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Individual Current Harmonics in Percent of IL

4.5%

Column CM

4.0%

Column CN

3.5%
3.0%
2.5%
2.0%
1.5%
1.0%
0.5%
0.0%

7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31 35 37 41 43 47 49 53 55 59 61 65 67 71 73 77 79 83 85 89 91 95 97 101 103

harm_volt

Individual Voltage Harmonics in Percent of the PCC voltage

1.4%

Column CT
1.2%

Column CU
1.0%

0.8%

0.6%

0.4%

0.2%

0.0%
5

11

13

17

19

23

25

29

31

35

37

41

43

47

49

53

55

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97 101 103

POWER :
Z:
DEMAND:
Harmonic Calculator WEG
V1.00
Copyright(C) 2009 WEG. All rights reserved.

15
8
13000

MVA
%
kVA

Graphs (PCC)

Ie (Estimated Waveform)
Isc:
IL:

16.4
1137.2

kA
Amp

Voltage at PCC (rms)


Volts

6600 V
VFD Rectifier

6 pulse

Case Study:

12 pulse

Estimated Results

18 pulse
Motor

Motor Voltage (rms)


3300 V

Volts

Motor Rated Current (rms)


310.0

Amp

Motor Power
1523.8 kW

IEEE-519

Company Name
% LOAD
Ie(1)
Ie RMS
IL
THDi
TDD
THDv
Isc / IL

10.66
139.9
146.4
1137.2
32.49
4.00
1.70
14.4

%
Amp
Amp
Amp
%
%
%

FP:
MotorPower:
Ni
PCCPower:
Fund_IL:
I_source:
freq:
L_pcc:

limite_TDD:
limite_TDD:
ISC/IL:

0.86
1523823.66
0.953
1598975.51
139.87
1312.1597027037
60
0.0006162479

5
0.05
14.4230769231

pcc_power_kVA
ctrl thdv
ctrl tdd
soma ctrl

0
0
0
0

amarelo
vermelho

0
0

Lfonte
relao tr
Lfonte_ref
Queda%_Ref
QuedasS
Queda%LIM

0.0006162479
0.5
0.000154062
0.0094500692
0.059450069
0.0594500692

1598.9755083767

Henry
Henry

Harmnicas de Corrente
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

(N-1)
0.2
0.0909091
0.0588235
0.0434783
0.0344828
0.0285714
0.0243902
0.0212766
0.0188679
0.0169492
0.0153846
0.0140845
0.012987
0.0120482
0.011236
0.0105263
0.009901
0.0093458
0.0088496
0.0084034
0.008
0.0076336

(N+1)
0.1428571
0.0769231
0.0526316
0.04
0.0322581
0.027027
0.0232558
0.0204082
0.0181818
0.0163934
0.0149254
0.0136986
0.0126582
0.0117647
0.010989
0.0103093
0.0097087
0.0091743
0.0086957
0.0082645
0.007874
0.0075188

(N-1)^2
0.04
0.0082644628
0.0034602076
0.0018903592
0.0011890606
0.0008163265
0.000594884
0.0004526935
0.0003559986
0.0002872738
0.0002366864
0.0001983733
0.0001686625
0.0001451589
0.0001262467
0.0001108033
9.80296049406921E-005
8.73438728273212E-005
7.83146683373796E-005
7.06164818868724E-005
0.000064
5.82716624905309E-005

(N+1)^2
0.0204081633
0.0059171598
0.0027700831
0.0016
0.0010405827
0.0007304602
0.0005408329
0.0004164931
0.0003305785
0.000268745
0.0002227668
0.0001876525
0.0001602307
0.0001384083
0.0001207584
0.0001062812
9.42595909133754E-005
0.000084168
7.56143667296786E-005
6.83013455365071E-005
6.2000124000248E-005
5.65323082141444E-005

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77

0.0072993
0.006993
0.0067114
0.0064516
0.0062112
0.005988
0.0057803
0.0055866
0.0054054
0.0052356
0.0050761
0.0049261
0.0047847
0.0046512
0.0045249
0.0044053
0.0042918
0.0041841
0.0040816
0.0039841
0.0038911
0.0038023
0.0037175
0.0036364
0.0035587
0.0034843
0.003413
0.0033445
0.0032787
0.0032154
0.0031546
0.003096
0.0030395
0.0029851
0.0029326
0.0028818
0.0028329
0.0027855
0.0027397
0.0026954
0.0026525
0.002611
0.0025707
0.0025316
0.0024938
0.002457
0.0024213
0.0023866
0.0023529
0.0023202
0.0022883
0.0022573
0.0022272
0.0021978
0.0021692

0.0071942
0.0068966
0.0066225
0.0063694
0.006135
0.0059172
0.0057143
0.0055249
0.0053476
0.0051813
0.0050251
0.004878
0.0047393
0.0046083
0.0044843
0.0043668
0.0042553
0.0041494
0.0040486
0.0039526
0.003861
0.0037736
0.00369
0.0036101
0.0035336
0.0034602
0.0033898
0.0033223
0.0032573
0.0031949
0.0031348
0.0030769
0.0030211
0.0029674
0.0029155
0.0028653
0.0028169
0.0027701
0.0027248
0.002681
0.0026385
0.0025974
0.0025575
0.0025189
0.0024814
0.002445
0.0024096
0.0023753
0.0023419
0.0023095
0.0022779
0.0022472
0.0022173
0.0021882
0.0021598

5.32793435984869E-005
4.89021468042447E-005
0.000045043
4.16233090530697E-005
3.85787585355503E-005
3.58564308508731E-005
3.34124093688396E-005
0.00003121
2.9218407596786E-005
2.7411529289219E-005
2.57672189440594E-005
2.42665437161785E-005
2.28932487809345E-005
2.16333153055706E-005
2.04746012571405E-005
1.94065477692173E-005
1.84199377406104E-005
1.75066963113391E-005
1.66597251145356E-005
1.58727639243822E-005
1.51402746445821E-005
1.44573436076855E-005
1.38195989552383E-005
1.32231404958678E-005
1.26644799331315E-005
1.21404897473564E-005
1.16483593285886E-005
1.11855572085323E-005
1.07497984412792E-005
0.000010339
9.95133795738837E-006
9.58506263838434E-006
9.2386433976035E-006
8.91067052795723E-006
8.59985724236978E-006
0.000008305
8.0251025206847E-006
7.75909559981689E-006
7.50609870519797E-006
7.26527706134074E-006
7.03586178753105E-006
6.81714375311032E-006
6.60846809101182E-006
6.40922929017786E-006
6.21886679809205E-006
6.03686107371611E-006
5.8627300388699E-006
0.000005696
5.5363321799308E-006
5.3832612873531E-006
5.23645198958993E-006
5.09556736594836E-006
4.9602928556902E-006
4.83033450066417E-006
4.70541734699159E-006

5.17571554267377E-005
4.75624256837099E-005
4.38577255383536E-005
4.05695971439004E-005
3.76378486205728E-005
3.50127796645776E-005
3.26530612244898E-005
3.05240987759836E-005
2.85967571277417E-005
2.68463582914978E-005
2.52518875785965E-005
2.37953599048186E-005
2.24613103928483E-005
2.12363821699335E-005
0.000020109
0.000019069
1.81077410593029E-005
1.72173344122863E-005
0.000016391
1.5622803043322E-005
1.49073508146867E-005
1.42399430402278E-005
1.36163723260849E-005
1.30328819611881E-005
1.24861092035111E-005
0.000011973
0.000011491
1.10374057681483E-005
1.06101921505798E-005
1.02073104757627E-005
9.82694745531196E-006
9.46745562130178E-006
9.12733545696005E-006
8.80521973425847E-006
8.49985975231409E-006
8.21011321746127E-006
7.93493354493156E-006
7.67336039471766E-006
7.42451128154489E-006
7.18757412185813E-006
6.96180060010721E-006
6.74650025299376E-006
0.000006541
6.3448153341497E-006
6.15729423861978E-006
0.000005978
5.80635796196836E-006
0.000005642
5.48459104146899E-006
5.33364624057945E-006
5.18884812760415E-006
5.04986744097968E-006
4.91639667454929E-006
4.78814837514185E-006
4.66485359356997E-006

