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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 1

MIKE ROTHER & JOHN SHOOK


LEAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE
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VALUE STREAM MAPPING
WORKSHOP GOALS
To understand the complete value stream
To introduce Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
To draw a current state map
Learn the mapping concepts and icons
To be able to design an improved value stream
Develop the ability to see the flow of a value stream
To draw a future state map
Learn the mapping concepts and icons

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VALUE STREAM MAPPING
TOPICS
Topic Slide No.
Overview 5
The Process (Steps 1-3) 12
The Process (Step 4 Case Study) 35
The Process (Step 5) 38
The Process (Step 6)
The Process (Step 6 Case Study)
The Process (Steps 7-9)
The Process (Step 10)
Conclusions
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OVERVIEW
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 2
OVERVIEW
Why? Learn to See
See the big picture, not just individual processes
See how the process currently operates
See linkages between information and material flow
See the waste and the source of waste
Establish a common language for improvement
Foundation for designing lean flow and the future state

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OVERVIEW
What do you typically see?
80 90% of total steps are waste from standpoint of end
customer
99.9% of throughput time is wasted time
Demand becomes more and more erratic as it moves
upstream, imposing major inventory, capacity, and
management costs at every level
Quality becomes worse and worse as we move upstream,
imposing major costs downstream
Most managers and many production associates expend the
majority of their efforts on hand-offs, work-arounds, and
logistical complexity
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OVERVIEW
Objective
Correct specification of value
Elimination of wasteful steps
Flow where you can
Pull where you cant
Management toward perfection

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OVERVIEW
Pursue Perfection
Every step in each process is:
Capable right every time (6 Sigma)
Available always able to run (TPM)
Adequate with capacity to avoid bottlenecks (right-
sized tools & lean system design)
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 3
OVERVIEW
What is it?
A visual representation of all the steps needed for:
Concept to launch (design)
Order to delivery (build)
Delivery to recycle (sustain)
All steps:
Value Added (VA)
Non-value added (NVA)
Two flows:
Orders traveling upstream from the customer
Products traveling downstream to the customer

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OVERVIEW
Who does it?
Value Stream Manager
Ideally, one person with lead responsibility for the entire value
stream reporting to the top person at the site
Representatives of every relevant function operations,
purchasing, sales, finance, engineering, etc. (ideally)
And you

When?
Now
Before any major improvement activity
Constantly updated to the new Future State

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OVERVIEW
Where?
In the work area itself

How?
Directly observe flow of information and physical goods
Summarize these flows visually with icons
Use pencil and paper
And most important
Envision future state
No wasted steps
Smooth flow
Level pull

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THE PROCESS
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 4
GETTING STARTED
Select one value stream - a product family
Walk the physical flow of material no data collection
Walk the flow again, collecting data
Draw the Current State Map
+ Identify opportunities to eliminate waste and create flow
Draw the Future State Map
; Generate a Value Stream Plan
^Start making the improvements
Conduct Value Stream Reviews
Repeat the cycle
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VALUE STREAM STEP 1
SELECT A VALUE STREAM
Select one value stream shared definition of value
by customer or customer category
by product or product family
by plant
by service - production, spares, repair
A family is a group of items that pass through similar
processing steps and over common equipment.
Focus on the downstream processes not upstream steps.
Upstream processes may serve many product families in a
batch mode.
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VALUE STREAM STEP 1
CREATE A MATRIX
Create a matrix if your mix is complicated

