You are on page 1of 19

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING

Sharan Kaur Garib Singh Universi i o! "alaya s#aran$u%.e&u.%y

ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to test the influence of individual factors on employee participation in decision making (PDM) among Malaysian middle and top level managers in the private sector. The individual factors involved are trust, demographic similarities and idiocentrism allocentrism. !eader member e"change (!M#) is included as a moderating variable for the individual factor $ PDM relationships. The relationship bet%een PDM and organisational citi&enship behaviour ('()) is also tested %ith self efficacy as the moderator. The individual manager is the unit of analysis and the sampling procedure involves self administered *uestionnaire surveys on +++ participants. The results reveal that trust is the only individual factor that has an influence on PDM. ,elf efficacy has a moderating effect on the PDM '() relation. -o%ever, !M# did not have any moderating effect. . major implication that emanates from this study is that the differing levels of PDM, %hich could be e"plained by, trust among the respondents. KEY WORDS: 'ar i(i)a ion in *e(ision "a+in,- Or,anisa ional .i i/ens#i) 0e#aviour- Lea&er"e%1er E2(#an,e- *e%o,ra)#i( 3i%ilari y

INTRODUCTION In o&ay4s ur1ulen environ%en an& in ense (o%)e i ion, !ir%s are !or(e& o see+ 5ays o 1e %ore !le2i1le, a&a) ive an& (o%)e i ive as #ey are !a(e& 5i # (o%)e i ive )ressures an& ra)i&ly (#an,in, %ar+e s 6*avi&, 20057. A1ove all, !ir%s are &is(overin, #a )eo)le really are #e %os i%)or an asse 6*avi&, 20057. 3u((ess &e)en&s on involvin, #e 5or+!or(e4s en ire (a)a(i y o ,enera e ne5 i&eas an& 5ays o! 5or+in, o ou s%ar #e (o%)e i ors. E%)loyees %us 1e involve& i! #ey are o un&ers an& #e nee& !or (rea ivi y an& e%)loyees %us 1e involve& i! #ey are o 1e (o%%i e& o (#an,in, #eir 1e#aviours in 5or+, in ne5 an& i%)rove& 5ays. E%)loyee involve%en is one i%)or an as)e( o! or,anisa ional li!e o a(#ieve& in(rease& or,anisa ional e!!e( iveness an& )osi ive e%)loyee )er(e) ions. E%)loyee )ar i(i)a ion in &e(ision %a+in, 6'*"7 is one o! #e %any (urren !or%s o! e%)loyee involve%en in #e 5or+)la(e &e(ision %a+in,. "ana,ers are en(oura,e& o allo5 a #i,# &e,ree o! e%)loyee )ar i(i)a ion an& au ono%y, 5#i(# are in en&e& o in(rease 5or+!or(e (o%%i %en an& o #u%anise #e 5or+)la(e 5i # #e in en ion o! i%)rovin, 5or+ )er!or%an(e an& ,oo& (i i/ens#i) 1e#aviour 6.o#en, .#an, 8 Le&!or&, 19997. '*" is no ne5 an& i s resear(# (an 1e ra(e& 1a(+ o several &e(a&es. A))roa(#es su(# as '*" ,aine& ne5 )ro%inen(e in #e 19:0s 1e(ause A%eri(an 1usinesses !a(e& ne5 (o%)e i ive (#allen,es #a &e%an&e& #i,#er levels o! )er!or%an(e 6'aul e al., 20007. T#e in&ivi&ual !a( ors #a in!luen(e #e e2is en(e o! '*" is #e %ain !o(us o! #is s u&y. 3u(# a s u&y is use!ul in &e er%inin, a))ro)ria e %easures o 1e a+en o in(rease or &e(rease (er ain !a( ors #a %ay in(rease or re&u(e #e li+eli#oo& o! '*". T#is is i%)or an 5#en '*" #as 1een !oun& o 1e

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

20 20

rela e& o i%)or an ou (o%es #a are )ar i(ularly o! in eres o or,ani/a ions an& so%e o! #e re(en !in&in,s !ro% (on inuin, resear(# on #e )ro(ess an& e!!e( s o! )ar i(i)a ion ;us i!y !ur #er e2a%ina ion 6Ja1roun 8 0ala+ris#nan, 2000- "aree, 2000- 'arnell 8 .ran&all, 200<7. '*" #as 1een !airly 5ell resear(#e& in &evelo)e& (oun ries an& one =ues ion #a arises (on(erns #e ,eneralisa1ili y o! #ese !in&in,s a(ross (ul ures. *o #e !in&in,s o! #ese s u&ies (arrie& ou in #e >es ern (ul ure also a))ly o #e "alaysian (ul ure? T#e s u&y on (ul ure 1y @o!s e&e 619917 reveale& #a "alaysians s(ore& lo5 on un(er ain y avoi&an(e, avera,e on %as(ulini y, =ui e #i,# on (olle( ivis% an& very #i,# on )o5er &is an(e in rela ion o (ul ures. >i # #e !in&in,s o! @o!s e&e, )ra( i ioners %ay as+ i! "alaysian 5or+ers are (ul urally )re)are& o a+e on %ana,e%en e(#ni=ues, su(# as '*". @o5ever, #is (on(e) ion o! #e "alaysian (ul ure is so%e5#a !a&in,. T#ere see%s o 1e a en&en(y no5, a%on, "alaysian e2e(u ives o )or ray su(# in&ivi&ualis i( orien a ions, as in&i(a e& 1y several "alaysian s u&ies 6Is%ail, 19::Ja1roun 8 0ala+ris#nan, 2000- Lun;e5, 199A- Baur, 199:, 1999- Ta%a% e al 199C- Din, 199:7. T#ere!ore, 5o o! #e in&ivi&ual !a( ors o 1e es e& in #is s u&y in(lu&e i&io(en ris% 6in&ivi&ualis% a #e in&ivi&ual level7 an& allo(en ris% 6(olle( ivis% a #e in&ivi&ual level7. T#e o #er in&ivi&ual !a( ors are rus an& &e%o,ra)#i( si%ilari ies. @en(e, #is s u&y ai%s o !ur #er s#e& so%e li,# on e%)loyee )ar i(i)a ion in "alaysian !ir%s as #ere are si,ns o! i s e2is en(e 5i #in #e "alaysian (on e2 .

OBJECTIVES O STUDY T#e overall o1;e( ive o! #is s u&y is o e2a%ine #e e2 en o 5#i(# in&ivi&ual !a( ors in!luen(e '*". T#e in&ivi&ual !a( ors #a are in(lu&e& in #is s u&y are rus , &e%o,ra)#i( si%ilari y an& i&io(en ri-allo(en ris%. "ore s)e(i!i(ally, #is s u&y a e%) s o e2a%ine #e e2 en o 5#i(#E a7 A rela ions#i) e2is s 1e 5een ea(# in&ivi&ual !a( or an& '*". 17 L"F %o&era es #e in&ivi&ual !a( ors an& #e '*" rela ions#i)s, res)e( ively. (7 3el!-e!!i(a(y %o&era es #e '*" an& O.0 rela ions#i).

T!EORETICAL BACKGROUND AND !YPOT!ESES

T#e %o iva ion (on en #eories lai& #e !oun&a ion !or #e vie5in, o! '*" rela ive o e%)loyee %o iva ion. '*", as i rela es o a #i,#er level nee&s, &ra5s !ro% #eoris s li+e "aslo5, Al&er!er, "(.lellan&, an& @er/1er, as 5ell as *ou,las "(Gre,or4s T#eory F an& H #a e2)li(i ly e2)lains %ana,e%en 4s vie5 o! e%)loyees an& i s i%)a( . Use!ul !ra%e5or+s !or un&ers an&in, e%)loyee %o iva ion in #e 5or+ )la(e (an 1e )rovi&e& 1y revie5in, (on ri1u ions o! #e nee& #eories &evelo)e& 1y #ese #eoris s. In o&ay4s %o&ern or,anisa ions, #ese nee& #eories i%)ly #a #i,#er level nee&s are res)onsi1le !or %o iva in, )eo)le an& in eres in,ly, )ar i(i)a in, li era ure an& resear(# #as i&en i!ie& '*" o sa is!y #ese nee&s 6Lun;e5, 199A7. Tru"# an$ PDM Trus is (onsi&ere& (ru(ial !or or,anisa ional e!!e( iveness 6Go%e/ 8 Rosen, 20017, #en(e in er)ersonal rus is a #e #ear o! or,anisa ional (oor&ina ion an& (on rol 6"(Allis er, 19957. "any are in a,ree%en #a even 5#en (on rol is li%i e& o #e )ro(ess o! &e(ision %a+in,, su(# as in #avin, #e o))or uni y o voi(e o)inions, i is )osi ively asso(ia e& 5i # rus in %ana,ers 60auer 8 Green, 199C7. E%)loyees #ave ,rea er (on rol over &e(isions #a a!!e( #e% 5#en %ana,ers involve #e% in &e(ision %a+in, an&, #ere!ore, (an )ro e( #eir o5n in eres s. In