THDi

3.25E-01

78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

0.0021413
0.0021142
0.0020877
0.0020619
0.0020367
0.0020121
0.0019881
0.0019646
0.0019417
0.0019194
0.0018975
0.0018762
0.0018553
0.0018349
0.0018149
0.0017953
0.0017762
0.0017575
0.0017391
0.0017212
0.0017036
0.0016863
0.0016694

0.0021322
0.0021053
0.002079
0.0020534
0.0020284
0.002004
0.0019802
0.0019569
0.0019342
0.001912
0.0018904
0.0018692
0.0018484
0.0018282
0.0018083
0.0017889
0.0017699
0.0017513
0.0017331
0.0017153
0.0016978
0.0016807
0.0016639

4.58528398956389E-006
4.4696932449526E-006
4.35841893994535E-006
4.25124880433627E-006
0.000004148
4.04843548210794E-006
3.95242856973467E-006
3.85979674310351E-006
3.77038363653502E-006
0.000003684
3.60063227102679E-006
0.00000352
3.44209196581314E-006
3.36671997306624E-006
3.29379679250068E-006
3.22321748015304E-006
3.15488265413968E-006
3.08869814461902E-006
3.02457466918715E-006
2.96242753161651E-006
2.9021763420389E-006
2.8437447568456E-006
2.7870602367329E-006

4.54626047344757E-006
4.43213296398892E-006
4.32224964449497E-006
4.21640264958743E-006
4.11439668544203E-006
0.000004016
3.92118419762768E-006
3.82964219652958E-006
3.74126881390555E-006
3.65591948202933E-006
3.57345778495646E-006
3.49375491309285E-006
3.4166891598703E-006
3.34214545685457E-006
0.00000327
3.20019457182997E-006
3.13258673349518E-006
3.06709892314157E-006
3.00364341946781E-006
2.94213699178261E-006
2.88250062694389E-006
2.8246592754749E-006
2.76854161533329E-006

Ie - spectrum
(N-1)
27.97481637
12.71582562
8.227887167
6.081481819
4.823244202
3.996402338
3.411562972
2.976044295
2.63913362
2.37074715
2.151908951
1.970057491
1.816546517
1.685229902
1.571618897
1.472358756
1.384891899
1.30723441
1.237823733
1.175412452
1.118992655
1.067741083

(N+1)
(N-1)^2
(N+1)^2
19.98201169 782.5903508994 399.2807912752
10.75954476 161.6922212602 115.7678033875
7.361793781 67.6981272404
54.19600768
5.594963274
36.98442112
31.303614036
4.512067156 23.2636846284 20.3587500234
3.78038059
15.971231651 14.2912774087
3.252885624 11.6387619111 10.5812648851
2.854573099
8.8568396435
8.148587577
2.543165124
6.9650262629
6.4676888504
2.293017735
5.620442049
5.2579303339
2.087672863
4.6307121355
4.3583779845
1.916083313
3.8811265171
3.6713752622
1.770557998
3.2998412502
3.1348756245
1.645577433
2.8399998218
2.7079250896
1.537077822
2.4699859579
2.3626082324
1.442000844
2.1678403072
2.0793664335
1.358000795
1.9179255732
1.8441661582
1.283248457
1.7088618021
1.6467266032
1.216296364
1.5322075944
1.4793768448
1.155984147
1.3815944335
1.3362993493
1.101370723
1.2521445614
1.2130174699
1.051684826
1.1400710199
1.1060409731

1.0209787
0.978140432
0.938752227
0.902413431
0.868783117
0.837569352
0.808520704
0.781419452
0.756076118
0.732325036
0.71002072
0.689034886
0.66925398
0.650577125
0.632914397
0.616185383
0.600317948
0.585247204
0.57091462
0.557267258
0.544257128
0.531840615
0.519977999
0.508633025
0.497772533
0.487366139
0.477385945
0.467806294
0.458603547
0.44975589
0.44124316
0.433046693
0.425149185
0.417534573
0.410187923
0.403095337
0.396243858
0.389621398
0.383216663
0.377019089
0.371018785
0.36520648
0.359573475
0.3541116
0.348813172
0.343670963
0.338678164
0.333828358
0.329115487
0.324533833
0.32007799
0.315742848
0.311523568
0.307415564
0.303414494

1.006288359
0.96464884
0.926318423
0.890917719
0.858123202
0.827657289
0.799280468
0.772784983
0.747989742
0.724736175
0.702884833
0.682312594
0.662910341
0.644581022
0.627238035
0.610803851
0.595208859
0.580390381
0.566291829
0.552861984
0.54005437
0.527826724
0.516140523
0.504960584
0.494254706
0.483993363
0.47414943
0.464697946
0.455615902
0.446882051
0.438476746
0.43038179
0.422580308
0.415056623
0.407796157
0.400785335
0.394011498
0.387462831
0.381128288
0.374997538
0.369060902
0.363309303
0.357734225
0.352327662
0.347082089
0.34199042
0.33704598
0.332242475
0.327573962
0.323034831
0.318619776
0.314323779
0.310142088
0.306070201
0.302103848

1.0423975051
0.9567587057
0.881255744
0.8143500009
0.7547841045
0.70152242
0.6537057293
0.6106163594
0.5716510963
0.5362999581
0.5041294229
0.474769074
0.4479008899
0.4232505954
0.4005806346
0.3796844257
0.3603816385
0.3425142902
0.3259435031
0.3105467972
0.2962158212
0.2828544402
0.2703771199
0.258707554
0.2477774949
0.2375257533
0.2278973404
0.2188427285
0.2103172134
0.2022803608
0.1946955266
0.1875294383
0.1807518295
0.1743351194
0.1682541324
0.1624858505
0.1570091949
0.1518048337
0.1468550105
0.1421433931
0.1376549386
0.133375773
0.1292930841
0.125395025
0.1216706287
0.1181097307
0.114702899
0.1114413724
0.1083170036
0.1053222085
0.10244992
0.0996935463
0.0970469332
0.0945043293
0.0920603553

1.0126162607
0.9305473851
0.8580658205
0.7937343816
0.736375429
0.6850165881
0.638849266
0.5971966293
0.5594886549
0.5252425239
0.494047089
0.4655504764
0.4394501195
0.4154846944
0.3934275528
0.3730813442
0.3542735857
0.3368529945
0.320686436
0.3056563729
0.2916587226
0.2786010505
0.2664010399
0.2549851917
0.2442877146
0.2342495752
0.224817682
0.2159441813
0.20758585
0.1997035672
0.1922618564
0.1852284854
0.1785741165
0.172272
0.1662977057
0.1606288846
0.1552450607
0.1501274451
0.1452587722
0.1406231539
0.1362059494
0.13199365
0.1279737755
0.1241347815
0.1204659765
0.1169574475
0.1135999929
0.110385062
0.1073047007
0.1043515021
0.1015185619
0.0987994383
0.096188115
0.0936789679
0.0912667353

IL_rms
TDD:

146.4388733736
0.3099514844

(N-1)
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946

Vpcc - spectrum
(N+1)
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946

32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946

32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946

0.299516235
0.295716875
0.292012697
0.288400169
0.28487593
0.281436784
0.278079686
0.274801733
0.271600159
0.268472326
0.265415715
0.262427921
0.259506645
0.256649691
0.253854958
0.251120434
0.248444195
0.245824397
0.243259273
0.240747129
0.23828634
0.235875349
0.233512658

