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A STUDY ON SATISFACTION OF CONTRACT LABOUR IN C.R.

I PUMPS
PROJECT REPORT Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

Submitted by V.SASIKALA. Reg.No:12F50589

Under the Guidance of Mr. S.RAJESH MBA., Assistant Professor Department of Management Studies

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES COIMBATORE 641 035

SEPTEMBER - 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO.
Synopsis

PARTICULARS

PAGE.NO.

List of tables

List of tables

Introduction to the study

Introduction to the organisation

3
4

Introduction to the industry

Objectives of the study

5
6

Limitations of the study

Review of literature

Research methodology

Analysis and interpretation

9.
10.

Findings

Suggestions

11

Conclusion

Appendix

Bibliography

LIST OF TABLES

S. NO

PARTICULARS

PAGE. NO

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Showing the Age of Respondents Showing the gender of respondents Showing the Experience of the Respondents Showing the Department of the Respondents Showing the Educational qualification of the Respondents Showing the monthly income of the Respondents Showing the respondents opinion about the company clear conveying of its mission

8.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the right time of the managers communication.

9.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the supervisor listening the words of employees

10.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the opportunities given to the employees for learning.

11.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the convenient working hours

12.

Showing the respondents opinion towards happiness of working.

13. 14.

Showing the respondents opinion of too much of work Showing the respondents of having tools and resources for doing their work

15.

Showing the respondents opinion for having training to do their job

16.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the safety measures provided by the company

17.

Showing the respondents of getting recognition for their job

18.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the amount of work expected

19. 20.

Showing the respondents opinion towards their colleagues Showing the respondents opinion towards the department communication

21.

Showing the respondents of having a good relationship with the supervisor.

22.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the supervisor active listening to employees suggestions

23.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the enabling of best performance by the supervisor

24.

Showing the Respondents opinion towards the promotion of teamwork atmosphere by the supervisor

25.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the superiors evaluation of employees work on regular basis.

26.

Showing the respondents opinion that the superior will address the employees questions

27.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the satisfaction of support of the co-workers

28.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the helping tendency of one another

29.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the satisfaction of refreshments.

30.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the employee motivation by the supervisor to increase their efficiency

31.

Showing the respondents overall satisfaction level of the present job

LIST OF CHARTS

S. NO

PARTICULARS

PAGE NO

1.

Showing the Age of Respondents Showing the gender of respondents

2.

3.

Showing the Experience of the Respondents

4.

Showing the Department of the Respondents

5.

Showing the Educational qualification of the Respondents

6.

Showing the monthly income of the Respondents

7.

Showing the respondents opinion about the company clear conveying of its mission

8.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the right time of the managers communication.

9.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the supervisor listening the words of employees

10.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the opportunities given to the employees for learning.

11.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the convenient working hours

12.

Showing the respondents opinion towards happiness of working.

13.

Showing the respondents opinion of too much of work

14.

Showing the respondents of having tools and resources for doing their work

15.

Showing the respondents opinion for having training to do their job

16.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the safety measures provided by the company

17.

Showing the respondents of getting recognition for their job

18.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the amount of work expected

19.

Showing the respondents opinion towards their colleagues

20.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the department communication

21.

Showing the respondents of having a good relationship with the supervisor.

22.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the supervisor active listening to employees suggestions

23.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the enabling of best performance by the supervisor

24.

Showing the Respondents opinion towards the promotion of teamwork atmosphere by the supervisor Showing the respondents opinion towards the superiors evaluation of employees work on regular basis.

25.

26.

Showing the respondents opinion that the superior will address the employees questions

27.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the satisfaction of support of the co-workers

28.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the helping tendency of one another

29.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the satisfaction of refreshments.

30.

Showing the respondents opinion towards the employee motivation by the supervisor to increase their efficiency

31.

Showing the respondents overall satisfaction level of the present job

SYNOPSIS
This research work has been done to measure the satisfaction level of employees with special reference to C.R.I. Pumps. Today to sustain in such a competitive market its very

important for the organization to retain good employees that contribute towards the attainment of Organizational goal and employee satisfaction as well.

The research has been done with a sample size of 100 employees based on random sampling techniques. Data was collected based on structured questionnaire method five factors namely employee motivation and work environment, working relation, salary and future prospects, Training & work involvement and job rotation. We found the employees to be satisfied on the basis of above said five factors.

The statistical tools used in this study by the researcher are simple percentage method, chi-square analysis and Anova. The SPSS software has been used for the purpose of data analysis. The Chi-Square tests, Anova and simple percentage method were performed to view the satisfaction level of the employees. We also found that a few important factors that normally contribute to the employee satisfaction such as welfare measures, role clarity, recognition at work.

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

1. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

CONTRACT LABOUR (1970):

CONTRACT LABOUR is a term applied to labour as employed to perform some work, which has no direct employer employee relation with the party called principal employer, for whom that work is ultimately done. The parties who act as intermediary between the principal employers and the worker are called as the contractors and their relationship with the principal employer is governed by contract between them. All over the world, employment is recognized as a contract between employer and employee. Both parties are supposed to honour it. Those were the reasons that even the fifth pay commission headed by Justice Mr. Pandian has suggested: that workers for certain jobs in the government of India also should be engaged through contract system and that will unburden the government to a great extent. The concept of turn key and franchise is also an extension of the contract labour system. Hence, there has been a demand in this country that contract labour act, 1970 be amended to bring it in tune with the changing scenario of the world. In order to taken this study to know the satisfaction level of the contract labour to increase the productivity and their performance in C.R.I Pumps. Thus, this project is undertaken to make a study.

Advantages of Using Temporary Labor:

When we use temporary labour we should be getting an employee that has already been screened and interviewed by the temp agency. If we work closely with the same agency they should be able to get a feel for what type of employees we are looking for. This also saves our time having to go through the normal hiring process.

If we are not satisfied with the employee. Well the solution to that is simple. Ask the Contractor to send out someone else. We are not required to use anyone he sends to us.

There are a couple of other advantages to using a temporary labour. One is the ability to let go the employee when we no longer need them. All we have to do is make a call or give a letter and the Contractor will handle the employee.

The other advantage is the ease with which payroll is handled. Thats because the contractor handles the employees payroll. He deals with all the taxes as well as the benefits the employee might be receiving. All we have to do is pay the bill.

Economic and financial feasibility - the contract Labour are able to do a better job in terms of supervision since they have a fear of loss of job as compared to regular workers.

As such the principal employer has no liability towards the contract labours but his liability is limited to the act of payment of bill raised by the contractor.

Under sec. 16 (1) (c) of contract labour Act if the contract labour appointed by the contractor is more than 100 then it is the duty of contractor to provide Canteen for the Labours.

As the contract Labours are appointed by contractor there will be no chance for Labour Unions.

Dis-Advantages of Using Temporary Labor:


As per Sec. 10 of Contract Labour Act. We cannot appoint them on machine work but only loading and un-loading work can be given to them. However, being the principal employer, we have to ensure that the contract employees are getting their salary from the contractor in time. It is the responsibility of the principal employer to ensure that EPF/ESI in respect of these workers is remitted by the contractor in time. We have also to ensure that bonus is given to those who are eligible for. Besides, we have to obtain permission from the appropriate authorities for hiring employees through a contractor. Also if the contractor dose not complies with the statutory provisions under sec. 21 regarding payment of wages the Principal employer have to pay the same. The downside of hiring temporary employees? The main problem actually comes from what happens when we find an employee wed like to keep. Most temp agencies require their workers to sign a contract. Most are either three or six months in duration. The contract keeps the worker from jumping ship if they are offered a job. This gives the company that is using the employee usually only two choices. One is to buy out the contract. This can often cost the company thousands of rupees. Its how the agency is able

to still make its money on the worker. The other option is to keep the worker on until the employees contract runs out. Either way our business will pay a price. Its up to us to decide whether the employee is worth the price. As the employees are appointed by contractor we have no chance to judge their working ability before appointing them.

Essential ingredients of contract labor:


1. That the employment may be or through a contractor as define section 2(1) (c) of the act. 2. That he must be a workman as defined in section 2(a)(I) of the act. 3. That he must be employed in or in connection with the work of the establishment. It follows that any person who is in some manner or other connected with the work of the establishment would be contract labour. 4. That the employment may be with or without the knowledge of the principal employer. 5. There is no warranty to impose that it is only where the contractor obtains a license. Under the act that workmen employed through him will be contract labour.

Standard Operating Procedure for Contract Labour Management System:


I. Ensuring issuance of work order to the party. II. Ensuring safety training of the labours indicated in the list submitted by the contractors for engineering as a contract labour to carry out the work. III. Receipt of the recommendation of HOD/ section in charge for the preparation of the Gate Passes of the labours undergone for safety training and submission of such list by contractors in contract cell. IV. Ensuring PFcode no of contractor by contract cell & then filling up of the nomination form of provident fund from contract labours. V. Ensuring ESI code no. of contractors by contract cell and then filling up of the relevant declaration forms from contract labours. VI. Ensuring Form 30 of Medical Fitness Certificate issued by the Government Doctors in respect of each labours.

VII. Ensuring credentials of labours from list of undesirable person. VIII. Ensuring the declaration from the contractors about good character and antecedents of labours. IX. Ensuring the Photos of labour and thereafter preparation of Gate Pass.

License by the contractor:


The act casts an obligation on every contractor to take license issued in that behalf by the licensing officer. No contractor to whom the act applies, shall undertake or execute any work through contract labour except under and in accordance with a license issued in that behalf by the licensing officer. An application for grant of license is to be made in the prescribed form and shall contained the particulars regarding the location of the establishment , nature of process , operation or work for which contract labour is to employed and such other particular as may be prescribed. Thus, engaging employees through the contractor without obtaining license or registration by the contractor will be violative of the provision of contract labour. It is clear that not only a contractor but also a sub-contractor who comes within the definition of the term contractor in section 2 , clause is bound to obtain a license under section 12, sub section (1), before he can undertake or execute any work through contract labour.

