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CHAPTER 3: OXIDATION AND REDUCTION B. 3.

1. State two conditions to cause the metal


rusting.
1. Define redox reaction.
2. Explain the rusting process of iron.
2. Stated the difference between redox 3. Explain why iron plated by aluminium less
and non redox reaction..
rusted compared to the iron plated with
3. List 5 examples of redox reaction and copper..
non redox respectively. 4. Define metal corrosion

Redox Rusting as a
reactions redox reaction

3.1
3.2

OXIDATION
AND REDUCTION

3.3
3.4

Electrolysis cell
Activation Series
and chemical cell
of Metal and its
application

1. State the difference between 1. Define Activation Series of Metal.


electrolysis cell and chemical cell. 2. Draw a diagram showing
2. Draw an example of electrolysis arrangement of apparatus for experiment
cell and then explain the process to get metal activation series.
occurs in the cell. 3. Draw a diagram and then describe an
3. Draw an example of chemical experiment to locate hydrogen in the
cell and then explain the process activation series of metal.
occurs in the cell.

1
B. 3.1

1. Define oxidation process in term of 1. Define oxidation process


oxygen transfer. in term of hydrogen transfer.
2. Define reduction process in term of 2. Define reduction process
oxygen transfer. in term of hydrogen transfer.
3. Give an example of oxidation 3. Give an example of
reaction and then write the chemical oxidation reaction and then
equation. write the chemical equation.

Definition for redox


reaction

The reaction
Oxidation and reduction in
involved oxidation Oxidation and reduction refers
and reduction terms of oxygen.
to hydrogen.
simultaneously
*3.1.1
*3.1.2
REDOX REACTION (oxidation &
reduction)
*3.1.3
*3.1.5
Examples of *3.1.4
Redox reaction
Oxidation and reduction in
terms of electron transfer
Oxidation and reduction in
terms of oxidation numbers
1 List 3 example of redox 1. Define oxidation process
reaction. Write chemical in term of electron transfers.
equation for each example. 2. Define reduction process
2. List 3 example of non- 1. Define oxidation process in in term of electron transfers.
redox reaction. Write term of oxidation number. 3. Give an example of
chemical equation for each 2. Define reduction process in oxidation reaction and then
example. term of oxidation number. write the chemical equation.
3. Define oxidation process in
term of oxidation number.
4. Give an example of reduction
reaction. Write the chemical
equation

2
*B. 3.1.1

Definition for oxidation:


Diagram Equation

Experiment for oxidation of


metal by oxygen. C + O2 CO2

Other example to
oxidation
OXIDATION AND REDUCTION IN
TERMS OF OXYGEN.

Other example to reduction


Experiment for reduction of
metal oxide by carbon

2CuO + C Cu + CO2

Diagram
Equation

Definition for reduction:

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*B. 3.1.2

3CuO + 2NH3 3Cu + N2 + 3H2O

2NH3 + 3Br2 N2 + 6HBr

H2S + Cl2 S + 2HCl

Definition for Example of


oxidation oxidation

OXIDATION AND REDUCTION


IN TERMS OF HYDROGEN.

Example of Definition for


reduction reduction

3CuO + 2NH3 3Cu + N2 + 3H2O


Determine;
2NH3 + 3Br2 N2 + 6HBr Oxidizing agent
Reduction agent
H2S + Cl2 S + 2HCl Elements that have been oxidize.
Elements that have been reduced

4
*B. 3.1.3

Diagram Equation

Definition for
Experiment to observe redox refers to oxidation
the electron transfer in a distance. Definition for
reduction

OXIDATION AND
REDUCTION IN TERMS OF
ELECTRON TRANSFER

Other example

G
e

Carbon Carbon

Potassium iodide Chlorine water

2I- I2 + 2e Cl2 + 2e 2Cl-


(oxidation) (reduction)

Electron transfer in a Sulphuric acid


distant
Overall equation
2I- + Cl2 I2 + 2Cl-
(Redox)

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*B. 3.1.4

General guidance to determine oxidation number.


1. Oxidation no. of an atom/molecule of an element = 0
2. Oxidation no. of an element in monatomic ion = number of charge at the ion.
3. Oxidation number for halogen is -1 except when reacted with more electronegative element (i.e. NBr3
and Cl2O7 is +1 and +7 respectively)
4. Oxidation no. in oxygen is -2 except in F2O and H2O2 is +2 and –1 respectively
5. Oxidation number of hydrogen is +1 except in metal hydrides such as NaH and MgH2 is equal -1
6. Total of oxidation no. in all elements in a neutral compound = 0
7. Total of oxidation no. of all element in a complex ion = number of charge at the ion

Determination of
oxidation number of
Calculation of oxidation number
an element.