0.29823898
0.294471751
0.290798507
0.287215774
0.283720247
0.280308781
0.27697838
0.273726188
0.270549481
0.267445663
0.264412253
0.261446882
0.258547286
0.255711301
0.252936857
0.250221971
0.247564747
0.244963366
0.242416086
0.239921238
0.237477219
0.23508249
0.232735577

0.0897099752
0.0874484701
0.0852714152
0.0831746573
0.0811542957
0.0792066636
0.0773283115
0.0755159922
0.0737666463
0.0720773898
0.0704455018
0.0688684137
0.067343699
0.0658690641
0.0644423397
0.0630614725
0.0617245181
0.0604296341
0.0591750738
0.05795918
0.05678038
0.0556371802
0.0545281612

0.0889464895
0.0867136123
0.0845637716
0.0824929007
0.0804971786
0.0785730128
0.0767170229
0.0749260258
0.0731970218
0.0715271828
0.0699138395
0.0683544721
0.0668466992
0.0653882696
0.0639770536
0.0626110348
0.0612883038
0.0600070506
0.0587655589
0.0575622005
0.0563954294
0.0552637773
0.0541658489

32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946

32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946
32.4955466946

Vpcc - spectrum
(N-1)^2
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841

(N+1)^2
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841

1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841

1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841

Quedas
THDv:

459.556428523
0.1206022853

Quedas Computadas at 100 Ha

6P
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
53
55
59

Simu
30.3601%
8.7074%
5.9768%
3.3221%
2.1238%
1.7261%
1.0817%
0.9834%
0.6410%
0.6056%
0.4795%
0.3896%
0.3676%
0.3186%
0.2590%
0.2510%
0.1991%
0.1894%
0.1669%

61
65
67
71
73
77
79
83
85
89
91
95
97
101
103

0.1508%
0.1397%
0.1268%
0.1172%
0.1108%
0.0950%
0.0944%
0.0829%
0.0774%
0.0749%
0.0693%
0.0649%
0.0615%
0.0615%
0.0615%

5%
NORMALIZED
COMPONENT

HARMONIC
NO
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
53
55

3.23E-01
9.31E-02
6.50E-02
3.29E-02
2.48E-02
1.91E-02
1.12E-02
1.10E-02
6.81E-03
6.29E-03
5.26E-03
4.21E-03
3.98E-03
3.40E-03
2.83E-03
2.73E-03
2.11E-03
2.06E-03

1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841

1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841
1055.9605549841

59
61
65
67
71
73
77
79
83
85
89
91
95
97
101
103

1.78E-03
1.59E-03
1.54E-03
1.37E-03
1.26E-03
1.21E-03
1.03E-03
1.01E-03
8.95E-04
8.32E-04
8.09E-04
7.32E-04
7.11E-04
6.67E-04

uedas Computadas at 100 Harmnica

Harm_IL

Queda

Queda^2

4.25E+01
1.22E+01
8.36E+00
4.65E+00
2.97E+00
2.41E+00
1.51E+00
1.38E+00
8.97E-01
8.47E-01
6.71E-01
5.45E-01
5.14E-01
4.46E-01
3.62E-01
3.51E-01
2.78E-01
2.65E-01
2.33E-01

8.54E+01
3.43E+01
3.70E+01
2.43E+01
2.03E+01
1.85E+01
1.40E+01
1.38E+01
1.05E+01
1.06E+01
9.45E+00
8.11E+00
8.48E+00
7.71E+00
6.85E+00
6.92E+00
5.94E+00
5.86E+00
5.54E+00

7299.885491464
1176.9172333464
1369.2824563524
590.86424207
412.9653075168
340.7123401368
196.0735060827
191.4633825412
109.4749231701
111.6646081419
89.23401462
65.8288920228
71.9724323981
59.4386231352
46.9324720315
47.9158772823
35.2669813492
34.3909972792
30.7158470409

2.11E-01
1.95E-01
1.77E-01
1.64E-01
1.55E-01
1.33E-01
1.32E-01
1.16E-01
1.08E-01
1.05E-01
9.69E-02
9.08E-02
8.61E-02
8.61E-02
8.61E-02

5.18E+00
5.11E+00
4.78E+00
4.68E+00
4.55E+00
4.12E+00
4.20E+00
3.87E+00
3.70E+00
3.75E+00
3.55E+00
3.47E+00
3.36E+00
3.50E+00
3.57E+00

26.8106547583
26.1341871863
22.8659379854
21.9165965482
20.742680952
16.9613517487
17.6040702005
14.9802311044
13.6963034685
14.0892947985
12.5803397664
12.0434548141
11.2815015051
12.2311188068
12.7203155986

Soma
Raiz
THD06p

0.0248%
0.0036%
6.7073%
4.3728%
0.0049%
0.0062%
1.0662%
0.8701%
0.0012%
0.0010%
0.5160%
0.4809%
0.0005%
0.0019%
0.2748%
0.2352%
0.0005%
0.0010%
0.1707%

61
0
0
71
73
0
0
83
85
0
0
95
97
0
0

0.1725%
0.0004%
0.0011%
0.1264%
0.1131%
0.0003%
0.0008%
0.0850%
0.0829%
0.0001%
0.0008%
0.0681%
0.0659%
0.0659%
0.0659%

6%

15%
NORMALIZED
COMPONENT
2.44E-01
7.42E-02
4.14E-02
3.05E-02
1.36E-02
1.19E-02
8.98E-03
6.94E-03
5.19E-03
4.90E-03
3.49E-03
3.07E-03
2.75E-03
2.46E-03
1.92E-03
1.87E-03
1.59E-03
1.42E-03

Simu

12537.657667223
111.9716824345
1.70%

Queda%
10%
NORMALIZED
COMPONENT

12P
0
0
11
13
0
0
23
25
0
0
35
37
0
0
47
49
0
0
59

20%
NORMALIZED
COMPONENT
2.02E-01
7.47E-02
2.75E-02
2.28E-02
1.32E-02
9.61E-03
6.58E-03
5.98E-03
4.40E-03
3.62E-03
2.89E-03
2.70E-03
2.17E-03
1.90E-03
1.61E-03
1.54E-03
1.29E-03
1.17E-03

1.72E-01
7.24E-02
2.25E-02
1.69E-02
1.15E-02
9.28E-03
5.74E-03
4.68E-03
3.66E-03
3.33E-03
2.60E-03
2.25E-03
1.78E-03
1.65E-03
1.44E-03
1.32E-03
1.08E-03
9.99E-04

5a H
7a H
11a H
13a H
17a H
19a H
23a H
25a H
29a H
31a H
35a H
37a H
41a H
43a H
47a H
49a H
53a H
55a H

pol 6P
30.3601%
8.7074%
5.9768%
3.3221%
2.1238%
1.7261%
1.0817%
0.9834%
0.6410%
0.6056%
0.4795%
0.3896%
0.3676%
0.3186%
0.2590%
0.2510%
0.1991%
0.1894%

^2
9.2174%
0.7582%
0.3572%
0.1104%
0.0451%
0.0298%
0.0117%
0.0097%
0.0041%
0.0037%
0.0023%
0.0015%
0.0014%
0.0010%
0.0007%
0.0006%
0.0004%
0.0004%

1.29E-03
1.22E-03
1.02E-03
9.66E-04
8.94E-04
8.32E-04
7.29E-04
7.26E-04
6.33E-04
6.03E-04
5.66E-04
5.46E-04
4.78E-04
4.66E-04

1.03E-03
9.89E-04
8.59E-04
7.87E-04
7.14E-04
6.86E-04
6.09E-04
5.65E-04
5.20E-04
5.04E-04
4.54E-04
4.25E-04
3.97E-04
3.86E-04

