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R&D Perspectives for Indian Power Sector-2020

Dr. I.P.S. Paul

Department of Mechanical Engineering, !a" #$mar %arg Engineering &ollege, P' dh"atmic (agar, %ha)ia*ad 20+00, -P pa$lcpri."ahoo/co/in ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------/ Abstract: This paper delineates the importance of power development in India through R&D and technological inputs. Substantial investments for creation of infrastructure for generation, transmission and distribution and R&D have been made by the government. owever, many government organi!ations have e"ecuted various R&D pro#ects in the power sector in their own way while co$ordination was not being made by a single agency to see that the technologies adopted and R&D outputs are of international standards. The paper discusses the technological areas for research in the near future. In addition, the policy issues are to be addressed for formulating strategies and successful implementation are% a& 'eed for a 'odal R&D agency to formulate strategic plans and partnerships. b& 'etwor(ing and )apping the R&D resources including intellectual capital, c& Strengthening the e"isting R&D infrastructure, d& 'urturing the R&D human resources, e& *unding for R&D initiatives.

Keywords: Power sector, generation, transmission, distribution system , Environment pollution, I/ I(0R'D-&0I'( Electricit" forms the *ac1*one of the co$ntries/ 0he electric power sector comprising generation, transmission and distri*$tion s"stem is considered as the greatest machiner" ever created/ 0his machiner" is an integral part of the national infrastr$ct$re and its performance is vital to the s$ccess of the co$ntries econom", to the environment and health goals and to the sec$rit"/ 'ver the last five decades, the electric power in India has grown tremendo$sl"/ Electricit" generation in India is mainl" thermal-*ased with some h"dro and a few n$clear power stations - 203 thermal, 243 h"dro, 2/53 n$clear and 2/23 grid-connected renewa*le/ 0he transmission networ1 is s$pported *" a strong 60017 interconnected national grid with few 87D& interconnections for transmitting *$l1 power over long distances/ the present scenario is that the installed capacit" has increased from +269 M: in +,40-4+ to an installed capacit" of +00,022 M: in 2000-0+/ nother +00,000 M: is planned to *e added *" 20+2 to meet the ever increasing demand for power/ 0he per capita energ" cons$mption has *een increasing and has reached a fig$re of appro;imatel" 940 1:h per ann$m/ Ind$stries have also grown in tandem with the power sector in testing organi)ations to provide indigeno$s technolog" s$pport/ Present pea1ing power shortages co$ld have *een totall" eliminated with the same installed capacit" $nder the same investment, had preference *een given to the development of more h"dro, leading to a !$dicio$s h"dro< thermal mi;/ 0his apart, thermal plants in India co-generate ann$all"< 900 million tons of &'2 50 million tons of fl" ash/

ccelerated power generation/

2/24 million tons of S'2 +/24 million tons of ('2/ %lo*al consens$s is that &'2 levels of toda" are to *e immediatel" *ro$ght down to =03 level , otherwise there ma" *e a ma!or climatic shift, worst affected *eing the coastal pop$lations/ :e have *een a*le to develop onl" aro$nd 2,500 M: of n$clear power against the e;pectation of +0,000 M:*" 2000 D/ 0he pricing mechanism has led to a sit$ation where on an average, for the whole co$ntr", the tariff provides for onl" a*o$t 203 of the cost of s$ppl" of power/ '$r trac1 record of energ" efficienc" is s$ch that we generate 6 $nits of electricit" for an end $se of !$st one $nit, nearl" 243 *eing the 0&D losses and ==/=3 *eing the end conversion losses in several sectors li1e irrigation p$mps etc/ 0herefore, the development depends on how *est these iss$es are addressed and implemented while planning programs for the f$t$re incl$ding R&D programs in power sector/ >$t the challenges are gigantic in proportion/ 0he 0&D losses in o$r co$ntr" tro$gh reported aro$nd 243, act$all" var" *etween 603 to 403/ '$r energ" and pea1 demand contin$e to o$t strip the s$ppl", present energ" shortage *eing 53 and pea1ing shortage *eing +93/ :e have landed $p with the 8"dro < thermal mi; of 24<24 against a desira*le mi; of 60<=0 inspite of the availa*ilit" of large h"dro potential/ Poor h"dro< thermal mi; has led to< ccelerated e;ha$stion of fi;ed inventor" of fossil f$el/ Environmental poll$tion/ ?re@$ent load shed dings/ ?l$ct$ations in voltage and fre@$enc"/


