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Original Title: Application of EKF for Missile Attitude Estimation Based on SINS CNS _Gyro Drift

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Deng Hong, Guangbin Liu, Haoming Chen, Chunlin Deng

303 section

Research Inst. Of High-tech Hongqing Town 710025

Xian, China

dhinsaec@163.com, chm_ep_303@163.com

AbstractTo get high-precision attitude of missile in

SINS/CNS integrated guidance system, which has

significant affected the attitude control system and accuracy of

error separation, for example, the gyro drift, we built

"SINS/CNS" measurement amendment program of missile

boost phase for remote-range ballistic missile. Extended

Kalman filter is applied to determine real-time, high-precision

missile attitude in the program, and the quaternion kinematics

equation is established and the inertial navigation system with

the star sensor observation data fusion to estimate the error of

inertial compensation. Simulations shows that the approach

meets the engineering practice because attitude determination

can achieve fast convergence and high accuracy compared

with QUEST, MLS, inertial iterative algorithm used in

practice now.

Keywords-EKF; missile attitude estimation; SINS/CNS

integrated guidance system; Star sensor

I. INTRODUCTION

SINS/CNS integrated guidance system has advantages

of highly autonomous character, good ability of concealment,

strong anti-jamming capacity, high measuring precision, and

may have important and wide uses in ballistic missile. The

direction vector of star in celestial coordinate system is fixed,

star tracker is recognized as the most accurate attitude

estimation equipment for a long observation time nowadays,

taking stellar parallax, nutation and measurement noises, etc.

into consideration. SINS initial alignment error and gyro

random drift can be estimated and corrected by a fusion in

SINS and star sensor observation data, consequently, rapid

& mobile launch can be realized and hitting precision of

missile can accordingly be improved

[1-5]

.

The key technique in "SINS/CNS" integrated navigation

system can be classified as: (1) Research on estimation of

position and direction of spacecraft; (2) Star pattern

identification; (3) Studies of spacecraft attitude estimation;

(4) Navigation error separation. Among the keys, attitude

estimation is a major subject, which always is classified as:

(1) Attitude estimation under the static state condition.

TRAID, QUEST, and MLS and so on are the typical

representative algorithms with simple and quick calculation;

(2) Attitude estimation under dynamic state condition which

estimates attitude using star maps for a period of time for

observation. The typical representative algorithms are EKF,

UKF, and MPF, etc

[6-8]

. Comparison of two kinds of attitude

estimation methods from calculation speed and estimation

accuracy was described in TABLE 1.

TABLE I. COMPARISONS OF TWO ATTITUDE ESTIMATION

Estimation

condition

Calculation

speed

Accuracy Reliability

Real-time

property

Easy for

engineering

Static quick low high good easy

Dynamic slow high low bad Not easy

While research on satellite navigation attitude estimation

based on star sensor observation data is a lot, and few on

ballistic missile. It is very common to estimate missile

attitude by QUEST, MLS based on star sensor in

engineering practice, but such static algorithms cannot

effectively use the entire star sensor observation information,

accuracy is less high.

The Special Characteristics of the ballistic missile

determine that the attitude estimation algorithm is proposed

for at least the following requirements: (1) algorithm is

simple; (2) real-time estimates; (3) convergence speed; (4)

high estimation accuracy. We apply EKF (Extended Kalman

Filter) to missile attitude estimation in SINS/CNS

integrated guidance system.

This paper is organized with five sections: Section 1 is

introduction, and discusses the background and significance

of the study. Section 2 analyses the reasons that lead to high-

precision attitude cannot be got in boost phase, and

discussed SINS/CNS measurement amendment program.

Section 3 builds System model in the launch inertial

coordinate system, which includes the missile kinematics

equations, inertial reference measurement equation, star

tracker measurement equation and so on. Section 4 gives

experimental results and analysis, and demonstrates the

efficiency of the approach. The final section is conclusion

and gives some points for attention in further study.

II. "SINS/CNS" MEASUREMENT AMENDMENT

PROGRAM

As a theoretical research, some scholars have assumed

that once the missile fly out the atmosphere, the star sensor

mounted on the missile can work based on " SINS / CNS "

integrated navigation mode. Star observations can be used to

the initial attitude error correction or attitude estimation.