8.93E-04
8.54E-04
7.35E-04
6.84E-04
6.04E-04
5.80E-04
5.34E-04
4.99E-04
4.43E-04
4.20E-04
3.94E-04
3.80E-04
3.42E-04
3.27E-04

59a H
61a H
65a H
67a H
71a H
73a H
77a H
79a H
83a H
85a H
89a H
91a H
95a H
97a H
101a H
103a H

0.1669%
0.1508%
0.1397%
0.1268%
0.1172%
0.1108%
0.0950%
0.0944%
0.0829%
0.0774%
0.0749%
0.0693%
0.0649%
0.0615%
0.0615%
0.0615%

0.0003%
0.0002%
0.0002%
0.0002%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%

thdi 6P
32.49%

Harm_IL

Queda

Queda^2

0
0
9.38E+00
6.12E+00
0
0
1.49E+00
1.22E+00
0
0
7.22E-01
6.73E-01
0
0
3.84E-01
3.29E-01
0
0
2.39E-01

0
0
41.5266322413
31.9950643955
0
0
13.802408707
12.2430640454
0
0
10.1648477034
10.015072172
0
0
7.2704077043
6.4855302379
0
0
5.6691318984

0
0
1724.4611853039
1023.6841456754
0
0
190.5064861163
149.8926172202
0
0
103.3241288329
100.30167061
0
0
52.858828187
42.0621024669
0
0
32.1390564812

2.41E-01
0
0
1.77E-01
1.58E-01
0
0
1.19E-01
1.16E-01
0
0
9.52E-02
9.22E-02
0
0

5.9236485629
0
0
5.0499347081
4.645577586
0
0
3.9724316425
3.9655478123
0
0
3.6393189485
3.5982414461
0
0

35.0896122972
0
0
25.5018405556
21.5813911076
0
0
15.7802131546
15.7255694513
0
0
13.2446424087
12.9473415047
0
0

Soma
Raiz
THD12p

18P
0
0
0
0
17
19
0
0
0
0
35
37
0
0
0
0
53
55
0

Simu

0
0
0
71
73
0
0
0
0
89
91
0
0
0
0

Harm_IL
0.0055%
0.0031%
0.0053%
0.0031%
1.4485%
1.4667%
0.0014%
0.0011%
0.0014%
0.0011%
0.3847%
0.3820%
0.0008%
0.0007%
0.0007%
0.0006%
0.1765%
0.1696%
0.0005%

0
0
0
0
2.03E+00
2.05E+00
0
0
0
0
5.38E-01
5.34E-01
0
0
0
0
2.47E-01
2.37E-01
0

0.0006%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0976%
0.0961%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0619%
0.0632%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%

0
0
0
1.37E-01
1.34E-01
0
0
0
0
8.66E-02
8.84E-02
0
0
0
0

3559.1008313735
59.6582000346
0.90%

6P 5%
pol 12P
0.0248%
0.0036%
6.7073%
4.3728%
0.0049%
0.0062%
1.0662%
0.8701%
0.0012%
0.0010%
0.5160%
0.4809%
0.0005%
0.0019%
0.2748%
0.2352%
0.0005%
0.0010%

^2
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.4499%
0.1912%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0114%
0.0076%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0027%
0.0023%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0008%
0.0006%
0.0000%
0.0000%

pol 18P
0.0055%
0.0031%
0.0053%
0.0031%
1.4485%
1.4667%
0.0014%
0.0011%
0.0014%
0.0011%
0.3847%
0.3820%
0.0008%
0.0007%
0.0007%
0.0006%
0.1765%
0.1696%

^2
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0210%
0.0215%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0015%
0.0015%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0003%
0.0003%

32.2400%
9.3030%
6.4880%
3.2980%
2.4750%
1.9100%
1.1190%
1.0990%
0.6788%
0.6289%
0.5246%
0.4207%
0.3982%
0.3397%
0.2824%
0.2727%
0.2105%
0.2058%

Fator
0.0008158
0.0004090
1.1222256
1.3162523
0.0022877
0.0035817
0.9857015
0.8848044
0.0019107
0.0016489
1.0760579
1.2343713
0.0014448
0.0060141
1.0612606
0.9369270
0.0027145
0.0054859

0.1707%
0.1725%
0.0004%
0.0011%
0.1264%
0.1131%
0.0003%
0.0008%
0.0850%
0.0829%
0.0001%
0.0008%
0.0681%
0.0659%
0.0659%
0.0659%

0.0003%
0.0003%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0002%
0.0001%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%

thdi 12P
8.17%

0.0005%
0.0006%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0976%
0.0961%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0619%
0.0632%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%

0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0001%
0.0001%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%
0.0000%

thdi 18P
2.15%

0.1790%
0.1590%
0.1545%
0.1362%
0.1258%
0.1199%
0.1019%
0.1008%
0.0896%
0.0832%
0.0811%
0.0731%
0.0707%
0.0668%
0.0668%
0.0668%

1.0229050
1.1440252
0.0026544
0.0086784
1.0786963
1.0200167
0.0029323
0.0089871
1.0263540
1.0715230
0.0016928
0.0115113
1.0486838
1.0712895
1.0712895
1.0712895

Queda
Queda^2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13.8597061784
192.0914553504
15.684803575
246.0130631869
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7.5790689076
57.4422855065
7.9553577334
63.287716666
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5.2643370021
27.7132440712
5.2488799552
27.5507407846
0
0
0
0
0
3.9000232675
3.9466517677
0
0
0
0
3.1019832336
3.2351601045
0
0
0
0
Soma
Raiz
THD18p

12P 5%
0.0263%
0.0038%
7.2810%
4.3410%
0.0057%
0.0068%
1.1030%
0.9724%
0.0013%
0.0010%
0.5645%
0.5193%
0.0006%
0.0020%
0.2997%
0.2555%
0.0006%
0.0011%

24P
0
0
0
0
0
0
23
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
47
49
0
0
0

0
0
0
15.2101814873
15.5760601753
0
0
0
0
9.6222999818
10.4662609015
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
71
73
0
0
0
0
0
0
95
97
0
0

664.9733081115
25.7870763777
0.39%

Fator
0.0001827
0.0003581
0.0008875
0.0009482
0.6820202
0.8497382
0.0013047
0.0010728
0.0021523
0.0017920
0.8023256
0.9805087
0.0021067
0.0022788
0.0028527
0.0025567
0.8864608
0.8950437

Simu

Harm_IL

Queda
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Soma
Raiz
THD24p

18P 5%
0.0059%
0.0033%
0.0058%
0.0031%
1.6880%
1.6230%
0.0015%
0.0012%
0.0015%
0.0011%
0.4209%
0.4125%
0.0008%
0.0008%
0.0008%
0.0007%
0.1866%
0.1842%

0.1831%
0.1819%
0.0004%
0.0012%
0.1357%
0.1223%
0.0003%
0.0009%
0.0919%
0.0891%
0.0001%
0.0008%
0.0741%
0.0715%
0.0715%
0.0715%

0.0032369
0.0038434
0.0038718
0.0041278
0.8330684
0.8665555
0.0050677
0.0051746
0.0050832
0.0048684
0.8264086
0.9121150
0.0056340
0.0065808
0.0065808
0.0065808

0.0006%
0.0006%
0.0006%
0.0006%
0.1048%
0.1039%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0005%
0.0004%
0.0670%
0.0666%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%
0.0004%

Grficos
Corrente
Pulsos
harm
Queda^2

pulsos
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.00%

6
fator lim cor
1

1
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
53
55
59
61
65
67
71
73
77
79
83
85
89
91
95
97
101
103

