the
mission is assigned, priorities are established. LRRP company concerning routes, specific
Priorities are determined by the importance of position areas, and times of delivery, so that
the information sought and the time it is re- these restrictions can be considered in planning
quired to be in the controlling headquarters. the employment of the patrol.
To prevent duplication of cffort, conflicting re- ( 6 ) Special equipment required.
quirements, and the possibility of overlap or
intermingling with other friendly forces op- (7) Other matters according to LRRP
erating in the vicinity, all LRRP missions must company SOP.
be carefully planned and coordinated. The con- b . The operations officer prepares the de-
trolling headquarters selects missions for tailed patrol plans in accordance with the guid-
LRRP from the intelligence collection plan and ance provided by the controlling headquarters
the operations plan. Close liaison is maintained and the LRRP company commander. Selected
between the LRRP company and the head- patrol leaders and a representative of the unit
quarters controlling its employment. providing transportation to and from the area
of operations are briefed on the mission early
3-2. Planning and Preparation in the planning phase and should participate
a. The LRRP company commander o r his in the detailed planning which follow. During
representative (liaison officer, operations 0% briefings, patrol leadem are furnished that in-
cer, or platoon leader in the case of a detached formation pertaining to friendly units which
LRRP platoon) participates with the intelli- is necessary for the accomplishment of the mis-
gence and operations sections of the higher sion. Essential details of a patrol plan normal-
headquarters in the initial planning for LRRP ly include-
operations. Method of operation while on pa- (1) Area to be searched or kept under
trol, communication procedures, reporting, and surveillance, and recommended position (s)
other standard practices should be in the from which this can be done.
LRRP company SOP. The following minimum
guidance is normally provided the company ( a ) Positions for LRRP are determined
well in advance of employment of patrols,
for each LRRP mission:
based on a study of terrain: road and rail
(1) Information of patrol position or nets; enemy order of battle; delivery means
area to be kept under surveillance, or area to available; emergency, contingency, or opera-
be searched and information desired. tions plans of controlling headquarters; and
(2) Disposition of friendly forces in the the desires of the commander,
same area. ( b ) When ponsible, patrol positionn are
(3) Method of delivery. reconnoitered prior to occupation. Specific posi-

I2
AQO KK48A
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

t,ions are selected to cover the desired area of (11) Plan for treatment and evacuation
interest, and communications checks are made. of sick or wounded patrol personnel from the
When physical reconnaissance is not possible, operational area.
reliance is placed upon the individual patrol (12) Plan for logistical support.
leader who is given the area of interest over
which his patrol is to maintain surveillance c. The patrol leader uses patrol steps (app
and who, upon arrival in the area, selects and B) in planning, preparing, and executing pa-
reports the specific patrol position. trol missions. These procedures are compre-
(2) h a d i n g plans and procedures, in- hensive, yet flexible enough to adapt to any
cluding delivery, recovery, and aircraft park- patrol situation, Two of the most important
ing sites. Alternate sites also are selected for patro: steps a r e -
possible use. Primary and alternate drop zones (1) Issuance of warning order (I??$ 21-
are selected if the patrol is to be delivered by 75). This action gives the patrol maximum time
parachute. to prepare for the mission. I t should be issued
(3) The flight plan, if required, including as soon as the patrol leader has made his ten-
approach and return flight routes. Alternate tative plan.
routes are selected. (2) Issuance of patrol order (FM 21-76).
(4) The movement plan to and from the The patrol leader conveys the information and
patrol position if movement is other than by instructions necessary to accomplish the mis-
aerial means, or tho proposed route if per- sion. Members make notes as required, but
forming reconnaissance by movement. hold questions until the order is completed.
The patrol leader coricludes the order by asking
(5) The fire support plan which may in- for questions and requiring a briefback by each
clude- member.
( a ) Suppressive Ares to assist the pas-
sage of the patrol through or over designated 3-3. Coordination
areas.
( b ) Use of screening smoke. a. Prior to the final inspection, briefing, and
dispatch of the patrol, coordination is accom-
( c ) Likely nuclear concentrations with- plished with the following elements within the
in the area of surveillance. TOC of the controlling headquarters:
( d ) Fires to assist in the withdrawal
of patrols. (1) Intelligence element. The detailed pa-
trol plan is provided the C2/S2 element. The
( e ) Fires to assist navigation. latest information of the enemy situation, ter-
( f ) Prearranged grid of the patrol rain, and projected weather conditions will be
area (to facilitate fire support). obtained. A final check is made of LRRP plans
(6) Diversion plan. The patrol’s move- and the plans of other information-gathering
ment through enemy areas may be planned t o agencies to ascertain that all elements of the
coincide with actions that cause the enemy t o unit’s intelligence plan are properly coordi-
divert his attention elsewhere. nated.
(7) The timing for execution of major (2) Operations element. The patro: plan
events in the operation. is also provided the G3/S3 element. The latest
information of the friendly situation is ob-
(8) The communications plan, which in- tained. For security reasons, only essential in-
cludes frequencies, reporting schedule, emer- formation is furnished the patrol.
gency reporting procedures, and alternate
communications plans. (3) Fiye suppoyt elements (avtilleru, nir
defense, naval gunfire, tactical air, and armed/
(9) Plan for use of guides, technical spe- attack helicopter support). The location of the
cialists, or special equipment. patrol is coordinated with all Are support ele-
(10) Coordination measures with friend- ments to insure personnel safety. Constant co-
ly forces for the passage of lines or linkup. ordination must be maintained to insure con-
AGO K G S ~ A
13
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM
sideration of patrol safety early in the plan- the operation with appropriate higher, sub-
ning for employmelit of nuclear or CB wcap- ordinate, and adjacent headquarters to avoid
ons. If a patrol is seriously endangered by duplication of effort and to insure the safety.
planned nuclear or CB fires and cannot be of the patrol.
warned and moved to a safe location in time,
the conimander authorizing the fire of the 3-5. Cornbur Support
weapon shall be so informed. This commander
must then decide either to delay or cancel the a. The controlling headquartms Is respon-
firing or t o fire and risk loss of the patrol. sible for providing combnt support for com
Procedures are established for informing pa- mitted patrols. This support must be well
trols of planned fires and passive protective planned and coordinated in order to enhance
meaaures to be adopted. In addition, require. the success of LRRP operations. Supporting
ments for target damage assessment and re- unit and supported unit reeponsibilities, com-
porting procedures are coordinated, and the mand and staff relntionships, and other con-
final patrol fire support plan is completed. trol menmres mubt be clewly defined by bhe
controlling headquarlers. The use of combat
(4) Chemicnl, biological, ci?~.d~ ~ d i ~ l ~ support
g i ~ d elements (either real or simulated)
cleineiLt I C E R E ) . The CBRE is given ths loca- should be integrated into LRRP training to in-
tion of a11 committed patrols, and plans are sure that wl1 members undelwtand their employ-
coordinated for CBR monitoring requirements ment. Operations plans and orders should spe-
in the area of the patrol’s operation. Informa- cify combat support information to the extent
tion on contaminated areas is distribvted as necessary for mutual understanding by LRRP
necessary. units and combat support units of their re&
b. Maximum coordinzlion with other units spective duties and responsibilitim in accom-
and stnff elements is accomplished by the in- plishing the LRRP mission.
telligence element of the TOC of the controlling b. The use of A m y aviation provides the
headquarters. The LRRP company operations LRRP with a high degree of mobility and
section functions largely as an extension of flexibility. When properly planned and em-
the higher headquarters G2/S2 element during ployed, both fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft
the planning phase. are valuable aids in accomplicthing LRRP mis-
sions. They may be used in reconnaissance,
3-4. Control command and r.ontrol, insertion, extraction,
a. Continuous control by the higher head- medical evacuation, emergency supply or re-
quarters is necessary during LRRP operalions. supply, and communications relay roles. More.
Orders, their sequence of execution and timing, over, armed aircraft can be used to suppreaa
and other controls must be very restrictive. or neutralize hostile fire, thereby awisting pa-
Deviations from the prescribed plan depend trols in breaking enemy contact. As in other
upan the responsiveness of the communications military operations, the key to succem in em-
aystem in answering requests from the com- ployment of Army aviation lie# in the apprecia-
mitted patrol. T h o communications net and tion of its capabilities and limitations and the
chain of cnmmand of the LRRP company arc proper utilization of aviation elements with
wed by the controlling headquarters to direct their characteristics of surprise, speed, mobil-
t h s operation of patrols. ity, and flexibility. Detailed planning, close uo-
ordination, and extensive training are neces-
b. Although patrols are normally committed sary to attain the level of teainwork required
within the area of interest of the controlling for successful employment of Army aviztion
headquarters, definite control measures are in support of LRRP missions.
necessary to iirescribe graphica!iy the area of
operations of each patrol. Boundaries, phase c. Attachment of specially twined indlvid-
lines, and checkpoints are used to define spe- uals, teams, and equipment (!inguists, in-
cifically each patrol’s area of operation. The digeenous guides, scout dog teams, tracker
headquarters controlling the patrol coordinates teams, long-range surveillance systems, etc.)