1101 978-1-4244-6044-1/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

In this paper, the above issues were discussed from an

engineering point of view. The results show that the above-

mentioned limitations of the theory in order to follow-up

study to provide reference.

(1) In theory, after the missile fly out the atmosphere

(generally considered as the atmospheric boundary 20 ~

30Km), the air is thin, so the refraction of air on Star,

scattering effects can be ignored, which meets the star of the

high-precision attitude sensor output condition. In fact, at

this time of missile engines in a working state brought with

the attendant a variety of disturbing torque, which resulting

in a significant high-frequency irregular vibration, that is,

"dynamic conditions". At present, star sensor at home and

abroad can not be in such a vibration under conditions of

high-precision attitude output, or even an effective attitude

output.

(2) In " large vibration conditions", star sensor can be

mounted on the inertial platform to isolate the large

vibration environmental impacts. However, star sensor

cannot observe star in this condition even if missile fly out

of the atmosphere. So it is impossible to carry out single

stars, double stars, or star-map identification. In addition,

because the engine is in working condition, it is impossible

to adjust missile attitude to meet that star sensor can observe

star lights.

Therefore, the entire flight is concerned, the missile mass

is constantly changing and there are various uncertain

impacts, such as inertia moment of error, disturbance torque

error, the result is that star sensor strap-down can start to

capture stars must after primary engines shut down in order

to work under a relatively static conditions. From the

moment, missile takes uncontrolled flight phase step, three-

axis attitude angular rate is very small, and the real-time

missile attitude can be calculated through the star pattern

recognition. Figure 1 shows this analysis of the "SINS /

CNS" measure to amend the program.

Figure 1. "SINS/CNS" Measurement Amendment Program

III. SYSTEM MODEL

System model was built in the launch inertial coordinate

system, which includes the missile kinematics equations,

inertial reference measurement equation, star tracker

measurement equation and so on.

A. Kinematics Equation of Missile

Quaternion is a common description of parameters of

aircraft attitude, defined as

[ ]

0 1 2 3

T

q q q q q = (1)

The orthogonality constraint of Quaternion is

2 2 2 2

0 1 2 3

1 q q q q + + + =

.

, quaternion differential equation,

that is, the missile kinematic equation:

1 1

( ) ( )

2 2

q q q = =

(2)

Then, define , q , ( ) , ( ) q as follows:

1 1 1

T

x y z

( =

(3a)

[ ]

0 1 2 3

T

q q q q q = (3b)

[ ]

( )

0

T

(

=

(

(3c)

[ ]

4 3 3 13

13

( )

T

q I q

q

q

+ (

=

(

(3d)

B. Inertial Reference Measurement Model

Approximately gyroscope measurement model is:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) 0

( ) ( ) ( )

g g

d

t t d t b t n t

b t

d t D d t n t

= + + +

= +

(4)

This includes:

( )

g

t

is the output of gyroscope

measurement. ( ) d t is the first-order drift of gyroscope,

which is often described as an application of first-order

Markov process. ( ) b t is the constant drift of gyroscope.

( )

g

n t

is the measurement white noise;

d

n

is the white

noise;

D

( , , )

i

i x y z =

which is related time constant.

C. The System State Equation

In order to obtain high-precision missile's attitude,

constant drift, first-order drift will often be taken into

account in the state equation at the same time, taking 10-

dimensional system state variables:

0 1 2 3

[ ]

x y z x y z

x q q q q d d d b b b = (5)

Differential equation as follows:

( ) ( ) ( )

g

d

q

n

x f x Gn F x d G x

n

b

(

(

(

= + = +

(

(

(

(6)

Then, define ( ) F x , ( ) G x as follows:

0.5 ( ) 0.5 ( ) 0.5 ( )

( ) 0 0

0 0 0

g

q q

F x D

(

(

=

(

(

(37a)

0.5 ( ) 0

( ) 0

0 0

q

G x I

(

(

=

(

(

(7b)

This includes:

g

n

,

d

n

is unrelated, white Gaussian

noise with zero normal mean and variance is

2

g

,

2

d

.