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CREATE A MATRIX
COMPLICATED
Part Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8
Machine Weighting
Machine A 2 1 1
Machine B 4 1 1 1
Machine C 8 1
Machine D 16 1 1
Machine E 32 1 1
Machine F 64 1 1
Machine G 128 1 1 1
Machine H 256 1 1 1
Machine I 512
Machine J 1024
Machine K 2048
Machine L 4096
Part Total 290 80 132 258 88 132 288 132
Weight part by machine used.
0103-02 Family Matrix.xls
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 5
CREATE A MATRIX
COMPLICATED
Sort by weighted part; Weight machine by part used.
Part Part 2 Part 5 Part 3 Part 6 Part 8 Part 4 Part 7 Part 1
Machine
Total
Machine Weighting 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 blank
Machine A 2 1 1 5120
Machine B 4 1 1 1 896
Machine C 8 1 64
Machine D 16 1 1 96
Machine E 32 1 1 6144
Machine F 64 1 1 96
Machine G 128 1 1 1 896
Machine H 256 1 1 1 7168
Machine I 512 0
Machine J 1024 0
Machine K 2048 0
Machine L 4096 0
blank blank 80 88 132 132 132 258 288 290 blank
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CREATE A MATRIX
COMPLICATED
Sort by weighted machine.
Part Part 2 Part 5 Part 3 Part 6 Part 8 Part 4 Part 7 Part 1
Machine
Total
Machine Weighting 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 blank
Machine C 8 1 64
Machine D 16 1 1 96
Machine F 64 1 1 96
Machine B 4 1 1 1 896
Machine G 128 1 1 1 896
Machine A 2 1 1 5120
Machine E 32 1 1 6144
Machine H 256 1 1 1 7168
blank blank 80 88 132 132 132 258 288 290 blank
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Single Plant
(Door-to-door)
VALUE STREAM STEP 1
LEVELS OF A VALUE STREAM
You can value stream map at
different levels
Across companies is too
complicated to start with
Process Level
Multiple Plants
Across Companies
Start mapping door-to-door
within your own facility:
This is under your control
It is easier to make
improvements immediately
Expand outward to broaden the
value stream later
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VALUE STREAM STEP 2
WALK THE FLOW
Let the workers know what you are doing.
Walk the flow first (no data collection). Walk it yourself.
Begin at shipping and work upstream. This begins with the
processes that are linked closer to the customer. If it is too
confusing, start at the beginning and go downstream.
See how the material moves.
See the piles of material and WIP.
See how people work.
Identify the major process steps
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 6
VALUE STREAM STEP 3
WALK THE FLOW AGAIN
Walk the flow again, this time collecting data.
Begin at shipping and work upstream.
Obtain the data yourself, do not rely on computer
printouts.
Use pencil and paper.
Ask questions and listen.
Collect data relevant to the definition of value.
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VALUE STREAM STEP 3
WALK THE FLOW AGAIN-TYPICAL DATA
COLLECTED
Customer Need
Demand number of units per day the customer wants
Available work time Scheduled work time minus breaks,
meetings and clean up time
Inventory
WIP Number of units waiting to be worked on or waiting
to be moved.
Finished Goods Number of units in stores or waiting to
be shipped.
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VALUE STREAM STEP 3
WALK THE FLOW AGAIN-TYPICAL DATA
COLLECTED
Each Process Step
Cycle time CT The time between one part coming off the process
and the next part coming off.
Yield First Time Yield or scrap%
Number of people Required to operate the process.
Uptime The percentage of time the equipment is available to run,
when it is needed to be run
Batch Size typical lot size or minimum
Change Over Time Co The time from the last good piece of one
batch to the first good piece of the next batch
EPE Every part every __. How often do you changeover to produce
this part?
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VALUE STREAM STEP 3
WALK THE FLOW AGAIN-CALCULATED DATA
Takt Time TT How often does the customer need another unit.
(Available work time per day)/(demand per day)
Inventory measured in days.
(Number of units)/(demand per day)
Overall Flow
Process Lead Time The time for a unit to make it all the way
through the process
(Sum of Inventory Days) + (Sum of Cycle Times)
Processing Time The time spent actually performing work on the
unit
(Sum of Cycle Times)
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 7
VALUE STREAM STEP 3
DRAW THE CURRENT STATE MAP
Drawing the future state map begins with the current
production situation.
Symbols and icons assure a consistent language.
Draw the rough draft as you walk the floor in step 3
collecting data.
Use pencil and paper, not a computer.
Map the whole value stream, not just a segment.