AKGEC INTE NATI!NA" #!$ NA" !% TEC&N!"!G', 7ol/ 2, (o/ 2

>ac1ing down of thermal leading to low PA? and efficienc"/ &onstrained load carr"ing capacit" of grid/ Poor grid econom"/

the pro!ects with a committed mission at the national level for each of these areas/ It is of vital importance to foc$s o$r attention now on the research and development in the power sector/ Research is $rgentl" need to *$ild e;pertise, to find sol$tion for the pro*lems e;isting in the s"stem and also for pro*lems that ma" arise in the f$t$re/ Research is $rgentl" needed to *ridge the 1nowledge and technolog" gaps as the technolog" changes toda" are at a more profo$nd and faster pace than an" time since EdisonEs da" at the dawn of commercial electrification/ III/ (EED ?'R R&D I( P':ER SE&0'R 0he leading nations, *oth developing and developed, have archived relia*le power s"stem *eca$se the" have esta*lished integrated, innovative and highl" fle;i*le R&D organi)ations that operate with a $niform set of wor1 practices and information s"stems/ Research is $rgentl" needed to *$ild e;pertise, to find sol$tion for the pro*lems e;isting in the s"stem and also for pro*lems that ma" arise in the f$t$re/ Research is also $rgentl" needed to *ridge the 1nowledge and technolog" gaps/ 0here is a re@$irement for strong economic, environmental and social incentives to leverage plant centric R&D driven reorgani)ation of e;isting power $nits and innovative technolog" driven enlargement of capacit" that develops all modes of prod$ction, transmission and distri*$tion and incentive *ased demand side management, incl$ding end $se energ" efficienc"/ 0here is a need to form a proactive and colla*orative national R&D polic" to develop innovative sol$tion for strengthening the power sector thro$gh networ1ing of research organi)ations, academic instit$tions and power ind$str" to face the glo*al competitive environment/ I7/ 7ISI'( ?'R R&D I( P':ER SE&0'R 0he vision for R&D in power sector is *ased on its responsi*ilit" to strengthen the e;isting power sector, its aspirations, its competence and the opport$nities presented *" the glo*al *$siness environment/ 0he vision declaration sho$ld *e considered as a charter of core val$es, principles and o*!ectives, which g$ide the ministr" of power to achieve pre-determined efficienc" improvements *" generation, transmission and distri*$tion agencies with reco$rse to R&D/ 7/ 0': RDS ( 0I'( A R&D PERSPE&0I7E PA ( 0he cr$cial R&D needs re@$ired to *ridge the technolog" gaps in vario$s s$*sections of power sector F%eneration, transmission & distri*$tionG identified and priotorised/ In addition, the following polic" iss$es are addressed which are essential for form$lating strategies and f$rther s$ccessf$l implementation<