14 AGO S688A
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM
will be correlated with specific LRRP mission 3-7. Security
requirements. When used, they must be avail- a. Avoidance of enemy detection la a prime
able during the preparation phase and par- requisite for the success of LRRP operations.
ticularly for rehearsals of critical actions with Possessing no offensive capability (weapons
the patrol. are used only for self-defense or to break
enemy contact), patrols must rely extensively
3-6. Combat Service Support upon security measures, both administrative
a. The LRRP company combat service sup-
and tactical.
port elements consist of the administrative, b . Administrative measures consist of strin-
mess, and supply section, and the transporta- gent control of information pertaining to
tion and mfiintenance section. Each vehicle in LRRP missions-past, present, and projected
the unit %wries a prescribed load of rations, -as well as security orientations and checks
repair parts, water cans, fuel and lubricant to assure that security requirements are un-
containers, and part of the company basis load derstood and followed.
of ammunition.
c. Tactical security and deception measures
I). A platoon detached from its parent com- to be taken as necessary by patrols and their
r.%y is accompanied by necessary communica- support elements include-
tions, transportation, and ~ a i n t e n a n c e ele- (1) Enroute to area of operations: false
ments to make it as logistically self-sufficient landings, feints, and circuitous routes.
as possible.
(2) During insertion: minimum timc on
c. The LRRP company receives its combat LZ or dismount point.
service support from the command to which it (3) In objective area: proper organiza-
may be assigned, attached, or placed in sup- tion for movement, cover, concealment, cawu-
port. Supplies and equipmei~t required for flage, and light, noise, and odor discipline.
LRRP missions are procured through normal
( 4 ) During aerial emergency resupply:
logistical channels.
airdrops on dummy patrol positions and night
d . The provision of qualified replacements airdrops.
is of primary concern to the LRRP unit com- (6) During extraction: careful obaerva-
mander and controlling headquarters staff dur- tion of PZ or rendezvous point, rapid entry,
ing combat service support planning. and exit of mobility means.