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PROCESS BOX ICONS
DATA BOX ICONS
- C/T time
- C/O time
- Up time
- Scrap
Example
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Example
Material Flow
Information Flow
INVENTORY ICONS
WITH PUSH ARROWS
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MAPPING TIPS
Use Colored Post-it notes paper for Mapping
(Easier to move Post-it notes than redraw)
Use roll of butcher paper so you can use a wall and see the
whole VSM
Use string or ribbon to show material & information flows
Decide whether to count all parts or sample
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 8
MAPPING TIPS
Best to map production lines between
Tuesday and Thursday
Use someone from the line or process to walk you through
it first, post-it note process, come back and get
Real Data and Times
If you plan on using the times to balance your process
then do not take shortcuts - you will be way off
(Embarrass yourself!!)
See with your hands. No Armchair Lean!
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MAPPING TIPS
Calculate production lead time for inventory triangles by
dividing quantity of inventory by the customer daily
requirement
This is a really neat trick! It turns a count of
inventory into the number of production days that
inventory represents
Add a title and date the map
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 9
ACME Stamping
Case Study
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MATERIAL FLOW ICONS
Assembly
XYZ
Corporation
Data Box
C/O=30 min.
C/T=45 sec.
3 Shifts.
2% Scrap
I
300 pieces
1 day
Inventory Supermarket
Shipment Push Finished Goods
to Customer
Physical
FIFO
First-In-First-Out
Process
Box
Supplier/
Customer
Mon
+ Wed
Pull
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INFORMATION FLOW ICONS
Manual
Information Flow
Electronic
Information Flow
Weekly
Schedule
Schedule
OXOX
Load
Leveling Box
Sequenced-Pull
Ball
Withdrawal
Kanban
Production
Kanban
Signal
Kanban
Kanban
Post
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GENERAL ICONS
Uptime
Changeover
Kaizen
Lightning Burst
Operator
Buffer or
Safety Stock
Go See
Production
Schedule
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 10
VALUE STREAM MAP - ACME EXERCISE
(USE THE HANDOUT DATA SHEET)
Use a pencil and small Post-it notes on 11 x 17 paper.
Use the following colors
BLUE - Process
YELLOW - Inventory (tear in half)
PINK - Master schedule / Production control
GREEN - Supplier & Customer
Fill in a Post-it notes for each process/data and symbol
Remember Always start with the Customer
Build the map, leave enough room between process boxes to
show inventory and enough space on the bottom to draw the
time line
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State St.
Assembly

18,400 pcs/mo
-12,000 L
-6,400 R
Tray=20 pcs.
2 Shifts
First - Show the
Customer
VALUE STREAM STEP 4
CURRENT STATE MAP - 1
ST
VIEW
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State St.
Assembly

18,400 pcs/mo
-12,000 L
-6,400 R
Tray=20 pcs.
2 Shifts
Stamping
4600 L
2400 R

CT=1sec.
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
27,600 sec. avail
EPE=2 weeks
S. Weld # 1



CT=39sec
.
Co=10 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail

CT=40sec
.
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
I
I I I
Coils
5 days

CT=46sec
.
Co=10 min.
Uptime=80%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail

CT=62sec
. Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
Shipping I I
1100L
850 R 640R 600 R
1200 L
1440 R
1600 L
S. Weld # 2 Assy # 2 Assy # 1
2700 L
Second - add the
major Processes,
Data Boxes, and
Inventory Triangles
The data obtained is put in the data box
directly beneath the process box.
VALUE STREAM STEP 4
CURRENT STATE MAP - 2
ND
VIEW
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S. Weld # 1 I
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
Coils
5 days
1100L
600 R
State St.
Assembly

18,400 pcs/mo
-12,000 L
-6,400 R
Tray=20 pcs.
2 Shifts
Stamping
4600 L
2400 R

CT=1sec.
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
27,600 sec. avail
EPE=2 weeks



CT=39sec
.
Co=10 min.
Uptime=100%
CT=40sec
.
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
I I I I

CT=46sec
.
Co=10 min.
Uptime=80%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail

CT=62sec
. Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
Shipping I
850 R
640R
1200 L
1440 R
1600 L
S. Weld # 2 Assy # 2 Assy # 1
2700 L
1X
Daily
Michigan
Steel Co.
Tues &
Thurs.
500 Ft. Coils
Third - Show the
Material Flow
A truck icon and broad arrow indicate
movement of finished goods to the
customer and raw material to the site.
The supplier of raw material is
identified with a factory icon. In
this case they deliver 500 ft coils
VALUE STREAM STEP 4
CURRENT STATE MAP - 3
RD
VIEW
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 11
VALUE STREAM STEP 4
CURRENT STATE MAP
Information flow is drawn from right to left in the top half of the map
space.
solid line arrows (paper transfer)
arrow with a lightening bolt (electronic transfer)
Material movements that are pushed are represented by a striped arrow
PUSH
A process that produces regardless of the needs of the
downstream customer
A guess as to what is needed (forecasts)
Processes are allowed to set batch sizes and produce at a pace that
makes sense from its perspective not the customers.