Isc_IL

14.42308

Tenso
Pulsos
harm

6
AMP_V

Amp
% of IL
Limite IEEE
139.8741
12.30%
###
3.73%
4.00%
###
1.07%
4.00%
###
0.74%
2.00%
###
0.41%
2.00%
###
0.26%
1.50%
###
0.21%
1.50%
###
0.13%
0.60%
###
0.12%
0.60%
8.97E-001
0.08%
0.60%
8.47E-001
0.07%
0.60%
6.71E-001
0.06%
0.30%
5.45E-001
0.05%
0.30%
5.14E-001
0.05%
0.30%
4.46E-001
0.04%
0.30%
3.62E-001
0.03%
0.30%
3.51E-001
0.03%
0.30%
2.78E-001
0.02%
0.30%
2.65E-001
0.02%
0.30%
2.33E-001
0.02%
0.30%

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
53
55
59

###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###

2.11E-001
1.95E-001
1.77E-001
1.64E-001
1.55E-001
1.33E-001
1.32E-001
1.16E-001
1.08E-001
1.05E-001
9.69E-002
9.08E-002
8.61E-002
8.61E-002
8.61E-002

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

61
65
67
71
73
77
79
83
85
89
91
95
97
101
103

###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###

0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%

Limite I

0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%
0.30%

AMP% Limite IEEE


1.29%
0.52%
0.56%
0.37%
0.31%
0.28%
0.21%
0.21%
0.16%
0.16%
0.14%
0.12%
0.13%
0.12%
0.10%
0.10%
0.09%
0.09%
0.08%

3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

THDi calculada
Harm_i_simu
30.36%
8.71%
5.98%
3.32%
2.12%
1.73%
1.08%
0.98%
0.64%
0.61%
0.48%
0.39%
0.37%
0.32%
0.26%
0.25%
0.20%
0.19%
0.17%

0.08%
0.08%
0.07%
0.07%
0.07%
0.06%
0.06%
0.06%
0.06%
0.06%
0.05%
0.05%
0.05%
0.05%
0.05%

3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.15%
0.14%
0.13%
0.12%
0.11%
0.10%
0.09%
0.08%
0.08%
0.07%
0.07%
0.06%
0.06%
0.06%
0.06%

Limite V

soma
raiz q

ao quadr
0.092174
0.007582
0.003572
0.001104
0.000451
0.000298
0.000117
9.67E-005
4.11E-005
3.67E-005
2.30E-005
1.52E-005
1.35E-005
1.01E-005
6.71E-006
6.30E-006
3.96E-006
3.59E-006
2.79E-006
2.27E-006
1.95E-006
1.61E-006
1.37E-006
1.23E-006
9.03E-007
8.90E-007
6.86E-007
5.98E-007
5.61E-007
4.80E-007
4.21E-007
3.78E-007
3.78E-007
3.78E-007
0.105571
0.324917

IEEE-519 Recommended Practices for Applications with


Variable
Frequency Drives
Joable Andrade Alves & Paulo Jos Torri
WEG Automao S.A.
Introduction
The indirect frequency converters or variable frequency drives (VFDs) are usually composed of an input diode
rectifier stage. The three-phase full-wave bridge rectifier, also known as Graetz Bridge or six-pulse rectifier (Figure
1) is one of the most used configurations for the input stage of VFDs. The currents drained by this converter are of
pulsed-type, containing low-order harmonics that may cause voltage harmonic distortion at the electric power
supply system where VFDs are connected. The voltage distortion is related to the magnitude of the current
harmonics of the electrical equipment and also to the network impedance, i.e., to the network capacity and to the
ratio between the installed drives capacity and the network capacity.

+
D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

Figure 1 - six-pulse rectifier

Other Loads
PCC
Distorted Voltage

Non-linear Load

Figure 2 - Voltage distortion caused by currents drained by a non-linear load.


In several applications, the six-pulse variable frequency drive with an input line reactor or a DC reactor may
perfectly meet the IEEE-519 recommendations. When it is not possible, the following options are available for
reducing the harmonic currents:
1) Increase the number of pulses of the input rectifier using 12, 18 or even 24-pulse;
2) Use an active front-end rectifier (regen-drive).
The greater the number of pulses of the rectifier, the lower the current harmonic content at low frequencies. The
characteristic harmonics can be represented as follows:

h= P . n1

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ....
Where:
h : harmonic order
P : number of rectifier pulses
At the same time that the harmonic currents at low frequencies are reduced, there are other disadvantages in
increasing the number of rectifier pulses such as: the need of using phase-shifting transformers and increase on
the cost of the configuration. Particular attention needs to be given to the increase on the equipment complexity
and to the reduction on the efficiency and reliability of the whole system (due to the use of a larger number of
components).
24 of 58

25 of 58

Multipulse Configuration

In the industry, the term multipulse, when related to frequency converters, means the association, in series or in
parallel, of six-pulse three-phase rectifiers and the mandatory use of phase-shifting transformers to feed the
rectifiers. The fundamental idea of the multipulse configurations can be understood as the interconnection of sixpulse rectifiers so that the characteristic harmonics generated by these rectifiers are cancelled by the harmonics
generated by other sets of rectifiers. This mitigation is performed by appropriate design of the phase-shifting
transformer with multiple secondaries. The harmonics of the six-pulse rectifier that are present on the secondary
of the transformer will be cancelled and will not appear at the primary of the transformer that is connected to the
utility.
The characteristic harmonics of the six-pulse rectifier are given by:

h=6. n1
The magnitudes of these harmonics, in respect of the fundamental, are given by:

Ah=

1
6 . n1

The following figure shows the spectrum of these harmonics and their magnitude (as a percentage of the
fundamental).

100.0%

20.0%
14.3%
9.1% 7.7%

11

13

5.9%

17

5.3% 4.3%

19

23

4.0% 3.4%

25

29

3.2%

31

2.9% 2.7%

35

37

2.4%

41

2.3% 2.1%

43

47

2.0%

49

Figure 3 - Theoretic harmonic spectrum of the input current for a six-pulse rectifier.

The increase in the number of the rectifier pulses and the use of an appropriate phase-shifting transformer allow
the mitigation of the harmonic components at the primary of the transformer. Figure 4 shows the expected typical
waveforms of the input currents and their respective harmonic spectrum to the 6, 12 and 18-pulse configurations.
It is important to emphasize that the harmonics multiple of the 3rd are cancelled in a balanced three-phase
system (zero sequence).
In practice, however, the non-characteristic harmonics usually present a magnitude different from zero. This is
due to the pre-existing imperfections of the electrical system, such as, voltage unbalance, pre-existing harmonic
distortion, etc. Another factor that contribute to the appearance of non-characteristic harmonics is the transformer
imperfections, which blocks the mitigation of non-characteristic harmonics at the primary of the transformer.
The data presented in the following figures were obtained considering an ideal system. In the numerical
simulation the system was modeled as: power electric system, input impedance, rectifier, capacitive filter and load
(current source).

26 of 58

35.0%
30.0%
25.0%
20.0%
15.0%
10.0%
5.0%
0.0%
5

11 13

17

19 23

25

29 31

35 37

41

43 47

49

53 55

59

61 65

67

71 73

77

79 83

85 89

91

95 97 101 103

6-pulse

8.0%
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
5

11

13

17

19 23

25

29

31

35 37

41

43

47

49

53 55

59

61

65

67

71 73

77

79

83

85 89

91

95

97 101 103

59

61

65

67

71 73

77

79

83

85 89

91

95

97 101 103

12-pulse

1.8%
1.6%
1.4%
1.2%
1.0%
0.8%
0.6%
0.4%
0.2%
0.0%
5

11

13

17

19 23

25

29

31

35 37

41

43

47

49

53 55

18-pulse

Figure 4 - Typical input currents for the 6-pulse recifier or at the primary of the phase-shifting
transformer input (12 and 18-pulse) and their respective harmonic spectrum (harmonic
components expressed as a percentage of the fundamental).