I5

WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

CHAPTER 4

CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS

4-1. General of their areas of interest must also be con-


sidered.
a. The LRRP company is normally located
in an area near the corps or army main CP.
Patrols may be dispatched to confirm or 4-2. Reconnaissance and Surveillonce
amplify information obtained by aerial o b e r - a. GmesaE. The conduct of dismounted pa-
vntion, photography, electronic surveillance, trolling is described in F M 21-60 and FM 21-
radio intercept or other means; or patrols may 76. In accomplishing their missions, LRRP em-
be assigned missions in suspect areas about ploy stealth and secrecy. When possible, move.
which no information is available. ment into and within the patrol position is ac-
complished during periods of limited visibility.
B. The commander’s long-range, informa- While visibility is restricted, observem can
tion-gathering problem usually concerns the move closer to the route or area under Bur-
location of tarsets for his long-range weapons veillance and still report useful information.
and the provision of information or early warn- During periods of good visibility, when the
ing to a particular combat unit about the move- mission permih, the LRRP remains concealed,
ment o r activities of significant enemy reserves rests, and maintains surveillance of specific
and special weapons delivery means. The areas or routes. For physical and communica-
amount of early warning required is deter- tion security, the patrol may be required to
mined by the time e n e a r c o n h t p w e r takes. occupy, in turn, several different observation
to make its infl!xnctl felt and by the reaction positions, or may accomplish the mission using
time required to employ friendly maneuver recannuissance by movement.
elements and firepower. When used to supple-
ment other information-gathering agencies, 0 . Swveillance of Routes and Specific Areas.
the LRRP affords the commander a relatively To accomplish this mission, the LRRP moves
reliable and 8ccurate means for the systematic into the patrol position and establishes an ob-
surveillance of specific areas. servation post under cover of darkness or ad-
verse weether conditions. These posls are
c. A system of patrols located to provide usually manned by two men-one observing
effective area coverage is a basic surveillance the specified route or area, recording and re-
requirement in the corps area of operations. porting information to the patrol base, and
This system provides for the introduction of the other resting, providing security, or assist-
LRRP into the area to conduct surveillance of in? as necessary. A single patrol can maintain
key communications systems, specific terrain one ob!ervation pont at a time, relieving the
features, and enemy activities. In general, the observers every two or three hours.
corps capability is adequate to meet the re- c. Reconnaissance of a Specific Area. It is
quirements of divisions and smaller units at- possible, but not desirable, that a patrol, after
tached to the corps : however, the capabilities being positioned, may be requested to obtain
of units subordinate to corps to provide their information of a specific area not under SUP
own organic reconnaissance units to the limit veillance from the patrol position. A minimum

16 ha0 6 W A
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM
of two members are dispatched to acquire this the limited landing areas. Delivery and re-
information, but it may be necessary for the covery of patrols using :opes and rope ladders
entire patrol to move into and reconnoiter this from a hovering helicopter may often be a
new area. If such a reconnaissance mission is necessary procedure. Waterways provide a
required, the p a t i 4 uses t h c methods and pro- means of surface movkment and are an aid to
cedures outlined in PM 21-75. navigation. Radio ranges are reduced by the
screening effect of dense vegetation and steep
4-3. Target Acquisition dopes. This increases the requirement for cur-
rent data on sky and ground wave frequency
The timely detection, identification, and loca- limitations for the area of operations.
tion of enemy targets in sufficient detail to per-
mit effective employment of weapons is a pri- c. Deseit Opemtions. Characteristics of
mary and continuing mission of LRRP. A pa- desert areas affecting LRRP operations are
trol is capable of obtaining target location and lack of water, scarcity of vegetation, extensive
movement as well as estimates of unit strength, sand areas, extreme temperature ranges,
type identificntion, vulnerabilities, and weather brilliant sunlight, and usually excellent obser-
conditions and nature of the terrain in the vation. Movement, is generally restricted to
target area. In addition to the acquisition of darkness; patrols remain concealed and ob-
specific targets, the patrols may be used to serve during daylight hours. Movement by
verify or indicate suspected areas so that other animal or vehicle may be considered in addi-
types of surveillance or acquisition systems tion to foot movement. Shortage of water is a
may be employed to extract the information major problem. If no other source is available,
required. water may be delivered by aircraft to previoua-
ly selected rendezvous sites at night. Radio
4-4. Tactical Damage Assessment and CBR communication is generelly excellent. Naviga-
Monitoring tion and position location may be difficult,
LRRP members are trained and equipped to necessitating additional training in laad or air
conduct tactical damage assessment and CBR navigation and terrain orientation procedures.
monitoring. SOP of the unit controlling the d. Mountain Operations. Irregular mountain
patrol’s operations will be used to prescribe the topography normally provides good conceal-
actions of a patrol conducting thrse missions. ment and cover. Observation varies from good
to poor depending upon woods and scrub
4-5. Operational Environments growth. Observation posts near ridges and
a. GeneVal. Conditions encountered and tech- peaks may provide broad areas of observation.
niques of operation in jungles, deserts, moun- Aircraft movement of patrols is often limited
tains, and northern areas are described in field by altitude capability, erratic wind conditions,
manuals of the combat arms and the 31-series. and lack of acceptable landing and parking
Patrols operating in these areas are greatly sites. Patrol members must be in excellent
affected by adverse weather and terrain con- physical condition, acclimatized to the weather
ditions. Extremes in temperature, humidity, conditions, and skilled in mountain climbing
and elevation will have considerable effect on techniques. Communications in mountainous
the lift capability of transporting aircraft. areas are generally difficult; relay stations may
therefore be required for communication be-
b, Jzmole Operations. Operations in dense tween the LRRP and the base station.
jungle increase the importance of long-range
reconnaissance patrols because ground and air e. Noisthem Operations. In extreme cold, pa-
observation, including that provided by elec- trols are hampered by the necessity for main-
tronic surveillance systems, is restricted. Heli- taining body warmth. In deep snow, patrols
copters are usually the most feasible means of must operate on skis or snowshoes; considera-
transporting patrols, but they entail increased tion may be given to the use of dogsleds and
hazard because of the difficulty of detecting skimobiles as well. Long-range weather fore.
enemy intercept forces along flight routes and casts are important, particularly during the
AGO 666aA 17
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM
planning phase. Deep snow provides conceal- ment can be stockpiled to provlde for an ex-
ment for stationary observation posts, but in- tended operation.
creases the difflculty of orientation and conceal- c. Ail. Landing. This type of infiltration is
ment of moving patrols. Deceptive measures normally the most desirable method of delivery
and camouflage are used to confuse the enemy and may be accomplished by either helicopter
as to the size and location of the LRRP. Radio or fixed-wing aircraft: however, when fixed-
communication is seriously affected by mag- wing aircraft are used, security and the avail-
netic storms, auroral effects, and ionospheric abiJity of landing zones are often restrictlve
disturbrinces. Proper selection of frequencies is factors. The aircraft may return to recover the
of extreme importance. Trafficability and load- patrol, and, under certain circumstances, air-
bearing qualities of ice and snow crust are craft may remain with the patrol. In the latter
significant in winter operations, and deter- case, additional manpower on the patrol is
mination of these factors may be a part of necessary for security; however, secrecy in the
the reconnaissance mission assigned the LRRP. conduct of operations is difficult.
Survival is difficult under extreme winter con-
ditions. The patrol must provide itself with a d . Helicopter Delivery. The helicopter has a
warming area in order to operate for extended number of desirable characteristics for the in-
periods at maximum efficiency. Northern sum- sertion of a patrol. Delivery by helicopter can
mer conditions are characterized by long terminate by a landing or by the use of ropes
periods of daylight, and numerous water ob- and ladders in areas which preclude landing.
stacles and marshy areas. The use of boati de- The helicopter is the most aceurate and eRicient
signed to navigate northern waterways in- of the aerial delivery means. Secrecy of heli-
creases the mobility of patrols when aircraft copter delivery is obtained through night op-
or ground operations are restricted. erations, nap-of-the-earth flying, and multiple
deceptive landings.
4-6. Methods of Patrol Delivery e. Pamchirte Delivery. This method of patrol
a. General. The selected method of delivery delivery is used when secrecy, time, and dls-
depends upon the mission, enemy situation, tance are of paramount importance. Depending
means available, weather and terrain, depth of on the location and effectiveness of hostile air
penetration, and target priority. The most de- defenses and radar screens, either low-level o r
sirable method is one that reduces the possibil- high-level penetration of enemy-held territory
ity of detection. Security and secrecy of move- by Army or Air Force delivery aircraft may
ment must not be sacrificed for convenience. be employed. Low flying delivery aircraft may
The LRRP must maintain the advantage of escape detection by enemy radar but can be ob-
operations by ntealth regardless of the methods served and reported by ground personnel.
used to deliver a patrol into its area of opera- From low flying nircraft, personnel use the
tions. Methods of patrol delivery include stay normal static line parachute techniques but
behind, airlanding, and subsequent recovery: may be required to jump at lower altitudee
under extraordinary circumstances, airlanding than in normal airborne operations. From a
with the aircraft remaining with the patrol: high-flying aircraft, which may penetrate hos-
helicopter delivery: parachute delivery from tile territory with bomber aircraft as cover,
either airolane or helicopter: water transpor- personnel employ high altitude-low opening
tation: and ground vehicle or foot infiltration. (HALO) parachute techniques, However, the
HALO techniclue cannot be employed unless pa-
b. Stay Behind. This method is normally trol members have received proper training
employed during retrograde operations or and equipment. Choice of parachute delivery
withdrawal of covering forces in defensive op- technique depends upon the enemy situation at
erations. When used, it has the best chance o f the time of the operation (FM 31-20).
success because of the ease of remaining nn-
discovered as compared to moving through the f . Watei. Transportatim. Patrols may be de-
air or over lnnd to reach the area of employ- livered by either surface vessel or submarine,
ment. In addition, supplies and special equip- The use of pneumatic reconnaissance b a t s or
mo 8 m A
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