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State St.
Assembly

18,400 pcs/mo
-12,000 L
-6,400 R
Tray=20 pcs.
2 Shifts
Stamping
4600 L
2400 R

CT=1sec.
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
27,600 sec. avail
EPE=2 weeks
S. Weld # 1



CT=39sec
.
Co=10 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail

CT=40sec
.
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT=46sec
.
Co=10 min.
Uptime=80%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail

CT=62sec
. Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
Shipping
I
I
1100R
850 R
640R
600 R 1200 L
1440 R
1600 L
S. Weld # 2 Assy # 2 Assy # 1
2700 L
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Daily
Order
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Michigan
Steel Co.
Tues &
Thurs.
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
500 ft. Coils
Fourth - show
Information Flows
& Push Arrows
VALUE STREAM STEP 4
CURRENT STATE MAP 4
TH
VIEW
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VALUE STREAM STEP 4
CURRENT STATE MAP
The timeline summarizes the current condition of the value
stream
Production Lead-Time is the time it takes for a part to make
its way through the shop floor beginning with the raw material
Inventory Lead-time( shown with the inventory triangles)is
calculated as follows:
Inventory quantity divided by the daily customer
requirements. Then add all process inventory lead-times.
Inventory Quantity
Daily Customer Requirement

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State St.
Assembly

18,400 pcs/mo
-12,000 L
-6,400 R
Tray=20 pcs.
2 Shifts
Stamping
4600 L
2400 R

CT=1sec.
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
27,600 sec. avail
EPE=2 weeks
S. Weld # 1



CT=39sec
. Co=10 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail

CT=40sec
. Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT=46sec
. Co=10 min.
Uptime=80%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail

CT=62sec
. Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
Shipping
I
I
1100R
850 R
640R
600 R 1200 L
1440 R
1600 L
S. Weld # 2 Assy # 2 Assy # 1
2700 L
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Daily
Order
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Michigan
Steel Co.
Tues &
Thurs.
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
500 ft. Coils
5
days
1
sec
7.6 days
39 sec
1.8 days
46 sec
2.7 days
62 sec
2 days
40 sec
4.5 days=23.6 days
=188 sec
(PLT)
(PT)
Fifth (Final) - Show
Timeline
VALUE STREAM STEP 4
CURRENT STATE MAP 5
TH
VIEW
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 12
State St.
Assembly

18,400 pcs/mo
-12,000 L
-6,400 R
Tray=20 pcs.
2 Shifts
Stamping
4600 L
2400 R

CT=1sec.
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
27,600 sec. avail
EPE=2 weeks
S. Weld # 1



CT=39sec
. Co=10 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail

CT=40sec
. Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT=46sec
. Co=10 min.
Uptime=80%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail

CT=62sec
. Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
27,600 sec.avail
Shipping
I
I
1100R
850 R
640R
600 R 1200 L
1440 R
1600 L
S. Weld # 2 Assy # 2 Assy # 1
2700 L
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Daily
Order
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Michigan
Steel Co.
Tues &
Thurs.
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
500 ft. Coils
5
days
1
sec
7.6 days
39 sec
1.8 days
46 sec
2.7 days
62 sec
2 days
40 sec
4.5 days=23.6 days
=188 sec
(PLT)
(PT)
Fifth (Final) - Show
Timeline
VALUE STREAM STEP 4
CURRENT STATE MAP COMPLETE VIEW
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WHATS WRONG WITH ACMES
VALUE STREAM?
3 VA processes
Traditional mass
production thinking
about economies of
scale
Batches pushed
through
=> waste
Look at VA time
compared to time in
plant

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WHAT MAKES A VALUE STREAM
LEAN?
Primarily the elimination of the number one waste
OVERPRODUCTION!!!
Since this material is not yet needed it must be handled,
counted, stored.
Defects remain hidden in inventory queues
Overproduction results in shortages, because processes
are busy making the wrong things.
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VALUE STREAM STEP 5
ELIMINATE WASTE
1. Overproduction
2. Waiting
3. Transportation
4. Unnecessary Processing
5. Inventory
6. Unnecessary Motion
7. Correction

Wasting A Persons time or talent
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 13
VALUE STREAM STEP 5
ELIMINATE WASTE
1. Overproduction - The primary waste
Making parts faster than is required
Excess Inventory
Time wasted, that could be used to make product that is required

2. Waiting
An operator waiting for a long machine cycle to end

3. Transportation
Moving parts and products does not add value - it just adds
cost
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VALUE STREAM STEP 5
ELIMINATE WASTE
4. Unnecessary Processing
Booking work into a store and then having to book it
back out again to use.