II/ SI%(I?I& (&E '? R&D Reali)ing the importance of power development in the co$ntr", 0he %ovt/ of India has made investments for creation of infrastr$ct$re for generation, transmission and distri*$tion and R2D in the last few decades, however, man" %ovt/ organi)ations have e;ec$ted vario$s R&D pro!ects in the power sector in their own wa", 0he co-ordination of which was not *eing made *" a single agenc" to see that the technologies adopted and R&D o$tp$ts are of international standards/ 0he present sit$ation is that there are man" technical pro*lems apart from the financial cr$nch to *e tac1led *" the $tilities, in an $rgent manner/ Some of the pro*lems faced are< Pro*lems connected with s"stem operation s$ch as high 0&D loss, inopera*le levels of voltage and fre@$enc" in the s"stem, fre@$ent grid fail$res and load shedding, lac1 of grid discipline/ Pro*lems of *ad @$alit" coal and associated pro*lems in coal handling s"stems and *oilers/ EnvironmentalBpoll$tion pro*lems d$e to prod$ction of ash :ear and erosion pro*lems d$e to silt" water/ >oiler and condenser t$*e fail$res/ 7i*ration pro*lems in h"droBthermal stations/ Pro*lems of control and instr$mentation/ Aess effective transmission s"stem/ &ontin$ed dependence on original e@$ipment man$fact$res for critical spare parts/ $tilities do not have the time or the necessar" infrastr$ct$re to st$d" their pro*lems in depth/ 0heir priorities are for @$ic1 restoration of the s"stem, fast implementation of pro!ects while tac1ing pro*lems as the" occ$r/ Private companies in India hardl" ever invest in reso$rces to anal")e pro*lems/ 0his clarit" reflected that proper attention was not given to CEnerg" R&DD and s$*stantial technological innovations were neither done nor adopted to improve the performance of the s"stem/ 0his t"pe of divergence is fo$nd onl" in the power sector of o$r co$ntr", *$t not in other areas/ ?or instance the state of the art technologies that have emerged from the R&D activities in the areas of space, defense and atomic energ", are more or less at par with the international levels/ 0his is *eca$se a single agenc" has *een vested e;ec$tion and co-ordination of


at Mohawe s$*station in +,20 was treated as a national pro*lem/ 0as1 force was set $p and within a decade, several tools incl$ding anal"tical, were developed to mitigate the s$*

(eed for a nodal R&D agenc" to form$late strategic plans and partnerships/ (etwor1ing and mapping the R&D reso$rces incl$ding intellect$al capital/ Strengthening the e;isting R&D infrastr$ct$re/ ($rt$ring the R&D h$man reso$rces/ ?$nding for R&D initiatives/ It is hoped that the perspective R&D plan wo$ld serve as a g$ide for decision ma1ers< 0o navigate the co$rse of growth of the power sector/ 0o form$late strategies for s$ccessf$l implementation and most importantl"/ 0o create an environment cond$cive to promote c$tting edge technologiesB innovations in the co$ntr"/ So, as to s$stain the electric power sector development in the coming "ears/ 7I/ ?'R&ES DRI7I(% &8 (%E I( I(DI ( P':ER S&E( RI' 0here are several forces driving change in the power scenario vi)/< Aarge gap *etween demand and generation/ &omple; growth of the Indian grid/ Ai*erali)ation polic" of the government/ Power sector reforms/ dvances in information and comm$nication technolog"/ Emerging technologies Fli1e ? &0S, &$stom power devices, f$el cellsG/ 7II/ &'MPAEH %R':08 '? 08E I(DI ( %RID >$l1 power transmission has necessitated e;pansion of 600 17 transmission networ1 and 87D& transmission lin1s d$ring the last two plan periods/ m*itio$s plans in transmission as laid down *" power grid in the ne;t two decades, incl$des 500 17 transmission lines/ Several 87D& lines and *ac1 to *ac1 ties and a large networ1 of 60017 lines/ 0he power s"stem we find toda" is @$ite comple; in nat$re/ Pro*lems associated with the grid operation have f$rther complicated the power s"stem operation/ Most often, anal")ing the s"stem and finding sol$tions to the fail$res have *een diffic$lt d$e to poor access to the s"stem data/ If the data is made availa*le to the e;perts in the co$ntr", then it is possi*le to overcome man" of the *ottlenec1s prevailing in the s"stem/ It is eas" to get the new enlarge s"stem data or the western some co-coordinating co$ncil F:S&&G s"stem data, *$t not that of India/ ?or instance, the case of generator shaft fail$res