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

21 21

a,en(y er%s #is !or% o! (on rol 1y e%)loyees re&u(es #e ris+ o! o))or unis% on #e )ar o! #e %ana,er. >#en su)eriors are (o%!or a1le 5i # #e (o%)e en(e level o! e%)loyees, #ere see% o 1e rus !or #e su1or&ina es 60auer 8 Green, 199C- *ienes(# 8 Li&en, 19:C- "ayer e al., 1995>#i ener 8 0ro& , 199:7 an& rus #as 1een seen o 1e #i,#ly (orrela e& 5i # )ar i(i)a ive s yles o! lea&ers#i) 6Blauss 8 0ass, 19:27. @en(e, rus #as 1een i&en i!ie& as an in&ivi&ual !a( or #a (oul& in!luen(e '*". @o5ever, #ere are very li%i e& s u&ies #a #ave e2a%ine& rus as a !a( or in!luen(in, '*". 3i%ilarly, Din 6199:7 #i,#li,# e& in #is s u&y on )ar i(i)a ion a%on, "alaysian )ro!essionals #a any su((ess!ul '*" )ro,ra%%e %us #ave a %ana,er4s rus . T#ere!ore, #is s u&y ai%s o e2a%ine #is rela ions#i) an& as su(# #as in(lu&e& #e !ollo5in, #y)o #esisE @1E A rela ions#i) 1e 5een rus an& '*" e2is s. D%&'gra(hi) "i&i*ari#+ an$ PDM A,e, ,en&er, ra(e, enure an& e&u(a ion #a %a+e u) #e &e%o,ra)#i( (#ara( eris i(s o! in&ivi&uals, #ave lon, 1een (onsi&ere& i%)or an varia1les in )sy(#olo,i(al resear(# 6e.,. Tsui 8 O4Reilly, 19:97. Tsui an& O4Reilly4s 619:97 reasonin, !or (#oosin, &e%o,ra)#i(s as a resear(# o)i( is 1ase& on #e no ion #a )eo)le en& o 1e &ra5n o #ose 5#o are si%ilar o #e% in er%s o! &e%o,ra)#i( (#ara( eris i(s, a( ivi ies or a i u&es 60ryne, .lore 8 >or(#el, 19CC7. Resear(# evi&en(e #as s#o5n (onsis en #ou,# 5ea+ su))or !or sa%e-ra(e 6Brai,er 8 Ior&, 19:57 an& sa%e-,en&er 6"o1ley, 19:27 1ias on )er!or%an(e. Ra ees 5ere ,enerally ra e& %ore !avoura1ly 1y ra ers o! #e sa%e ra(e an& ,en&er. Tsui an& O4Reilly 619:97 !oun& #a su)ervisor4s )er(e) ion o! su1or&ina es4 e!!e( iveness are asso(ia e& 5i # #eir a!!e( o5ar& #e su1or&ina es. T#e su1or&ina es in %i2e&-,en&er &ya&s 5ere re)or e& as )er!or%in, %ore )oorly an& 5ere less !avoure& #an #e su1or&ina es in sa%e-,en&er &ya&s. Iur #er%ore, #i,#er levels o! role a%1i,ui y an& role (on!li( 5ere re)or e& 1y su1or&ina es in %i2e&-,en&er &ya&s. 'ar o! #e !o(us o! #is s u&y is o e2a%ine &e%o,ra)#i( in!luen(e on '*". @o5ever, ins ea& o! #e usual e2a%ina ion o! ,en&er or e #ni( ,rou) on '*", #is s u&y4s ai% is o inves i,a e #e su)erior-su1or&ina e ,en&er an& e #ni( ,rou) si%ilari y 5i # '*", res)e( ively. 'as resear(# in "alaysia #a !o(use& on &e%o,ra)#i( !a( ors an& '*" in(lu&es Din4s 6199:7 s u&y !or e2a%)le, 5#i(# !oun& &i!!erin, levels o! '*" 1e 5een #e ,en&ers, 5#ile ano #er un)u1lis#e& resear(# reveale& no &i!!eren(e 1e 5een %ales an& !e%ales 6Baur, 19997. @o5ever, Baur 619997 &i& !in& #e .#inese res)on&en s o #ave #i,#er '*" levels #an "alay res)on&en s in one Ja)anese !a( ory. .onsi&erin, #e !a( #a "alaysia #as one o! #e %os &iversi!ie& )o)ula ions in er%s o! e #ni(i y, #us i 5oul& 1e in eres in, o inves i,a e no ;us &e%o,ra)#i( !a( ors 1u s)e(i!i(ally loo+ in o #e i%)a( o! su)erior-su1or&ina e &e%o,ra)#i( si%ilari y as !a( ors in!luen(in, '*". As in&i(a e& in #e li era ure sear(#, %os )osi ive ou (o%es see% o 1e rela e& o su)eriors an& su1or&ina es 5#o are &e%o,ra)#i(ally si%ilar as (o%)are& o #ose 5#o are no . >#e #er or no #is #ol&s in a "alaysian se in, (an 1e &e er%ine& in #is s u&y. T#us, #is s u&y ai%s o e2a%ine #e e2 en o 5#i(#E @2E A rela ions#i) 1e 5een '*" an& &e%o,ra)#i( si%ilari y e2is s. I$i')%n#ri"& an$ A**')%n#ri"& Trian&is su,,es e& usin, #e er%s idiocentrism an& allocentrism o re)la(e in&ivi&ualis% an& (olle( ivis% a #e in&ivi&ual level, res)e( ively, in or&er o )rovi&e a (learer &is in( ion 1e 5een #e (oun ry an& #e in&ivi&ual levels o! analysis 6Trian&is, Leun,, Villareal 8 .lar+, 19:57. In (ul ures 5#ere (olle( ivis% or allo(en ris% is #i,#, )ar i(i)a ive %ana,e%en %ay no 1e e!!e( ive un il su1or&ina es learn o e2)e( i 6Earley 8 Gi1son, 199:7. In&ivi&ualis s, on #e o #er #an&, s ress )ersonal !ree&o%s as re!le( e& in 5or+ )ar i(i)a ion, &e(en ralise& &e(ision-%a+in, an&

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

22 22

e%)loyee-(en ere& in(en ive sys e%s. In in&ivi&ualis i( (ul ures, e2)e( a ions a1ou )ar i(i)a ion are %ore li+ely 6Earley 8 Gi1son, 199:7. "i&&le level %ana,ers in in&ivi&ualis i( (oun ries re)or e& ,rea er relian(e on #eir o5n e2)erien(e an& #eir su1or&ina es, 5#ereas in (olle( ivis i( (oun ries, %i&&le level %ana,ers re)or e& ,rea er relian(e on !or%al rules. In su%%ary, in&ivi&ualis s res)on& less !avoura1ly o au #ori arian lea&ers#i) an& rely %ore on #eir o5n e2)erien(e an& #eir su1or&ina es 5#en %a+in, &e(isions #an (olle( ivis s 6Earley 8 Gi1son, 199:7. La% e al 620027 !oun& su))or !or #e #y)o #esis #a 5#en a ,rou) is #i,# on allo(en ris% an& #as #i,# )ar i(i)a ion e!!i(a(y, )er(e) ions o! an o))or uni y !or '*" 5ill #ave a )osi ive e!!e( on #e )er!or%an(e o! #e ,rou). T#ey also !oun& )er(e) ions o! an o))or uni y !or '*" o #ave a )osi ive e!!e( on #e )er!or%an(e o! #e in&ivi&ual 5#en #e in&ivi&ual is #i,# on i&io(en ris% an& )ar i(i)a ion e!!i(a(y. "oreover, )o5er &is an(e in or,anisa ions #as 1een !oun& o in!luen(e '*", 5#i(# 5as re)or e& in #e s u&y o! %ana,e%en )ra( i(es an& na ional (ul ure 6Ne5%an 8 Nollen, 199C7. T#is s u&y ai%s o inves i,a e i! #e sa%e resul s 5ill o((ur in "alaysia, a #i,# )o5er &is an(e (oun ry, as (lai%e& 1y @o!s e&e. .onversely, so%e resear(# #as in&i(a e& a en&en(y "alaysian %ana,ers o&ay o )or ray so%e ele%en s o! i&io(en ris%, #en(e i is no sur)risin, !or 3(#5ar / 619907 o es a1lis# #a "alaysia #as so%e !ea ures o! in&ivi&ualis% an& is no a o al (olle( ivis i( na ion as ini ially &es(ri1e& 1y @o!s e&e. T#ere!ore, #e e%)iri(al evi&en(es o! #e )re(ee&in, )ara,ra)#s !or% ye ano #er #y)o #esis in&i(a in,E @<E A rela ions#i) 1e 5een '*" an& i&io(en ris%-allo(en ris% e2is s. M'$%ra#ing Variab*%" A((or&in, o La% e al 620027, '*" #as 1een #e !o(us o! or,anisa ional resear(# !or nearly 50 years. @o5ever, only e=uivo(al (on(lusions (an 1e &ra5n !ro% e2is in, resear(# on #e rela ions#i) 1e 5een '*" an& ;o1 )er!or%an(e. 3o%e =uan i a ive revie5s #ave !oun& %o&era ely )osi ive rela ions#i)s 1e 5een #ese varia1les 5#ile o #ers #ave re)or e& s%all or no )osi ive e!!e( s. T#ese in(onsis en !in&in,s (an 1e e2)laine& 1y #e a1sen(e o! o #er %o&era in, varia1les even #ou,# #ese in!eren(es a1ou #e %ain e!!e( s o! '*" a))ear soun&. T#ere!ore, #is s u&y !o(uses on inves i,a in, 5o %o&era in, varia1les on '*", 5#i(# are Lea&er-"e%1er E2(#an,e 6L"F7 an& sel!-e!!i(a(y. Lea&er-"e%1er E2(#an,e 6L"F7 T#e Lea&er-"e%1er E2(#an,e 6L"F7 #eory su,,es s #a lea&ers %ay &evelo) &i!!eren y)es o! rela ions !ro% &i!!eren %e%1ers o! #e sa%e 5or+ ,rou). T#e #eory &e)i( s su)eriorsu1or&ina e rela ions as e2is in, in a (on inuu% ran,in, !ro% #i,# o lo5 =uali y. As su(#, su1or&ina es s#oul& 1e as+e& o )ar i(i)a e in &e(isions a!!e( in, #e 5or+ uni s in si ua ions 5#ere #ey e2)erien(e #e re(i)ro(al rus (#ara( eris i( o! #i,#-=uali y (#an,es 5i # #eir i%%e&ia e su)ervisors 63(an&ura e al, 19:C7. T5o se)ara e s u&ies (on&u( e& !oun& #a su1or&ina es 5i # #i,# L"F re)or e& #i,# levels o! &e(ision in!luen(e 63(an&ura e al, 19:C7. One in eres in, i%)li(a ion !ro% 0auer an& Green4s 6199C7 s u&y su,,es s #a %ana,ers %ay use in(rease& levels o! &e(ision in!luen(e as a re5ar& !or )er!or%an(e alrea&y &elivere& 1y a su1or&ina e. T#e rus -1uil&in, lo,i( is (onsis en 5i # #is )a ern 5#ere in(rease& &e(ision in!luen(e is %ore li+ely o o((ur a! er #e %ana,er assure& or su1or&ina e& is ,iven rus . In su%, %any #ave !oun& )re!eren ial rea %en a((or&e& o su1or&ina es 5#en #ere is #i,# L"F 6Go%e/ 8 Rosen, 2001- Beller 8 *ansereau, 1995- Bo/lo5s+i 8 *o#er y, 19:97. '*" #as 1een )resu%e& o &erive i s e!!e( iveness #rou,# i s a1ili y o in(rease (o%%i %en an& o re&u(e resis an(e o (#an,e, an& #a #is a1ili y ori,ina es in i%)rove& rus an& a ,rea er sense o! )ersonal (on rol 6"iller 8 "on,e, 19:C7. "any 6*ienes(# 8 Li&en, 19:C- Go%e/ 8