5. Inventory
There is a cost to the Company for carry inventory
There is always the risk it can become obsolete
It covers up other inefficiencies
e.g. Long set-up times
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VALUE STREAM STEP 5
ELIMINATE WASTE
6. Unnecessary Motion
Any motion of a person that does not add value
Operators / Setters looking for tooling

7. Correction
Reworking defective materials

Things to remember about waste
It is a symptom rather than a root cause of the problem
It points to problems within the system, at both process and value stream
levels
We need to find and address the causes of the waste
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VALUE STREAM STEP 5
AND CREATE FLOW
We are concerned with system efficiency rather
than the efficiency of an individual process
The question is, how fast should we produce?
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 14
VALUE STREAM STEP 5
TAKT TIME
We should match the rate of production to the rate of sales

Takt is the German word that means beat or pace

Takt Time = Effective working time per day
Customer requirement per day

= 27,000 sec = 59 sec
460 pieces

What is the effective working time per day?
What do we do about machine down time?
Why is cycling faster than takt expensive?
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VALUE STREAM STEP 5
WHAT IS FLOW?
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VALUE STREAM STEP 5
WHERE DO WE USE FLOW?
Use continuous flow wherever possible

Where cant we use continuous flow?
Long set-ups
Large distances
Downtime problems
Long lead-times


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VALUE STREAM STEP 5
ALTERNATIVES TO CONTINUOUS FLOW
Kanban
A signal that provides an instruction to regulate the sequence and timing of
production
Two-bin
Bins used to regulate production
Buffer stock
Standard work
Curtain operation
Supermarket
Controlled quantity of inventory
Visual controls
Owned by the supplier

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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 15
VALUE STREAM STEP 5
SUPERMARKET PULL SYSTEM
A SUPERMARKET PULL SYSTEM
Supplying
Process

A
Customer
Process

B PRODUCT
Supermarket
Production KANBAN Withdrawal KANBAN
1) CUSTOMER
PURPOSE: Controls production at supplying process without trying to schedule. Controls
production between flows
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
5
7

VALUE STREAM STEP 5
SUPERMARKET PULL SYSTEM
A pull system between processes
gives accurate build instructions to the upstream process
without trying to predict downstream demand
instead of forecasting the upstream process.
The pull by the downstream process determines
what the upstream produces
when
and in what quantity.
Should be located near the supplying process
Are only used when continuous flow will not work.
There is a cost - inventory and material handling
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
5
8

VALUE STREAM STEP 5
SCHEDULE ONLY ONE POINT
If pull systems schedule upstream process we can try to
schedule only one point in the value stream - Pacemaker
No supermarkets downstream of the schedule point
(except finished goods) schedule
schedule
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
5
9

VALUE STREAM MAPPING
TOPICS
Topic Page
Overview
The Process (Steps 1-3)
The Process (Step 4 Case Study)
The Process (Step 5)
The Process (Step 6) 4
The Process (Step 6 Acme Stamping Case Study) 35
The Process (Steps 7-9) 45
The Process (Step 10) 52
Conclusions 54
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
6
0

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 16
VALUE STREAM STEP 6
DRAW THE FUTURE STATE MAP
THE PURPOSE:
Highlight sources of waste
Eliminate them
In a short period of time.
THE GOAL: To build a chain of production where the individual
processes are linked to the customer(s) either by continuous flow
(the best) or pull and each process gets as close as possible to
producing only what the customer(s) need when they need it.