Definition for 1.
oxidation
number 2.
Oxidation
number

OXIDATION AND
REDUCTION IN TERMS
OF OXIDATION
NUMBERS.

The relation of oxidation


numbers and the IUPAC
The change of oxidation nomenclature.
numbers in the oxidation
and reduction process.

Reduction: Oxidation:

6
*B. 3.1.5

Half equation (oxidation): Experiment: Displacement of


copper by magnesium
Half equation (reduction):
Half equation (oxidation):
Overall equation:
Half equation (reduction):

Experiment Overall equation:

Conversion of iron (II) to


iron (III) ion and vice Displacement reaction of
versa a metal from the solution
of their compound

THE EXAMPLES OF
REDOX REACTION

Electrons transfer in a certain Displacement reaction of


distance. the halogen from their
halide solution
G
e

Diagram
Examples
Carbon Carbon

Reduction agent
Oxidation agent

Electron transfer in a Sulphuric acid


certain distance

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B.3.2

Rusting process of iron


refers to oxidation and
Definition of reaction.
metal corrosion

RUSTING IS REDOX
REACTION.

Experiment: The effect


of contact by other
Using of the other metals to protect the metal to the rusting of
iron from rusting. (Example, iron plated by iron.
zinc):

Zinc is more electropositive than iron,


suppose to be the negative terminal. Zinc
eliminated electrons and corroded to
prevent iron from corroded. Therefore iron
not corroded and not rusted. Zinc is called
Zink dianggap sebagai logam korban.

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B. 3.3

Glass Metal Metal oxide


wool powder +
KMnO4 Carbon

CO2

Heat
Heat

Experiment: To get the


reactivity series of metals. Experiment: To determine
the position of carbon in
metal activation series.
THE REACTIVITY
SERIES OF METALS
Def. of metal AND ITS
reactivity series APPLICATIONS

Experiment: To determine
the position of hydrogen
in the reactivity series.
Extraction of iron and tin Application of the
in industry Reactivity series of
metals in the metal
Metal
extraction oxide

1. Extraction of iron
Dry H2 Heat
2.

3.

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B. 3.4

At cathode:
Cu2+ + 2e Cu
(Reduction)
Carbon
At anode:
4OH- 2H2O + O2 + 4e
Other
(Oxidation) Cu2+ , NO3- ,
examples
H+ , OH-

Copper nitrate (electrolyte)

Reactions in Oxidation is at the anode.


Anode ……Oxidation took place
Cathode ……Reduction took place electrolytic cell Reduction is at cathode.

Comparison between ELECTROLYTIC CELL


electrolytic and AND CHEMICAL CELL
chemical cells refers to
the oxidation and
reduction.
Simple
Reaction in a cell
Oxidation is at cathode. chemical cell
Reduction at anode
A
anode
Other
examples Metal Pb
Metal Mg
Electrolyte
H2SO4

At terminal (-) At terminal (+)


Mg Mg2+ + 2e 2H+ + 2e H2
(Oxidation) (Reduction)

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3.1 Analysing redox reactions

Oxidation : Combination of a substance with oxygen.


Loss of hydrogen
Loss of electrons

Reduction : Removal of oxygen from a substance


Gain of hydrogen
Gain of electrons.

1. Determine which substance is oxidized or reduced in each of the following reactions.


( In terms of loss or gain of oxygen and hydrogen )

a. Mg + CuO → MgO + Cu

b. Zn + PbO → ZnO + Pb

c. C + 2 ZnO → CO2 + Zn

d. H2S + Cl2 → S + HCl

e. 2NH3 + 3 Br2 → N2 + 6 HBr

2. Fill in the blanks.

Lost electron (oxidation)

2Fe(S) + 3Cl2(g) → 2FeCl3

receive electron
(reduction)

( a)…………………………is oxidized.

…………………………is reduced.

…………………………is the oxidising agent.

…………………………is the reducing agent.

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Receive electron (reduction)

2Ag+ + Cu → 2Ag + Cu2+

Lost electron (oxidation)

b………………………..is oxidized

………………………..is reduced.

…………………………is the oxidizing agent.

…………………………..is the reducing agent.