rafts, especially over inland waterways, can (1) Have verified the security of the re-
provide silent means of entering the patrol’s covery (landing) site.
area of operations. The major disadvantage of (2) Describe the ground situation to the
this method is that the patrol risks detection pilot by radio or by prearranged light, panel,
and attack by enemy forces concealed along or color device such as smoke grenades.
the banks of these canalized routes of approach.
The water approach should not be near the (3) Assist the landing of the aircraft.
proposed area of operation. (Consider using strobe light if available, as a p
propriate) .
(1. G ~ o u n dVehicles. This means may be used
when speed is essential, distances are not great,
(4) Supervise the loading of the aircraft.
and chances of detection are slight. The area of ( 6 ) Notify the pilot when ready to depart.
operation and weather conditions must favor c. Recovetg of the Patrol bv Means Other
ve!iiculnr movcmeiit.
Tlmn Air. The original patrol plan may have
h. Land Infiltratio?i, This method may be specified recovery by land or water: linkup with
used when the dispersion of enemy units per- friendly forces in an offensive operation: or
mits. Land infiltration lacks the speed, range, linkup with special forces, friendly guerrillas, or
and flexibility of air delivery, but may be em- other irregular forces in a retrograde opera-
pioyed when prolonged adverse weather condi- tion. Any of these means may be planned as
tions or the enemy situation-including air de- alternates if the patrol cannot be recovered
fense cnpnhility-prevent effective use of air- by aircraft, or to avoid capture after being di&
craft. covered. The patrol must be prepared to use
these means as planned o r upOn decision of the
4 2 . Patrol Recovery patrol leader.
a. Geneml. The length of time that a patrol d. Ground Exfiltration. Despite the desira-
remains in enemy territory depends upon its bility of recovering patrols by aircraft, boats,
mission, composition, and equipment. The re- or linkup, use of these methods may be pre.
coveiy operation is critical from the standpoint cluded by patrol security, poor communications,
of both morale and mission accomplishment. or enemy air defense, Patrols trained in e v a
Plans for recoveiy by air, ground, or water are sion techniques may successfully exftltrate on
made before the operation, with alternate plans foot as individuals or i n groups.
for contingencies such as the evacuation of
sick or injured patrol personnel. Regardless
of the time spent in enemy territory or under 4-8. Debriefing
whose control the patrol may be operating a t a. Patrols will be thoroughly debriefed as
the time, issuance of orders and control of re- soon as possible after returning from miseions.
covery operations are normally the respnsi- The format of the debriefing should be
bility of the LRRP company commander. The structed t o derive maximum benefit from the
patrol leader may be faced with an unforeseen information collected by the patrol. All patrol
situation that may demand the utmost in members should be given the opportunity to
flexibility, discipline, and leadership. 1 should contribute their comments, observations, and
be clearly understood that the patrol mission recommendations.
is of primary importance, but that survival of
the patrol receives first priority after accom- b. The standard U.S. Army patrol report
plishment of the assigned mission. form ( F M 21-76), is used to assist the de-
briefer, patrol leader, and patrol members In
b. Rendezvozcs with Aircraft. Alternate re- rendering a complete report. Headinga not ger-
covery sites are selected and plans for their use mane to the operation being reported may be
are completed in the event the enemy situation omitted. This form may be locally reproduced
or weather precludes the use of the designated if necessary. When completed, patrol reports
recovery sites. When the aircraft returns for will be properly classified to prevent com-
the recovery, the patrol leader should- promise of LRRP operational techniques.
AGO 6633A
19
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