Differential equation is lined by Jacobin matrix in

EKF as follows:

1 1

2 2 3 3

| 1 1

1 1

...

2! 3!

k k

k k k

I F T F T F T

= + + + + +

2 2

1 1 1 1

1 1

(1 ...)

2! 3!

k k k k

G T F T F T G

= + + +

(8)

1102

| 1 1 1 1 k k k k k k

X X G W

= +

This includes,

| 1 k k

is the state transition matrix,

1 k

G

is noise matrix,

1 k

W

is zero mean white noise sequence,

T is filtering step.

D. Star Sensor Measurement Model

Missile quaternion attitude is gained through the MLS

single-point attitude determination algorithm, which

calculated the position of the vector of optical centre

according to missile body attitude changes, through the star

pattern recognition. Measurement equation is as follows:

( )

k v

y k Hx n = + (9)

This includes:

[ ]

4 4 4 6

0 H I

=

,

v

n

is approximately

Gaussian white noise with zero normal mean, variance is

2

v

.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

A. Simulation Conditions

Simulation started to be 130 second, which supposed

that pitch was 35 degrees, yaw was 0.05 degrees and roll

was 0 degree, after primary engine shut down according to

measurement amendment program, taking remote-range

ballistic missile as an example. At this point the missile

mainly suffered the Earths gravity which does not have an

impact on the motion of around of mass because it passed

through the centre of missile mass. In addition, inertial force

involved which arising from the earths rotation and coriolis

inertial force were neglected to account because of small

implications. Therefore, the motion of around of missile

mass after primary engine shut down can be considered to

be generated only by the impulse and thrust under the action

of additional disturbing torque. According to the value of the

termination impulse and disturbance torque, angular velocity

was supposed to be less than

0

0.06 / sec in the simulation.

Here, gyro parameters used in the simulation are as

follows.

TABLE II. GYRO PARAMETERS

standard deviation of

white noise

0.05deg/

g

n

h =

the initial values of

constant drift error

[ ] (0) 0.3 0.3 0.3 deg/

T

b h =

time constant involved 1

x y z

h = = =

standard deviation of

drive white noise

0.03deg/

d

n

h =

the initial values of

first-order drift

(0) [0.09648 0.09648 0.09648]deg/ d h =

B. Model and Simulation Result Analysis

1) Simulation model

The angular velocity was a small value according to

project practice. It is supposed pitch to be

0

0.06 / h , yaw to

be

0

0.02 / h , roll to be

0

0.01 / h and additional noise to be a

0.01 multiple of three-axis angular velocity simultaneously

in the simulation. The whole system simulation is employed

under the software MATLAB7.1. Simulation curves of

three-axis angular velocity and angle are shown in Fig 2, 3.

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

0

0.1

0.2

P

i

t

c

h

R

a

t

e

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

0

0.02

0.04

Y

a

w

R

a

t

e

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

0.005

0.01

0.015

t/s

R

o

l

l

R

a

t

e

Figure 2. Simulation curve of three-axis angle rate

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

0

100

200

P

i

t

c

h

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

0

20

40

Y

a

w

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

0

5

10

t/s

R

o

l

l

Figure 3. Simulation curve of three-axis angle

2) Result analysis

To suppose that synchronous control of gyro and star

sensor output was finished. Filter sampling interval was set

to be 1 second, simulation time was set to be 15 minutes,

and gyro drifts were modified once for one second. To avoid

the calculation error of converting quaternion to Euler

angles, results analysis was carried out by quaternion.

Quaternion error simulation curve was shown in Figure 4.

Constant drift error curve was shown in Figure 5. One first-

order drift error curve was shown in Figure 6.

Figure 4. Quaternion estimation error

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

-0.05

0

0.05

q0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

-0.05

0

0.05

q1

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

-0.05

0

0.05

q2

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

-0.05

0

0.05

t/s

q3

1103

Figure 5. constant drift error

Figure 6. first-order drift error

Analysis from the mean deviation and standard square

deviation of quaternion error and constant, first-order drift

error, the result was shown in Table III, IV.