3. Determine which elements is oxidised and reduced in each of the following reactions.(In term of
electron transfer).

a. Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2
b. 2Fe + 3I2 → 2FeI3
c Zn + Cu2+ → Zn2+ + Cu

Oxidation : O:xidation number of the element increases


Reduction : Oxidation number of the element decreases

4. Fill in the blancks.

Oxidation number increase


(Oxidation) from 0 to +3
2Fe(S) + 3Cl2(g) → 2FeCl3

Oxidation number
decrease (reduction)
from 0 to -1

a……………………….is oxisided

………………………….is reduced

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Oxidation number decrease (reduction) from +1 to 0

2Ag+ + Cu → 2Ag + Cu2+

Oxidation number increase (oxidation) from 0 to +2

b.………………………………………is oxidized.

.……………………………………….is reduced.

5.
Oxidation number is the charge that the atom of the element would have if complete
transfer of electrons occur.

The oxidation number of an atom or molecule in its element is zero.


a. Fill in the table for the oxidation number of the atom and molecule.

Atom Oxidation number Molecule Oxidation number


Mg 0 H2 0
Cu O2
Na I2
He Br2
Fe Cl2
F2
N2

Oxidation number of hydrogen in a compound is always +1 ( except in metal hydrides


where is is -1 )

Oxidation number of oxygen in a compound is always -2 ( except in peroxides)


The sum of the oxidation numbers of all the elements in the formula of a compound
must be zero.
The sum of the oxidation numbers of all the elements in a polyatomic ion must be equal
to the charge of the ion.

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b. Calculate the oxidation number,ON of the following.

(i ) Mangan in MnO4-
Let ON mangan is x
1(x) + 4(-2) = -1
x = =+ 7

(ii) Sulphur in S2O32-

(iii) Mangan in MnO2

(iv) Mangan in Mn2O3

(v) Nitrogen in NH3

The Roman numerals represent the oxidation numbers of


6. Elements.The oxidation number is included in the IUPAC nomenclature of
a compound only if the element in involved has more than one oxidation
number

Name the following compounds.The first two has been done .

Formula Oxidation number,ON of Name


element
FeSO4 Fe : +2 Iron (II) sulphate

Na : +1
O : -2 Sodium chlorate (I)
NaClO
Let ON of Cl = x

(+1) + x +(-2) = 0
x = +1

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Formula Oxidation number,ON of element Name

PbO2

PbO

MnO2

K2Cr2O7

7.
Redox reactions are chemical reactions involving oxidation and reduction
occurring simultaneously.

7.1 Change of Fe2+ to Fe3+ / Fe3+ to Fe2+


7.2 Displacement of metal from its salt solution
7.3 Displacement of halogen from its halide solution
7.4 Transfer of electrons at a distance.

7.1 Change of Fe2+ to Fe3+

Bromine water

Iron(II)sulphate solution

Fill in the blanks.

1. When bromine water is added to iron(II)sulphate solution, the bromine water

turns from………………….to …………………………………Iron(II)sulphate

solution turns from ……………………..to………………………..

2. The iron(II)ions is oxidized to……………………………….by…………………..

electrons.

3. Bromine water is reduced as bromine molecules …………………….electrons

to form bromide ions.

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4. Half-equation for oxidation :

Fe2+ (aq) → Fe3+(aq) …………………..

5. Half –equation for reduction :

Br2(aq) …………… → 2 Br- (aq)

6. Overall equation for redox reaction :

……..Fe2+ (aq) + Br2 (aq) → 2 Fe3+ (aq) + …… Br- (aq)

Change of Fe3+ to Fe2+

Iron(III)chloride solution

Zinc powder

Complete the table for the reactions that take place in the test tube above.

Observations

Half-equation : oxidation

Half –equation : reduction

Overall equation

Comfirmatory test

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7.2 Displacement of metal from its salt solution.

K Na Ca Mg Al Zn Fe S Pb H Cu Hg Pt Ag

Increasing electropositivity.

A more electropositive metal displaces a less electropositive metal from


its salt solution.

Zinc is more electropositive than


copper ( zinc is in
The copper(II) ions are higher position than copper in
taken out from the solution to electrochemical series).
form copper metal . Zinc displaced copper from
copper(II) sulphate solution.
Cu2+ (aq) + 2e → Cu (s)
Zn(s) → Zn2+(aq) + 2e
Copper(II) ions are reduced.
The blue colour of Zinc is oxidised
copper(II)sulphate solution
fades.