Forms and Terms & Conditions of license:


1. Every license granted under sub section (1) of section12 shall be in form 6.

2. Every license granted under cub rule (1) or renewed under rule 29 shall be subject to following conditions namely:a) The license shall be non- transferable. b) The number of workmen employed as contract labour in the establishment shall not, on any day, exceed the maximum under specified in the license. 3. Save as provided in these rules, the fees paid for the grant, or as the as a case may be, for renewal of the license shall be non-refundable. 4. The rates of the wages payable to workmen by the contractor shall not be less than the rate prescribed under the minimum wages act ,1948(11). 5. In cases where the workmen employed by the contractor perform the same or similar kind of work as a workmen directly employed by the principal employee of the establishment, the wage rates, the holidays, the hours of work and the other conditions of service of the workmen of the contractor shall be same as applicable to the workmen directly employed by the employer of the establishment on the same or similar kind of work. 6. In other cases the wage rate, holidays, hours of work & condition of the service of the workmen of the contractor shall be such as may be specified in the behalf of the chief labour commissioner (central) 7. In every establishment where 20 or 20 more women are ordinarily employed as contract labour, there shall be provided two rules of reasonable dimensions for the use of their children under the age of 6 years. 8. One such room shall be used as a play room for the children and the other as bed room for the children. 9. The license shall notify any change in the number of workmen or the conditions of work to the licensing officer. 10. No female contract labour shall be employed by the contract labour before 6.00 am or after 7.00 pm.

Validity and Renewal of License:

Every license granted under rule 25 or renewed under 29 shall remain in force for 12 month from the date it is granted or renewed. Renewal contractor shall apply to the licensing officer for renewal of the license.

Welfare and Health of Contract Labour

1. Rest Room:
In every place wherein contract labour is required to half at night in connection with the working of establishment to which the act applies and in which employment of contract labour is likely to continue for 3 months or more, the contractor shall provide and maintain rest rooms or other suitable alternative accommodation within which 15 days of the coming into force of the rules in the case of existing establishment and within 15 days of the commencement of the employment of contract labour in new establishment.

a) Separate rooms shall be provided for women employees.

b) Effective and suitable provision shall be made in every room for securing and maintaining adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air and there shall also be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable natural or artificial lighting.

c) The rest room or other suitable alternative accommodation shall be so constructed as to afford adequate protection against heat, wind, rain and shall have smooth, hard and impervious floor surface.

d) The rest room or other suitable alternative accommodation shall be at a convenient distance from the establishment and shall have adequate supply of wholesome drinking water.

2. Canteen:

In every establishment to which the act applies and wherein work regarding the employment of contract labour is likely to continue for 6 months and wherein contract labour numbering 100 or more are ordinary employed an adequate canteen shall be provided by the contactor. a) The canteen shall be maintained by the contractor or principal employer as the case may be in an efficient manner.

b) The canteen shall be sufficiently lighted at all times when any person has access to it.

3. First Aid Facilities:


There shall be provided and maintained by the contractor so as to be readily accessible during all working hours a first aid box equipped with prescribed contents at every place where contract labour is employed by him.

Registration of establishments employing contract labour:


1. Appointment of registering officers:- the appropriate govt. may , by an order notified in the official gazette: Appoint such persons being gazette officers of government , as it thinks fit to be registering officers for the purpose of this chapter ; and Define the limits within which a registering officer shall exercise the powers conferred on him by or under this act.

Contract Labour Act: Prohibition of employment of contract labour:


(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the appropriate Government may, after consultation with the Central Board or, as the case may be, a State Board, prohibit, by notification in the Official Gazette, employment of contract labour in any process, operation or other work in any establishment.

(2) Before issuing any notification under sub-section (1) in relation to an establishment, the appropriate Government shall have regard to the conditions of work and benefits provided for the contract labour in that establishment and other relevant factors, such as (a) Whether the process, operation or other work is incidental to, or necessary for the industry, trade, business, manufacture or occupation that is carried on in the establishment; (b) whether it is of perennial nature, that is to say, it is of sufficient duration having regard to the nature of industry, trade, business, manufacture or occupation carried on in that establishment; (c) Whether it is done ordinarily through regular workmen in that establishment or an establishment similar thereto; (d) Whether it is sufficient to employ considerable number of whole-time workmen.

Employer Liability Act 1938: Sec. 3 (A) Contracting out. - Any provision contained in a contract of service or
apprenticeship, or in an agreement collateral thereto, shall be void in so far as it would have the effect of excluding or limiting any liability of the employer in respect of personal injuries caused to the person employed or apprenticed by the negligence of persons in common employment with him.

Employees State Insurance Act, 1948: (Sec. 69) Liability of owner or occupier of factories, etc. for excessive sickness benefit
(1) Where the Corporation considers that the incidence of sickness among insured persons is excessive by reason of-

(I) in sanitary working conditions in a factory or establishment or the neglect of the owner or occupier of the factory or establishment to observe any health regulations enjoined on him or under any enactment; or (ii) in sanitary conditions of any tenements or lodgings occupied by insured persons and such insanitary conditions are attributable to the neglect of the owner of the tenements or lodgings to observe any health regulations enjoined on him by or under any enactment, the Corporation may send to the owner or occupier of the factory or establishment or to the owner of the tenements or lodgings, as the case may be, a claim for the payment of the amount of the extra expenditure incurred by the Corporation as sickness benefit; and if the claim is not settled by agreement, the Corporation may refer the matter with a statement in support of its claim, to the appropriate government. (2) If the appropriate government is of opinion that a prima facie case for inquiry is disclosed, it may appoint a competent person or persons to hold an inquiry into the matter. (3) If upon such inquiry it is proved to the satisfaction of the person or persons holding the inquiry that the excess in incidence of sickness among the insured persons is due to the default or neglect of the owner or occupier of the factory or establishment or the owner of the tenements or lodgings, as the case may be, the said person or persons shall determine the amount of the extra expenditure incurred as sickness benefit, and the person or persons by whom the whole or any part of such amount shall be paid to the Corporation. (4) A determination under sub-section (3) may be enforced as if it were a decree for payment of money passed in a suit by a Civil Court. (5) For the purposes of this section, "owner" of tenements or lodgings shall include any agent of the owner and any person who is entitled to collect the rent of the tenements or lodgings as a lessee of the owner.

2. INTRODUCTION TO THE PUMP INDUSTRY

A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and

consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps. Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as wells, aquarium, pond filtering and aeration, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers. In the medical industry, pumps are used for biochemical processes in developing and manufacturing medicine, and as artificial replacements for body parts, in particular the artificial heart and penile prosthesis. In biology, many different types of chemical and bio-mechanical pumps have evolved, and bio mimicry is sometimes used in developing new types of mechanical pumps.

TYPES:
Mechanical pumps may be submerged in the fluid they are pumping or external to the fluid. Pumps can be classified by their method of displacement into positive displacement pumps, impulse pumps, velocity pumps, gravity pumps, steam pumps and valve less pumps.

Positive displacement pump:


A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. Some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume is constant through each cycle of operation.

Positive displacement pumps behavior and safety:


Positive displacement pumps, unlike centrifugal or root-dynamic pumps, theoretically can produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter what the discharge pressure. Thus, positive displacement pumps are constant flow machines. However, a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases prevents a truly constant flow rate. A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump, because it has no shutoff head like centrifugal pumps. A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve continues to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge line increases until the line bursts, the pump is severely damaged, or both. A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement pump is therefore necessary. The relief valve can be internal or external. The pump manufacturer normally has the option to supply internal relief or safety valves. The internal valve is usually only used as a safety precaution. An external relief valve in the discharge line, with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank provides increased safety.

Rotary positive displacement pumps:


Positive displacement rotary pumps move fluid using a rotating mechanism that creates a vacuum that captures and draws in the liquid.

Advantages:
Rotary pumps are very efficient because they naturally remove air from the lines, eliminating the need to bleed the air from the lines manually.

Disadvantages:
The nature of the pump demands very close clearances between the rotating pump and the outer edge, making it rotate at a slow, steady speed. If rotary pumps are operated at high speeds, the fluids because erosion, which eventually causes enlarged clearances that liquid can pass through, this reduces efficiency.

Rotary positive displacement pumps fall into three main types:


Gear pumps - a simple type of rotary pump where the liquid is pushed between two gears Screw pumps - the shape of the internals of this pump usually two screws turning against each other pump the liquid

Rotary vane pumps - similar to scroll compressors, these have a cylindrical rotor encased in a similarly shaped housing. As the rotor orbits, the vanes trap fluid between the rotor and the casing, drawing the fluid through the pump.

Triplex-style plunger pumps:


Triplex plunger pumps use three plungers, which reduces the pulsation of single reciprocating plunger pumps. Adding a pulsation dampener on the pump outlet can further smooth the pump ripple, or ripple graph of a pump transducer. The dynamic relationship of the high-pressure fluid and plunger generally requires high-quality plunger seals. Plunger pumps with a larger number of plungers have the benefit of increased flow, or smoother flow without a pulsation dampener. The increase in moving parts and crankshaft load is one drawback. Car washes often use these triplex-style plunger pumps (perhaps without pulsation dampeners). In 1968, William Bridgeman significantly reduced the size of the triplex pump and increased the lifespan so that car washes could use equipment with smaller footprints. Durable high pressure seals, low pressure seals and oil seals, hardened crankshafts, hardened connecting rods, thick ceramic plungers and heavier duty ball and roller bearings improve reliability in triplex pumps. Triplex pumps now are in a myriad of markets across the world.

Compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps:


One modern application of positive displacement diaphragm pumps is compressed-airpowered double-diaphragm pumps. Run on compressed air these pumps are intrinsically safe by design, although all manufacturers offer ATEX certified models to comply with industry regulation. Commonly seen in all areas of industry from shipping to processing, Walden Pumps, Greco, Sandpiper or ARO are generally the larger of the brands. They are relatively inexpensive and can perform almost any duty, from pumping water out of bunds, to pumping hydrochloric acid from secure storage (dependent on how the pump is manufactured elastomers / body construction). Lift is normally limited to roughly 6m although heads can reach almost 200 Psi.

Rope pumps:

Devised in China as chain pumps over 1000 years ago, these pumps can be made from very simple materials: A rope, a wheel and a PVC pipe are sufficient to make a simple rope pump. For this reason they have become extremely popular around the world since the 1980s. Rope pump efficiency has been studied by grass roots organizations and the techniques for making and running them has been continuously improved.

Impulse Pumps:
Impulse pumps use pressure created by gas (usually air). In some impulse pumps the gas trapped in the liquid (usually water), is released and accumulated somewhere in the pump, creating a pressure that can push part of the liquid upwards.

Impulse pumps include:


Hydraulic ram pumps - uses pressure built up internally from released gas in liquid flow. Pulser pumps - run with natural resources, by kinetic energy only. Airlift pumps - run on air inserted into pipe, pushing up the water, when bubbles move upward, or on pressure inside pipe pushing water up.

Hydraulic ram pumps:


A hydraulic ram is a water pump powered by hydropower. It takes in water at relatively low pressure and high flow-rate and outputs water at a higher hydraulic-head and lower flowrate. The device uses the water hammer effect to develop pressure that lifts a portion of the input water that powers the pump to a point higher than where the water started. The hydraulic ram is sometimes used in remote areas, where there is both a source of low-head hydropower, and a need for pumping water to a destination higher in elevation than the source. In this situation, the ram is often useful, since it requires no outside source of power other than the kinetic energy of flowing water.

Velocity pumps:
Rot dynamic pumps (or dynamic pumps) are a type of velocity pump in which energy is added to the fluid by increasing the flow velocity. This increase in energy is converted to a gain in potential energy (pressure) when the velocity is reduced prior to or as the flow exits the pump into the discharge pipe. This conversion of kinetic energy to pressure is explained by the First law of thermodynamics, or more specifically by Bernoulli's principle. Dynamic pumps can be further subdivided according to the means in which the velocity gain is achieved.

These types of pumps have a number of characteristics: Continuous energy:


1. 2. Conversion of added energy to increase in kinetic energy (increase in velocity) Conversion of increased velocity (kinetic energy) to an increase in pressure head

A practical difference between dynamic and positive displacement pumps is how they operate under closed valve conditions. Positive displacement pumps physically displace fluid, so closing a valve downstream of a positive displacement pump produces a continual pressure build up that can cause mechanical failure of pipeline or pump. Dynamic pumps differ in that they can be safely operated under closed valve conditions (for short periods of time).

Centrifugal pump:
A centrifugal pump is a rot dynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure and flow rate of a fluid. Centrifugal pumps are the most common type of pump used to move liquids through a piping system. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radically outward or axially into a diffuser or volute chamber, from where it exits into the downstream piping system. Centrifugal pumps are typically used for large discharge through smaller heads. Centrifugal pumps are most often associated with the radial-flow type. However, the term "centrifugal pump" can be used to describe all impeller type rot dynamic pumps including the radial, axial and mixed-flow variations.

Radial-flow pumps:
Often simply referred to as centrifugal pumps. The fluid enters along the axial plane, is accelerated by the impeller and exits at right angles to the shaft (radically). Radial-flow pumps operate at higher pressures and lower flow rates than axial and mixed-flow pumps.

Axial-flow pumps:
Axial-flow pumps differ from radial-flow in that the fluid enters and exits along the same direction parallel to the rotating shaft. The fluid is not accelerated but instead "lifted" by the action of the impeller. They may be likened to a propeller spinning in a length of tube. Axialflow pumps operate at much lower pressures and higher flow rates than radial-flow pumps.

Mixed-flow pumps:
Mixed-flow pumps function as a compromise between radial and axial-flow pumps. The fluid experiences both radial acceleration and lift and exits the impeller somewhere between 0 and 90 degrees from the axial direction. As a consequence mixed-flow pumps operate at higher pressures than axial-flow pumps while delivering higher discharges than radial-flow pumps. The exit angle of the flow dictates the pressure head-discharge characteristic in relation to radial and mixed-flow.

Educator - jet pump:


This uses a jet, often of steam, to create a low pressure. This low pressure sucks in fluid and propels it into a higher pressure region.

Gravity pumps:
Gravity pumps include the siphon and Heron's fountainand there also

important quanta or foggier systems that simply use downhill flow to take water from farunderground aquifers in high areas to consumers at lower elevations. The hydraulic ram is also sometimes called a gravity pump.

Steam pumps:
Steam pumps have been for a long time mainly of historical interest. They include any type of pump powered by a steam engine and also piston less pumps such as Savers or the Pulsometer steam pump. Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in low power solar steam pumps for use in smallholder irrigation in developing countries. Previously small steam engines have not been viable because of escalating inefficiencies as vapour engines decrease in size. However the use of modern engineering materials coupled with alternative engine configurations has meant that these types of system are now a cost effective opportunity.

3. INTRODUCTION TO THE ORGANISATION


The beginning of C.R.I, back in 1961, was a resolute attempt to produce a few irrigation equipments using the limited facility of an in-house foundry. Now, after four eventful decades, the founders dream has become a reality, a multi-winged organization that produces different varieties of pumps and motors like waste water pumps, pressure booster pumps, ch pumps, drainage pumps, sewage pumps and valves that are engineered to perfection. What made the legendary growth possible is the flawlessly maintained value system of the company. The name C.R.I. itself encapsulates the companys ethos: Commitment, Reliability, Innovation and it has now become a household name associated with water lifting pumps be it for agriculture, industry, domestic, mining or civil applications. Mr. K. Goal, the founder established CRI PUMPS at Coimbatore in the year 1961. CRI PUMPS stands for Commitment, Reliability and Innovation. It had a modest beginning with the manufacturing of foot valves. After four eventful decades, it is a reputed organization which produces more than 1000 varieties of perfectly engineered pumps and motors and sells its products in numerous countries spread across six continents. Mr. G. Soundarajan was born in Coimbatore and completed his science graduation in P.S.G college of Arts & Science. He joined his family business in 1979. The sudden demise of his father in 1980 was a huge setback for the business and saw Mr. G. Soundarajan along with his 3 brothers shouldering the responsibility of building the business.

His Vision, determination and undaunted confidence propelled him to confront the hurdles that came in the way and this paved way for the group to start its own offices throughout India. Currently C.R.I has 4500 dealers outlets served by 30 company offices and five foreign subsidiary companies in South Africa, UAE, Brazil, Turkey and Spain. Mr. G. Soundarajan passion and dream of talking company to the global level was made possible in the year 2000. He has made significant moves that have made the presence of CRI felt in over 70 countries if the world.

VISION, MISSION AND VALUES:


To be the industry leader providing best-in-class fluid management solutions to individual and institutional customers and societies in our chosen markets. We will achieve this through our dedicated efforts to enhance the welfare of all our stakeholders and by living by our values of commitment, reliability and innovation.

Pump Manufacturing Divisions:


The Infrastructure of C.R.I. is pretty comprehensive with state-of-the-art machineries and a high potential R&D wing, all inside its own covered area of 1, 50,000 square meters. The production environment is accredited with ISO 9001 & 14001 Certification. The R&D team always stays in tune with the changing scenario and seldom fails in coming up with outstanding solutions every time. Needless to say, behind this renowned growth lies the determined, innovative, enthusiastic and dedicated team work.

C.R.I. Pumps Quality Awards:


In recognition of its pioneering efforts and contribution to the cause of progress and quality the group has been honored with so many prestigious awards. C.R.IS penchant has not only resulted in a growing list of delighted customers, but also in a steady stream of awards and certifications that stand testimony to its excellence- be it in its products, services or processes. In line with the serving of burgeoning demands in the region and beyond, our production facilities have been accredited by both global and local authorities. C.R.I, has won a number of prestigious awards during its growth through innovation. In pursuit of global excellence, C.R.I has succeeded to be become one of the first companies from India to be honour with export excellence award from EEPC India times in a row. C.R.I commitment towards quality has been rewarded with Rajiv Gandhi national quality award. It has been awarded the first prize in national energy conservation for manufacturing BEE star labeled appliances (agriculture pump segment), by ministry of power, government of India, for the 2nd consecutive year.

C.R.I. 60Hz motors are the first one to be certificate by UR (American Standard) in India and most of its 50Hz products have CE certification, which are the testimonies for the quality standards and strength of research & development of C.R.I.

Various units of CRI PUMPS in the world:


Ransar industries Meltzer casting C.R.I. PUMPS Wire and cable Service centre and tool room Valves Steel casting Chola pumps.

DEPARTMENTS IN C.R.I PUMPS:


Human Resource department Accounts departments New product development Purchase and stores department Sales and dispatch department Tool grip engineering department Planning department Production department Testing department Dispatch department Quality department Maintenance department Marketing department Finance department

ORGANISATION CHART OF C.R.I PUMPS

MD

CFO

CHRO

HR manager

General export manager

Purchase VP (material)

General Manager (SBT)

IT manager

Deputy Manager (5) Manager (4)

Labour s

IT software

IT hardware

Project manager

Civil manager

Central planning

Legal manager

Accounts manager

Finance manager

Costing manager

COMPANY PROFILE

Name of the company Business type Founder Chairman Vice chairman Address of the company

: : : : : :

C.R.I Pumps private limited Trading Company Shri. K Gopal Mr. C. velumani Mr. Soundarajan 7/146.1, keeranatham road, Saravanampatti, Coimbatore- 641035. Tel:-0422-2669971

Web address Year established Products and services Certifications

: : : :

http://www.c.r.ipumps.in 1961 pumps ISO 9000/9001/9004/19011:2000 ISO/4000/

4. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Primary objective:
The primary objective is to study the satisfaction of contract labor in C.R.I. Pumps.