27 of 58

28 of 58

IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power System:
IEEE-519

This recommendation (it is not a standard) prepared by IEEE describes the main factors that may cause harmonic
distortion, indicates the measurement methods and states the distortion limits.
The scope of this recommended practice is to analyze the harmonic distortion caused by all the loads (linear and
non-linear) at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) and not the distortion caused by one individual device. The
main concern of IEEE is what the installation reflects to the other consumers connected to the same power supply
and not what occurs within the installation.
The distortion limits are different according to the voltage and short-circuit levels at the PCC. The higher the shortcircuit current (Isc) in respect of the load current, the higher the admissible current distortion, since they will cause
a lower voltage distortion at the PCC. As the voltage level increases, the acceptable limits decrease.
The TDD Total Demand Distortion is defined as the current harmonic distortion, in percentage of the maximum
demand load current (15 or 30 minutes demand). This means that the TDD shall be measured at the peak
consumption.

Tables 10.2 and 10.3, obtained from IEEE-519, show the recommended limits for the THDv (Total Voltage
Harmonic Distortion) and for the TDD (Total Demand Distortion).

Notch Depth
THD (Voltage)
Notch Area [V*us]

Special
Applications*
10%
3%
16400

General
System
20%
5%
22800

Dedicated
System**
50%
10%
36500

* Special applications include hospitals and airports.


** A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to the
converter load.
IEEE-519 - Table 10.2 - Low-Voltage System Classification and Distortion Limits.
In section 10.2 (Development of Current Distortion Limits), of IEEE-519, it is established 3% as the individual limit
of the voltage components at PCC in respect of its fundamental component.

Isc / IL
< 20
20 < 50
50 < 100
100 < 1000
> 1000

< 11
4
7
10
12
15

11n<17
2
3,5
4,5
5,5
7

17n<23
1,5
2,5
4
5
6

23n<35
0,6
1
1,5
2
2,5

35n
0,3
0,5
0,7
1
1,4

TDD(%)
5
8
12
15
20

Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL


Isc - maximum short-circuit current at PCC
IL - maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC
IEEE-519 - Table 10.3 - Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems.
The table 10.3 is applicable to six-pulse rectifiers and general distortion situations. However, when phase shift
transformers or converters with pulse numbers higher than six are used, the limits for the characteristic harmonic
orders are increased by a factor equal to: 1.414 for 12-pulse and 1.732 for 18-pulse.
Although the IEEE-519 is not a standard, this recommendation is being used as a reference to specify the
harmonic distortion limits allowed by the utility companies and in the design of industrial power systems.

29 of 58

30 of 58

Case Study:

Company Name

date:

16-Dec-13

This case study aims to show how to obtain, in a simple way and with a good precision, the Voltage Harmonic
Distortion (THDv) and the Total Demand Distortion (TDD) values for a system composed of a main bus bar with
known power and impedance, feeding a non-linear load with an input rectifier with the specified number of pulses.
This is a simple study, since practical aspects are being disregarded such as: the network is not ideal, phase
unbalance, influence of other loads connected to the PCC, transmission line impedance, system efficiency, etc.
The values presented herein are useful for a preliminary analysis of the harmonic distortion level of the system.
For a complete analysis, taking in account all the variables listed above, it is necessary to perform a numerical
simulation.

The voltages and currents are expressed in RMS values.

PCC Data

Power Capacity:
Source reactance (%):
Voltage:
Demand Current (IL):
Short-circuit Current (Isc):
Ratio Isc/IL:

15.00
8.00
6600
1137
16.40
14.42

MVA
%
Volts
A
kA

VFD System

Rectifier:

6 pulse

For this type of rectifier, it is recommended


to use an input line reactor (or DC choke)
with a minimum voltage drop of 4%.

Three-phase Induction Motor

Voltage:
Current:
cos():

3300 Volts
310 A
0.86

Considering that the fundamental is the only component that provides active power to the motor, it is possible to
calculate its value at the PCC by taking in account the typical motor displacement power factor - cos(). With the
calculated fundamental component, the theoretical harmonic components of the current at the PCC can be known
as a function of the number of pulses of the rectifier.
The THDi current at the PCC is calculated by the following expression:

THD i =

n=2

I 2n

I (1 )

Where:
In are the harmonic components of the PCC current
I(1) is the fundamental component of the PCC current

31 of 58

32 of 58

The TDD is calculated as the current harmonic distortion at the PCC in respect of its demand current (IL):

TDD=

I 2n

n=2

IL

With the given power and impedance (%) it is possible to calculate the physical inductance (L) at the PCC and,
therefore, calculate the voltage drops caused by the components of the current harmonics.

V n=I n . ( 2. . F n ) . L

L is the physical inductance at the PCC

THD V =

Where:

n=2

Fn are the characteristic harmonic frequencies

V 2n

Vn are the harmonic components of the voltage at the PCC

V ( 1)

V(1) is the fundamental component of the voltage at the PCC

The results of the harmonic analysis are presented in the following table. These calculations were performed up to
the 100th harmonic.
Final Results
% of load

10.66

Ratio between the load power and the PCC capacity

Ie(1)

139.87

RMS value of the fundamental component of the current Ie

Ie RMS

146.44

RMS value of the Ie current

IL

1137.21 A

THDi

32.49

TDD

4.00

THDv

1.70

RMS value of the demand current at PCC


Harmonic current distortion of the current Ie
Total Demand Distortion (considering IL as the demand current)
Meets IEEE-519

Isc/IL =

14

the limit is:

5%

Voltage Harmonic Distortion at the PCC


Meets IEEE-519 including for 'Special Applications'

4.5%

Column CM

4.0%

Column CN

3.5%
3.0%
2.5%
2.0%
1.5%
1.0%
0.5%
0.0%
5

11

13

17

19

23

25

29

31

35

37

41

43

47

49

53

55

59

61

65

67

71

73

77

79

83

85

89

91

95

97 101 103

Figure 5 - Individual Current Harmonics expressed as a percentage of IL.


Observing figure 5 it can be concluded that:

Meets IEEE 519 - table 10.3

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1.4%

1.2%

Column CT

1.0%

Column CU

0.8%

0.6%

0.4%

0.2%

0.0%
5

11

13

17

19

23

25

29

31

35

37

41

43

47

49

53

55

59

61

65

67

71

73

77

79

83

85

89

91

95

97

101 103

Figure 6 - Individual Voltage Harmonics expressed as a percentage of the fundamental voltage at the PCC.
Observing figure 6 it can be concluded that:

Meets the individual limit of 3%

Summary
THDv

1.70

Voltage Harmonic Distortion at the PCC


Meets IEEE-519 including for 'Special Applications'

Individual Limit for the Voltage Harmonics at the PCC:


TDD

4.00

Meets the individual limit of 3%

Total Demand Distortion


Meets IEEE-519

Isc/IL =

14

the limit is:

5%

Current Harmonics (table 10.3): Meets IEEE 519 - table 10.3

References
[1] PAICE, DEREK A., "POWER ELETRONIC CONVERTER HARMONICS - MULTIPULSE METHODS
FOR CLEAN POWER", IEEE PRESS, USA, 1996
[2] IEEE, "IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND REQUIREMENTES FOR HARMONIC CONTROL
IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS - IEEE-519", IEEE PRESS, USA, 1993
[3] POMILIO, J. A., "PR-REGULADORES DE FATOR DE POTNCIA", PUBLICAO FEE 03/95,
BRASIL, 2004 (in portuguese)
[4] ALVES, JOABLE A., & HORNBURG, EDSON, "HIGH AND LOW ORDER HARMONICS FOR
FREQUENCY INVERTERS", ANAIS DO VI INDUSCON, JOINVILLE-BRASIL, 2004
(in portuguese)
[5] ROSSA, A. J. & TORRI, P. J., EFEITOS DA DISTORO HARMNICA DA REDE ELTRICA
SOBRE MOTORES ELTRICOS, REVISTA ELETRICIDADE MODERNA, ANO XXIX, N 324,
BRASIL, 2001 (in portuguese)