s"nchrono$s resonance pro*lems/ lso, *enchmar1 s"stems were set $p for e;perts to wor1 all over the world/ 0his sho$ld *e the strateg" to adopt as the comple;it" grows in the s"stem/ 5/0 IMP'R0 (&DE '? I(DI%E('-S R&D I( 08E &'(0EH0 '? %A'> AII 0I'( In the conte;t of li*erali)ation and glo*ali)ation of ind$str" there is a feeling in some @$arters that *eca$se of li*erali)ation, the import of technolog" will *e eas" and hence the role of indigeno$s R&D instit$tions will diminish to a great e;tent as proven technologies will *e readil" availa*le/ It is tr$e to some e;tent that import of C1now JhowD will *e @$ic1er and easier in the present environment *$t the e;perience in the past has shown it is ver" diffic$lt to get C1now wh"D from a*road/ 0here is rel$ctance for the transfer of state of the art technolog" *" organi)ations a*road and even if this done, it is e;or*itant cost/ 0o a*sor* high technolog", the indigeno$s R&D *ase is important to $nderstand the vario$s technicalities involved to appl" the same in o$r environment/ It as also *een fo$nd that creation of R&D *ase has helped in getting higher technologies in telecom sector were @$oted ver" e;or*itantl" when India did not have an R&D *ase in this area/ &reation of &-D'0 made s$ppliers of competition from &-D'0/ &-D & is another e;ample in the s$per comp$ter area/ S$ch instances are man"/ 0his onl" goes to show the importance and significance of indigeno$s R&D in the li*erali)ed environment/ IH/ P':ER SE&0'R RE?'RMS Electric $tilities are now the worldEs most t$r*$lent ind$stries/ dramatic changes are ta1ing place glo*all" in the electric ind$stries as dereg$lation is implemented and as competition is introd$ced in providing the electric power/ 0hese changes aim to red$ce the price of electric power and increase s$ppl" with minimal capital investments/ mi;ed state is reflected in the following com*ination of re@$irements/ -tilities m$st still provide electricit" to all c$stomers,*$t the" m$st also provide transmission and distri*$tion access to independent power prod$cers and competitors/ :ith the implementation of the electricit" S"stem Reg$lator" &ommission ct +,,5, the Indian power sector has also entered the saga of reforms and restr$ct$ring, adding t$r*$lence to the s"stem/ Reg$lator" mechanisms are set $p *oth at the central and state level to reg$late the tariff and protect cons$mer interests/ 0hese reforms will $ltimatel" lead electric power to mar1et orientation and completion/


Research pro*lems arising from the changing concepts in power sector development and management involve not onl" technical aspects *$t also financial, legal and managerialB
AKGEC INTE NATI!NA" #!$ NA" !% TEC&N!"!G', 7ol/ 2, (o/ 2

s"stem, data ac@$isition s"stem and the monitoring of s"stem performance parameters/

commercial aspects/ 0his wo$ld call for development of e;pertise in *lending new areas s$ch as financial, legal and commercial regimes with technical/ H/ D7 (&ES I( I(?'RM 0I'( (D &'MM-(I& 0I'( 0E&8('A'%K dvances in information and power electronics technolog" and the glo*ali)ation of *$siness have f$rther revol$tioni)ed the ind$str"- opening door for o$tside competition in electricit"-*ased services/ 0his technolog" co$ld *e $sed to the advantage of the power sector, *ringing in transparenc" in operation, sophisticated control of the grid operation FS& D s"stemG distri*$tion F*illing, loss red$ction etc/G/ reg$lator" a$thorities, independent s"stem operators and power traders need this $nder the dereg$lated environment/ H+/ EMER%I(% (E: 0E&8('A'%IES 0here is no single new technolog" that has propelled change in the electric ind$str"/ In the case of telecomm$nication ind$str", the emergence of fi*er optic technolog" has revol$tioni)ed the entire ind$str"/ 0his has acted as a primar" driving force/ Some of the man" new technologies that will have an impact on the electric power ind$str", now that other forces are driving change are given *elow< Information technolog"/ Power electronics/ rtificial intelligence/ Satellites/ dvances in power electronics have given rise to a new concept of fle;i*le ac transmission F? &0SG wherein the power is transmitted over a desired path/ ? &0S controllers $sing conventional th"ristors and new devices li1e %0's, I%>0s can provide sol$tion to several of the operational pro*lems /satellites are alread" in $se for timing control in power networ1s and ma" increase in importance as wide area networ1 emerges/ %lo*al positioning s"stem is alread" *eing $sed to determine the location of lighting stri1es *" s$pporting s"nchrono$s meas$rements// HII/ RE S ?'R RESE R&8 0he cr$cial R&D needs re@$ired to *ridge the technolog" gaps in vario$s s$*sections of power sectorFgeneration ,transmission & distri*$tionG are identified and prioriti)ed/ 0he R&D needs aim at either improving design of an individ$al plant component andB or evolving cost effective overall process R&D needs also incl$de the emerging convergence of power sector with I0, electronics and comm$nication to improve the control and instr$mentation