Secondary objective:
To study about the contract labour and contract labour act To find out the expectations and satisfaction level of the contract labour. To fulfill the future needs and aspirations of contract labour. To create an atmosphere of goodwill between labour and management and also between management of the public. To suggest and recommend certain remedial measures to the organization.

5. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The labours where busy with their works, it was difficult to get the data and the information. The contract labour was outsourced, so the language becomes a barrier to communicate with them. It makes me too hard to collect the datas. Due to the restriction of the company, cannot able to make a detail study of contract labours in a limited time. The study is done in Coimbatore branch as it may not applicable to other plant outs. The employees views and opinions varying in nature and hence the results cannot be generalized.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

6. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Ahmed Hammed Kaleen has made Studies on Industrial/cognitive task performance in Intec open science Data may be obtained either from the primary source or the secondary source. A primary source is one that itself collects the data; a secondary source is one that makes available data which were collected by some other agency. In an integrated society, changes and disturbances propagate rapidly and widely and the increasing scale of operations requires also that rare events and circumstances are considered during systems design. In this situation, human factors contributions should be increasingly proactive, not only responding to observed problems, but also, they should be based on models of adaptive human behavior in complex, dynamic systems. Lachlan and Deserts (1972), has made a study on centralized contract actual agents. In this study he explained the essence of the firm is the centralized contractual agent in a team productive process. And one method of reducing shirking is for someone to specialize as a monitor to check the input performance of team members. Ann-Sophie Vandenberg has conducted a research in labor contracts. Four Important aspects of the employment relationship will be discussed: Matching of employer and employee, acquisition and retention of firm-Specific human capital, earnings stability as insurance and the effort intensity of employees. These four important areas of the employment relationship are encountered by imperfections, mainly information problems and opportunistic behavior. Some labor market institutions, such as the design of a certain wage policy, can be explained as devices to overcome these imperfections. The employment contract can be viewed as a combination of explicit and implicit agreements. Acaridae s (1975) has made a study on labor and insurance considers the risk-neutral firms to act both as employers and as insurers of homogenous, risk-averse laborers. The use of the employment contract as an insurance contract has been discussed in the implicit contract

theory. The origins of implicit-contract theory lie in the belief that observed movements in wages and employment cannot be adequately explained by a competitive spot labor market in which wages are always equal to the marginal product of labor and the labor market is always in equilibrium. Instead, the observation in the labor market is that over the cycle Azariadis (1987) has a study on labor services. The contract is a complete description, made before the state of nature (good or bad) becomes known, of the labor services to be rendered unto the firm in each state of nature, and of the corresponding payments to be delivered to the worker. These types of risk sharing agreements are termed implicit -contracts in the implicit contract theory. Benjamin Yomba has made a study in evaluation of employees productivity in relation to their contract status. This study uses (a) survey data collected among manufacturing sector firms, having more than 15 employees, in Cameroon between April and May 2006 and (b) information issued by the National Institute of Statistics. Information collected concerned 45 firms spanning the period 2003 to 2005. This study uses the stochastic production frontier, distinguishing employees holding fixed-term contract (FTC) from employees that do not have fixed-term contracts (indefinite-term contract (ITC)). Bentolila and Saint-Paul, 1994) has made a study on a Work contract affects business performance. The fixed-term contracts (FTC) allow the company to manage demand fluctuations in consumer goods and services market by minimizing the adjustment1 costs of the number of employees. Thus, in periods of expansion, the firm may hire employees under fixedterms and they can be dismissed without costs during periods of recession. Beyond this numerical flexibility, FTCs allow the firm to acquire a functional flexibility, which will facilitate access to expensive expertise (Christensen, 1991). Numerical flexibility and functional flexibility allow the firm to manage its payroll and increase profits.

Benton, 1991, Work contracts affects business performance through production cost and the productivity of factors of production. The fixed-term contracts (FTC) allow the company to manage demand fluctuations in consumer goods and services market by minimizing the

adjustment costs of the number of employees. Thus, in periods of expansion, the firm may hire employees under fixed-terms and they can be dismissed without costs during periods of recession. Beyond this numerical flexibility, FTCs allow the firm to acquire a functional flexibility, which will facilitate access to expensive expertise. Bosworth, Dawkins and Stromback (1996, p. 280) has made the study on risks and labor returns. It is not the implicit nature of the insurance contract that is the crucial feature of implicit contract theory, but it is the question how risk is shared between employer and employee. For that reason, risk-sharing agreements would be a better term. It is, however, true that the risk-sharing agreement considered by the implicit contract literature is implicit. Indeed, we do not observe such risk- sharing contracts in the real world.

Carmichael, 1989, A contract to induce the employee to provide a certain effort level is often an understanding that cannot be enforced by third parties, such as courts. Such contracts are labeled implicit contracts. It is, for example, usually understood, but seldom explicitly expressed, that workers who provide a high effort level will be rewarded with a bonus. Implicit contracts are distinguished from explicit contracts which can be enforced by third parties. Carat and Humphreys (2008) has done a research in employees performance. In his study he advise that although it is possible to theoretically separate the human resource function of performance appraisal from broader strategic management processes, such an approach is not realistic for organizational leaders charged with strategy execution... Chen &Huang (2009) has made a research on effective labor performance. In his study he indicates that strategic human resource practices of which performance appraisal are an essential part lead to effective knowledge management. Derby (2001) in his article labor and labor welfare Under Article 246 of the Indian constitution, issues related to labor and labor welfare come under List III that is the Concurrent List2. Exceptional matters related to labor and safety in mines and oilfields and industrial disputes concerning union employees come under Central List. In all there are 47 central labor

laws and 200 state labor laws. The three main acts that are the cause of contention are the Industrial Disputes Act (1947), the Contract Labor (Regulation and Abolition) Act (1970) and the Trade Union Act (1926).

Department of Labor, 2005, concept explains that Labor has become internationally mobile and the number of people migrating to and from New Zealand each year is high and increasing. This is of course a double edged sword, with potential for both gains and losses to our target workforce. The Maori and Pacific proportions of this workforce are expected to increase, while an increasing proportion of our workforce is likely to be made up of migrants from non-English speaking countries, particularly Asian countries. Dr. Richard D. Rinehart has made a study on Conditions of Work and Employment Programmed in micro and small enterprises and the informal economy (MSE/IE). The document is framed to focus on these issues by asking 17 questions and looking to the literature to provide answers and guidance on how to go forward. One main conclusion from the exercise is that we have a long way to go to fully understand the best practices for implementing working and employment conditions projects in MSE/IE. Ehrenberg and Smith has made a study on labor market wages. It has been shown how parties to the employment contract cope with imperfections such as asymmetric information, uncertainty and opportunistic behavior with respect to different areas of the employment relationship. The employment contract has several roles or functions: to match employer and employee, to regulate and divide the surplus from relation-specific investments, to share risks and smooth the income stream and to induce a high effort level . England and Riphahn (2005) has made a study in temporary employees and effort incentive .using the absentee rate and unpaid overtime confirmed the positive relationship between temporary employees and effort incentive. Booth et al. (2002) by integrating the transition confirmed on a 7-year period that nearly 38% of temporary employees obtain an ITC at the end of their FTC. Moreover, while they are under a FTC, effort measured by unpaid overtime is higher than when they sign permanent contracts.

Eyck (2003) states three basic theories for perceived need for flexibility in labor markets. The first one emphasizes on the need for labor force to change according to the market fluctuations which happens because of increase in specialized products that requires firms to quickly change the size, composition, and at times the location of the workforce. The second emphasizes on lowering the labor costs and increasing productivity because of rising competitiveness. The third is the political economy perspective which advocates free markets where there would be no government intervention and interference of trade unionism Gordon Beckerman has made a study in Labor Market Institutions. The studies impacts of four types of labor market institutions: minimum wages, employment protection regulation, unions and collective bargaining, and mandated benefits. The Methodology used by him in this study is both qualitative and quantitative approaches have been used to analyze the impacts of different labor market institutions. The overall conclusion of modest impacts drawn in this review suggests that, in many cases, governments set regulations and workers and employers negotiate contracts that avoid the worst consequences of these potentially extreme risks. Grossman and Hart (1986) on his study economic institutions and contracts explained that the heterogeneity and information also play key roles in the theory of employment contracts reviewed in Section 3. The past forty years have witnessed tremendous progress in the economic theory of contract, especially in terms of teasing out how a particular set of parties should design a contract given the transaction costs characterizing the employment relationship. The inuential principal-agent model, for example, was developed in the context of the insurance contract, which species state-contingent payments. The modern theory of contract, building on the work of Grossman and Hart recognizes that an important function of economic institutions and contracts is the efficient allocation of authority and decision rights within a relationship. Hall and Purcell (2003), has made a study on psychological contract With the reemergence of interest in the psychological contract, a different interpretation was utilized. Rather than focus on a two-way exchange, she explicitly distinguished between conceptualizations at the level of the individual, and at the organizational relationship level. Rousseau sought to focus in on the former by advancing a case for individual employee subjectivity in employment. For