4-9. Planning and Operation of Provisional the requested mission or attach a patrol platoon
LRRP to the requesting unit for employment, as de-
Employment of provisional LRRP by division sired. However, LRRP previously organized
and smaller units is not frequent except in within the division, separate brigade, and
stability operations. Normal reconnaissance, armored cavalry regiment provide an addi-
surveillance, and target acquisition missions will tional intelligence collection capability to these
bc accomplished by organic reconnaissance ele- organizations. When missions require use of
ments. Missions requiring the use of LRRP are provisional patrols, their organization, plan-
normally conducted by elements of the or- ning, and operations are essenbinlly as dia-
ganizational LRRP company, which accomplish cussed for the LRRP company.

20
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

CHAPTER 5

STABILITY OPERATIONS

5-1. General to perform LRRP missions, with or apart from


US LRRP units.
The objcctivcs of this chapter are to-
c. The stability Operations environment will
a. Identify and discuss the conditions pecu-
most likely require the employment of MTOE
liar to stability operations as they pertain to LRRP companies and provisional LRRP units.
LRRP activities. The organization, equipment, and training of
b. Provide guidance on planning and con- these units must be correlated to the geographic
ducting LRRP operations in a stnbility opera- region and level of conflict in which they will
tions environment. be employed.

5-2. Planning Concepts 5-3. Preparafion and Coordination


a. Contrasts and comparisons of stability a. General preparation and coordination of
operations and limited and general war are dis- LRRP in a stability operations envimnment
cussed in detail in PM 31-16 and F M 31-23. must be continuous, comprehensive, flexible,
Intelligence requirements in stability opera- and closely linked with other information-
tions are covered in F M 30-31. Commanders gathering agencies. When an LRRP mission is
and staffs eng:',red in LRRP operations should assigned, the following preparation and cwr-
become thoroughly familiar with these condi- dination sequence should be followed :
tions and consider them during all phases of
(1) The controlling headquarters desig-
LRRP activities. nates a general area of operations (AO) for
b. Given the conditions cited above, the pri- the patrol being employed, and when necessary,
mar9 mission of LRRP remains essentially as provides for aviation support, fire support,
stated in chapter 2 of this manual. However, and a ready reaction force. The LRRP com-
commandcrs' concepts, stnff estimates, and pany commander is then notified of mission,
other planning factors must consider the vari- approximate date and time of insertion, tenta-
ables incident to the local situation in devis- tive extraction date and time, general area of
ing ncw methods and means for accomplishing operations, and special requirements. Units
this mission. These variables may include per- with A 0 adjacent to LRRP mission A 0 are also
tinent host country/U. S. relationships; prox- alerted to the planned insertion date, tentative
imity, strength, and disposition of friendly and duration of mission, size of LRRP being em-
enemy €orces, fluid tactical siuation : local popu- ployed and area of employment.
lation attitudes toward host country govern- (2) The LRRP company commander is-
ment, toward the insurgents and their supports, sues the warning order to the patrol platoon
and toward the US and its involvement in the assigned the mission. Assisted by the company
hostilities. Also to be considered are the avail- operations officer, he annlyzes the mission and
ability of operational LRRP units and the develops detailed plans for aerial reconnais-
feasibility of organizing, equipping, training, sance, insertion, extraction, fire support, and
and providing advisors for indigenous forces communication.