What can we do with what we have?
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
6
1

VALUE STREAM MAP - CURRENT
STATE
Customer

Demand = 45 per day
2 shifts
Stamping
342

CT=1sec
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
S. Weld # 1



CT=3 min
Co=10 min.
Uptime=70%
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT= 15 min
Co=0 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts

CT= 67 min
Co= 23 min
FTY = 67%
2 shifts
Shipping
I
I
81
202
122
Assembly Test
90
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Order Entry
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Suppliers
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
Lead Time - 34 Days
5 days
1 sec
7.6 days
3 min
1.8 days
15 min
2.7 days
67 min
4.5 days
4 min
2 days
Lead Time
=23.6 days
1 shift 1 shift

CT= 4 min
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
Competitive Lead Time
= 3 Days
Takt Time
= 18.2 Minutes
Orders/day
= 36
Queue
= 1.5 Days
Touch Time
= 89 min
6
2

G
e
s
t
i

n
d
e

l
a

C
a
d
e
n
a

d
e

S
u
m
i
n
i
s
t
r
o

Customer

Demand = 45 per day
2 shifts
Stamping
342

CT=1sec
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
S. Weld # 1



CT=3 min
Co=10 min.
Uptime=70%
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT= 15 min
Co=0 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts

CT= 67 min
Co= 23 min
FTY = 67%
2 shifts
Shipping
I
I
81
202
122
Assembly Test
90
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Order Entry
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Suppliers
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
Lead Time - 34 Days
5 days
1 sec
7.6 days
3 min
1.8 days
15 min
2.7 days
67 min
4.5 days
4 min
2 days
Lead Time
=23.6 days
1 shift 1 shift

CT= 4 min
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
Competitive Lead Time
= 3 Days
Takt Time
= 18.2 Minutes
Orders/day
= 36
Queue
= 1.5 Days
Touch Time
= 89 min
Competitive LT = 3 days
Takt Time = 18.2 min
CUSTOMER DATA
ON-TIME DELIVERY
Demand = 45/day
6
3

Customer

Demand = 45 per day
2 shifts
Stamping
342

CT=1sec
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
S. Weld # 1



CT=3 min
Co=10 min.
Uptime=70%
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT= 15 min
Co=0 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts

CT= 67 min
Co= 23 min
FTY = 67%
2 shifts
Shipping
I
I
81
202
122
Assembly Test
90
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Order Entry
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Suppliers
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
Lead Time - 34 Days
5 days
1 sec
7.6 days
3 min
1.8 days
15 min
2.7 days
67 min
4.5 days
4 min
2 days
Lead Time
=23.6 days
1 shift 1 shift

CT= 4 min
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
Competitive Lead Time
= 3 Days
Takt Time
= 18.2 Minutes
Orders/day
= 36
Queue
= 1.5 Days
Touch Time
= 89 min
Raw = 5 days
WIP = 12.1 days
FG = 6.5 days
INVENTORY
6
4

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 17
Customer

Demand = 45 per day
2 shifts
Stamping
342

CT=1sec
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
S. Weld # 1



CT=3 min
Co=10 min.
Uptime=70%
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT= 15 min
Co=0 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts

CT= 67 min
Co= 23 min
FTY = 67%
2 shifts
Shipping
I
I
81
202
122
Assembly Test
90
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Order Entry
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Suppliers
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
Lead Time - 34 Days
5 days
1 sec
7.6 days
3 min
1.8 days
15 min
2.7 days
67 min
4.5 days
4 min
2 days
Lead Time
=23.6 days
1 shift 1 shift

CT= 4 min
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
Competitive Lead Time
= 3 Days
Takt Time
= 18.2 Minutes
Orders/day
= 36
Queue
= 1.5 Days
Touch Time
= 89 min
Touch Time = 89 min
FLOW OF VALUE
LEAD TIME
Lead Time = 23.6 days
6
5

Customer

Demand = 45 per day
2 shifts
Stamping
342

CT=1sec
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
S. Weld # 1



CT=3 min
Co=10 min.
Uptime=70%
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT= 15 min
Co=0 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts

CT= 67 min
Co= 23 min
FTY = 67%
2 shifts
Shipping
I
I
81
202
122
Assembly Test
90
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Order Entry
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Suppliers
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
Lead Time - 34 Days
5 days
1 sec
7.6 days
3 min
1.8 days
15 min
2.7 days
67 min
4.5 days
4 min
2 days
Lead Time
=23.6 days
1 shift 1 shift

CT= 4 min
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
Competitive Lead Time
= 3 Days
Takt Time
= 18.2 Minutes
Orders/day
= 36
Queue
= 1.5 Days
Touch Time
= 89 min
CT (67) > Takt Time (18)
CONSTRAINTS
OTD, LEAD TIME
Max Wip = 7.6 days
6
6