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Atendimento a Recomendao IEEE-519 em Aplicaes


com
Inversores
de Freqncia
Joable Andrade Alves & Paulo Jos Torri
WEG Automao S.A.
Introduo
Os conversores indiretos de freqncia, ou inversores de freqncia, so normalmente constitudos por um
estgio retificador a diodos na entrada. O retificador trifsico de onda completa, tambm conhecido como Ponte
de Graetz ou retificador de 6 pulsos (Fig. 1), uma das estruturas mais empregadas como estgio de entrada
dos conversores. As correntes drenadas por este retificador so pulsadas, contendo harmnicas de baixa ordem
e que podem causar distores harmnicas na tenso de rede da planta a qual esto conectados os inversores.
A distoro de tenso depende das amplitudes das harmnicas de corrente dos equipamentos e tambm das
impedncias da rede, isto , da capacidade da planta e da relao entre a capacidade instalada de inversores
em relao a capacidade da planta.

+
D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

Fig. 1 - Retificador de 6 pulsos

Outras Cargas
PCC
Tenso Distorcida

Carga No-Linear

Fig. 2 - Distoro da tenso provocada por correntes drenadas por uma carga no-linear
Em muitas aplicaes, o inversor de freqncia com retificador de 6 pulsos adicionado a uma reatncia na
entrada ou um indutor no barramento CC atende perfeitamente as recomendaes da IEEE-519. Quando isto
no possvel, algumas das solues disponveis para reduo das correntes harmnicas so o aumento do
nmero de pulsos do retificador utilizando 12, 18 ou at 24 pulsos ou a utilizao de retificadores de entrada
ativos (regenerativos).
Quanto maior o nmero de pulsos do retificador menor o contedo harmnico da corrente nas baixas
freqncias. As harmnicas caractersticas podem ser expressas por:

h= P . n1

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ....
Onde:
h : ordem da harmnica
P : nmero de pulsos do retificador
Em contrapartida ao benefcio da reduo das correntes harmnicas de baixa freqncia existem as
desvantagens em aumentar o nmero de pulsos do retificador, tais como a necessidade de utilizao de
transformadores defasadores e o aumento do custo da estrutura. Deve-se atentar para o aumento da
complexidade dos equipamentos, da reduo da eficincia e da confiabilidade do sistema pois so necessrios
um nmero maior de componentes.
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Em contrapartida ao benefcio da reduo das correntes harmnicas de baixa freqncia existem as


desvantagens em aumentar o nmero de pulsos do retificador, tais como a necessidade de utilizao de
transformadores defasadores e o aumento do custo da estrutura. Deve-se atentar para o aumento da
complexidade dos equipamentos, da reduo da eficincia e da confiabilidade do sistema pois so necessrios
um nmero maior de componentes.

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Estruturas Multi-pulsos
Na indstria, o termo multi-pulsos relacionado a inversores de freqncia tem conotao com a associao, em
srie ou paralelo, de retificadores trifsicos de 6 pulsos e a obrigatria utilizao de transformadores
defasadores para aliment-los. A idia bsica das estruturas multi-pulsos pode ser entendida como a conexo
de retificadores de 6 pulsos de tal forma que as harmnicas caractersticas geradas por estes retificadores
sejam canceladas pelas harmnicas geradas por outros conjuntos de retificadores. Este cancelamento
possvel pelo adequado projeto do transformador defasador com mltiplos secundrios. As harmnicas dos
retificadores de 6 pulsos esto presentes nos secundrios, so canceladas no transformador e no aparecem no
primrio que est conectado a rede.
As harmnicas caractersticas do retificador de 6 pulsos so dadas por:

h=6. n1
As amplitudes destas harmnicas, relativas a componente fundamental, so dadas por:

Ah=

1
6. n1

O grfico seguinte ilustra o espectro destas harmnicas e a sua amplitude expressa em percentual da
componente fundamental.

100.0%

20.0%
14.3%
9.1% 7.7%

11

13

5.9%

17

5.3% 4.3%

19

23

4.0% 3.4% 3.2%

25

29

31

2.9% 2.7% 2.4%

35

37

41

2.3% 2.1%

43

47

2.0%

49

Fig. 3 - Espectro harmnico terico da corrente de linha para um retificador de 6 pulsos


O aumento do nmero de pulsos do retificador e a utilizao do transformador defasador adequado, possibilita
que sejam eliminadas as componentes harmnicas no primrio do transformador. A figura 4 mostra as formas de
onda tpicas das correntes de linha esperadas e o seu respectivo espectro harmnico para estruturas de 6, 12 e
18 pulsos.
Cabe ressaltar que as harmnicas de ordem mltiplas de 3 so canceladas em um sistema trifsico equilibrado
(seqncia zero).
Na prtica, no entanto, as harmnicas no caractersticas normalmente apresentam uma amplitude diferente de
zero. Isto se d devido s imperfeies j presentes na rede eltrica, tais como, desequilbrio de tenses,
distores harmnicas pr-existentes, etc. Outros fatores que contribuem para o aparecimento de harmnicas
no caractersticas so as imperfeies do transformador, as quais impedem o perfeito cancelamento destas no
primrio do mesmo.
Os dados apresentados nas figuras seguintes foram obtidos considerando a perfeita idealidade do sistema. Na
simulao numrica o sistema foi modelado como: rede de alimentao, impedncia de entrada, retificador, filtro
capacitivo e carga (fonte de corrente).

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35.0%
30.0%
25.0%
20.0%
15.0%
10.0%
5.0%
0.0%
5

11 13

17

19 23

25

29 31

35 37

41

43 47

49

53 55

59

61 65

67

71 73

77

79 83

85 89

91

95 97 101 103

6 pulsos

8.0%
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
5

11

13

17

19 23

25

29

31

35 37

41

43

47

49

53 55

59

61

65

67

71 73

77

79

83

85 89

91

95

97 101 103

59

61

65

67

71 73

77

79

83

85 89

91

95

97 101 103

12 pulsos

1.8%
1.6%
1.4%
1.2%
1.0%
0.8%
0.6%
0.4%
0.2%
0.0%
5

11

13

17

19 23

25

29

31

35 37

41

43

47

49

53 55

18 pulsos

Fig. 4 - Correntes tpicas na entrada do retificador (6 pulsos) ou no primrio do transformador


defasador (12 e 18 pulsos) e respectivos espectros harmnicos
(componentes harmnicas expressas em percentual da fundamental)

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Recomendao IEEE para prticas e requisitos para controle de harmnicas no sistema eltrico de
potncia: IEEE-519

Esta recomendao (no uma norma) produzida pelo IEEE descreve os principais fenmenos causadores de
distoro harmnica, indica mtodos de medio e limites de distoro.
Seu enfoque a anlise da distoro harmnica no Ponto de Conexo Comum (PCC) das cargas (lineares ou
no-lineares) e no em cada equipamento individual. A filosofia que no interessa ao sistema o que ocorre
dentro de uma instalao, mas sim o que ela reflete para o exterior, ou seja, para os outros consumidores
conectados mesma alimentao.
Os limites diferem de acordo com o nvel de tenso e com o nvel de curto-circuito do PCC. Quanto maior for a
corrente de curto-circuito (Isc) em relao corrente de carga, maiores so as distores de corrente
admissveis, uma vez que elas distorcero em menor intensidade a tenso no PCC. medida que se eleva o
nvel de tenso, menores so os limites aceitveis.
A grandeza TDD - Total Demand Distortion - definida como a distoro harmnica da corrente, em % da
mxima demanda da corrente de carga (demanda de 15 ou 30 minutos). Isto significa que a medio da TDD
deve ser feita no pico de consumo.