21
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM
( 3 ) The LRRP company operations officer (2) Movement to patrol AO.
assisls in accomplishing tasks outlined in (2) (3) Insertion.
above. He coordinates with supporting avia- (4) Actions in patrol AO,
tion and fire support elements. He notifies the ( 5 ) Extraction.
controlling headquarters TOC when the final (6) Return to controllinn headquarters
plan has been complctcd, to include exact area base.
of operations. insertion and extraction times, b. Co?~ditions.T he following discussion ( c
patrol location, control measures or proposed through h below) describes each of the phases
route, communication plan and other pertinent listed in a above, treating them in chronologii-
information. IIe presents the concept of operi- cnl sequence. Three conditions are presup-
tion to the platoon leader and patrol leader(s). posed-
(4) The LRRP company communications (1 ) Necessary planning and coordination
officer assists the LRRP company commander actions covered in paragraph 5-3 have been
and operations officer by developing the de- completed.
tailed communication plan to support the (2) The LRRP is to be inserted by heli-
LRRP mission. He also prepares and distributes copter,
extracts of the SO1 and SSI, and issues nec- (3) The aviation element consist.¶ Of five
essary instructions to communication platoon
helicopters (command and control-I, LRRP
personnel for continuous communication SUP- transport-1, rescue/space-1, armed escort-2).
port for the duration of committed patrol ( 9 ) .
( 5 ) The LRRP platoon leader selects the c. Rendezvozm witlt Aviation Element. The
patrol to accomplish the mission, issues his LRRP platoon leader, patrol leader, and avia-
warning order and participates in tho over tion mission commander meet at a prescribed
fliEht with the pakol leader and key aviators point and time to coordinate last-minute in-
to select LZ, alternate LZ, routes, checkpoints, structions. Personnel load into assigned air-
pickup zone, and alternate pickup zone. He craft, and the LRRP force departs the PZ.
(with the patrol leader) receives the concept d. Movement to Patrol AO. The aviation mis-
of the operation from the operations oficer sion commander directs the force to the AO.
and listens to the patrol leader’s briefback and Security measures and diversionary tactics are
patrol order. He also supervises patrol prepara- employed enroute to avoid enemy detection of
tion and conducts a detailed inspection prior LZ.
to patrol departure. The LRRP platoon leader e. Insertion. The LRRP transport helicopter
inserkq the patrol into the AO.
leaves formation at predesignated RP, touches
( 6 ) The LRRP platoon sergeant assists as down on LZ. The patrol quickly exists aircraft,
directed by the platoon leader and assumes moves off LZ, and the transport helicopter re-
command in his absence. joins the remainder of aviation element. The
(7) The patrol leader, upon receipt of the aviation element returns to controlling head.
warning order, begins preparation of his pa- quarters base and stands by for further mis-
trol for the mission. He accompanies the plc- sion requirements. The LRRP platoon leader
toon leader on the overflight and assists in se- renders a situation report (SITREP) enroute
lecting LZ, routes, checkpoints, PZ, alternate (if required).
PZ, and other control measures. He completes f . Actions in Patrol AO. The patrol movw
detailed preparation of the patrol, issues the
patrol order, and supervises throughout (in-
to the objective area, using proper formations,
dispersion, mutes, and other security measures
spection, rehearsals, execution),
to avoid enemy detection. When the patrol
arrives in the objective area, the patml leader
5-4. LRRP Operations halts the patrol, reconnoitera forward, then
a. Plmes. The conduct of LRRP operations positions the patrol to accomplish its aealgned
may be divided into the following general mission. If necessary, the patrol leader accom-
phases: plishes his mission using reconnaissance by
(1) Rendezvous with transport element. movement. Using prearranged code or signal,

22 At30 &EMMA
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM
the patrol leader notifies the base station when nance, and care and cleaning of patrol weapons
the patrol is in position. The patrol remains and equipment. The platoon leader specifies
in the objective area (but not in same posi- trainine, preparation for other mission (s), or
tions) observing, recording, and reporting in- compensatory time. Compensatory time, or
formation (including spot reports) until time stand-down time, provides for necessary rest
to move to t h e PZ or other objective area. to insure a continued high state of morale,
g. Eztvaction.
health, and effectiveness of LRRP personnel.
The LRRP company commander, platoon
( 1 ) Voluntary (upon completion of mis- leader, and patrol leader continue preptrotion,
sion) , The patrol moves to vicinity of PZ and planning, supervision, inspections, and follow-
observes PZ to determine situation. The patrol up actions to insure the continuance of a high
leader contacts the command and control ship, state of LRRP operational readiness.
advises the aviation mission commander and
LRRP platoon lender as to the apparent ground 5-6. Combat Support
situation. The aviation mission commander
orders pick-up ship to extract the patrol, leads a. Generd. The controlling headquarters is
aviation element (minus) to orbit point. The responsible for providing combat support to
pick-up ships lands, patrol loads quickly, ship committed patrols. Missions, concepts, organi-
lifts off and rejoins aviation element a t orbit zation, and operations of artillery, engineer,
point. Then the LRRP and aviation element re- intelligence, signal, Army aviation, and tactical
turn to base, LRPP platoon leader gives air support in stability operations are dis-
SITREP to base station enroute. cussed in FM 30-31, FM 31-16, and F M 31-
23.

(2) Involuntary (due to enemy pressure).