Customer

Demand = 45 per day
2 shifts
Stamping
342

CT=1sec
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
S. Weld # 1



CT=3 min
Co=10 min.
Uptime=70%
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT= 15 min
Co=0 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts

CT= 67 min
Co= 23 min
FTY = 67%
2 shifts
Shipping
I
I
81
202
122
Assembly Test
90
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Order Entry
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Suppliers
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
Lead Time - 34 Days
5 days
1 sec
7.6 days
3 min
1.8 days
15 min
2.7 days
67 min
4.5 days
4 min
2 days
Lead Time
=23.6 days
1 shift 1 shift

CT= 4 min
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
Competitive Lead Time
= 3 Days
Takt Time
= 18.2 Minutes
Orders/day
= 36
Queue
= 1.5 Days
Touch Time
= 89 min
CO = 23 min
CO = Changeover
SETUP TIMES
OP MARGIN, LEAD TIME
CO = 1 hour
6
7

Customer

Demand = 45 per day
2 shifts
Stamping
342

CT=1sec
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
S. Weld # 1



CT=3 min
Co=10 min.
Uptime=70%
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT= 15 min
Co=0 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts

CT= 67 min
Co= 23 min
FTY = 67%
2 shifts
Shipping
I
I
81
202
122
Assembly Test
90
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Order Entry
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Suppliers
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
Lead Time - 34 Days
5 days
1 sec
7.6 days
3 min
1.8 days
15 min
2.7 days
67 min
4.5 days
4 min
2 days
Lead Time
=23.6 days
1 shift 1 shift

CT= 4 min
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
Competitive Lead Time
= 3 Days
Takt Time
= 18.2 Minutes
Orders/day
= 36
Queue
= 1.5 Days
Touch Time
= 89 min
MAINTENANCE
OTD, LEAD TIME
Uptime = 70%
6
8

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 18
Customer

Demand = 45 per day
2 shifts
Stamping
342

CT=1sec
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
S. Weld # 1



CT=3 min
Co=10 min.
Uptime=70%
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT= 15 min
Co=0 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts

CT= 67 min
Co= 23 min
FTY = 67%
2 shifts
Shipping
I
I
81
202
122
Assembly Test
90
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Order Entry
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Suppliers
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
Lead Time - 34 Days
5 days
1 sec
7.6 days
3 min
1.8 days
15 min
2.7 days
67 min
4.5 days
4 min
2 days
Lead Time
=23.6 days
1 shift 1 shift

CT= 4 min
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
Competitive Lead Time
= 3 Days
Takt Time
= 18.2 Minutes
Orders/day
= 36
Queue
= 1.5 Days
Touch Time
= 89 min
QUALITY
FTY = 67%
6
9

Customer

Demand = 45 per day
2 shifts
Stamping
342

CT=1sec
Co=1 hr.
Uptime=85%
S. Weld # 1



CT=3 min
Co=10 min.
Uptime=70%
I
I
I
I
Coils
5 days

CT= 15 min
Co=0 min.
Uptime=100%
2 shifts

CT= 67 min
Co= 23 min
FTY = 67%
2 shifts
Shipping
I
I
81
202
122
Assembly Test
90
1X
Daily
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Order Entry
Production
Control



MRP
6 WEEK
Forecast
Suppliers
WEEKLY SCHEDULE
Lead Time - 34 Days
5 days
1 sec
7.6 days
3 min
1.8 days
15 min
2.7 days
67 min
4.5 days
4 min
2 days
Lead Time
=23.6 days
1 shift 1 shift

CT= 4 min
Co=0
Uptime=100%
2 shifts
Competitive Lead Time
= 3 Days
Takt Time
= 18.2 Minutes
Orders/day
= 36
Queue
= 1.5 Days
Touch Time
= 89 min
What is the pitch time?
FLOW OF VALUE
OTD, LEAD TIME
Who is setting the pace?
7
0

THE OFFICE
Office functions support many shop floor value streams -
purchasing, payroll
The rate of customer demand is often hard to see
Inventory can be forms, paperwork, in-baskets, out-
baskets, voicemail, email
Cycles of activity often are random - little standard work
Confusion about who the customer is and what is value
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
7
1