TABLE III. ANALYSIS OF QUATERNION ERROR

deviation q0 q1 q2 q3

mean 0.007491 -0.0002833 0.0008581 0.005776

standard 0.005479 0.008464 0.009042 0.007147

Filter for SINS/CNS attitude estimation has a fast

convergence speed and good stability. Quaternion Error

deviation is about 1 10

24

. Gyro constant and first-order

drift error deviation is about 1 10

24

respectively.

Comparing the result data with the data of single-point

static attitude estimation and the data of inertial iterative

recursive algorithm (The latter two kinds of algorithms will

not be recounted in paper)

[9-12]

, we can draw conclusion that

missile attitude estimated by EKF is more accuracy than that

of the last two.

V. CONCLUSIONS

We applied EKF to "SINS / CNS" attitude estimation

problem in boost phase, which has a smaller attitude angle

rate. Simulation results show that EKF filter algorithm can

meet the engineering applications with fast convergence and

high-precision. However, the measurement data used in the

simulation program ignored the star sensor installation error,

which hinged together with missile initial condition error

and inertial error, etc. So far, research still remains to isolate

the error separately. In addition, SINS/CNS integrated

guidance system and large angle attitude maneuvers angle

attitude maneuvers is the main trends of development of

ballistic missiles, the missile Attitude Determination and

error separation technology under such conditions are a

worthwhile in-depth study of new problem.

REFERENCES

[1] Shen Gong-xun, Sun Yuan-feng. Information fusion theory in the

INS/CNS/GPS Integrated Navigation System [M]. National Defence

Industrial Press,1998

[2] Liebe, C.C. Accuracy Performance of Star TrackersA Tutorial[J].

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems.2002, 38(2):

587-599

[3] Markley, F.L.Berman. Deterministic EKF-like estimator for

pacecraft attitude estimation. American Control Conference, 1994

[4] M.D.Shuter,S.D.Oh.Three-Axis Attitude Determination from Vector

Observations. AIAA-81-41003.1981:70-77

[5] E.J.Lefferts,F.L.Markley. Kalman Filtering fro Spacecraft Attitude

Estimation Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics.

1982,5(5):417-429

[6] Zhu Qing-hua. EKF Satellite Attitude Determination Algorithm

based on Gyroscope, and Quaternion [J]. Shanghai Aerospace,2005

[7] J.L.Crassidis, F.L.Markley. Predictive Filtering for Attitude

Estimation Without Rate Sensors [J]. Journal of Guidance, Control,

and Dynamics. 1997,20(3):522-527

[8] Markley, F.L.Berman. Deterministic EKF-like estimator for

pacecraft attitude estimation. American Control Conference, 1994

[9] Bar-Itzhack. RQUEST: A Recursive QUEST Algorithm for

Sequential Attitude Determination [J]. Journal of Guidance, Control,

and Dynamics. 1996, 19(5):1034-1038

[10] Keyong Yu, Strap-dwon Inertial Guidance System[M], The

Secondary Artillery College Press,1992

[11] D.Mortari. Euler-q Algorithm for Attitude Determination from

Vector Observations [J]. Journal of Guidance, Control, and

Dynamics. 1998, 21(2):328-334

[12] Bar-itzhack , R.R.Harman. Optimized TRIAD Algorithm for Attitude

Determination [J]. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics.

1997,20(1):208-211

TABLE IV. ANALYSIS OF CONSTANT AND FIRST-ORDER DRIFT ERROR

deviation b1 b2 b3 d1 d2 d3

mean 0.0001456 4.278e-005 -0.0005188 -8.085e-005 -0.000339 -0.0002221

standard 0.008492 0.009534 0.01492 0.00763 0.008637 0.01369

d3

t/s

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

-0.5

0

0.5 d1

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

-0.1

0

0.1 d2

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

-0.2

0

0.2

b3

t/s

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

-0.5

0

0.5 b1

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

-0.2

0

0.2 b2

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

-0.5

0

0.5

1104

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