The patrol leader contacts base station and re- b. A i t i l l e q and Naval Gibhfire. The use of
quests emergency sxtraction. The controlling artillery in support of the LRRP will depend
headquarters initiates contingency plans for primarily upon the nature of the patrol’s mis-
emergency extraction. The extraction force sion. In any event, fire support planning must
proceeds to PZ (or alternate PZ if primary PZ allow for response to patrol requests through-
is compromised). The aviation mission com- out the controlling headquarters’ radius of op-
mander directs the emergency extraction, to in- erations. This may require establishment of
clude the use of armed helicopters to suppress mission priorities and firing position displace-
or destroy enemy resistance. If priorities per- ment procedures. Also, i t will likely entail
mit, a F A C will accompany the extraction force being prepared to fire in all directions. Fire
to direct tactical air support missions and support planning and coordination should also
other available fire support. consider the use of naval gixfire when the
patrol is to be operating within range of avail-
h. R e t w n to Controlling HeadgttnTters Base. able naval gunfire weapons. All patrol members
Upon completion of extraction and return to must be familiar with the capabilities and
the controlling headquarters base, the aviation limitations of their support artillery and naval
element is released unless otherwise specified. gunfire weapons as well as methods of re-
questing and adjusting these indirect fires,
5-5. Post Mission Activities c. Signal. As in limited and general war,
n. Debriefing. The LRRP platoon leader and rapid, reliable communication is essential to
patrol report to the LRRP company operations the conduct of LRRP operations in a stability
officer or G2/S2 debriefer (as directed in pa- operations environment. Base stations will be
trol order or SOP). Debriefing is conducted located as far forward as the enemy and friend-
using patrol report format ( F M 21-76). The ly situations permit, either in forward operat-
debriefer prepares final copies of patrol re- ing bases (FOB), or in base camps on the
port for distribution and submits after-action periphery of patrol AO. Signal requirements
report, as required, to appropriate agencies. beyond the capability of the LRRP unit will be
b. Maintetiance of Eqicipment. The patrol coordinated by the controlling headquarters
leader supervises equipment turn-in, mainte- signal officer.
AGO 6663.4
23
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM
d. Airnu Aviation. The conduct of LRRP op- Consideration should be given to assigning
erations in a stability operations environment these LRRP missions to other resources, suoh
will rely heavily upon Army aviation for a as special forces units, if available. If the situa-
variety of combat support tasks. These in- tion warrants, provisional LRRP units may be
clude: formed within the TOE of divisions and sepa-
(1) Aerial reconnaissance, surveillance, rate brigades. The decision to organize, equip,
and target acquisition. train, and employ provisional LRRP is a com-
(2) Command and control. mand prerogative. The commander charged
(3) Patrol insei*tionand extraction. with making this decision should carefully
(4) Armed helicopter suppoit. consider the advantages and disadvantages of
(5) Airlift for reaction forces. forming provisional LRRP in light of their
(6) Emergency resupply. anticipated contribution to the accomplishment
(7) Medical evacuation. of his units’s overall mission assignments.
(8) Radio relay. b . Respoiisibilities. Once the decision has
e. Tactied Ail. Szip)io~t.Tactical air support been made to form provisional LRRP units,
will be coordinated by the controlling head- command and staff relationship must be con-
qiinrters fire support coordinator (FSCOORD) firmed so that responsibilities are clearly de-
and the foi.ward air controller (PAC). Con- lineated for all phases of LRRP activities to
tingency plans for emergency extraction should includ&-
include the use of tactical air support. (1) Identifying and recruiting patrol
leaders and members.
5-7. Combat Service Support (2) Providing special equipment and
The combat service support considerations .logistical support,
listed in chapter 3 also apply generally to sta- (3) Establishing programs of instruction
bility operations. The primary differences are for LRRP operational readiness training.
the type and degree of combat service support (4) Planning, preparing, and conducting
available, and the need for special support LRRP operations.
:iriangements by the controlling headquai- (6) Other actions necessary for support
ters due to the shifting of units to meet chang- o f LRRP operations.
ing tactical requirements. c.’ Olpanizalion. Individual patrols should
consist of a t leaat one patrol leader, two radio
5-8. Security operators, and one scout observer. The number
Stability operations present special security and composition of provisional LRRP in each
problems. In addition to tho security measures division or separate brigade will vary with mis-
listed in chapter 3, care must be taken to in- sion requirements and the desires of the com-
sure that host count.ry and other allied forces mander.
are provided information pertaining to LRRP d. Equipmeitt. Special equipment require-
operations only on a strict need-to-know basis. ments must be identified and made available
Furthermore, indigenous personnel working either through normal supply channels or
in sensitive areas, rcgardlcss of their capacity from designated organic or supporting units.
(ex., maids, drivers, interpreters, translaton, Equipment estimates and requests should re-
and clerks), must be carefully screened and oh- flect the minimum amount required for mission
served to avoid enemy exploitation of these accomplishment. This will preclude burdening
sources to gain information. LRRP unnecessarily and stripping other com-
bat units of essential items.
5-9. Provisional LRRP c. E?nplovmcnt. The employment of pro-
(c. Gmcial. The conduct of stability opera- visional patrols must be in consonance with the
trans (particularly in the early stages) may requirements of the tactical situation. Patrol
create LRRP mission requirements prior to the actions are designed to complement other op-
introduction of organic TOE and MTOE LRRP erations and contribute to the success of the
companies into the friendly order of battle. major unit’s mission.
21 AGO KKBBh
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

APPENDIX A
REFERENCES
I

PM 1-15 Divisional Aviation Battalion and Group.


FM 1-100 Army Aviation Utilization.
PM 3-10 Employment of Chemical and Biological Agents.
:PM 3-12 Operational Aspects of Radiological Defense.
PM 5-36 Roiite Reconnaissance and Classification.
FM 7-30 Infantiy, Airborne, and Mechanized Division Brigades.
F M 17-30 The Aimored Division Brigade.
FM 17-36 Divisional Armored and Air Cavalry Units.
F M 17-95 The Armored Cavalry Regiment.
F M 21-20 Physical Training.
PM 21-26 Map Reading.
P M 21-40 Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense.
F M 21-50 Ranger Training and Ranger Operations.
P M 21-75 Combat Trainine of the Individual Soldier and Patrolling.
( S ) FM 21-77 Joint World Wide Evasion and Escape Manual (U).
F M 24-1 Tactical Communications Doctrine.
Fnf 24-16 Signal Orders, Records and Reports.
FM 24-18 Field Radio Techniques.
FM 24-20 Field Wire and Field Cable Techniques.
P M 30-6 Combat Intelligence.
F M 30-9 Military Intelligence Battalion Field Army.
F M 30-10 Terrain Intelligence.
F M 30-16 Technical Intelligence.
FM 30-20 Aerial Surveillance-Reconnaissance, Field Army.
FM 30-31 Stability Operations-Intellixence ( U ) .
PM 31-16 Counterguerrilla Operations.
FM 31-20 Special Forces Operational Techniques.
FM 31-21 Special Forces Operations.
FM 31-23 Stability Operations, US Army Doctrine.
PM 31-25 Desert Operations.
FM 31-30 Jungle Training and Operations.
FM 31-36 Night Opera t'ions.
FM 31-60 River Crossing Operations.
FM 31-70 Basic Cold Weather Manual.
ACO 6 C b A 25
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

F M 31-71 Northern Operations.