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

2< 2<

Rosen, 20017 su,,es #a rus is (ri i(al o L"F. Li&en e al 6199<7 no e& #a in&ivi&uals %i,# assi,n a &i!!eren se o! (#ara( eris i(s o so%eone 5#o is si%ilar o #e% #an o so%eone 5#o is &issi%ilar on #e 1asis o! (a e,orisa ions ra #er #an a( ual o1serva ions 5#en )ro(essin, )er!or%an(e evalua ion in!or%a ion. 3u)ervisors %ay en#an(e in&ivi&uals4 )er!or%an(e #rou,# in(rease& su))or , en(oura,e%en or &e(ision la i u&e 6*ienes(# 8 Li&en, 19:C7. 3everal %e(#anis%s %ay 1e 5or+in, o,e #er o (rea e #is e!!e( 5#ere si%ilari y %ay en#an(e 1e#avioural )re&i( a1ili y 6"e,lino e al, 19917. T#eore i(ally, #ese %e(#anis%s are an i%)or an )ar o! #e su)erior-su1or&ina e &evelo)%en )ro(ess 1e(ause 6Le5is 8 >ei,er , 19:57 #ey (an (on ri1u e o a ,ro5in, sense o! rus in #e rela ions#i) 6*ienes(# 8 Li&en, 19:C7. 3in(e in&ivi&ualis i( (ul ures &erive #eir i&en i y !ro% #e%selves an& #a in&ivi&ual a((o%)lis#%en &erives s a us, i 5oul& 1e %ore li+ely !or e%)loyees #i,# in i&io(en ris% o &e!ine #eir a(#ieve%en s an& are e2)e( e& o 1e sel!-su!!i(ien 6Bi% e al., 199A7. Even i&io(en ri(s are 1oun& o &evelo) so%e rela ions 5i # o #ers a 5or+, an& 5#a is o! in eres in #is s u&y is #e rela ions#i) or e2(#an,e 1e 5een in&ivi&uals 61e i i&io(en ri(s or allo(en ri(s7 an& #eir i%%e&ia e su)eriors. I&io(en ri(s vie5 an e2(#an,e 5i # #e i%%e&ia e su)erior as an o))or uni y !or sel!-en#an(e%en , 5#ile a s ron, allo(en ri( )erson 5ill 1e J(o%!or a1leK i! #e rela ions#i) 5i # #e su)erior is 5i # #e ,rou) 5#i(# is in line 5i # #e ,rou)4s ,oals 6Earley 8 Gi1son, 199:7. @en(e, i is assu%e& #a s ron, allo(en ri(s 5oul& #ave a lo5 L"F on a &ya&i( level. Resear(# #as s#o5n #a #i,# =uali y e2(#an,es 1e 5een su)erior an& su1or&ina e resul in #i,#er )re!eren ial rea %en o! #e e%)loyee 1y #e su)erior su(# as ,rea er ;o1 au ono%y 6Bo/lo5s+i 8 *o#er y, 19:97 an& %ore ;o1 la i u&e 6Beller 8 *ansereau, 19957. T#us, 5i # a #i,# L"F, i is assu%e& #a #e i&io(en ri( )eo)le 5ill use #is o))or uni y o 1e er #e%selves !or sel!-a((o%)lis#%en . 3in(e allo(en ri(s are e2)e( e& o a( in #e ,rou)4s 1es in eres s, #ey 5oul& re,ar& e2(#an,e 5i # #e su)erior 5i # (au ion. I! #e L"F is vie5e& !avoura1ly 1y #e ,rou), #e allo(en ri( in&ivi&ual 5ill !avour #e L"F an& #en(e #e e2(#an,e =uali y 5ill 1e #i,#. .onversely, i! #e L"F is vie5e& as un!avoura1le 1y #e ,rou), #en #e allo(en ri( in&ivi&ual 5oul& avoi& su(# an e2(#an,e. T#us, #is s u&y ai%s o e2a%ine #e !ollo5in, #y)o #esisE @AE L"F %o&era es #e overall rela ions#i) 1e 5een #e in&ivi&ual !a( ors an& '*". 3el!-e!!i(a(y T#e %eanin, o! )er!or%an(e in #is s u&y is &e!ine& as e2 ra-role, )roso(ial or (i i/ens#i) 1e#aviours o! e%)loyees, 5#i(# is %ore salien o #e )ra( i ioner 60a e%an 8 Or,an, 19:<7. .i i/ens#i) 1e#aviours are )resu%a1ly value& 1y su)ervisors 1e(ause #ey %a+e #eir o5n ;o1s easier an& !ree #eir o5n i%e an& ener,y !or %ore su1s an ive as+s. E%)iri(al e2)eri%en s s ron,ly su))or #e (on en ion #a )roso(ial ,es ures are %os li+ely o o((ur 5#en a )erson e2)erien(es a ,eneralise& %oo& s a e (#ara( erise& 1y )osi ive a!!e( 60a e%an 8 Or,an, 19:<7. 3i%ilarly, '*" also &oes #ave a s ron, rela ions#i) 5i # a!!e( s a es o! #e e%)loyee, as s#o5n 1y %any e%)iri(al evi&en(e 6.assar, 1999- Lun;e5 199A7. T#is 1ein, #e (ase, i is assu%e& #a e%)loyees 5#o )ar i(i)a e in &e(ision %a+in, an& 5#en #e e%)loyee !in&s i re5ar&in, o #i%or #ersel!, #e e%)loyee 5oul& #ave )osi ive %oo& s a es. T#us, i 5oul& 1e %os li+ely #a su(# e%)loyees 5oul& 1e 5illin, o )ar i(i)a e in !u ure an& 5oul& !eel (o%)e en in (on ri1u in, in #e &e(ision %a+in, )ro(ess, #en(e en#an(in, #is or #er sel!-e!!i(a(y. T#is also (rea es a !eelin, o! sel!-5or # 6Beller 8 *ansereau, 19957 as e%)loyees !eel #a %ana,e%en &o really (onsi&er #e% o 1e o! i%)or an(e in #e o)era ion o! #e or,anisa ion. @en(e, 5i # su(# )osi ive ou loo+ !ro% #e e%)loyees o5ar&s #e su)ervisor an& or,anisa ion, #e e%)loyee 5oul& 1e %ore 5illin, o )er!or% e2 ra-role 1e#aviours, #us in(reasin, #e li+eli#oo& o! or,anisa ional (i i/ens#i) 1e#aviours 60a e%an 8 Or,an, 19:<- "iles e al., 2002- 3%i # e al, 19:<7. "orrison4s 6199A7 resear(# su))or e& #er #y)o #esis #a #e %ore !re=uen e%)loyees in era( 5i # #eir su)ervisor, #e %ore si%ilarly #e e%)loyee an& su)ervisor 5ill &e!ine #e e%)loyee4s ;o1 res)onsi1ili ies. T#is (oul& 1e in er)re e& o %ean #a #ere 5oul& no 1e any role a%1i,ui y or role (on!li( as #e e%)loyees (learly +no5s 5#a is e2)e( e& o! #e%. '*" (an also )rovi&e

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

2A 2A

one !or% o! in era( ion #a (rea es an avenue !or #e% o (lari!y any a%1i,ui ies or &ou1 s a1ou #e ;o1, 5#i(# (an 1e assu%e& o 1uil& an e%)loyee4s sel! (on!i&en(e an& (o%)e en(e in )er!or%in, #e as+. T#us, i (oul& 1e sai& #a #e e%)loyee4s sel!-e!!i(a(y is in(rease& an& resear(# #as )roven #a #i,# sel!-e!!i(a(y in&ivi&uals en& o a((o%)lis# ,oals re=uire& o! #e ;o1 6Gis 8 "i (#ell, 1992- 3 a;+ovi( 8 Lu #ans, 199:7. T#is, in urn (rea es )osi ive a!!e( o5ar&s #e ;o1, #en(e %a+in, i #i,#ly li+ely !or #e e%)loyee o (on ri1u e %ore L #us, (rea in, e2 rarole 1e#aviours. T#ere!ore, i is #y)o #esi/e& #a E @5E 3el!-e!!i(a(y %o&era es #e '*"-O.0 rela ions#i).

MET!ODOLOGY E%)loyees in #e "alaysian )riva e se( or #ave 1een sele( e& an& #e in&ivi&ual e%)loyee is #e uni o! analysis !or #is s u&y. As #e )ur)ose o! #is s u&y is o e2a%ine '*", in&ivi&uals 5i # ;o1s #a 5oul& allo5 #e% #e o))or uni y o )ar i(i)a e in &e(ision %a+in, 63(o 8 0ru(e, 199A7 5ere sele( e&, #en(e, #e sele( ion o! e%)loyees !ro% #e %i&&le an& o) level %ana,e%en s a!!. Sa&(*ing Pr')%$ur% T#e sa%)lin, )ro(e&ure )er!or%e& 5as a )ur)osive sa%)lin,. A )ilo s u&y 5as (arrie& ou , )rior o #e a( ual survey, a%on, <2 o) an& %i&&le %ana,ers. T#ree =ues ionnaires 5ere sen o ea(# (o%)any re=ues in, #e o) an& %i&&le %ana,ers o )ar i(i)a e in #is resear(#. T#is %e #o& o! (olle( in, &a a 5as su,,es e& 1y #e )ilo ,rou) o! %ana,ers #a 5ere in ervie5e&, as a((or&in, o #e%, #e ra e o! res)onse 5oul& 1e #i,#er as #ere 5oul& 1e a sense o! anony%i y. T#e =ues ionnaires 5ere )os e& o 1000 (o%)anies !ro% #e JAnnual Ran+in, o! "alaysia4s To) 1000 .or)ora ionsK 6RA"-*', 200<7 &ire( ory. T#ree 1lan+ =ues ionnaires 5i # s a%)e& an& sel!-a&&resse& envelo)es 5ere )os e& o ea(# (o%)any, a((o%)anie& 1y a (over le er #a re=ues e& #e re(i)ien o ,e #ree o) an& %i&&le level %ana,ers !ro% #e sai& (o%)any o (o%)le e #e =ues ionnaires. T#e (o%)le e& =ues ionnaires 5ere #en )os e& usin, #e ,iven s a%)e& an& sel!-a&&resse& envelo)es. In o al, <000 1lan+ =ues ionnaires an& envelo)es 5ere )os e& o 1000 (o%)anies. T#e ra e o! re urn 5as 15.1M, 5#ere1y A5A =ues ionnaires 5ere re urne&. @o5ever, CA 1lan+ =ues ionnaires 5ere re urne& o #e resear(#er 5#ile 59 (ases #a #a& %issin, res)onses 5ere &ro))e& !ro% #e 5#ole sa%)le as #ey (oul& no 1e (orre( e&. @en(e, #e sa%)le si/e 5as re&u(e& o <<< in&i(a in, a res)onse ra e o! 11.1M. M%a"ur%&%n# an$ In"#ru&%n# '*" is re!erre& o as #e e%)loyees4 )er(eive& involve%en an& in!luen(e in #e &e(ision %a+in, )ro(ess in an or,anisa ion #a #as a &ire( an& in&ire( i%)a( on #eir ;o1s 6Lun;e5, 199A7. T#e '*" =ues ionnaire is a&o) e& !ro% Vroo% 619C07 an& Lun;e5 6199A7. T#e &i%ensions o! '*" 5ere ransla e& in o !ive s a e%en s in #e !or% o! Li+er s(ales. T#e rus i e%s (onsis o! #e e2 en o 5#i(# #e su1or&ina e )er(eives #a #is or #er su)erior 5ill assess #is or #er 1elie!s an& in en ions o a( 5i # re,ar&s o #e in e,ri y, (o%)e en(e, (onsis en(y, loyal y, o)enness an& res)e( s#o5n 1y #e su1or&ina e o5ar&s #e su)erior. T#e ins ru%en (o%)rise& o! 2C s a e%en s, a&a) e& !ro% .lar+ an& 'ayne 619997, )er ainin, o #eir )er(e) ion o! #eir su)eriors4 rus level o5ar& e%)loyees. A( ual si%ilari y 1e 5een #e su)erior an& #e su1or&ina e 5as %easure& in er%s o! e #ni( 1a(+,roun& an& ,en&er.

