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SISTEM ALAM SEMESTA (Natural and Universal Systems) KU-1201


Introduction

UNIVERSE
Totality of everything that exists, including all physical matter and energy, the planets, stars, galaxies, and content of intergalactic space

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Model of levels of organization of matter in nature


Universe Galaxies Super macro Solar system Planets Earth -----------SAINS KEBUMIAN ASTRONOMI

Biosphere Ecosystem Community Macro world Population Organisms SAINS HAYATI

Organs
Tissues Micro world Cells Molecules

Tujuan Pembelajaran
Judul: Sistem Alam dan Semesta (Natural and Universal Systems) Latar Belakang:
Mahasiswa merupakan bagian dari masyarakat sosial yang mempunyai peran penting di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu mahasiswa perlu dibekali dengan pemahaman tentang peran dan tanggungjawab manusia terhadap lingkungan hidup dan lingkungan sosial.

Tujuan:
Mampu menerapkan konsep ilmu pengetahuan untuk melakukan eksplorasi berbagai fenomena alam dan semesta dalam interaksinya dengan lingkungan alam dan sosial Memahami peran dan tanggungjawabnya terhadap lingkungan sekitarnya (alam dan sosial) sebagai bagian dari peradaban manusia

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UNIVERSE
BIOSPHERE (Ecosystems) EARTH: Atmosphere, Lithosphere, hydrosphere GALAXY, PLANETS, STARS

COMMUNITY

POPULATION

HUMAN (ACTIVITIES) Awareness Knowledge Attitude Skills Participation

SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT

ORGANISMS Organs Tissues Cells, Molecules

Penciptaan obyek sbg hasil manifestasi budaya

Interrelationships

POKOK BAHASAN
BIDANG AS, BUMI, SR: 1. Pengantar, galaksi & kosmologi 2. Bintang 3. Tatasurya 4. Dinamika bumi & Siklus batuan 5. Siklus air & siklus atmosfer 6. Arts, Crafts, Design and The Environment 7. Understanding the impacts of lifestyles, behaviors and built environment to the earth UTS / UA
1. 2. 3. BIDANG SAINS HAYATI: Pengantar & konsep ekosistem Konsep ekosistem sebagai tempat hidup manusia Sel ,molekul dan faktor hereditas Komunitas: biodiversity & evolusi Populasi manusia & Isu lingkungan Dampak kegiatan manusia thd kualitas lingkungan Masyarakat dan Pembangunan berkelanjutan dan bewawasan lingkungan

4.
5. 6. 7.

UTS /UA

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Pustaka
Trefil, J. & Hazen, R.M. 2007. The Science: an integrated approach. John Willey & Sons, Inc, NJ. Miller, G.T. 2002. Living in the environment: principles, connections, and solutions. Thomson learning, Inc, USA.

Ecosystem Concepts

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Ecosystem Concepts
Chapter Outline -Basic concepts -Characteristics of Ecosystems

Biosphere (The total of ecosystems)


Atmosphere
AA

Biosphere: ecosystems

Hydrosphere

Lithosphere

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Ecosystems
the earths life-support system A system made up of a community* of living organisms interrelated together with its physical and chemical environment (biotic and abiotic interaction) *Community: producers, consumers,
decomposers

BASIC ECOSYSTEM CONCEPT


ECO-SYSTEM

SYSTEM - ECOLOGY System - interaction (living & non-living) System - interconnection System - networking System - symbiosis System - nature

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Ecosystem Scales

Characteristics of Ecosystems
Every ecosystem consists of both living and nonliving parts Energy flows through ecosystems Matter is recycled by ecosystems Every organism occupies an ecological niche Stable ecosystems achieve a balance among their populations Ecosystems are dynamic, not permanent, but change over time

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Biotic and abiotic components of Ecosystem Abiotic


Chemical and physical environment (water, air, nutrient and solar energy)

Biotic
Living organisms (plants, animals including humans, and microorganisms) Ecological community
All in area interacting each other

Energy Flows Through Ecosystems & Matter is recycled by ecosystems Flow of energy from the sun through the biosphere The cycling of crucial elements (C, P, N, O, H2O)

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Flow of energy in ecosystems


Food Web Interactions of organisms Trophic Levels Photosynthetic plants Herbivores Carnivores Decomposers Most energy is lost as heat 10% is transferred

Food Web: Cross-connected Food Chains

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Energy Pyramid

Most energy in most ecosystems is stored in the bodies of primary producers. Only about 10 percent of the energy at one energy level passes to the next highest trophic level.