HIII/ >E(E?I0S '? R&D >enefits res$lting from R&D are o*vio$s in @$alitative terms *$t diffic$lt to *e @$antified, as the" res$lt in enhancing significantl" the availa*ilit", performance, relia*ilit", efficienc" and tro$*le- free operation of the new as well as e;isting power stations after their renovation and moderni)ation/ conservative +3 efficienc" improvement in the performance of e;isting h"dro power stations, will res$lts in additional ann$al energ" generation of a*o$t 500 M-s F*ased on the e;isting level of generation of a*o$t 50,000 M-s from h"dro stations per ann$mG amo$nting to Rs/ 200 crores per ann$m. Rs/ 2/40 per $nit/ It is evident that the *enefits from the f$t$re h"dro power stations wo$ld *e @$iet phenomenal/ R&D schemes involving st$d" on performance of thermal power stations, R&M of old $nits will res$lt in additional generation and $se of *eneficiated coal will res$lt in savings in coal and f$el oil cons$mption/ Savings d$e to the a*ove is estimated at Rs/ 9250 crores per +0,000 M: per "ear . of Rs/ 2/40 per $nit of electricit", *esides environmental protection *" red$ction in poll$tants which cannot *e @$antified/ 0&D technical losses even if red$ced *" +3 wo$ld res$lt in savings to the t$ne of Rs/+240 crores per "ear Fconsidering 400 >illion $nits generated ann$all" . Rs/2,40 per $nitG/ It can therefore *e seen that even the tangi*le *enefits which can *e @$antified are enormo$s vis-L-vis the cost of R&D/ 'n the other hand, the cost of non R&D to the nation co$ld *e *e"ond imagination / HI7/ R&D P'AI&K ISS-ES In addition, the following polic" iss$es are to *e addressed which are essential for form$lating strategies and s$ccessf$l implementation< (eed for a (odal R&D agenc" to form$late strategic plans and partnerships/ (etwor1ing and Mapping the R&D reso$rces incl$ding intellect$al capital/ Strengthening the e;isting R&D infrastr$ct$re/ ($rt$ring the R&D h$man reso$rces/ ?$nding for R&D initiatives/
HI7/ RE?ERE(&ES +/ :e*site of Ministr" www/mop/gov/nic/in of Power, %ovt/ of India,


2/ &entral Power Research Instit$te F&PRIG, www/cpri/in 9/ &entral Electricit" $thorit", www/cea/gov/nic/in

Dr/ I P S Pa$l is c$rrentl" Dean R&D and Professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, !a" #$mar %arg Engineering &ollege, %ha)ia*ad/ '*tained >E FMechG from (I0 >hopal, M> from -niversit" of Delhi, Diploma in Energ" Management, Ital" and Ph/D/ from II0 Delhi/ 8e has served as power, research engineer and trainer in PSE>, (P0I, (0P& and &PRI/ 8e has g$ided Ph/D/, M/0ech and M> thesis and has over +00 research papers to his credit/