her, the psychological contract is an individual employees be life in mutual obligations between that person and another party such as an employer, re-conceptualization of the psychological contract stressed an emphasis on the individual employees sense of obligations, rather than expectations, on the assumption that unmet obligations would naturally result in a more damaging response than unmet expectations. Holmstrom, (1981) has done a study on cost of contract labor. The problem with contracts that are implicit (understood) compared to explicit (written) contracts is that they are not enforceable by a third party, such as a court. One of the parties might breach the implicit risk sharing agreement; the employer can increase his profits by dismissing the worker whose marginal revenue product is below the fixed wage in the bad state of nature and replace him by a cheaper worker, and the employee has an incentive to quit when his marginal revenue product is higher than the fixed wage in the good state of nature. These implications can be avoided when the implicit contract is self enforcing through labor market institutions such as mobility costs Howard and Foster (1999) has done a research in certain human resource (HR) management practices (such as a good labor performance) establish a platform for basing employee empowerment, and that increasing empowerment would be positively related to perceptions of leadership commitment to quality. Scuba Rae. A.V, (1991) in his study entitled, "Labor Management Co-operation and Conflict in the Indian Steel Industry -A Tale of the Two Sectors", examined the comparative level of labor management co-operation and conflict in public sector Bokhara Steel Plant and private sector Tata Steel Plant. Collective bargaining, recognition of trade unions, closer association of employees with management and workers participation was the aspects studied. Hyde, 2006 has made a study on Labor law rules. it may have redistributive aims, while at the same time giving expression to notions of fair treatment which serve as focal points in bargaining between the parties .The employment contract is a complex legal institution in this sense. It represents a standard form for labor transactions, based on a tradeoff between the powers of coordination reserved to the employer and the employees access to

mechanisms for income-smoothing and insurance which help to offset risks associated with wage-dependence. Ivan Martin has conducted a study on Labor Markets Performance and Migration Flows in Arab Mediterranean Countries: Determinants and Effects The main findings of the Study Despite recent improvements in the availability and the quality of employment and migration statistics for AMCs, any serious analysis of labor markets and migration in AMCs is seriously hampered by a widespread scarcity of data at the national level, the inaccessibility, unreliability and inconsistency of available data and the difficulty of comparing data from across the region. Kaufman, 2007 in his study entitled on labor markets. The theoretical reappraisal represented by this work remains, however, somewhat incomplete. Rather than being seen as undermining the competitive model of the labor market, it has been understood as qualifying it in the narrow sense of showing that, in certain specific contexts, the conditions for perfect competition may not obtain. How far this is the case has come to be viewed as an empirical matter, and because more recent studies have found evidence of negative employment effects from the raising of minimum wage rates (at least in the US context; see section 4.1), Knight (1921), a study on implicit contracts exploits. He argued that inherently confident and venturesome entrepreneurs will offer to relieve their employees of some market risks in return for the right to make locative decisions. The basic idea of implicit-contract theory is that in their dealings employers are less risk-averse than workers. One reason is that owners of capital who represent the employers can divide their capital among many different firms through the stock market, and by this diversification they obtain insurance against the risks faced by individual firms. On the other hand, for workers it is generally difficult to diversify assets which take the form of human capital because workers generally work for only one employer at the time. Kumar (1998) has conducted a study on the customers Satisfaction and Promotional Strategy for ELGI Pump sets in Coimbatore City. The main objective of the study was to find

socio-economic status of the customers and to find out the awareness and preference of customers towards the product. Lazar (1979) has made a research in labor productivity. In his study it shows that it is beneficial to both employer and employee to arrange workers pay over time so that employees are underpaid (less than their marginal productivity) early in their careers and overpaid later on. Holding out payments until late in the individuals lifetime alters the workers incentives to reduce his effort on the job. Workers are less likely to shirk their responsibilities because the penalties for being caught and fired are forfeiture of a late future award. Levinson et al. (1962: 21) has made a study on labor and employment relationship saw the psychological contract as a series of mutual expectations of which the parties to the relationship may not contracts -where employees do not expect a long-lasting relational process with their organization based on loyalty and job security, but rather perceive their employment as a transaction in which long hours are provided in exchange for high contingent pay and training seemed to capture the mood of the day concerning labor market flexibility and economic restructuring of the employment relationship. Lilith Harris had conducted a study on Contract work and employment relation in Jamie Professionals, technical and clerical personnel were more likely to be employed on contract than other occupational categories. Among the main reasons for using contract labor needed specialized skills, lower training costs, uncertainty as it relates to the success of the business, fewer benefits, and higher productivity and better quality of work. Longenecker et al (1988) has done a study on labor perception and attitudes. In this study he postulates that performance appraisal will be effective to the extent that managers and subordinates have a shared perception of its purpose and function and the degree to which it meets the needs of both groups. Marissa and Cannot (1988), has done the study on production function of employees The heterogeneity of production factors, including labor inputs can therefore be taken into

account and introduced the heterogeneity of labor across different socio-professional categories in the production function to assess productivity differences between employees in French industries. He distinguishing employees based on their participation in the capital of French cooperatives and uses a Cobb-Douglas production function to assess productivity differentials between members staff and non members staff of French cooperatives. Malcomson, (1997), a study on the a long term contract and relations . Long-Term, Incomplete and Self-Enforcing Implicit Contract When the motivation for an employment contract is to regulate and divide the surplus of relation-specific investments, to ensure a certain income stream, and to provide incentives to the workers to work hard through deferred forms of pay, long-term employment relationships are in many instances conducive to economic efficiency. Normally, long-term employment contracts are incomplete. A contract is incomplete when it does not specify each partys obligations in every conceivable eventuality. The employment contract might be incomplete if parties are not able to foresee all future contingencies. If they envisage contingencies, it may just be too costly to write all those details into the contract. Minford, 1985 has made a study onLabour laws themselves are seen as an external source of imperfections; they originate in decisions made in the political sphere and reflect rentseeking or distributional demands, by collective groups. Rent-seeking, as it is aimed at redistribution rather than value creation, imposes a deadweight loss on the economy and so constitutes a source of inefficiencies. Further inefficiencies arise from distortions in the operation of the market which are induced by legal interferences with bargaining. Wage regulation (such as minimum wage or pay equity legislation, or the taking of wages out of competition through collective bargaining) depresses demand for labor. Rangarajan (2006) has done a research in labor intensive sectors in order to achieve faster growth rate emphasis should be laid on labor intensive sectors by skill development of the labor force and flexibility of labor laws. He also stressed on the fact that flexibility is not just related to hire and fire strategy and that business units will have to function under legitimate

restrictions. Flexibility in labor laws has also been advocated by the Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Mr. Monte Singh Ahluwalia. Rousseau (2001) has explained the labor relationship. However, the concept has much longer and deeper pedigree, with its antecedents evident in earlier work on social exchange theory. Central to this theory is that social relationships have always been comprised of unspecified obligations and the distribution of unequal power resources Shapiro and Stieglitz (1984), has done a research in contract labors wages and incentives state in their shirking model that if all employers were to follow the strateg y of raising wages, then the incentive not to shirk again disappears; the worst that can happen to a worker who shirks on the job is that he is fired, since he can be rehired (assuming there is no unemployment) at the same high wage. But as all firms raise their wages, supply of labor would exceed demand and unemployment would result. With unemployment, even if all firms pay the same wages, a worker has an incentive not to shirk. Srivastava, 1989 has made a study on Unfreeze labor relations. Some argued that unreel wage labor reflects not only underdeveloped labor markets, but also conjoint exploitation in interlocked markets and an incomplete transition to the capitalist mode of production. By contrast, Brass (1990, 1992, 1997a) and Miles (1987) take an opposing view that unreel relations are compatible with capitalism, comprising part of capitalists' assault on the autonomy and wages of labor. Brass has argued that convict labor and indentured labor were subject to capitalist exploitation. Tailing (1996) has conducted the study on the centralized labor unions and employer organizations solution is to delegate the power to renegotiate to centralized labor unions and employer organizations. Negotiations are then independent of the problems of the workplace and specific investments do not influence the decisions. I n general the fear of opportunistic behavior leads to wage rigidity in long term explicit contracts where specific human capital is present. This argument is distinct from the argument for the existence of rigid long-term implicit labor

contracts as a means of bearing risk. The use of the employment contract as an insurance contract will be discussed in the next section.

The Labor Code, (1952) explains that Labor market reform The Labor Code currently in force in Cameroon is the result of a procedure which started since 1952, before independence. From the Labor Code of 1952 to the Labor Code of 1974 after the code of 1952, instituted by colonial authorities, law-makers successively promulgated other codes in 1967, 1974 and 1992. The provisions of previous codes especially that of 1974, are rigid concerning labor contracts. Initially, Article 30 subparagraphs 2 of the 1974 code provided that if the contract is concluded for a limited duration, this duration cannot exceed two years. As for subparagraph 3, it laid out that When the two-year period envisaged above is exceeded and employment continues beyond such date, the fixed term contract becomes an open-ended contract... Uzi and Zoe (1998) have done a research in the relationship between labor contract and corporate performance. The first group of work focuses on the relationship between FTCs and the minimization of labor costs by using the production cost function. In this logic, have showed that the use of an ITC costs twice as much as using a FTC. Bentolila et al. (1994) indicate that an increase by 1% of the proportion of temporary workers reduces labor costs of 0.64% in private enterprises in the Italian manufacturing sector. W. Bentley Macleod (June 2010) has issued the chapter on employment and labor law. The goal of the study is to understand why every jurisdiction in the world has extensive employment law, particularly employment protection law, while most economic analysis of the law suggests that less employment protection would enhance welfare. He conclude that many aspects of employment law are consistent with the economic theory of contract - namely, that contracts are written and enforced to enhance ex ante match efficiency in the presence of asymmetric information and relationship specific investments. Zhang et al (2008) have found that high performance human resource practices are positively related to corporate entrepreneurship (CE), and that this relationship is mediated by the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of employees.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them.

RESEACH DESIGN:
A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. It constitutes the blue print for collection, measurement and analysis of data. The research conducted is descriptive in nature.

NATURE OF RESEARCH:
The type of research used in this project is descriptive in nature. Descriptive research is essentially a fact finding related largely to the present, abstracting generations by cross sectional study of the current situation.