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

25 25

An in&ivi&ual4s (olle( ivis en&en(ies are 1ase& on #e 1e#avioural (#oi(es #a !avour ,rou) ,oals in si ua ions 5#ere ,rou) an& )ersonal ,oals are in (on!li( . T#is 5as %easure& 1y usin, Ha%a,u(#i4s 6199A7 .olle( ivis% 3(ale #a (onsis s o! 10 i e%s. 3even o! 3(#5a /4s 63(#5ar / 8 0ils+y, 19:9, 19907 In&ivi&ualis Value i e%s 5ere use& o %easure #e res)on&en s4 i&io(en ris%. 'ar i(i)a ion sel!-e!!i(a(y 5as use& as a %easure o! sel!-e!!i(a(y in #is s u&y. 'ar i(i)a ion sel!-e!!i(a(y is +no5n as a s)e(i!i( sel!-e!!i(a(y %easure 5#i(# 5as re(o%%en&e& 1y so%e au #ors 63 a;+ovi( 8 Lu #ans, 199:7. T#e si2-i e% )ar i(i)a ion e!!i(a(y s(ale 5as a&a) e& !ro% Vroo% 619C07 L !irs !our i e%s ou o! #e ori,inal !ive-i e% s(ale an& #e 'ersonal E!!i(a(y 0elie!s &evelo)e& 1y Ri,,s e al 6199A7 L las 5o i e%s ou o! #e ori,inal !ive-i e% s(ale. T#e i e%s essen ially as+ in&ivi&uals o in&i(a e #e &e,ree o! )ar i(i)a ion e!!i(a(y #ey #ave in #eir (urren ;o1s. A nine-i e% s(ale 5as use& o %easure #e su1or&ina es4 )er(e) ions o! L"F 6%e%1er-L"F7. T#ese i e%s )er ain o #e su)erior4s un&ers an&in, o! #e su1or&ina e4s )ro1le%s an& nee&s as 5ell as re(o,nisin, #e su1or&ina e4s )o en ial. T#e su)erior4s su))or !or #e su1or&ina e in er%s o! #el)in, #e su1or&ina e in 5or+ %a ers an& 1ailin, ou #e su1or&ina e 5#en nee&e&. T#e L"F i e% also %easure& #e e!!e( iveness o! #e 5or+in, rela ions#i), #e su1or&ina e4s 5illin,ness o &e!en& #e su)erior4s &e(ision an& #e sa is!a( ion o! #e su)erior o! #e su1or&ina e4s 5or+. T#e nine i e%s 5ere su%%e& o !or% #e %e%1er-L"F (o%)osi e an& is an e2)ansion o! #e seven-i e% s(ale use& 1y Graen, Nova+ an& 3o%%er+a%) 619:27, 5#i(# #as s#o5n s ron, relia1ili ies in several s u&ies. T5o s a e%en s o! #e ori,inal s(ale 5ere !ur #er 1ro+en &o5n o !our s a e%en s, #en(e %a+in, i a nine-i e% s(ale use& in #is s u&y. O.0 5as %easure& 1y a 1C-i e% s a e%en &evelo)e& 1y 3%i #, Or,an an& Near 619:<7. T#is ins ru%en %easure& #e e2 ra-role 1e#aviours o! res)on&en s.

ANALYSES AND RESULTS R%"('n$%n# Pr',i*% "a;ori y o! #e res)on&en s are %ales, (o%)risin, C2.5M o! #e ,iven sa%)le. T#e &e%o,ra)#i( )ro!ile o! #is s u&y4s sa%)le s#o5s #a sli,# ly %ore #an #al! 65C.5M7 o! #e res)on&en s4 ,en&er is si%ilar 5i # #eir su)erior, 5#ile A<.5M 5ere &i!!eren . T#e e #ni( (o%)osi ion o! #e sa%)le 5as !airly &is ri1u e& a%on, #e #ree %ain e #ni( ,rou)s 5#ere #e .#inese ,rou) 5as #e %a;ori y 6<:.1M7 !ollo5e& 1y #e "alays 6<1.5M7, #e In&ian ,rou) (o%)rise& o! 92 res)on&en s 629.CM7 an& only 2.9M o! #e sa%)le !ell un&er #e O #ers ,rou). Less #an 100 629.9M7 res)on&en s (o%e !ro% #e sa%e e #ni( ,rou) as #eir su)eriors 5#ereas %a;ori y o! #e res)on&en s 690.<M7 #ave &i!!eren e #ni( 1a(+,roun&s #an #eir su)eriors. T#e a,e )ro!ile o! #e sa%)le (onsis e& o! #ree (a e,ories. "os o! #e res)on&en s 6C9M7 1elon,e& o #e a,e ,rou) o! 1e 5een A1 o 50 years o! a,e, 5#ile only 19M o! #e sa%)le 5ere a1ove 50 years o! a,e an& %ore #an 50 615.9M7 o! #e res)on&en s a,e& 1e 5een <1 o A0 years ol&. @o5ever, none o! #e res)on&en s 5ere <0 years an& 1elo5, 5#i(# is no sur)risin, as #e res)on&en s are !ro% %i&&le an& o) %ana,e%en levels. In er%s o! years o! e2)erien(e in #e )resen (o%)any, over 150 6A5.9M7 o! #e res)on&en s (lai% o #ave 5or+e& !or !ive years or %ore 1u less #an ei,# years in #eir (urren or,anisa ions, 5#ile 112 6<<.CM7 res)on&en s #ave 1een 5or+in, in #eir )resen (o%)any !or %ore #an ei,# years. Ou o! <<< res)on&en s, 59 619.9M7 #ave 5or+e& !or 5o years or %ore 1u less #an !ive years in #eir )resen !ir%s. Only nine 62.9M7 res)on&en s #ave 1een 5i # #eir )resen (o%)any !or less #an 5o years. "a;ori y 6C<.9M7 o! #e res)on&en s #ave a 0a(#elor4s &e,ree an& 2A.9M o! #e res)on&en s #ave a )os ,ra&ua e &e,ree. Only 9M o! #e sa%)le #as a (er i!i(a e or a &i)lo%a =uali!i(a ion 5#ile #e re%ainin, 2.AM #as =uali!i(a ions u) o #e @3. or

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

2C 2C

3T'" level. As !or #e ;o1 s a us, %os 6:0.5M7 o! #e res)on&en s 1elon, o #e %i&&le %ana,e%en level 5#ile #e re%ainin, 19.5M (o%)rise& o) %ana,e%en s a!!. Lab%*" U"%$ ,'r C'n"#ru)#" T#e !ollo5in, &e)i( s #e varia1le la1els use& in #is s u&yE '*"E 'ar i(i)a ion in &e(ision %a+in, O.0E Or,anisa ional (i i/ens#i) 1e#aviour EIIE 3el!-e!!i(a(y TRU3TE Trus ALLOE Allo(en ris% I*IOE I&io(en ris% L"FE Lea&er-%e%1er e2(#an,e GEN*ERE 3u)erior-su1or&ina e ,en&er si%ilari y RA.EE 3u)erior-su1or&ina e e ni( ,rou) si%ilari y C'rr%*a#i'n 'earson (orrela ion 5as use& !or #e seven-)oin in erval s(ale& varia1les an& 5o no%inal s(ale& varia1les 6GEN*ER an& RA.E7. Resul s o! #e (orrela ion es s in&i(a e& #a '*" #as si,ni!i(an an& )osi ive rela ions 5i # O.0 6.1A, p N 0.057, rus 6.A0, p N 0.017 an& L"F 6.<9, p N 0.017, res)e( ively. T#is su,,es s #a as su1or&ina es )ar i(i)a e %ore in &e(ision %a+in,, #ey 5ill also in(rease #eir or,anisa ional (i i/ens#i) 1e#aviour, #e su)eriors4 rus in su1or&ina es 5ill in(rease, an& #e e2(#an,e or rela ions#i) 1e 5een su1or&ina es an& #eir su)eriors 5ill in(rease as 5ell. @o5ever, only one si,ni!i(an rela ions#i) 5as !oun& !or #e sel!-e!!i(a(y varia1le in 5#i(# (ase i 5as rela e& )osi ively 5i # O.0 6.<0, p N 0.017. T#is resul (an 1e in er)re e& o %ean #a e%)loyees4 in(rease in sel!-e!!i(a(y or as e%)loyees4 1elie! in #e%selves in(rease, #eir (i i/ens#i) 1e#aviour also in(rease. @en(e, e%)loyees 5i # #i,# sel!-e!!i(a(y en& o 1e#ave !avoura1ly o5ar&s #eir or,anisa ions. 3u1or&ina es4 )er(e) ion o! #eir su)eriors4 rus in #e% 5as !oun& o no only 1e rela e& o '*" 1u also 5i # L"F 6.90, p N 0.017. T#us, as e%)loyees )er(eive #eir su)eriors o #ave #i,# rus s in #e%, #ey also en& o 1e #i,#ly )ar i(i)a ive 6i %ay 1e #a as su)eriors )la(e #eir rus in #eir su1or&ina es, #ese su1or&ina es are ,iven %ore (#an(es !or '*"7. I&io(en ris% #a& only one si,ni!i(an rela ions#i) an& o&&ly enou,#, i 5as 5i # e%)loyees 5#o #ave #e sa%e e #ni( 1a(+,roun& 6.11, p N 0.057 as #eir su)eriors. T#is %eans #a e%)loyees 5#o are si%ilar 5i # #eir su)eriors in er%s o! e #ni( 1a(+,roun& en& o 1e %ore in&ivi&ualis i(. T#e !inal si,ni!i(an rela ions#i) is 1e 5een GEN*ER an& RA.E 6.1C, p N 0.057. @en(e, e%)loyees 5#o are &e%o,ra)#i(ally si%ilar 5i # #eir su)eriors in er%s o! ,en&er an& e #ni( 1a(+,roun& are rela e& )osi ively. T%"#ing ', !+('#h%"%" T#e a))li(a ion o! %ul i)le an& %o&era in, re,ression analyses 5ere use& o es #e #y)o #eses. Ta1le 1 &e)i( s #e %o&el su%%ary o! #e s e)-5ise %ul i)le re,ression 5i # !ive in&e)en&en varia1les an& '*" as #e &e)en&en varia1le. / s=uare !or #e !inal %o&el 5as 0.1C an& a&;us e& / s=uare 5as 0.15. T#e s an&ar& error o! #e es i%a e 5as 0.:< as #e %o&el in(lu&e& only rus as #e si,ni!i(an varia1le an& eli%ina e& all #e o #er !our non-si,ni!i(an varia1les 6ALLO, I*IO, GEN*ER7

