You are on page 1of 5

War and Waste.

by David Starr Jordan Review by: Edward van Dyke Robinson Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Mar., 1916), pp. 152-155 Published by: The Academy of Political Science Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2141712 . Accessed: 30/05/2013 07:48
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

The Academy of Political Science is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Political Science Quarterly.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 192.167.161.26 on Thu, 30 May 2013 07:48:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

I52

POLITICAL

SCIENCE QUARTERLY

[VOL. XXXI

trialby judgesand " trialby battle"; and on the thechoicebetween becauseno form ofchoice is less restrained thefreedom partof nations in a force has as yetbeen foundbywhichthephysical of organization in check as effeccan be held country developed and highly populous in a populous comas can thatof theindividual and organized tually in a particular go to war instance munity. But thefact that nations of or even difficult not that the disputewas incapable may indicate thatone or bothof the but simply amicablesolution, judicialor other whatjusbyforce to takethechanceofobtaining preferred contestants wasnot in thenature of the tice could not concede. The difficulty of thedisputants. butin thedisposition question are seen in thehistory of arbitration thesamephenomena Precisely with the theory of arbitration amongthe Greeks. They understood carried it practically to a highstageofdeand they clearness, perfect more and with used it successfully, but thefactthatthey velopment; them from it aside whenpopdid notprevent casting or less method, ular passionsmovedthem to do so. Mr. Raederhas industriouslyall thecases of Hellenicarbitraand systematically arranged collected are inhavedisclosed. The results moderninvestigations tion which ofarbitrations andagreements examples eighty-one structive. He gives Greek statesinvariably refuse to arbitrate. Nor did theautonomous with other to their relations countries. theprocess to extend to arbitration thatthefactsinregard among It is onlyin recent years to treat to enablethestudent havecometo light sufficiently theGreeks manner. This end has beenattained by thesubjectin a philosophical sourceof information on are thechief which of inscriptions, thestudy decisions arbitral thesubject. By thismeans thedetailsof numerous emas to showthe procedure have been disclosedwithsuch fulness observed. In bringing and sumtogether ployedand theformalities Mr. Rader has. of research, attainedin thisfield theresults marizing service. a useful and helpful performed J. B. MOORE. War and Waste. By DAVID STARR JORDAN. Garden City,. 296 pp. 1923.-Xi, Page and Company, Doubleday, War and Wasteconsists Jordanentitled The volumeof President in furtherance articles and newspaper of a series of essays,addresses the before which appeared shortly peace propaganda, of theperpetual idea in it is the of the Europeanwar. The fundamental outbreak and due to war. This idea is expressed selection biological reversed truth and pathos. force, with gripping illustrated

This content downloaded from 192.167.161.26 on Thu, 30 May 2013 07:48:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

No. il

REVIEWS

I53

On the political and economic sides, the book is less convincing. The principal political idea seems to be that, if only armor plate and munitionlobbies and journals could be renderedinnocuous,all of the various nations could be trustedto keep the peace forever because (as the authorbelieves) none of them has any interestin war or any desire forwar. If this faith is well founded, one wonders why police are necessaryto keep the peace between individual citizens, or a national governmentand army to keep the peace between cities and states withinthe nation. This idea that peace can be kept by agreement, withoutthe backing of force, which seems to be held by most of the perpetual peace propagandists,is either the real " great illusion," or else it implies that nationsare incomparably wiser, juster,less selfish, and more faithfulto their agreements than are individual citizens or the lesser political units. Whether this is so, let historyanswerof the last threeyears. especially the history On the economic side, impressivefiguresare offeredof debts and waste due to war,thoughthese are admittedly roughestimates. Moreover, not content with arguing that increased militaryexpenditures have been an importantfactor in the increasing cost of living, the author goes further and maintains that the decreasingvalue of gold since ic897 is not reallydue to the increased productionof gold, as economists have usually held, but to increased taxation for military purposes. Thus he asserts that " the percentage [of taxation] collected on everydollar of working capital or income has its reflexeffect on reducing the value of that dollar in the clearing house of the " as the purchasing power of a dollar will be world"; and, further, less in ten years, the rate of interesttends to rise." This suggestion has certainlythe meritof novelty. Another constantly recurringidea is that all thingsat bottomare controlledby the House of Rothschild, otherwisethe " Unseen Empire of Finance." Thus we are told that A gigantic nationaldebtinvolvesan invisible whichshall direct and empire
control credit.... Nathan Rothschild at Waterloo and at London forced

the downfall ofthe house of Bonaparte to insure the riseof the house of
From the battle of Waterloo until his death Nathan Rothschild.... Rothschild was the actual ruler of Europe. . . . The drastic exactions of The nations Germany[in I87I] werefixedby theInvisibleEmpire.... of

Europe have no independentexistence,theyare one and all provincesof the Unseen Empireof Finance. Somehow in reading such simple and sweeping generalizations,one is reminded of speeches and editorials about Wall Street. Again, in