DATA COLLECTION METHOD: PRIMARY DATA:


Primary data is the data collected for the first time through field survey. Therefore primary data are those collected by the investigator (or researcher) himself for the first time and thus they are original in character. The primary data are useful for knowing opinion, qualities and attitudes of respondents. Primary data regarding the opinion and views of performance appraisal system are collected through Structured Questionnaire Method.

SECONDARY DATA:
Secondary data were collected from the websites of the company, social networks and magazines. The research also took the other relevant information collected through various websites, books and news papers.

SAMPLE SIZE:
Sample size chosen for the study is 100.

STATISTICAL TOOLS USED:


Percentage (%) method Chi-square A nova.

SIMPLE PERCENTAGE (%) METHOD:


The Percentage (%) method is used for comparing certain features. The collected data represented in the form of tables and graphs in order to give effective visualization of comparison made. Actual Population Simple Percentage (%) = ---------------------------- x 100 Sample Size

STATISTICAL PACKAGE:
"SPSS is a comprehensive system for analyzing data. SPSS can take data from almost any type of file and use them to generate tabulated reports, charts, and plots of distributions and trends, descriptive statistics, and complex statistical analysis."

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Table No.1 Showing the Age of Respondents


Age No of Respondents Percentage (%) (%) , 18-20 Years 20 - 30 years 21 20 40 21 20 40

30 40 yrs 40 and above


Total

19 100

19 100

INTERPRETATION From the above table we can infer that 40% of the respondents are between 30-40 years of age, 21% of the respondents are 18-20 years, 20% of the respondents are 20-30 years and19% of the respondents are above 40 years.

Chart No. 1

Showing the Age of the respondents

48 % 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 36%

Percentage (%)

13% 3%

Below 20years 21 30 years

31 40 years

Above 40 years

Age

Table No. 2

Showing the gender of respondents

Gender Male Female Total

No of Respondents 66 34 100

Percentage (%) (%) 66 34 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 66% of the respondents are male and 34% of the respondents are female.

Chart No. 2

Showing the gender of the respondents

66 % 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Male Gender

Percentage (%)

34 %

Female

Table No. 3

Showing the Experience of the Respondents

Experience 1-11 months 1- 2 years 2 3 years Above 3 years Total

No of Respondents 25 25 25 25 100

Percentage (%) (%) 25 25 25 25 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 25% of the respondents are 1-11 months of experience, 25% of the respondents are 1-2 years, 25% of the respondents are 2-3 years and 25% of the respondents are above 3 years.

Chart No. 3

Showing the Experience of the Respondents

25% 25 Percentage (%) 20 15 10 5 0 1-11 months

25 %

25 %

25%

1- 2 years

2 3 years

Above 3 years

Experience

Table No. 4

Showing the Department of the Respondents

Department

No Of Respondents 17 17 17 33 16

Percentage (%) (%) 17 17 17 33 16 100

Human resource
Marketing

Sales and dispatch Production Finance


Total

100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 33% of the respondents are production, 17% of the respondents are human resource, 17% of the respondents are marketing, 17 % of the respondents are Sales and dispatch and 16% of respondents are finance.

Chart No. 4

Showing the departments of the Respondents

35 30 Percentage(%) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Human resource Marketing Sales and dispatch Department 17% 17% 17%

33%

16%

Production

Finance

Table No. 5

Showing the Educational qualification of the Respondents

Educational qualification

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Higher secondary Diploma Under Graduate Post Graduate


Total

33 37 17 13 100

33 37 17 13 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 37% of the respondents are Diploma holders, 33% of the respondents are higher secondary, 17% of the respondents are Under Graduate and 13% of the respondents are Post Graduate.

Chart No. 5

Showing the Educational qualification of the Respondents

40 35 Percentage(%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

33%

37%

17% 13%

SSLC

HSC/Diploma

UG

PG

Educational qualification

Table No. 6

Showing the monthly income of the Respondents

Monthly income Below Rs 10000 Rs 10001 Rs 15000

No of Respondents 38 32 19 11 100

Percentage (%) (%) 38 32 19 11 100

Rs 15001 Rs 20000 Above Rs 20001


Total

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 38% of the respondents are Below Rs 10000, 32% of the respondents are Rs 10001 Rs 15000, 19% of the respondents are Rs 15001 Rs 20000, and 11% of the respondents are above Rs 20001.

Chart No. 6

Showing the monthly income of the Respondents

38% 40 35 Percentage (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Below 10000 10001 15000 15001 20000 Above 20001 19% 11% 32%

monthly income

Table No. 7

Showing the respondents opinion about the company clear conveying of its mission

Mission

No of Respondents

Percentage (%) (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

27
40 18 15 100

27
40 18 15 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 40% of the respondents are satisfied, 27% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 18% of the respondents are Neutral, 25% of the respondents are dissatisfied.

Chart No. 7

Showing respondents opinion about the company clear conveying of its mission

40% 40 35 30 27%

Percentage (%)

25 18% 20 15 10 5 0 Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 0% 15%

Mission

Table No. 8 Showing the respondents opinion towards the right time of the managers communication.

Communication Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

43
29 14 14 100

43
29 14 14 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 43% of the respondents are highly satisfied of right communication by managers, 29% of the respondents are satisfied, 14% of the respondents are neutral and 14% of the respondents are dissatisfied.

Chart No. 8 Showing the respondents opinion towards the right time of the managers communication.

43% 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Highly satisfied

29%

percentage (%)

14%

14% 0%

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

communication

Table No. 9

Showing the respondents opinion towards the supervisor listening the words of employees

Listening employees word Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied
Total

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

34
33 17 16 100

34
33 17 16 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 34% of the respondents are highly satisfied with supervisors listed to employee words, 33% of the respondents are satisfied, 17% of the respondents are neutral amd16% of the respondents are dissatisfied.

Chart No. 9

Showing the respondents opinion towards the supervisor listening the words of employees

35 30 percentage (%) 25 20 15 10 5 0

34%

33%

17%

16%

0%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

managers listening

Table No. 10

Showing the respondents opinion towards the opportunities given to the employees for learning.

Opportunities

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

33
34 17 16 100

33
34 17 16 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 34% of the respondents are satisfied, 33% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 17% of the respondents are neutral and 16% of the respondents are dissatisfied.

Chart No. 10

Showing the respondents opinion towards the opportunities given to the employees for learning.

35 30 perentage (%) 25 20 15 10 5 0

33%

34%

17%

16%

0% Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral opportunities Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied

Table No. 11

Showing the respondents opinion towards the convenient working hours

Convenient working hours

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

30
33 20 17 100

30
33 20 17 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 33% of the respondents are satisfied with working hours, 30% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 20% of the respondents are neutral, and 17% of the respondents are dissatisfied.

Chart No. 11

Showing the respondents opinion towards the convenient working hours

35 30 percentage (%) 25 20 15 10 5 0

33% 5 20% 175

05 Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral convenience Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied

Table No. 12

Showing the respondents opinion towards working atmosphere.

Working atmosphere Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

41
28 13 9 9 100

41
28 13 9 9 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 41% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the working atmosphere, 28% of the respondents are satisfied, 13% of the respondents are neutral, 9% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 9% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.

Chart No. 12

Showing the respondents opinion towards happiness of working.

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

41%

percentage(%)

28%

13%

9%

9%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral happiness

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

Table No. 13

Showing the respondents opinion about the work load

Work burden

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

24
32 15 14 15 100

24
32 15 14 15 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 32% of the respondents are satisfied with the work load, 24% of the respondents are highly Satisfied,15% of the respondents are Neutral, 15% of the respondents are Highly dissatisfied and 14% of the respondents are dissatisfied,.

Chart No. 13

Showing the respondents opinion of too much of work

35 30 percentage (%) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Highly satisfied 24%

32%

15%

14%

15%

Satisfied

Neutral work load

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

Table No. 14

Showing the respondents opinion about the availability of tools and resource to do their job

Tools and resources

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

33
14 20 16 17 100

33
14 20 16 17 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 33% of the respondents are highly satisfied the availability of tools and resource to do their job, 20% of the respondents are Neutral, 17% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied, 16% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 14% of the respondents are satisfied.

Chart No. 14

Showing the respondents the availability of tools and resource to do their job

35 30 percentage (%) 25 20 15 10 5 0

33%

20% 14%

16%

17%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

tools and resources

Table No. 15

Showing the respondents opinion towards the training given by the organization

Training

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

38
24 13 13 12 100

38
24 13 13 12 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 38% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the training given by the organization, 24% of the respondents are satisfied, 13% of the respondents are neutral, 13% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 12% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.

Chart No. 15

Showing the respondents opinion for having training to do their job

40 35 percentage (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

38%

24% 13% 13% 12%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral training

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

Table No. 16

Showing the respondents opinion towards the safety measures provided by the company

Safety measures

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

37
17 16 17 13 100

37
17 16 17 13 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 37% of the respondents are highly satisfied the safety measures provided by the company, 17% of the respondents are satisfied, 17% of the respondents are dissatisfied, 16% of the respondents are Neutral and 13% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.

Chart No. 16

Showing the respondents opinion towards the safety measures provided by the company

40 35 percentage (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

37%

17%

165

17%

13%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

safety measures

Table No. 17

Showing the respondents opinion towards getting recognition for their job

Recognition

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

43
21 17 13 6 100

43
21 17 13 6 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 43 % of the respondents are Highly satisfied with getting recognition for their job, 21% of the respondents are Satisfied,17% of the respondents are Neutral, 13 % of the respondents are Dissatisfied and 6% of the respondents are Highly Dissatisfied.

Chart No. 17

Showing the respondents of getting recognition for their job

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

435

percentage (%)

21%

17% 135 6%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral recognition

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

Table No. 18

Showing the respondents opinion towards the amount of work expected from the employees

Work expectation

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

32
23 21 13 11 100

32
23 21 13 11 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 32% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 23% of the respondents are satisfied, 21 % of the respondents are neutral, 13 % of the respondents are dissatisfied and 11% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.