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

29 29

Ta1le 1 Model ,ummary of the ,tep %ise /egression bet%een T/0,T, .!!', 1D1', 234D3/ and /.(3 %ith PDM as the Dependent 5ariable "o&el / / 3=uar e
a

A&;us e &/ 3=uare

1 a. 1.

.A0

.1C

.15

3 an&ar & Error o! #e Es i%a e .:<

/ 3=uar e .#an, e .1C

6 .#an, e

*!1

*!2

3i,. 6 .#an, e
a

C0.59

<< 1

.00

're&i( orsE 6.ons an 7, TRU3T *e)en&en Varia1leE '*"

T#e !in&in, in Ta1le 1 reveale& #a only rus 5as si,ni!i(an in #e re,ression %o&el. T#e analysis o! varian(e 6ANOVA7 in Ta1le 2 s#o5s #a #e 6 value o! #e %o&el 6C0.597 5as si,ni!i(an a #e 0.01 levels, #us, in&i(a in, #a #e overall re,ression is si,ni!i(an . In o #er 5or&s, 15 )er(en o! #e varian(e 6/ s=uare7 in '*" 5as si,ni!i(an ly e2)laine& 1y rus . T#e (oe!!i(ien o! #e s e)-5ise re,ression, on #e o #er #an&, is &is)laye& in Ta1le <. TRU3T 5as si,ni!i(an a #e 0.01 level. Ta1le 2 .4'5. %ith T/0,T and PDM as the Dependent 5ariable "o&el 1 Re,ression Resi&ual To al a. 1. 3u% o! 3=uare A1.29 225.5C 2CC.:5 *! 1 <<1 <<2 "ean 3=uare A1.29 .C: 6 C0.59 3i,. .00
a

're&i( orsE 6.ons an 7, TRU3T *e)en&en Varia1leE '*"

Ta1le < (oefficient 'utput bet%een T/0,T and PDM as the Dependent 5ariable "o&el 1 6.ons an 7 TRU3T Uns an&ar&ise& .oe!!i(ien s 0 3 &. Error 2.90 .C1 .A0 .0: 3 an&ar&ise& .oe!!i(ien s 0e a T C.91 9.9: 3i,. .00 .00

.<9

a. *e)en&en Varia1leE '*"

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

2: 2:

"o&era in, re,ression analysis 5as e%)loye& in #is s u&y o &e er%ine #e e!!e( o! L"F an& sel!-e!!i(a(y as %o&era ors. T#e %o&el su%%ary o! #e %o&era in, re,ression analysis is s#o5n in Ta1le A, 5i # L"F as #e %o&era in, varia1le an& '*" #e &e)en&en varia1le 5i # TRU3T, ALLO, I*IO, GEN*ER an& RA.E as #e in&e)en&en varia1les. Al #ou,# #e %o&el in Ta1le A )ro&u(e& a %o&es / s=uare o! 0.21, #e overall %o&el is s a is i(ally si,ni!i(an a #e 0.01 level. Ta1le A Model ,ummary of the Moderating /egression .nalysis bet%een the 1ndividual 6actors and PDM as the Dependent 5ariable %ith !M# as the Moderator "o&el / / 6 *!1 *!2 3i,. 6 3=uar .#an, .#an,e e e .#an, e a .AC .21 .1: .:1 .21 C.05 1A <1: . 're&i( orsE 6.ons an 7, L"F, RA.E, TRU3T, ALLO, I*IO, GEN*ER *e)en&en Varia1leE '*" / 3=uar e A&;us e& / 3=uare 3 an&ar& Error o! #e Es i%a e

1 00 a. 1.

T#e analysis o! varian(e 6ANOVA7 in Ta1le 5 s#o5e& #a #e 6 value o! C.05 5as si,ni!i(an a #e 0.01 level. T#us, #e resul s (an 1e in er)re e& o su,,es #a 21 )er(en o! #e varian(e 6/ s=uare7 in '*" 5as e2)laine& 1y #e %o&era or, L"F. Ta1le 5 .4'5. bet%een the 1ndividual 6actors and PDM as the Dependent 5ariable %ith !M# as the Moderator "o&el 3u% o! 3=uare *! "ean 3=uare I 3i,. .00
a

1 Re,ression 5C.09 1A A.01 C.05 Resi&ual 210.9C <1: .CC To al 2CC.:5 <<2 a. 're&i( orsE 6.ons an 7, L"F, RA.E, TRU3T, ALLO, I*IO, GEN*ER 1. *e)en&en Varia1leE '*"

Al #ou,# #e overall re,ression is si,ni!i(an , #o5ever, #e (oe!!i(ien o! #e in&ivi&ual !a( ors in&i(a es #a none o! #ese varia1les )rove& o 1e si,ni!i(an , as s#o5n in Ta1le C. T#us, #is %eans #a L"F &oes no %o&era e any o! #e rela ions#i)s 1e 5een '*" an& #e in&ivi&ual !a( ors. Ta1le C (oefficient 'utput bet%een the 1ndividual 6actors and PDM as the Dependent 5ariable %ith !M# as the Moderator "o&el Uns an&ar&ise& .oe!!i(ien s 0 3 &. Error 3 an&ar&ise& .oe!!i(ien s 0e a

3i,.

6.ons an 7 2.91 TRU3T .C9 L"FTRU3T -C.12E-02 ALLO -.<: L"FALLO 9.9A<E-02 I*IO -.<C L"FI*IO :.15:E-02 GEN*ER .2C L"FGEN*ER -A.15E-02 RA.E .9A L"FRA.E -.1C a. *e)en&en Varia1leE '*"

.99 .<9 .0: .2: .0C .<A .09 .50 .10 .5: .12

.AA -.A9 -.<1 .A0 -.2A .A1 .1A -.12 .<: -.A1

<.5A 1.:C -.:0 -1.<< 1.<1 -1.0: 1.19 .51 -.A1 1.29 -1.<C

.00 .0C .A< .19 .19 .2: .2A .C1 .C: .20 .1:

Ta1le 9 s#o5s #e %o&el su%%ary o! #e %o&era in, re,ression analysis 5i # EII as #e %o&era or 5#ile #e &e)en&en varia1le 5as O.0. T#e in&e)en&en varia1le, on #e o #er #an& 5as '*". Ta1le 9 &is)laye& #e re,ression as si,ni!i(an a #e 0.01 level. Ta1le 9 Model ,ummary of the Moderating /egression .nalysis bet%een PDM and '() as the Dependent 5ariable %ith 366 as the Moderator "o&el R R 3=uar e A&;us e &R 3=uare 3 an&ar & Error o! #e Es i%a e .2CA R 3=uar e .#an, e .11 I .#an, e *!1 *!2 3i,. I .#an, e

1 a. 1.

.<2

.11

.10

19.A0

<<0

.00

're&i( orsE 6.ons an 7, EII, '*" *e)en&en Varia1leE O.0

T#e ANOVA in Ta1le : &is)laye& #e 6 value o! 19.A0 si,ni!i(an a #e 0.01 level. @en(e, #e resul s#o5e& #a 11 )er(en 6R s=uare7 o! #e varian(e in O.0 5as si,ni!i(an ly e2)laine& 1y #e %o&era in, varia1le, EII, #en(e, EII &oes %o&era e #e '*"-O.0 rela ions#i). T#e (oe!!i(ien values o! '*" an& EII are s#o5n in Ta1le 9, 5#i(# are si,ni!i(an a #e 0.01 level, res)e( ively. Ta1le : .4'5. bet%een PDM and '() as the Dependent 5ariable %ith 366 as the Moderator "o&el 3u% o! 3=uare *! 2 <<0 <<2 "ean 3=uare 1.<C C.9:2E-02 I 19.A0 3i,. .00
a

1 Re,ression 2.91 Resi&ual 2<.0A To al 25.95 a. 're&i( orsE 6.ons an 7, EII, '*" 1. *e)en&en Varia1leE O.0

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

<0 <0

Ta1le 9 (oefficient 'utput bet%een PDM and '() as the Dependent 5ariable %ith 366 as the Moderator "o&el Uns an&ar&ise& .oe!!i(ien s 0 3 &. Error 5.CC -.1: <.C92E-02 .A0 .0: .01 3 an&ar&ise& .oe!!i(ien s 0e a

3i,.