This content downloaded from 192.167.161.26 on Thu, 30 May 2013 07:48:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

I54

POLITICAL

SCIENCE QUARTERLY

[VOL. XXXI

harmonywiththis emphasis on the role of finance,the authoralways a matterof money, or returnsto the proposition that war is chiefly more specifically, of gold. This is to mistakethesymbolforthe thing itself. The reallydecisive factors in war are men and materials,not can supply the money, as money. If need be, the printing-press happened in England during the Napoleonic wars and in the United States duringthe Civil War. On the other hand, when it comes to the role of the economic factor in causing or preventing war, thereis hesitationand confusion,if not contradiction. Thus it is maintained,in line with the condownright tentionsof Jean de Bloch and Norman Angell,that in international of unification lifeis a guaranteethat the steadyextension war amongcivilizednationshas alreadycome to an end.... international gain to any nation.... Wars No warcan bring financial, social, or political of spoliation, wars,as too imperial wars,must go the way of international of Europe. . .. The influence of soundbanking is amongthe greatnations
everywhere and automatically opposed to war.
. .

War is dying. It costly for the people of a modern industrial state.... We shall never see another war dies because it cannot pay its way....

and openlyopposed to war. ests of commerce totally

. We have all the inter-

Yet in contrast to these optimisticviews as to the role of economic in world politics, we encounterthe following: influences methodin Europe.. . . It is Directorateis a successful The interlocking ofweak or barbarous the resources countries especiallytheagencyby which of thegreatcentres ofexploiting Christendom. are drawnto swellthewealth of emotionalism or of ... Throughits agencywar is no longera matter a matter it is strictly ofbusiness.... patriotism. Where waris permitted of the Bank of The late Italian war had its motive. . . in the speculations theTurk [from The plan of expelling theBalkans] found favor Rome.... of revolutions both in Paris and Berlin [ ! ! ! ] . .. Of the hundreds [in nine out often have had behindthemthe money Latin America] probably " higher " ofthe day .. . runs on all fours withthe ape and the politics tiger. . . . Its interestlies in helping to place capital of individuals in or persuasion it shall be made to yieldbetter foreign lands,where bythreat and exploiting mining corporathe risksofimperialism;thegreattrading, ofinterests ofall kinds,incitionsreceivethe gains.... The interlocking . . . has brought the clash of exploiting dentto thesedays of rapidtransit of international and the resulting accentuation suspicion. interests, If these thingsare so, what becomes of the previouscontentionsthat
returnsthan investmentsat home.
. .

of some syndicate ...

with a concession of some sort at stake....

The

. The governments of the world take

This content downloaded from 192.167.161.26 on Thu, 30 May 2013 07:48:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

No. I]

REVIEWS

I55

-commerce and finance tendto peace, and thatwar is dying " because it cannot pay itsway"? Certainly the authorhas signally failedto makeclearhisopinion as to theeffect of economic incausing forces or preventing war. Several othereconomicdicta seem equally inconsistent withthe tenor general and purposeof the book: notably the admission (page 78) that" tariff . . . mayhave increasedtheaggregate protection of " (through national wealth diverting capitalintoless productive industries); thestatement (page 8o) that" ifanyone grows richin a comthewholecommunity is thericher munity forit" (regardless ofhowhe getsit); and finally, thedeclaration (page 73) that" thecost ofhigh " (even though living fallson themanwholiveshigh it does checkthe increaseof capital). All of these strikethe readerwith surprise, comingfrom theaccomplished author of The Fate ofIciodoeum.
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY.

EDWARD VANDYKE ROBINSON.

The Audacious War. By CLARENCE W. BARRON. Boston, 1The Houghton Mifflin Company, I915 .-I92 pp. Duringthewinter, the Wall Street Journal and several other financial paperspublished a seriesof articlesdescribing whatMr. Barron saw and heardin Englandand France. These articles are reprinted with little changein thebooknowbefore us, bearing date of February
15, 9I5.

The cause of thewaris declaredto havebeeneconomic, specifically the Bagdadrailroad and thecommercial which treaty Germany forced on Russia afterthe Japanesewar, therebyturning Russia into an economicprovince of Germany. This treaty in I9I6, Russia expiring to renew, wasunwilling but required months eighteen moretocomplete herpreparations forresistance. Germany, on theother accordhand, ingto theauthor, was resolved to forceits renewal at thepointof the and preferred bayonet, not to waituntilRussian preparations should be complete; hencetheAustrian ultimatum to Serbia,the Germanultimatumto Russia demanding demobilization within twelve and hours, the German declaration ofwaron Russiaa number of daysbefore the Russianambassador had evenbeenwithdrawn from Vienna. The bulk of thebookconsists of summary discussions ofwarfinances, especially in Englandand France. The author is distinctly anti-German in pointofview,though claiming to knowGermany betterthan France,and predicts fortheallies which eventshavesignally speedytriumphs failedto justify.

This content downloaded from 192.167.161.26 on Thu, 30 May 2013 07:48:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Related Interests