Matter is Recycled by Ecosystems


Nutrients are cycled continuously from the nonliving environment (air, water, soil, rock) to living organisms and then back again~biogeochemical cycles Biogeochemical cycles include: - 4 main types of nutrient cycle :
1. 2. 3. 4. Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Phosphorus cycle Sulfur cycle

- Hydrologic (water) cycle

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Carbon cycle

Carbon
Carbon is the basic building block of molecules necessary for life (carbohydrate, fats, proteins, DNA and RNA) How are human activities affecting the C cycle? CO2 + other gases Atmosphere green house effects global warming: - select fit organism, affect food production and wildlife habitats - raise the average sea level

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Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen
Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for making proteins, DNA, and RNA How are human activities affecting the N cycle? Adding large amount of NO when burning any fuel: N2 + O2 2NO NO + O2 NO2 NO2 + H2O HNO3 HNO3 in rain or snow acid deposition (acid rain)

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Phosphorus cycle

Phosphorus
P is the limiting factor for plant growth and producers in many freshwater and lakes How are human activities affecting the P cycle? -Reducing the available phosphate in tropical forests by removing trees causes P and other soil nutrients are washed away by heavy rains, and the land become unproductive -Adding excess phosphate to aquatic ecosystems causes explosive growth of cyanobacteria, algae, and aquatic plants. When these plants die and are decomposed they use up dissolved oxygen and finally disrupt aquatic ecosystems

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Sulfur cycle

Sulfur
S is stored underground in rocks and minerals, including SO42salt S enters the atmosphere from active volcanoes, S is released by the breakdown of organic matter in swamps, bogs, and tidal flats by decomposers How are human activities affecting the S cycle? burning sulfur containing coal and fossil fuels release SO2 into atmosphere In the atmosphere, SO2 + O2 SO3 SO3 + H2O H2SO4 fall to the earth as acid rain

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Water cycle

Water Cycle
Water Cycle: collects, purifies and distributes the earths fixed supply of water The main processes in water cycle: evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, percolation, runoff Water cycle is powered by energy from the sun How are human activities affecting the water cycle?
- withdrawing large quantities of fresh water in heavily
populated areas lead to depletion of underground water supplies - clearing vegetation from land for agriculture, mining, and building construction lead to increase runoff, reduces infiltration, increase the risk of flooding

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Every Organism Occupies an Ecological Niche Ecological niche


Mode of survival: a particular way of obtaining matter and energy

Each plant/animal fills a niche


Organisms compete for dominance

Stable Ecosystems Achieve a Balance Among Their Populations Homeostasis:


Balance among populations, reflect that matter and energy are limited that must be shared among all individuals of an ecosystem

Resources are limited


Some variation in population sizes Overall relatively constant distribution

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Ecosystems Are Not Permanent, but Change Over Time

Long Time Scale


Plate tectonics

Short Time Scale


Glaciers Human impact

Dams to monitor water and nutrien loss

Spraying herebicides prevent regrowth of plant, all plant materials was left to decompose

Researchers found that the total removal of vegetation can increase the runoff of water and loss of soil nutrients

Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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The Law of Unintended Consequences It is virtually impossible to change on aspect of a complex system without affecting other parts of the systems, often in as-yet unpredictable ways. Examples:
Everglades Restoration in Florida Lake Victoria in Africa

Everglades Restoration in Florida


Everglades Restoration Plan is designed to restore the Everglades by changing the flow of water in the entire southern part of state

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The Lake Victoria Disaster


Lake Victoria
Largest freshwater lake in Africa

Introduced species
Nile perch
Aggressive predator Algae blooms Snail populations carry disease Roasting fish
Decimated forests Increase in erosion

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