6.ons an 7 '*" EII

-.59 .9:

59.A5 -A.2< 5.CA

.00 .00 .00

Dependent Variable: OCB

Su&&ar+ ', !+('#h%"i" T%"#ing T#e su%%ary o! #e resul s o! #y)o #eses es in, is s#o5nO)resen e& in Ta1le 10. T#e (orrela ion analysis !oun& rus o 1e rela e& o '*". @o5ever, su)erior-su1or&ina e e #ni( ,rou) si%ilari y an& i&io(en ris%-allo(en ris% 5ere no !oun& o 1e rela e& o '*", #us, in&i(a in, #a #y)o #esis 1 is su))or e&, 5#ile #y)o #eses 2 an& < are no su))or e&. T#e resul s !ur #er s#o5e& #a L"F &oes no #ave a %o&era in, e!!e( on #e rela ions#i)s 1e 5een in&ivi&ual !a( ors an& '*". @en(e, #y)o #esis A is no su))or e&. As !or #e se(on& )ar o! #e %o&el involvin, '*", EII an& O.0, i 5as !oun& #a EII &oes %o&era e #e rela ions#i) 1e 5een '*" an& O.0. T#us, #is %eans #a #y)o #esis 5 is su))or e&. Ta1le 10 ,ummary of -ypotheses Testing No. @1 @2 @< @A @5 @y)o #eses A rela ions#i) 1e 5een rus an& '*" e2is s. A rela ions#i) 1e 5een '*" an& &e%o,ra)#i( si%ilari y e2is s. A rela ions#i) 1e 5een '*" an& i&io(en ris%-allo(en ris% e2is s L"F %o&era es #e overall rela ions#i) 1e 5een #e in&ivi&ual !a( ors an& '*". 3el!-e!!i(a(y %o&era es #e '*"-O.0 rela ions#i). 3 a us 3u))or e& No 3u))or e& No 3u))or e& No 3u))or e& 3u))or e&

Manag%ria* I&(*i)a#i'n" T#e 1i,,es (#allen,e o su)eriors is o ensure #a ;o1s )rovi&e #e nee&s !or e%)loyees. I is (#allen,in, o i&en i!y #e y)es o! #i,#er or&er nee&s o! e%)loyees as #ese re!le( #e rue %o iva ors, a((or&in, o @er/1er,. @o5ever, 1y )rovi&in, #e o))or uni ies !or e%)loyees o )ar i(i)a e in #e &e(ision %a+in, )ro(ess in #eir ;o1s, su)eriors (an i%)rove #eir (#an(es o! sa is!yin, e%)loyees4 #i,#er or&er nee&s. In #e even o! ryin, o !ul!ill so%e nee&s o! #e e%)loyees 1y a))lyin, '*", #is s u&y #as !oun& a !e5 e2)e( e& an& %any une2)e( e& resul s. As rus #as 1een !oun& o in!luen(e '*" in #is s u&y, so(ial e2(#an,e #eory su))or s #is 1y e2)lainin, #a s#arin, an& &ele,a ion o! (on rol are so(ial re5ar&s, in #e !or% o! a))roval, rus s or res)e( #a #e %ana,er ,ran s o #e su1or&ina e. In urn, #e e%)loyeePs rus in #e %ana,er is li+ely o in(rease #e e2 en #a #e re5ar& re)resen s an ini ia ion or es(ala ion o! e2(#an,e o! so(ial 1ene!i s 1e 5een a %ana,er an& an e%)loyee. T#e e%)loyee4s rus in #e %ana,er in(reases es)e(ially 5#en (ou)le& 5i # en#an(e& ou (o%es !or #e e%)loyee. In #eir #eore i(al revie5 o! #e (on(e) o! rus , >#i ener an& 0ro& 6199:7 asser #a resear(# on rus )er(e) ions #as in&i(a e& #a s#arin, (on rol, in(lu&in, '*" is a +ey (o%)onen o! rus 5or #y

UNITAR E-JOURNAL Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2009

<1 <1

1e#aviour. T#us, in!luen(es on )er(e) ions o! rus )lay a lar,e )ar in #e lea&er4s &e(ision a1ou allo5in, #e %e%1er o )ar i(i)a e in %a+in, &e(isions 6>#i ener 8 0ro& , 199:7. T#e non-si,ni!i(an rela ions#i)s 1e 5een '*" an& &e%o,ra)#i( si%ilari y 6e #ni( an& ,en&er si%ilari y7 su,,es s a la(+ o! evi&en(e o s#o5 #a #e res)on&en s o! #is s u&y )rovi&e '*" o))or uni y o su1or&ina es 5#o are si%ilar 5i # #e%. T#e e #ni( an& ,en&er si%ilari ies 1e 5een #e su)erior an& su1or&ina e &o no see% o 1e !a( ors #a &e er%ine or in!luen(e #e su)eriors o ,ran '*" o))or uni ies o #eir su1or&ina es. T#is i%)lies #a %ana,ers in #is s u&y are no 1iase& in er%s o! )rovi&in, '*" o))or uni ies o su1or&ina es. Ano #er in eres in, !in&in, is #e non-si,ni!i(an lin+ 1e 5een '*" an& i&io(en ris%-allo(en ris%. T#is su,,es s #a (ul ural orien a ions o! #e %ana,ers in #is s u&y are no lin+e& o '*". A )ossi1le e2)lana ion (oul& 1e #a a &i!!eren (ul ural orien a ion is in e2is en(e, 5#i(# (oin(i&es 5i # #e s)ee& re=uire& o! &e(isions in o&ay4s (o%)e i ive environ%en . T#e (o%)le2i y o! o&ayPs 1usiness environ%en an& #e s)ee& a 5#i(# &e(isions are %a&e o a(#ieve resul s (alls !or a )er!or%an(e 1ase& (ul ure #a is !le2i1le an& a,ile. An e%)#asis on )er!or%an(e an& (o%)e i iveness (oul& 1e overs#a&o5in, any o #er )reviously #el& (ul ural orien a ions 5i #in #e or,ani/a ion. T#e si,ni!i(an e!!e( o! sel!-e!!i(a(y as a %o&era or in #e '*"-O.0 rela ions#i) is ye ano #er !in&in, o! #is s u&y. One )ro1a1le e2)lana ion !or #is is #a %i&&le an& o) level %ana,ers &o vie5 lin+s 1e 5een sel!-e!!i(a(y 5i # '*" an& O.0 1e(ause #ey #ave (on!i&en(e in #eir o5n a1ili y o )ar i(i)a e 6La% e al., 20027. 0an&ura 619997 is o! #e vie5 #a in&ivi&uals 5#o )er(eive #e%selves 5i # #i,# sel!-e!!i(a(y are li+ely o in(rease #eir e!!or s an& e2(ee& in #eir as+, 5#i(# (oul& resul in #i,# )er!or%an(e. 0ein, a1le o )er!or% 5ell 5oul& !ur #er in(rease a )erson4s sel!-1elie! as 5ell as in(rease #e li+eli#oo& o! any o))or uni y !or '*". T#is is one )ro1a1le e2)lana ion. Ano #er )ro1a1le e2)lana ion !or #e si,ni!i(an lin+s 1e 5een sel!-e!!i(a(y an& '*" is #a e%)loyees use i ins ru%en ally o (rea e si ua ions #a are %ore !avoura1le o #eir e!!e( iveness. @i,# sel!-e!!i(a(y in&ivi&uals 5ill u ilise '*" o))or uni ies o a(#ieve 5#a #ey &esire, 5#ereas #ose 5i # lo5 sel!-e!!i(a(y %ay en& o 1e(o%e &is resse& 5#en )resen e& 5i # su(# o))or uni ies 6La% e al., 20027. @en(e, in&ivi&uals 5i # #i,# sel!-e!!i(a(y 5#o rea( )osi ively o5ar&s )ar i(i)a ion in &e(ision %a+in, 5ill 1e %ore li+ely o #ave !avoura1le a i u&es o5ar&s #e or,anisa ion, %a+in, i #i,#ly )ossi1le !or su(# in&ivi&uals o 1e#ave )roso(ially o5ar&s #is or #er or,anisa ion. I (oul& 1e #a #e res)on&en s in #is s u&y are %ore in(line& o involve #e%selves in &e(isions 5#en o))or uni ies o )ar i(i)a e in &e(ision %a+in, arise es)e(ially 5#en #ey #ave #e (on!i&en(e in #eir o5n a1ili y o )ar i(i)a e. T#ey are 5illin, 1e(ause #ey %i,# 1e o! #e o)inion #a #avin, %ore in!luen(e o))or uni ies (rea es (on&i ions in 5#i(# #ey e2)e( o su((ee& 6La% e al., 20027. Las ly, '*" in #e 5a+e o! a &i,i ise& era #as i s s#are o! i%)li(a ions 5#i(# &eserve %en ion #ere. An earlier s u&y 1y Be)ner Tre,oe, a %ana,e%en (onsul in, !ir%, !oun& #ree +ey a ri1u es 5i #in an or,ani/a ionPs (ul ure #a 1es su))or s &i,i al-a,e &e(ision %a+in,. In surveyin, A99 %ana,ers an& <<9 5or+ers in #e U3, Be)ner-Tre,oe isola e& #ree a ri1u es #a &is in,uis# #e%E s)ee& as a (or)ora e vir ue, a )assion !or in!or%a ion s#arin, an& a 5illin,ness o a+e ris+s L in(lu&in, #e &ele,a ion o! &e(ision %a+in, 6>essel, 20017. A((or&in, o >essel 620017, %ana,ers are &evelo)in, a ne5 an& in e,ra e& a))roa(# #a (o%1ines e(#nolo,y 5i # #u%an resour(es so #a &e(ision %a+in, in #eir or,anisa ion is !as er an& 1e er #an ever. T#is su,,es s #a %ore )ar i(i)a ion 1y e%)loyees is nee&e&, )rovi&e& e%)loyees are e=ui))e& 5i # #e relevan s+ill an& e2)er ise o %a+e soun& &e(isions. Ano #er %ore re(en s u&y #as s#o5n #o5 in!or%a ion e(#nolo,y 6IT7 ena1le& a ,rou) o! )u1li( se( or e%)loyees in 'a)ua Ne5 Guinea 6'NG7 o #ave %ore Jvoi(e in &e(ision %a+in, an& a ,rea er o))or uni y o in!luen(e ou (o%es #an #ey 5oul& o #er5ise #aveK 6"osan, 2005, ). 5A7. T#e res)on&en s o! "osan4s 620057 s u&y !el rela ively e%)o5ere& o #el) s#a)e #eir or,anisa ion4s !u ure #a 5ill 1ene!i #eir na ion. T#us, in a &i,i ise& environ%en , re-or,anisin, 5or+ roles su(# as in(rease& e%)loyee )ar i(i)a ion 6as #e 'NG (ase illus ra es7 an& rainin, !or enri(#e& ;o1 re=uire%en s are nee&e& !or su((ess!ul e(#nolo,i(al (#an,es 6"osan, 20057.