For each of the following reactions, write down the half –equations and overall equation.State which
substance is oxidised and reduced.
a. Magnesium is added to aqueous copper(II) sulphate.

Oxidation Reduction
Half-equation

Observations

Overall equation

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b. Copper is added to silver nitrate solution.

Oxidation Reduction
Half-equation

Observations

Overall equation

c. Zinc is added to copper (II) sulphate solution.

Oxidation Reduction
Half-equation

Observations

Overall equation

7.3 Displacement of halogen from its halide solution

A more reactive halogen displaces a less reactive halogen from


its aqueous halide solution.The more reactive halogen has a
higher tendency to gain electron.

F2 Highest tendency to gain electrons


Cl2
Br2
I2
At2

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Chlorine water

Potassium iodide solution

Cl2 + 2 KI → 2 KCl + I2

Chlorine is more reactive than


iodine.Chlorine molecules Cl2(aq) + 2e → 2 Cl- (aq)
receive electrons to form
chloride ions.Chlorine is
reduced.Chlorine is the
the oxidising agent.

Iodide ions in potassium bromide 2I- (aq) → I2 (aq) + 2e


lose electrons to form iodine
molecules.Potassium iodide solution
is the reducing agent.

a. Bromine water id added to potassium iodide solution.

Oxidation Reduction
Half-equation

Observation

Overall reaction

Reducing agent :

Oxidising agent :

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b) Chlorine water is added to potassium bromide solution.

Oxidation Reduction
Half-equation

Observation

Overall reaction

Reducing agent :

Oxidising agent :

2.Halogens give different colours in 1,1,1,-trichloroethane.

Complete the table below.

Halogen Colour of halogen in Colour of halogen in 1,1,1-


aqueous solution trichloroethane.

Chlorine

Bromine

Iodine

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7.4 Transfer of electrons at a distance

When an oxidising agent and a reducing agent are kept ‘ at a distance’, the
electrons have to be transferred from one to the other through an external circuit. A
redox cell is a device to produce electric current from a redox reaction

1. Classify the following substances into oxidising agent and reducing agent.

Bromine water potassium iodide solution iron(II) sulphate solution

Potassium manganate (VII) solution Tin(IV)chloride

Oxidising agent Reducing agent

G Acidified potassium (Oxidising


e manganate(VII),KMnO4 agent )
Reduction :
MnO4- (aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e →
Mn2+(aq) + 4 H2O(l)
Carbon e -
electrodes ON of mangan is reduced from
+7 to +2.

The purple acidified potassium


Iron(II)sulphate manganate(VII) solution decolourises.
( reducing agent)
Oxidation :

Fe2+→ Fe3++e

ON of iron is
oxidised from
+2 to +3.

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G

Carbon electrodes

Bromine water Potassium iodide (aq)

Sulphuric acid

Complete the following table for the transfer of electrons at a distance.

Negative Terminal Positive Terminal

Reducing agent

Oxidising agent

Half-equation

Name of the products.

Observations

Comfirmatory test

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G

Carbon electrodes

K2Cr2O7 / H+
Ferum(II) sulphate

Potassium chloride,KCl

Complete the following table for the transfer of electrons at a distance.

Negative Terminal Positive Terminal

Reducing agent

Oxidising agent

Half-equation

Name of the products.

Observations

Comfirmatory test

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G

Magnesium
Copper

Copper(II) sulphate
Magnesium sulphate

Potassium iodide

Complete the following table for the transfer of electrons at a distance.

Negative Terminal Positive Terminal

Reducing agent

Oxidising agent

Half-equation

Name of the products.

Observations

Comfirmatory test

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3.2 Analysing rusting as a redox reaction.

Rusting is the corrosion of iron.Rust forms on


the surface of iron.

Fe(s) → Fe2+(s) + 2e

It involves electron loss which is oxidation.

1.Fill in the blancks.

Positive pole

Negative pole

Negative pole : Iron atoms in contact with the centre of the water droplets ionsise to

form……………..Oxidation occurs. .The half- equation is

Fe(s) → ……………+ 2e

Electrons are transferred from the iron atoms to oxygen and water molecules at the

edge of the water droplets. Reduction occurs when the surface of the water droplets

exposed to the air has a tendency to……………………..electrons.The half-equation is :

O2(g) + 2H2O (l) + …………… → 4 OH- (aq).