Chart No. 18

Showing the respondents opinion towards the amount of work expected

35 30 percentage(%) 25 20 15 10 5 0

32% 23% 21%

13%

11%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

work expectation

Table No. 19

Showing the respondents opinion towards their colleagues

Colleagues

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

17
53 10 17 3 100

17
53 10 17 3 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 53% of the respondents are satisfied with their collegues, 17 % of the respondents are highly satisfied, 17% of the respondents are dissatisfied, 10% of the respondents are Neutral and 3% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.

Chart No. 19

Showing the respondents opinion towards their colleagues

60 50 percentage (%) 40 30 20 10 0 Highly satisfied 17%

53%

10%

17% 3%

Satisfied

Neutral colleagues

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

Table No. 20 Showing the respondents opinion towards communication within the departments

communication

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

28
30 8 14 20 100

28
30 8 14 20 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 30% of the respondents are satisfied with communication within the departments, 28% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 20% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied, 14 % of the respondents are dissatisfied and 8% of the respondents are neutral.

Chart No. 20

Showing the respondents opinion towards communication within the departments.

30% 30 25 percentage (%) 20 14% 15 8% 10 5 0 Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 28% 20%

communication

Table No. 21

Showing the respondents opinion towards having a good relationship with supervisor.

Relationship

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

43
30 10 17 100

43
30 10 17 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 43% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the supervisor relationship, 30% of the respondents are satisfied, 17% of the respondents Dissatisfied and 10% of the respondents are Neutral.

Chart No. 21

Showing the respondents of having a good relationship with the supervisor.

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

43% 30% 17% 10% 0%

percentage(%)

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral relationship

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

Table No. 22

Showing the respondents opinion towards the supervisor active listening to employees suggestions

Employees suggestions

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

34
32 15 17 2 100

34
32 15 17 2 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 34% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 32% of the respondents are satisfied, 17 % of the respondents are dissatisfied, 15% of the respondents are Neutral and 17 % of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.

Chart No. 22

Showing the respondents opinion towards the supervisor active listening to employees suggestions

35 30 percentage(%) 25 20 15 10 5 0

34%

32%

15%

17%

2%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

employee sugesstions

Table No. 23

Showing the respondents opinion towards the support gets by the supervisor

Employee performance

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

33
50 17 100

33
50 17 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 50% of the respondents are satisfied, 33% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 17 % of the respondents are Neutral.

Chart No. 23

Showing the respondents opinion towards the support gets by the supervisor

50% 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

percentage (%)

17%

0% Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied

0%

Highly dissatisfied

employee performance

Table No. 24

Showing the Respondents opinion towards the promotion of teamwork atmosphere by the supervisor

Teamwork promotion

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

40
31 11 10 8 100

40
31 11 10 8 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 40% of the respondents are Highly satisfied, 31% of the respondents are Satisfied ,11% of the respondents are Neutral, 10% of the respondents are Dissatisfied, 8%of the respondents are Highly dissatisfied

Chart No. 24

Showing the Respondents opinion towards the promotion of teamwork atmosphere by the supervisor

405 40 35 percentage(%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral promotion Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 11% 10% 8% 31%

Table No. 25 Showing the respondents opinion towards the superiors evaluation of employees work on regular basis.

Evaluation of work

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

47
25 12 16 100

47
25 12 16 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 47% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 25% of the respondents are satisfied, 16% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 12% of the respondents are Neutral.

Chart No. 25 Showing the respondents opinion towards the superiors evaluation of employees work on regular basis.

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

47%

percentage(%0

25% 12% 16%

0%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

evaluation of work

Table No. 26 Showing the respondents opinion that the superior will address the employees questions

Superior responses

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied


Total

23
48 3 20 6 100

23
48 3 20 6 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 48% of the respondents are satisfied, 23% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 20% of the respondents are dissatisfied, 6% of the respondents are Highly Dissatisfied and 3% of the respondents are neutral.

Chart No. 26 Showing the respondents opinion that the superior will address the employees questions

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

485

percentage(%)

23%

20%

3%

6%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

superior responses

Table No. 27

Showing the respondents opinion towards the satisfaction of support of the coworkers

Co-workers support

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

14
15 20 37 14 100

14
15 20 37 14 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 37% of the respondents are dissatisfied, 20% of the respondents are neutral, 15% of the respondents are satisfied, 14% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 14% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.

Chart No. 27

Showing the respondents opinion towards the satisfaction of support of the coworkers

40 35 percentage(%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral 14% 15% 20%

37%

14%

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

coworker support

Table No. 28

Showing the respondents opinion towards the helping tendency of one another

Helping tendency

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

14
14 28 29 15 100

14
14 28 29 15 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 29% of the respondents are dissatisfied, 28% of the respondents are neutral, 15% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied, 14% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 14% of the respondents are satisfied.

Chart No. 28

Showing the respondents opinion towards the helping tendency of one another

28% 30 25 percentage(%) 20 15 10 5 0 Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral 14% 14%

29%

15%

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

helping tendency

Table No. 29

Showing the respondents opinion towards the satisfaction of refreshments.

Refreshments

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

45
30 17 5 3 100

45
30 17 5 3 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 45% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 30% of the respondents are satisfied, 17 % of the respondents are neutral, 5% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 3 % of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.

Chart No. 29

Showing the respondents opinion towards the satisfaction of refreshments.

45% 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Highly satisfied

30%

percentage(%)

17% 5%

3%

Satisfied

Neutral refreshments

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

Table No. 30

Showing the respondents opinion towards the employee motivation by the supervisor to increase their efficiency

Employee motivation

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

37
38 12 10 3 100

37
38 12 10 3 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 38% of the respondents are satisfied, 37% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 12% of the respondents are Neutral, 10% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 3% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.

Chart No. 30

Showing the respondents opinion towards the employee motivation by the supervisor to increase their efficiency

40 35 percentage(%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

38%

12%

10% 3%

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

employee motivation

Table No. 31

Showing the respondents overall satisfaction level of the present job

Job Satisfaction

No of Respondents

Percentage (%)

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied


Total

18
39 16 14 13 100

18
39 16 14 13 100

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can infer that 39% of the respondents are satisfied, 18% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 16% of the respondents are neutral, 14% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 13% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied.

Chart No. 31

Showing the respondents overall satisfaction level of the present job

40 35 percentage(%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Highly satisfied

39%

165

14% 13%

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

job satisfaction

CHI-SQURE ANALYSIS TABLE - 1 HYPOTHESIS


Null hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference between monthly income of the employees and employees feel about the too much of work Alternative hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference between monthly income of the employees and employees feel about the too much of work
monthly Income * work feelCross tabulation work feel Highly satisfied Satisfied neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfi ed below 10000 10000 monthly Income 15000 15000 20000 Above 20000 Total 24 32 15 14 15 100 2 3 2 3 1 11 4 6 3 2 4 19 8 9 5 5 5 32 10 14 5 4 5 38 Total

Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2sided) Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association 3.755
a

12 12 1

.987 .991 .346

3.501 .888

N of Valid Cases 100 Significant = P<=0.05, Not Significant =P>0.05

INTERPRETATION According to the Chi-square table the X = 3.755, degree of freedom is 12 and P ' value is 0.987. Here, the 'p' value is greater than the significant value (0.987>0.05). So the H0 is rejected and the H1 is accepted. Hence there is a significant difference between monthly income of the employees and employees feel about the too much of work.

TABLE 2

HYPOTHESIS

Null hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference between educational qualification of the employees and employees opinion about that they are recognized their job in workplace Alternative hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference between educational

qualification of the employees and employees opinion about that they are recognized their job in workplace
Educational Qualification * recognized Work Cross tabulation recognized Work Highly satisfied satisfied neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied SSLC HSC Educational Qualification UG PG Total 5 7 43 0 4 21 10 0 17 1 0 13 1 2 6 17 13 100 16 15 6 11 4 3 6 6 1 2 33 37 Total

Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2sided) Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association 34.626
a

12 12 1

.001 .000 .804

35.114 .062

N of Valid Cases 100 Significant = P<=0.05, Not Significant =P>0.05

INTERPRETATION According to the Chi-square table the X = 34.626, degree of freedom is 12 and P ' value is 0.001. Here, the 'p' value is greater than the significant value (0.001>0.05). So the H0 is accepted and the H1 is rejected. Hence there is no significant difference between educational qualification of the employees and employees opinion about that they are recognized their job in workplace.

TABLE 3 HYPOTHESIS
Null hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference between Age of the employees and employees got the opportunity to learn something in the workplace Alternative hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference between Age of the employees and employees got the opportunity to learn something in the workplace
Age * opportunity Cross tabulation opportunity Highly satisfied 18 - 20 yrs 20 - 30 yrs Age 30 40 yrs 40 and above Total 6 9 14 4 33 satisfied 8 8 13 5 34 neutral 3 4 7 3 17 Dissatisfied 4 3 6 3 16 21 24 40 15 100 Total

Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2sided) Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 100 Significant = P<=0.05, Not Significant =P>0.05 1.297
a

9 9 1

.998 .998 .836

1.303 .043

INTERPRETATION According to the Chi-square table the X = 1.297, degree of freedom is 9 and P ' value is 0.998. Here, the 'p' value is greater than the significant value (0.998>0.05). So the H0 is rejected and the H1 is accepted. Hence there is a significant difference between Age of the employees and employees got the opportunity to learn something in the workplace.