Li&i#a#i'n ', S#u$+ I is ina&visa1le o ,eneralise #is s u&y4s !in&in,s o o #er se in,s in&is(ri%ina ely &ue o #e )ur)osive sa%)lin, )ro(e&ure a&o) e&. Never #eless, #ere are so%e )ra( i(al i%)li(a ions &ra5n !ro% #is s u&y #a (oul& 1e (onsi&ere& no only 1y %ana,ers in #e )riva e se( or 1u also in o #er or,anisa ions in o #er se( ors in "alaysia. Relyin, solely on sel!-re)or &a a #as i s li%i a ions, even #ou,# #is s u&y 5as %ean o )ursue #e )er(e) ions o! o) an& %i&&le level %ana,ers on all varia1les. @o5ever, ,a #erin, &a a !ro% su1or&ina es 5oul& #ave )rovi&e& us 5i # #e &i!!eren(e or si%ilari y o! )er(e) ions 1y 1o # su)erior an& su1or&ina e. Never #eless, #is (oul& )ro%) !u ure resear(#ers o loo+ in o inves i,a in, 1o # #e su)erior4s an& su1or&ina e4s )er(e) ions on #e varia1les o! in eres . A %e #o&olo,i(al li%i a ion o! #is s u&y is #e use o! a (ross-se( ional resear(# &esi,n #a )ro#i1i s #e &e!ini ive es a1lis#%en o! (ause-an&-e!!e( rela ions#i)s 6Go%e/ 8 Rosen, 20017. Li+e all sel!-a&%inis ere& =ues ionnaires, on(e #e res)on&en re(eives #e =ues ionnaire, #e =ues ionin, )ro(ess is 1eyon& #e resear(#er4s (on rol. Ea(# res)on&en 5ill a a(# a &i!!eren )ersonal %eanin, o ea(# =ues ion even #ou,# #e )rin e& s i%ulus is %ean o 1e #e sa%e. T#ere is no in ervie5er )resen 5#o (an )ro1e !or a&&i ional in!or%a ion or (lari!i(a ion o! an ans5er an& #e re(or&e& ans5er %us 1e assu%e& o 1e (o%)le e. u#ur% R%"%ar)h Sugg%"#i'n" Iar %ore =ues ions #an ans5ers are 1ein, raise& 1y )ar i(i)a ion resear(# o &a e in s)i e o! i s !un&a%en al i%)or an(e as an or,anisa ional )#eno%enon. In li,# o! #e )resen 5or+ on '*", a nu%1er o! &ire( ions !or re!inin, #is resear(# area are su,,es e&. In &is(ussin, #e li%i a ions o! #e survey resear(# %e #o& in or,anisa ional s u&ies, 0a11ie 619:97 s a e& #a #ere is a en&en(y o rely on ,ross %o&els an& e2 re%ely ,eneral %easures o! a( ual #u%an 1e#aviour 5#en resear(# on so(ial )ro(esses is (on&u( e& usin, a lar,e nu%1er o! res)on&en s. @en(e, 5e are %ore sus(e) i1le o errors o! i%)ro)er in er)re a ion or in!eren(e as 5e ,e !ur #er a5ay !ro% !a(e- o-!a(e in era( ions. In or&er o over(o%e #is li%i a ion, #is s u&y (oul& 1e (o%)le%en e& 1y an e2)lora ory s u&y. A =uali a ive na ure o! s u&y (an 1e (arrie& ou o &e er%ine #e si ua ion in rela ion o '*" in an or,anisa ional se in,. 0ase& on #e un&ers an&in, o! !un&a%en al 1e#aviours in #e or,anisa ion ,aine& !ro% #is a( ivi y, survey ins ru%en s or in ervie5 s(#e&ules (oul& 1e (ons ru( e& an& a&%inis ere& o #e o al sa%)le. T#is y)e o! %e #o&olo,y s#oul& i%)rove #e relia1ili y o! %easures an& #e vali&i y o! (on(lusions. T#e !un&a%en al =ues ion in #is s u&y !o(use& on #e assess%en o! sele( e& in&ivi&ual !a( ors un&er 5#i(# '*" (an 1e e!!e( ive. T#e assu%) ion 5as %a&e #a '*" 5oul& a+e )la(e a%on, %i&&le an& o) level %ana,ers o! #e )riva e se( or. @en(e, several i%)li(a ions !or !u ure resear(# are su,,es e&. Ra #er #an (on(en ra e on #e '*" )ro(ess in #e (ase o! #is s u&y, resear(#ers (oul& e2)an& #eir resear(# #ori/ons 1y !o(usin, on )ar i(i)a ion in #e &i!!eren levels o! &e(ision %a+in,. Is )ar i(i)a ion ne(essary in all levels o! #e &e(ision %a+in, )ro(ess or only in a !e5? I! so, 5#a are #ey an& 5#y &oes i #a))en? "oreover, re(en resear(# #as s#o5n #o5 )ar i(i)a ion is en(oura,e& in #is &i,i i/e& a,e. T#is (oul& 1e ano #er avenue !or !ur #er resear(#, es)e(ially in #e "alaysian se in,. 3el!-e!!i(a(y is ano #er i%)or an area o! resear(#. "ana,e%en s(#olars an& even )ra( i ioners #ave ea,erly e%1ra(e& sel!-e!!i(a(y 1e(ause o! i s a))li(a1ili y o 5or+-rela e& )er!or%an(es an& or,anisa ional )ursui s 63 a;+ovi( 8 Lu #ans, 199:7. As su(#, i 5oul& 1e in eres in, o es #e e2 en o 5#i(# #is !in&in, !ro% #e >es ern na ions is a))li(a1le in "alaysia. In #is ins an(e, !ur #er 5or+ is re=uire& o es a1lis# !a( ors #a en#an(e as 5ell as #in&er #e rela ions#i) 1e 5een sel!-e!!i(a(y an& 5or+ )er!or%an(e. Ior e2a%)le, %ana,erial &is rus (oul& 1e a !a( or #a %ay re&u(e #e %a,ni u&e o! #e rela ions#i) 1e 5een sel!-e!!i(a(y an& )er!or%an(e. T#is is

1e(ause %ana,erial &is rus %ay in(rease #ou,# s o! !ailure an& a%oun o! s ress an& re&u(e (o)in, %e(#anis%s 60an&ura, 19:C7, 5#i(# (an a&versely a!!e( #e sel!-e!!i(a(y an& )er!or%an(e rela ions#i).

RE ERENCES 0a11ie, E. 619:97. The practice of social research. 65 e&.7. 0el%on , .AE >a&s5or # 'u1. 0an&ura, A. 619:C7. ,ocial foundations of thought and action7 . social cognitive vie%. En,le5oo& .li!!s, NJE 'ren i(e-@all. 0an&ura, A. 619997. ,elf efficacy7 The e"ercise of control. Ne5 Hor+E Iree%an. 0a e%an, T.3. 8 Or,an, *. >. 619:<7. Jo1 sa is!a( ion an& ,oo& sol&ierE T#e rela ions#i) 1e 5een a!!e( an& e%)loyee J(i i/ens#i)K. .cademy of Management 8ournal, 2C6A7, 5:9595. 0auer, T. N. 8 Green, 3. G. 6199C7. *evelo)%en o! lea&er-%e%1er e2(#an,eE A lon,i u&inal es . .cademy of Management 8ournal, <96C7, 15<:-15C9. 0ryne, *., .lore, G. L. Jr. 8 >or(#el, '. 619CC7. T#e e!!e( o! e(ono%i( si%ilari y-&issi%ilari y as &e er%inan s o! a ra( ion. 8ournal of Personality and ,ocial Psychology, A, 220-22A. .assar, V. 619997. .an lea&er &ire( ion an& e%)loyee )ar i(i)a ion (o-e2is ? 8ournal of Management Psychology, 1A617, 59-C:. .lar+, ". .. 8 'ayne, R. L. 619997. T#e na ure an& s ru( ure o! 5or+ers4 rus in %ana,e%en . 8ournal of 'rgani&ational )ehavior, 1:, 205-22A. .o#en, 3., .#an,, L., 8 Le&!or&, G. 619997. A #ierar(#i(al (ons ru( o! sel!-%ana,e%en lea&ers#i) an& i s rela ions#i) o =uali y o! 5or+ li!e an& )er(eive& 5or+ ,rou) e!!e( iveness. Personnel Psychology, 50, 295-<0:. *avi&, I. 620057. ,trategic management7 (oncepts and cases. 610 e&.7.Ne5 JerseyE 'earson 'ren i(e @all. *ienes(#, R. ". 8 Li&en, R. .. 619:C7. Lea&er-%e%1er e2(#an,e %o&el o! lea&ers#i)E A (ri i=ue an& !ur #er &evelo)%en . .cademy of Management /evie%, 11, C1:-C<A. Earley, '. .. 8 Gi1son, .. 0. 6199:7. Ta+in, s o(+ in our )ro,ress on in&ivi&ualis%-(olle( ivis%E 100 years o! soli&ari y an& (o%%uni y. 8ournal of Management. 2A6<7, 2C5-2:A. Gis , ". 8 "i (#ell, T. 619927. 3el!-e!!i(a(yE A #eore i(al analysis o! I s &e er%inan s an& %allea1ili y. .cademy of Management /evie%, 19, 1:<-211. Go%e/, .. 8 Rosen, 0. 620017. T#e lea&er-%e%1er e2(#an,e as a lin+ 1e 5een %ana,erial rus an& e%)loyee e%)o5er%en . 2roup and 'rgani&ation Management, 2C617, 5<-C9. Graen, G. 0. Nova+ 8 3o%%er+a%), '.619:27. T#e e!!e( s o! lea&er-%e%1er e2(#an,e an& ;o1 &esi,n on )ro&u( ivi y an& sa is!a( ionE Tes in, a &ual a a(#%en %o&el. 'rgani&ational )ehavior and -uman Performance, <0, 109-1<1. @o!s e&e, G. 619917. In Voronov, ". an& 3in,er, J. A. T#e %y # o! in&ivi&ualis%-(olle( ivis%E A (ri i(al revie5. The 8ournal of ,ocial Psychology. 1A26A7, AC1-A:0.
# #