The ………………….ions from the ionisation of iron then combined with the hydroxide

ions to form…………………………………….as a dirty green precipitate.The overall

equation for the redox reaction is : 2Fe(aq) + O2(g) +2H2O → 2 Fe(OH) 2 (s)

……………………is then oxidised in the air to form………………………………..

which then becomes rust,……………………………….,Fe2O3.3H2O.

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In order to rust, both air and water a must
Air alone wont do, without water there too,
So protect it,or get a brown crust!

All metal atoms ionise to form metallic ions .The higher the metal in in the
electrochemical series, the easier its atoms ionise and the easier the corrosion
occurs.

Rusting is prevented if iron is in contact with a more electropositive


metal.
Rusting is faster if iron is in contact with a less electropositive metal.

When iron and copper are in contact with each other in the presence of electrolyte,electrons are transferred
from iron to copper.Rusting of iron occurs.

Fe(s) → Fe2+(s) + 2e

Iron loses electrons more readily Hot agar solution which


than copper. contains potassium
hexacyanoferrate(II)
Fe2+ ion formed in the
electrolyte react with potassium
hexacyanoferrate(III) solution to
form dark blue
spots.
copper

Dark blue spots Blue spots

Pink colour observed. Less intensity


Gas bubbles are formed. of pink colour

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2. Complete the table.( The observations are given in the box.)

Pair of Metals Is the iron corrode? Observations

Mg/Fe

Zn/Fe

Sn/Fe

Pb/Fe

3.
Method of preventing rusting of iron
.

Alloys A protective layer A sacrificial metal

Painting
Medical
instruments
Roofs of houses
Clothes
Hanger

Oiling

Tin-plating

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Comparison between electrolytic and voltaic cells

Similarities:

Electrolytic cell Voltaic cell

 Contains an electrolyte
 Consists of an anode and a cathode
 Positive ions and negative iond move in the electrolyte
 Chemical reactions involve the release and acceptance of electrons

Differences:

Characteristics Electrolytic cell Voltaic cell


Energy change

Electric current and Electric current results in a chemical Chemical reaction produces an
reactions reaction electric current

Cathode and anode Cathode: Cathode:

Anode: Anode:
Flow of electrons

Negative terminal

Positive terminal

Types of electrodes

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EXECISES

1. Below is the half equation of a reaction

2 Br- → Br2 + 2e

What is meant by oxidation reaction based on the equation ?

A. Electrons are received by bromine


B. Electrons are donated by bromine
C. Electrons are received by bromide ions
D. Electrons are donated by bromide ions.

2. Which of the following are oxidizing agents ?

I. zinc
II. Bromine water
III. Potassium iodide solution
IV. Acidified potassium manganate(VII)solution.

A. I and III only


B. II and IV only
C. I,II and III only
D. II, III and IV only

3. Below is an ionic equation

X (s) + Y2+ (aq) → X2+ (aq) + Y (s)

Which of the following is true of the equation ?

A. Y2+ is oxidized
B. X is an oxidizing agent
C. X2+ is a reducing agent
D. X donates electrons to Y2+

4. Fe3+ ions in solution can be converted to Fe2+ ions by adding zinc powder.
Which of the following can replace zinc powder in this reaction ?

A. Bromine water
B. Potassium iodide solution
C. Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II)solution
D. Acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution

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5. Table 1 shows the result of an experiment for three chemical cells.

Chemical cell Metal pairs Negative terminal Cell voltage/V


X P and R R 1.9
Y R and S S 0.8
Z Q and R R 0.3

Which of the following can be deduced from table 1 ?

I. The cell voltage is 1.6V when P and Q are used as electrodes.


II. The cell voltage is 1.1 V when P and S are used as electrode.
III. Electrons flow from terminal Q to terminal S in the metal pair Q and S.
IV. P functions as a positive terminal when it is paired with Q,R or S in a cell.

A. I and IV only
B. II and III only
C. I,II and III only.
D. I,II,III and IV

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STRUCTURAL QUESTIONS

1. The figure below shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the reactions that take place in
test tubes P and Q

Bromine water
Copper(II) sulphate
solution

Ferum(II) sulphate
Magnesium ribbon solution

Test tube P Test tube Q

(a) State the observation for the reaction

(i) In test tube P.

[ 1 mark ]

(ii) In test tube Q.

[ 1 mark ]

(b) Write the ionic equation for the reaction in (a)(i).

[ 1 mark ]

(c ) State what is meant by oxidising agent in terms of electrón transfer.