As tabelas 10.2 e 10.3, extradas da IEEE-519, apresentam os limites recomendados de THDv (Total Harmonic
Distortion) da tenso e TDD (Total Demand Distortion).

Notch Depth
THD (Voltage)
Notch Area [V*us]

Special
Applications*
10%
3%
16400

General
System
20%
5%
22800

Dedicated
System**
50%
10%
36500

* Special applications include hospitals and airports.


** A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to the
converter load.
IEEE-519 - Table 10.2 - Low-Voltage System Classification and Distortion Limits.
Na seo 10.2 (Development of Current Distortion Limits), desta norma, estabelecido 3% como o limite
individual das harmnicas de tenso no PCC em relao a sua fundamental.

Isc / IL
< 20
20 < 50
50 < 100
100 < 1000
> 1000

< 11
4
7
10
12
15

11n<17
2
3,5
4,5
5,5
7

17n<23
1,5
2,5
4
5
6

23n<35
0,6
1
1,5
2
2,5

35n
0,3
0,5
0,7
1
1,4

TDD(%)
5
8
12
15
20

Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL


Isc - maximum short-circuit current at PCC
IL - maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC
IEEE-519 - Table 10.3 - Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems.
A tabela 10.3 aplicvel para retificadores com 6 pulsos. Para retificadores com 12 pulsos, deve-se multiplicar
os limites individuais por 1.414. No caso de retificadores com 18 pulsos estes limites devem ser multiplicados
por 1.732 .
Apesar de no ser uma norma, a IEEE-519, tem sido utilizada como base para a especificao dos limites de
distores harmnicas por concessionrias do setor eltrico e em projetos de plantas industriais.

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Estudo de Caso:

Company Name

Data:

16-Dec-13

Este estudo de caso tem como objetivo mostrar como obter, de maneira simples e com um bom grau de
preciso, os valores das taxas de distoro harmnica da tenso (THDv) e da TDD, em um sistema formado por
uma barra com potncia instalada e impedncia definidas, alimentando uma carga no-linear com um retificador
de entrada com nmero de pulsos especificado. Este estudo simplificado pois no esto sendo considerados
aspectos prticos como no idealidades da rede, desbalanceamentos entre as fases de alimentao, a
influncia de outras cargas conectadas ao PCC, impedncias da linha de transmisso, rendimento do
acionamento, etc. Os valores calculados so teis para se obter uma idia inicial das distores harmnicas no
sistema apresentado. Para uma anlise completa, considerando todos os aspectos apresentados necessrio
conhecer todas as variveis e realizar uma simulao numrica do sistema completo.
As tenses e correntes esto expressas em valores eficazes.

Dados do PCC (Sistema)

Potncia Instalada:
Impedncia %:
Tenso:
Corrente de Demanda (IL):
Corrente de Curto-Circuito:
Relao Isc/IL:

15.00
8.00
6600
1137
16.40
14.42

MVA
%
Volts
A
kA

Acionamento

Retificador:

6 pulsos

Para este retificador, recomenda-se uma


reatncia de entrada (ou bobina no link DC)
com queda % mnima de 4%.

Motor de Induo Trifsico

Tenso:
Corrente:
cos():

3300 Volts
310 A
0.86

Considerando que a componente fundamental a nica a fornecer potncia ativa para o motor, pode-se calcular
o valor desta no PCC, considerando o cos() tpico do motor. Com a componente fundamental calculada, as
componentes harmnicas tericas da corrente no PCC so conhecidas em funo do nmero de pulsos do
retificador.
A THDi da corrente no PCC calculada pela expresso:

THDi =

I 2n
n=2

I (1 )

onde:
In so as componentes harmnicas da corrente no PCC
I(1) a componente fundamental da corrente no PCC

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A TDD ser calculada como sendo a distoro harmnica da corrente no PCC em relao a corrente de
demanda no mesmo (IL):

TDD=

I 2n

n=2

IL

Com a potncia, tenso e impedncia % dadas, possvel calcular a indutncia fsica (L) no PCC e assim,
calcular as quedas de tenso provocadas pelas componentes harmnicas da corrente.
onde:

V n=I n . ( 2. . F n ) . L

L a indutncia fsica at o ponto de conexo comum (PCC)

THD V =

Fn so as freqncias harmnicas caractersticas

V 2n

Vn so as componentes harmnicas da tenso no PCC

n= 2

V ( 1)

V(1) a componente fundamental da tenso no PCC

Os resultados obtidos pelas expresses apresentadas esto compilados na tabela seguinte. Os clculos foram
efetuados com at a 100 hamnica.
Resultados Obtidos
% carga

10.66

Relao entre a potncia da carga pela potncia instalada do PCC

Ie(1)

139.87

Valor eficaz da componente fundamental da corrente Ie

Ie RMS

146.44

Valor eficaz da corrente Ie

IL

1137.21 A

Valor eficaz da corrente de demanda no PCC

THDi

32.49

TDD

4.00

THDv

1.70

Distoro harmnica da corrente Ie


Total Demand Distortion
ATENDE IEEE-519

Isc/IL =

14

o limite : 5%

Distoro harmnica da tenso no PCC


Atende IEEE-519 inclusive para 'Special Applications'

4.5%

Column CM

4.0%

Column CN

3.5%
3.0%
2.5%
2.0%
1.5%
1.0%
0.5%
0.0%
5

11

13

17

19

23

25

29

31

35

37

41

43

47

49

53

55

59

61

65

67

71

73

77

79

83

85

89

91

95

97

101 103

Fig. 5 - Harmnicas Individuais de Corrente em percentual de IL


Observando a figura 5 constata-se que: Atende a tabela 10.3 da IEEE 519

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1.4%

1.2%

Column CT

1.0%

Column CU

0.8%

0.6%

0.4%

0.2%

0.0%
5

11

13

17

19

23

25

29

31

35

37

41

43

47

49

53

55

59

61

65

67

71

73

77

79

83

85

89

91

95

97

101 103

Fig. 6 - Harmnicas Individuais de Tenso em percentual da tenso fundamental no PCC


Observando a figura 6 constata-se que: Atende ao limite individual de 3%
Resumo
THDv

1.70

Distoro harmnica da tenso no PCC


Atende IEEE-519 inclusive para 'Special Applications'

Limite individual das harmnicas de Tenso no PCC:


TDD

4.00

Atende ao limite individual de 3%

Total Demand Distortion


ATENDE IEEE-519

Harmnicas de Corrente (tabela 10.3):

Isc/IL =

14

o limite : 5%

Atende a tabela 10.3 da IEEE 519

Referncias
[1] PAICE, DEREK A., "POWER ELETRONIC CONVERTER HARMONICS - MULTIPULSE METHODS
FOR CLEAN POWER", IEEE PRESS, USA, 1996
[2] IEEE, "IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND REQUIREMENTES FOR HARMONIC CONTROL
IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS - IEEE-519", IEEE PRESS, USA, 1993
[3] POMILIO, J. A., "PR-REGULADORES DE FATOR DE POTNCIA", PUBLICAO FEE 03/95,
BRASIL, 2004
[4] ALVES, JOABLE A., & HORNBURG, EDSON, "HIGH AND LOW ORDER HARMONICS FOR
FREQUENCY INVERTERS", ANAIS DO VI INDUSCON, JOINVILLE-BRASIL, 2004
[5] ROSSA, A. J. & TORRI, P. J., EFEITOS DA DISTORO HARMNICA DA REDE ELTRICA
SOBRE MOTORES ELTRICOS, REVISTA ELETRICIDADE MODERNA, ANO XXIX, N 324,
BRASIL, 2001

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