Is%ail, N.A.R. 619::7. Value sys e%s o! "alay an& .#inese %ana,ersE A (o%)ara ive s u&y. In "annin, Nas# 6E&.7, 3conomic performance in Malaysia 6)). 95-1097. Ne5 Hor+E 'ro!essors >orl& 'ea(e A(a&e%y. Ja1roun, N. 8 0ala+ris#nan, V. 620007. 'ar i(i)a ion an& ;o1 )er!or%an(e in #e "alaysian )u1li( servi(e &e)ar %en . 1nternational 8ournal of (ommerce and Management, 106<OA7, 5C-CC. Baur, 3. 6199:7. The influence of autonomy and task repetitiveness on ,ony T59s employee responses to job satisfaction and participative decision making. 6Un)u1lis#e&7 Baur, 3. 619997. The influence of autonomy and commitment on employee responses to job satisfaction and participative decision making of t%o 8apanese multinationals, Un)u1lis#e& "0A T#esis, Universi i 'u ra "alaysia, 3er&an,, "alaysia. Beller, T. 8 *ansereau, I. 619957. Lea&ers#i) an& e%)o5er%en E A so(ial e2(#an,e )ers)e( ive. -uman /elations, A:, 129-1A5. Bi%, U., Trian&is, @. .., Ba,i (i1asi, .., .#oi, 3-.. 8 Hoon, G 6E&s.7. 6199A7. 1ndividualism and collectivism7 Theory, method and applications. Lon&onE 3a,e. Blauss, R. 8 0ass, 0. ". 619:27. 1nterpersonal communications in organi&ations. Ne5 Hor+E A(a&e%i( 'ress. Bo/lo5s+i, 3. >. 8 *o#er y, ". L. 619:97. In e,ra ion o! (li%a e an& lea&ers#i)E E2a%ina ion o! a ne,le( e& issue. 8ournal of .pplied Psychology, 9A, 5AC-55<. Brai,er, B. 8 Ior&, J. B. 619:57. A %e a-analysis o! ra ee ra(e e!!e( s in )er!or%an(e ra in,s. 8ournal of .pplied Psychology, 90, 5C-C5. La%, 3. 3. B., .#en, F. 8 3(#au1roe(+, J. 620027. 'ar i(i)a ive &e(ision %a+in, an& e%)loyee )er!or%an(e in &i!!eren (ul uresE T#e %o&era in, e!!e( s o! allo(en ris% O i&io(en ris% an& e!!i(a(y. .cademy of Management 8ournal, A5657, 905-100A. Le5is, J. *. 8 >ei,er , A. 619:57. Trus as so(ial reali y. ,ocial 6orces, C<, 9C9-9:5. Li&en, R. .., >ayne, 3. J. 8 3 il5ell, *. 6199<7. A lon,i u&inal s u&y on #e early &evelo)%en o! lea&er-%e%1er e2(#an,es. 8ournal of .pplied Psychology, 9:6A7, CC2-C9A. Lun;e5, ". *. 6199A7. Participation in decision making among trainers and relationships %ith performance and job satisfaction. '#* *isser a ion. Universi i 'er anian "alaysia, 3er&an,, "alaysia. "aree, J. 620007. >or+er )ar i(i)a ion in &e(ision %a+in,E >#o 1ene!i s: ,ociety in Transition, <1627, 111-125. "(Allis er, *. J. 619957. A!!e( - an& (o,ni ion-1ase& rus as !oun&a ions !or in er)ersonal (oo)era ion in or,anisa ions. .cademy of Management 8ournal, <:, 2A-59. "e,lino, 0. "., Ravlin, E. .. 8 A&+ins, .. L. 619917. Value (on,ruen(e an& sa is!a( ion 5i # a lea&erE A !iel& es o! #e value (on,ruen(e )ro(ess an& i s rela ions#i) o in&ivi&ual ou (o%es. 8ournal of .pplied Psychology, 9A, A2A-A<2. "iles, *. E., 0or%an, >. E., 3)e( or, '.E. 8 Io2, 3. 620027. 0uil&in, an in e,ra ive %o&el o! e2 ra-role 5or+ 1e#avioursE A (o%)arison o! (oun er)ro&u( ive 5or+ 1e#aviour 5i #

or,anisa ional (i i/ens#i) 1e#aviour. 1nternational 8ournal of ,election and .ssessment, 1061O27, 51-59. "iller, B. I. 8 "on,e, '. R. 619:C7. 'ar i(i)a ion, sa is!a( ion an& )ro&u( ivi yE A %e a-analy i( revie5. .cademy of Management 8ournal, 296A7, 929-95<. "o1ley, >. @. 619:27. 3u)ervisor an& e%)loyee ra(e an& se2 e!!e( s on )er!or%an(e a))raisalsE A !iel& s u&y o! a&verse i%)a( an& ,enerali/a1ili y. .cademy of Management 8ournal, 25, 59:-C0C. "orrison, E. >. 6199A7. Role &e!ini ions an& or,anisa ional (i i/ens#i) 1e#aviourE T#e i%)or an(e o! e%)loyee4s )ers)e( ive. .cademy of Management 8ournal, <96C7, 15A<-15C9. "osan, J. 620057. *i,i al (#an,e an& or,ani/a ional &evelo)%en E Vie5s !ro% #e )u1li( se( or in 'a)ua Ne5 Guinea. ,outh Pacific 8ournal of Psychology, 1C617, A:-5:. Ne5%an, B. L. 8 Nollen, 3. *. 6199C7. .ul ure an& (on,ruen(eE T#e !i 1e 5een %ana,e%en )ra( i(es an& na ional (ul ure. 8ournal of 1nternational )usiness ,tudies, 296A7, 95<-999. 'arnell, J. 8 .ran&all, >. R. 6200<7. 'ro)ensi y !or )ar i(i)a ive &e(ision-%a+in,, ;o1 sa is!a( ion, or,anisa ional (o%%i %en , or,anisa ional (i i/ens#i) 1e#aviour an& in en ions o leave a%on, E,y) ian %ana,ers. The Multinational )usiness /evie%, 11617, A5-C5. 'aul, R. J., Nie#o!!, 0. '. 8 Turnley, >. @. 620007. E%)o5er%en , e2)e( a ions an& #e )sy(#olo,i(al (on ra( E "ana,in, #e &ile%%as an& ,ainin, #e a&van a,es. 8ournal of ,ocio 3conomics, 29627, A91-A:5. RA"-*'. 6200<7. M; <===. .nnual ranking of Malaysia9s top <=== corporations. >==>?>==+ (3d.). Buala Lu%)urE RA"-*'. Ri,,s, ". L., >ar+a, J., 0a1asa, 0., 0e an(our , R., 8 @oo+er, 3. 6199A7. In La%, 3. 3. B., .#en, F. an& 3(#au1roe(+, J. 6E&s7 'ar i(i)a ive &e(ision %a+in, an& e%)loyee )er!or%an(e in &i!!eren (ul uresE T#e %o&era in, e!!e( s o! allo(en ris%O i&io(en ris% an& e!!i(a(y. .cademy of Management 8ournal, A5657, 905-100A. 3(an&ura, T. A., Graen, G. 0. 8 Nova+, ". A. 619:C7. >#en %ana,ers &e(i&e no o &e(i&e au o(ra i(allyE An inves i,a ion o! lea&er-%e%1er e2(#an,e an& &e(ision in!luen(e. 8ournal of .pplied Psychology, 916A7, 599-5:A. 3(#5ar /, 3. @. 619907. In&ivi&ualis%-(olle( ivis%E .ri i=ue an& )ro)ose& re!ine%en s.In Bi%, U., Trian&is, @. .., Ba,i (i1asi, .., .#oi, 3-.. an& Hoon, G 6E&s7. 1ndividualism and collectivism. Theory, method and applications. 6)).:5-1197. Lon&onE 3a,e. 3(#5ar /, 3. @. 8 0ils+y, >. 619:97. To5ar& a )sy(#olo,i(al s ru( ure o! #u%an values. In Bi%, U., Trian&is, @. .., Ba,i (i1asi, .., .#oi, 3-.. an& Hoon, G 6E&s7. 1ndividualism and collectivismE Theory, method and applications. 6)).2027. Lon&onE 3a,e. 3(#5ar /, 3. @. 8 0ils+y, >. 619907. To5ar& a #eory o! #e universal (on en an& s ru( ure o! valuesE E2 en ions an& (ross-(ul ural re)li(a ions. In Bi%, U., Trian&is, @. .., Ba,i (i1asi, .., .#oi, 3-.. an& Hoon, G 6E&s7. 1ndividualism and collectivism. Theory, method and applications. 6)).2027. Lon&onE 3a,e.

3(o , 3. G. 8 0ru(e, R. A. 6199A7. *e er%inan s o! innova ive 1e#aviorE A )a # %o&el o! in&ivi&ual innova ion in #e 5or+)la(e. .cademy of Management 8ournal, <96<7, 5:0-C09. 3%i #, .. A., Or,an, *. >. 8 Near, J. '. 619:<7. Or,anisa ional (i i/ens#i) 1e#aviourE I s na ure an& an e(e&en s. 8ournal of .pplied Psychology, C:6A7, C5<-CC<. 3 a;+ovi(, A. *. 8 Lu #ans, I. 6199:7. 3el!-e!!i(a(y an& 5or+-rela e& )er!or%an(eE A %e aanalysis. Psychological )ulletin, 12A627, 2A0-2C1. Ta%a%, E., @assan, ".3. 8 3ai&, ".H. 6199C7. Are "alay %i&&le-level e2e(u ives %ore (olle( ivis s #an in&ivi&ualis i(: Malaysian Management /evie%, <16A7, 50-5C. Trian&is, @. .., Leun,, B., Villareal, ". V. 8 .lar+, I. L. 619:57. In Voronov, ". an& 3in,er, J. A. T#e %y # o! in&ivi&ualis%-(olle( ivis%E A (ri i(al revie5. The 8ournal of ,ocial Psychology. 1A26A7, AC1-A:0. Tsui, A. 3. 8 O4Reilly III, .. A. 619:97. 0eyon& si%)le &e%o,ra)#i( e!!e( sE T#e i%)or an(e o! rela ional &e%o,ra)#y in su)erior-su1or&ina e &ya&s. .cademy of Management 8ournal, <2627, A02-A2<. Voronov, ". 8 3in,er, J. A. 620027. T#e %y # o! in&ivi&ualis%-(olle( ivis%E A (ri i(al revie5. The 8ournal of ,ocial Psychology, 1A26A7, AC1-A:0. Vroo%, V. @. 619C07. ,ome personality determinants of the effects of participation. En,le5oo& .li!!s, N. J.E 'ren i(e-@all. >essel, *. 620017. Decision making in the digital age. *" "a,a/ine >#i ener, E. ". 8 0ro& , 3. E. 6199:7. "ana,ers as ini ia ors o! rus E An e2(#an,e rela ions#i) !ra%e5or+ !or un&ers an&in, %ana,erial rus 5or #y 1e#aviour. .cademy of Management /evie%, 2<6<7, 51<-5<0. Ha%a,u(#i, 3. 6199A7. .olle( ivis% an& a,e. In Bi%, U., Trian&is, @. .., Ba,i (i1asi, .., .#oi, 3.. an& Hoon, G 6E&s7. 1ndividualism and collectivis7 Theory, method and applications. 6)).195-1::7. Lon&onE 3a,e. Din, R. ". 6199:7. Participation and commitment among Malaysian professionals. 0an,i, 3elan,or, "alaysiaE Universi i Be1an,saan "alaysia.