F M 31-72 Mountain '-7erntion.s.
F M 33-1 Psychol~gicalOperations, US Army Doctrine.
F M 57-1 US A m y / U S Air Force Doctrine for Airborne Operations.
F M 57-35 Airmobile Operations.
FM 57-38 Pathfinder Operations.
FM 61-100 The Division.
FM 100-6 Operations of Army forces in the Field.
F M 101-5 Staff Ofticers Field Manual-Staff Organization and Procedure.
F M 101-10-1 Staff Officers Field Manual-Organization, Technical and Logi9ticnl
Data, Unclassified Data.
FM 101-31-1 StaffOfficersField Manual-Nuclear Wenpons Employment.
TOE 7-157 Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol Company.
TM 57-210 Air Movement of Troops and Equipment.
TM 57-220 Technical Training of Parachutists.
AR 320-5 Dictionary of United States Army Terms.
AR 320-50 Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes.
( C )AR 380-62 Codes, Non-Machine Ciphers, and Authentication Systems (U).
JCS Pub 1 Dictionary of United States Military Terms for Joint Usage.

26
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

APPENDIX B

PATROL SVEPS
(Consider all; complete as required: order may vary)
I

1. Study the Mission c. Decide weapons and ammunition to be car-


ried (normally covered by SOP),
a. Type: (Reconnaissance) (Surveillance)
(Target Acquisition).
6, Issue Warning Order
b. Identify essential tasks to be accom-
plished in executing the mission. 7. Coordinate (Continuous throughout)
a. Planning.
2. Plan Use of l i m e
b. Conduct.
a. Make mental o r written schedule for ac-
complishing required patrol actions. 8. Reconnoiter
b. Use reverse planning technique. a. If possible, conduct aerial reconnaissance
to confirm, clarify, and supplement informa-
3. Sfudy Terrain and Situation tion gained from ;?aps, and other sources.
a. Tewain. Using map and a e r i d photos, b. Make ground reconnaissance if time and
analyze for cover, concealment, observation, circumstance permit (check friendly coordina-
fields of fire, obstacles, key terrain features, tion points, observe for routes, danger areas
avenues of approach, and withdrawal routes. and obstacles).
b. Situation. Study strengths, locations, dis-
9. Complete Detailed Plan
positions, and capabilities of both friendly and
enemy forces that may affect patrol’s mission. To be incorporated into paragraphs 3, 4, and
5 of the patrol order.
4. Make Tentative Plan 10. Issue Patrol Order
a. Based on analysis of mission, terraill, and a. Standard operation order sequence, short-
situation. ened and simplified to fit patrol situation.
b. Preliminary concept of operation. 0. Use visual aids (terrain models, black-
boards, sand tables) if available. If not, im-
5. Organize the Patrol provise to assure complete understanding.
a. Determine primary, secondary tasks for
patrol members and any attachments (linguist, 11. Supervise (throughout), Inspect,
guide, tracker teams, ete.). Rehearse

b. Select equipment (routine, special), 12. Execute Mission

27
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

APPENDIX C
LRRP SOP
-- -
1. Routine, recurl-ina procedures may be standardized by SOP, thus
eliminating the need for lcngt,hy recitation of these items in patrol order.

2. The format below may be used t o establish patrol SOP. Modification to


fit existing meds is encouraged.
( 1 , Duties and r espoiisibiliticspd).ol niemhers.
of
(1) Patrol leader (assistant patrol leader).
( 2 ) Radio
operators.
( 3 ) Scoi;t observer.
b. Uniform.
(1) Stendard patrol uniform.
( 2 ) Modifications dictated by mission, climate, or other factors
(listed as “patrol uniform plus ...
patrol uniform minus. , .”). .
c. Weaiions.
(1) Individual.
(2) Special.
( 3 ) Preparation of, to include test firing, cmouflage, and taping.
d. Eqzciliment.
(1) Standard (Prescribed maximum, minimum loads of ammo, ra-
( 2 ) Special
tions, and other equipment; definitive instructions on
wha carries what equipment, where located on per-
son).
e. Persow)iel ccwd cqiiipnient loading ?)lam.
( 1 ) Airborne.

(2) Airmobile (fixed, rotary, types),
(3) Waterborne.
f . Desi.r/natio?i of alternate leuders, keU ?neii.
(1) Assistant patrol leader.
( 2 ) Point
man.
(3) Compass man (men).
(4) Pace man (men).
g. Insertion techniqz~es(aircraft exit procedures, movement of LZ).
h. Patrol forinations (day, night, open, wooded terrain),

za
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

i. Actions at danger areas.


(1) Open areas.
(2) Roads, trails, and streams.
( 3 ) Native villages.
(4) Enemy positions.
(6) Minefields, barbed wire, boobytmps, and other enemy ob-
stacles.
j . .4ctions o n enetny contact (immediate action drills).
k . Actions'at halts (security, dispersion, observation).
1. Recording awl w?)ortixg of information.
(1) I~olmat.
(2) Communication security, procedures, and schedules.
nz. Eme?:rlenc?/destruction p h n s .
(1) Radios.
(2) SO1 extracts, codes, etc.
(3) Other designated items.
n. Fxtraction techniques.
(1) Observation and security of PZ.
(2) Coordination with aircraft, boat, or other means of transport.
o. Dcbi-iefings.
(1) Dnte/time/location of debriefing.
( 2 ) Person ( s ) responsible f o r debriefins..
p . Post-mission activities.
(1) Preparation of detailed after-action reports.
(2) Training/maintenance.
( 3 ) Compensatory time.
(4) Preparation for new missions.

3. Two points concerning the use of patrol SOP should be emphasized.


a. Avoid setting patterns that, if detected, fnvor the enemy.
b. A patrol SOP is only as effective as the pwple who prepare and
follow it.

i9
WWW.SURVIVALEBOOKS.COM

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

Ofiicial; W. C. WESTMORELAND,
General, United States Armv,
Chief of Staff.
K E N N E T H G. WICKHAM,
Major Geneial, United States A m y ,
The Adjqizctant Ge?aeial.

Distribution:

To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-11 requirement8 for Infantry Long-ltange Pa-

trol Cornpnny.

t, us. covemmant Prtnfing OMW: 1968 --345.545/55631\

30