[ 1mark ]

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(d ) Referring to the reaction that takes place in test tube P.

(i) What is the change in the oxidation number of magnesium?

[ 1 mark ]

(ii) name the oxidizing agent.

[ 1 mark ]

(e) Referring to the reaction that takes place in test tube Q,

(i) State the type of reaction that occurs.

[ 1 mark ]

(ii) State the oxidation number of bromine in bromine water.

[ 1 mark ]

(iii) what is the function of bromine water?

[ 1 mark ]

(iv) name another reagent that can replace bromine water..

[ 1 markah ]

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3. Copper(II) sulphate
solution

Carbon Carbon electrode


electrode X Y

The figure above shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of dilute copper(II)
sulphate solution.

(a) (i) What is meant by cation ?

[ 1 mark ]

(ii) What is the energy change that occurs in the electrolysis process?

[ 1 mark ]

(b) In the electrolysis of dilute copper(II) sulphate solution:

(i) State all the ions in the electrolyte.

[ 1 mark ]

(ii) In the table below, write the ions in b(i) which moved to electrodes X and Y.

Elektrode X Elektrode Y

[ 1 mark ]

(iii) What are the processes that occur at electrodes X and Y ?


Elektrode X :

Elektrode Y :

[ 1 mark ]

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(iv) What would you observe at electrode Y

[ 1 mark ]

(iv) What is the colour change of the electrolyte?

[ 1 mark ]

(c ) (i) Name the gas collected in the test tube at electrode X.

[ 1 mark ]

(ii) The volume of gas collected at electrode X is 20.0 cm 3,


How many moles of gas were collected?
Use the information that 1 mole of gas occupies a volume of 24. 0 dm3 at room
temperature and pressure [ 1 mark ]

(iii) Based on the answer in c(ii) what is the number of gas molecules collected?

Use the information that the Avogadro number is 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1 .

[ 1 mark ]

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3(a) Lime juice was electrolysed using carbon electrodes.
What is produced at the cathode? Write a half equation for the reaction. [2 marks]

(b ) The figure below shows two types of cell.

Copper Zinc
plates plate Copper plate

Copper(II)
sulphate
solution

Cell P Cell Q

Compare and aontrast cell P and cellQ. Include in your answer the observation and half-equatins
for the reactions of the electrodes in both cells.
[ 8 marks ]

(c ) A student Intends to electroplate an iron key with a suitable metal to beautify it.

Design a laboratory experiment to electroplate the iron key.

Your answer should consists of the following:

• Chemicals required.
• Procedures of the experiment
• Diagram showing the set-up of apparatus.
• Chemical equation involved in the reaction
• Observation
[ 10 marks ]

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4. (a) You have an iron key that rusts easily.
State how you would solve this problemusing an electrolysis process.
[ 4 marks ]

(b) Electrolysis is carried out on a dilute sodium chloride solution using carbon electrodes.
Explain how this electrolysis occurs.
Use a labeled diagram to explain your answer.
[ 6 marks ]

(c ) Aluminium is placed above zinc in the electrochemical series.


Aluminium and zinc can be used to build a chemical cell , using suitable apparatus and
the following chemicals;

Aluminium sulphate solution


Zink sulphate solution
Sulphuric acid solution

Describe how you would build this chemical cell.


Include a labeled diagram in your answer.
On your diagram , mark the direction of electron flow, the positive terminal and the
negative terminal

[ 10 marks ]

5. a) The following are the formulae of two compounds.

Al2O3 Cu2O

(i) Based on the two formulae , state the oxidation number for aluminium
and copper. [2 marks]

(ii) Name both the compounds based on the IUPAC nomenclature system.
[2 marks]

(iii) Expalin the difference between the names of the two compounds based
on the IUPAC nomenclature system.

b) The diagram below shows the set up of the apparatus fo an experiment to investigate
electron transfer through a solution.

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G

Graphite electrode Graphite electrode


(Negative electrode) (Positive electrode)

Acidic potassium manganate


Iron(II) sulphate (VII) solution, KMnO4
Solution, FeSO4

Dilute sulphuric acid,


H2SO4

(i) Name the oxidation agent in the experiment. [1 mark]

(ii) Write the half equations for the reactions that occur at the negative and positive
terminals. [5 marks]

(iii) Based on your answer in 5b(ii), describe the oxidation and reduction processes in
terms of the electron transfer that occurs at the negative and positive terminals.

State also the changes that can be observed after 10 minutes


[8 marks]

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