ANOVA ANALYSIS EXPEREINCE - One-Way Ann ova Analysis One way analyses were conducted to check whether the study variables differ across various level of experience. The department break up among the respondents is as follows
1-11 months 1-2 Yrs 2-3 Yrs Above 3 YRs Total 25 25 25 25 100

To check whether the various study variables differ across different experience, one way ANOVA was conducted. The various hypotheses being considered are:

NULL HYPOTHESIS H0: There is no significant difference between the experience and the various factors related to performance of contract labor ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS H1a: The employees are satisfied with the given tools and resources to need to do their job will differ across different experience groups. H1b: The employees satisfaction level of safety measures provided by the company will differ across different experience groups. H1c: The employees opinion about the supervisors actively listen their employees suggestion will differ across different experience groups. H1d: The employees opinions about the supervisors enable to do their employees performance best will differ across different experience groups. H1e: The employees opinions about the supervisors create good atmosphere for teamwork will differ across different experience groups. H1f: The employees opinions about the supervisors evaluate the employee performance at regular basis will differ across different experience groups. H1g: The employees opinions about the supervisors is able to answer their question will differ across different experience groups.

TABLE SHOWING THE ANOVA ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE EXPEREINCE GROUPS AND THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACT LABOR
ANOVA Sum of Squares Between Groups Tools Within Groups Total Between Groups safety Within Groups Total Between Groups Suggestion Within Groups Total Between Groups Perform Within Groups Total Between Groups Teamwork Within Groups Total Between Groups Performance Within Groups Total Between Groups Question Within Groups Total 11.960 209.040 221.000 27.600 183.360 210.960 4.510 126.080 130.590 25.680 21.760 47.440 31.390 129.360 160.750 46.110 76.800 122.910 2.120 143.440 145.560 df 3 96 99 3 96 99 3 96 99 3 96 99 3 96 99 3 96 99 3 96 99 .707 1.494 .473 .702 15.370 .800 19.213 .000 10.463 1.348 7.765 .000 8.560 .227 37.765 .000 1.503 1.313 1.145 .335 9.200 1.910 4.817 .004 Mean Square 3.987 2.178 F 1.831 Sig. .147

INTERPRETATION From the above table it can be inferred that there is no significant difference between the experience groups and various aspects of performance of contract labors that the respondents belong to the tools and resources, supervisor listen the employees suggestion, supervisor respond the employees question, and also there is a significant difference between the tools and resources, teamwork and evaluate the performance and contract labors will differ across different experience groups.

TABLE 2 GENDER - One-Way Ann ova Analysis One way analyses were conducted to check whether the study variables differ across various gender groups. The department break up among the respondents is as follows
Male Female Total 66 34 100

To check whether the various study variables differ across gender groups, one way ANOVA was conducted. The various hypotheses being considered are: NULL HYPOTHESIS H0: There is no significant difference between the gender groups and the various factors related to performance of contract labor ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS H1a: The opinion about the supervisor listen their employees words will differ across different gender groups H1b: The opinion about the too much of work in the workplace. Will differ across different gender groups H1c: The opinion about the amount of work expected form the employees by supervisor will differ across different gender groups H1d: The satisfaction level of communication between the departments will differ across different gender groups H1d: The employees opinion about the good relation with supervisor will differ across different gender groups H1e: The employees opinion about the support from the coworkers will differ across different gender groups H1f: The employees opinion about the concern from one another and to help another will differ across different gender groups.

TABLE SHOWING THE ANOVA ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE GENDER GROUPS AND THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACT LABOR
ANOVA Sum of Squares Between Groups supervisor Within Groups Total Between Groups work feel Within Groups Total Between Groups colleagues Within Groups Total Between Groups communicate Sufficiently Within Groups Total Between Groups goodrelation_Supervisor Within Groups Total Between Groups coworkers Within Groups Total Between Groups People Within Groups Total .000 112.750 112.750 1.224 187.816 189.040 .224 108.816 109.040 1.168 224.592 225.760 .080 120.910 120.990 1.871 157.289 159.160 .027 156.083 156.110 df 1 98 99 1 98 99 1 98 99 1 98 99 1 98 99 1 98 99 1 98 99 .027 1.593 .017 .896 1.871 1.605 1.166 .283 .080 1.234 .065 .800 1.168 2.292 .510 .477 .224 1.110 .201 .655 1.224 1.916 .638 .426 Mean Square .000 1.151 F .000 Sig. .984

INTERPRETATION: From the above table it can be inferred that there is no significant difference between the gender groups and the various factors related to performance of contract labor.

FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

8. FINDINGS

SIMPLE PERCENTAGE (%) METHOD:


1. 40% of the respondents are between the age group of 30-40 years 2. 66% of the respondents are male 3. 25% of the respondents are fall under the experience of 1-11 months 4. 33% of the respondents are production department. 5. 37% of the respondents are HSC/Diploma graduates. 6. 38% of the respondents are earning monthly income of rupees 10000 and below 7. 40% of the respondents are satisfied with their company mission 8. 43% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the managers communication. 9. 34% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the supervisors 10. 34% of the respondents are satisfied with the opportunities for learning. 11. 33% of the respondents are satisfied with the convenient working hours. 12. 41% of the respondents are highly satisfied with working place. 13. 32% of the respondents are highly satisfied with their feel of work. 14. 33% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the tools and resources. 15. 38% of the respondents are highly satisfied with training 16. 37% of the respondents are highly satisfied with safety measures. 17. 43 % of the respondents are highly satisfied with regocognition for their work. 18. 32% of the respondents are highly satisfied with work expectation. 19. 53% of the respondents are satisfied working with their colleagues. 20. 30% of the respondents are satisfied with sufficient department communication 21. 43% of the respondents are highly satisfied with their relationship of the supervisor. 22. 34% of the respondents are Highly satisfied with the active listening of their suggestions by superior 23. 50% of the respondents are satisfied with the guidelines of their supervisor. 24. 40% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the teamwork promoted by the supervisor.

25. 47% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the evaluation of performance by supervisor. 26. 48% of the respondents are Satisfied with the supervisor response 27. 37% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the support of their co-workers. 28. 29% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the helping tendency between the workers 29. 45% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the refreshment facilities. 30. 38% of the respondents are satisfied with the motivation of supervisor. 31. 39% of the respondents are satisfied with their present job.

CHISQUARE ANALYSIS:
There is a significant difference between monthly income of the employees and employees feel about the too much of work. There is no significant difference between educational qualification of the employees and employees opinion about that they are recognized their job in workplace There is a significant difference between Age of the employees and employees got the opportunity to learn something in the workplace.

ANOVA ANALYSIS:
There is no significant difference between the experience groups and various aspects of performance of contract labors There is no significant difference between the gender groups and the various factors related to performance of contract labor.

9. SUGGESTIONS

The recognition is given to the temporary contract labour into permanent contract labour. The accommodations and the food facilities are provided to improve their productivity. The measures is taken to improve the welfare measures to the contract labours The measures can be taken to improve the relationship between the employees and the supervisor. The measures can be taken to improve the communication between the employees with one another.

10.CONCLUSION
This study has enabled me to get a clear insight on satisfaction of contract labors in C.R.I Pumps. A satisfied employee is a productive employee and therefore crucial to the success of any company. This survey identified job satisfaction levels, measured workplace perceptions, and recognized areas of strength and possible improvement opportunities. The study on satisfaction of contract labour helps me to know that the employees satisfaction plays a major role in a successful work environment. Employee satisfaction was by asking several individual factors like Personal Work Experience, Company Values and Employee dedication and employee communication and working environment. The data from each of these question types shows that overall employees with special reference to C.R.I Pumps were satisfied with their organization. The overall satisfaction questions suggest further steps need to be taken to increase employee satisfaction at C.R.I Pumps. To do so, however, every manager and team member needs to establish better communication practices. If the company begins to promote a culture of listening and appropriate action, everyone will be motivated to work toward the same goal.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
a) Research methodology by C.R.Kothari b) Websites www.pumpsindia.com http://www.Flowcontrolnetwork.com/articles/global-pump-market-to-reach-45bilby-2017 http://www.cripumps.com/profile.html http://www.cripumps.com/products_list.html http://www.cripumps.com/index.php https://www.crigroups.com/news.php http://www.legalservicesindia.com/article/article/regulation-of-contract-labour616-1.html http://www.advantageresourcing.com/upload/images/pdf/WhitePapers/ContractLa bor.pdf

APPENDIXES

Questionnaire

A STUDY ON SATISFACTION OF CONTRACT LABOURS WITH REFERENCE TO CRI PUMPS


PERSONAL DETAILS: Age a) 18 - 20 yrs c) 30 40 yrs Gender a) Male Experience a) 1-11 months c) 2 3 years Department a) Human resource b) Marketing b) 1- 2 years d) Above 3 years b) Female b) 20 - 30 yrs d) 40 and above

c) Sales and dispatch Educational qualification a) SSLC c) UG Monthly income (Rs) a) Below 10000 c) 15000 20000

d) Production

e) Finance

b) HSC/Diploma d) PG b) 10000 15000 d) Above 20000

1. Please indicate the extent to which you are satisfied with the following statements.

S.NO

Statement

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

1.

The Company clearly conveys its mission to its employees.

2.

The

informations

are

communicated at the right time by the managers. 3. The supervisors listen to the words of the employees. 4. My job gives me the opportunity to learn 5. Working hours are convenient for me 6. I am happy with my work place

7.

I feel I have too much work to do

8.

I have the tools and resources I need to do my job I have the training I need to do my job.

9.

10. Safety measures provided by the company are good 11. I am recognized for my work.

S.NO

Statement

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

12. The amount of work expected of me is reasonable. 13. It is easy to get along with my colleagues 14. People in my department

communicate sufficiently with one another. 15. There is a good relation with the supervisor 16. My supervisor actively listens to my suggestions. 17. My supervisor enables me to perform at my best. 18. My supervisor promotes an

atmosphere of teamwork. 19. My supervisor evaluates my work performance on a regular basis. 20. When I have questions or

concerns, my supervisor is able to address them. 21. I am satisfied with the support from my co-workers. 22. People here have concern from one another and tend to help. 23. I am satisfied with the refreshment facility.

Statement

Highly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

24. My supervisor motivates me to increase my efficiency at a time when I am below the expected level. 25. Overall I am satisfied with my present job.