THE OFFICE
HOWEVER, THE
OBJECTIVE IS TO
ELIMINATE WASTE!
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
7
2

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 19
THE OFFICE CURRENT STATE
Define boundaries of your value stream
There has to be a product or service to follow - like a
purchase order or payroll document - otherwise use a
normal flowchart (LEI)
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
7
3

THE OFFICE CURRENT STATE
What capability do you provide?
Is the demand stable?
If not, what is the range ?
What is the customers expectation of performance?
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
7
4

CONSTRUCTING OFFICE
CURRENT STATE
Waiting should be recorded if there is no apparent end
takt time and the next process is far away
Use Cycle Time of customer process to understand total
lead time
I
Outbox
1 Day
w
Waiting
1/2 Day at
meeting
I
Inbox
1 Day
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
7
5

CONSTRUCTING OFFICE
CURRENT STATE
State Street
Assembly
Customer
Make notes where you see
obvious Waste on the Map
Poor workplace
Organization
Re-enter Data:
Legacy System
Duplication:
Many Signatures
Paper Form Rework:
Incomplete Data
State Street
Assembly
Supplier
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
7
6

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 20
1 sales Rep
State Street
Assembly
Michigan Steel
Company
Customer
Customer
Central
database
Engineering
database
I
Outbox
2 files
1 Day
w
Waiting
1/2 Day at
meeting
I
Inbox
2 files
1 Day
I
Outbox
3 files
1 Day
w
Waiting
1/2 Day
Customer
I
Inbox
10 files
1 Day
I
Outbox
4 files
1 Day
w
Waiting
I
Inbox
2 files
1 Day
w
Waiting
1/2 Day
Purchasing
quote
I
Inbox
7 files
1 Day
Clarify
1 Day
I
Email /
voicemail
W
Meeting
3 hours
4 Estimates
.5 hours
Total 10 Days
Total CT 8 hrs 20 min
60 min 3 hrs 20 min 4 hrs 10 min
.5 hr 3 hr 1 Day .5 Day 1 Day 1 Day .5 Day 1 Day .5 Day 1 Day 1 Day 1 Day 1 Day

Order
Receipt

Manf.
Eng.

Eng.

Review

Quote
Prep

BOM
Validation
1 Sales Rep 1 Eng. 1 Eng. 1 sales Rep
Email
Quote
Design
Log file
Phone
Clarification
Email -
Clarification
EmailO
rder
Phone
Clarification
Phone
Clarification
CONSTRUCTING OFFICE
CURRENT STATE
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
7
7

Product Family
Plan &
Implementation
Current State
Drawing
Future State
Drawing
VALUE STREAM STEP 6
DRAW THE FUTURE STATE MAP
Designing a Lean Flow
You always need a future state
Use pencil, update regularly,
70% correct is fine
Basis for work plan - blueprint
Begin by drawing a current
state
1st iteration assumes using
existing equipment, only minor
purchases
Use the list of future state
questions

September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
7
8

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP - ICONS
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
7
9

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION 1
What is the takt time for the chosen product family?
450 minutes per shift / 9 units per shift= 50 minutes
However this includes no time for equipment downtime,
changeovers, or scrap and rework.
Until these are under control you can decide to produce
faster than Takt
Its purpose is to synchronize the pace of production with
the pace of sales
A diagnostic tool to test for overproduction
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
8
0

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 21
VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION 2
Should you build to a finished goods Supermarket or
directly to shipping?
Building directly to shipping is ideal.
If the competitive lead time is less than your process lead
time, you will need a finished goods supermarket.
If customer demand rises and falls unpredictably it might
be better to use a finished goods Supermarket.
The cost of holding some finished goods may well be less
than the cost of extra capacity
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
8
1

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION 3
Where can you introduce continuous flow?
Produce one piece at a time
Reduce batch sizes and implement material replenishment.
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
8
2

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION 4
Where will you need to use supermarket pull systems?
Batching might be necessary
Where changeover is necessary due to very fast or slow
cycle times and multiple product families.
Long supply chainOne piece at a time is not realistic
Some processes have too much lead time or too unreliable to
couple directly to other processes in a continuous flow.
In these cases install a Supermarket based pull system
Supermarkets are used when continuous flow is interrupted
Remember, flow is better. There is a cost associated with a
supermarket
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
8
3

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION 5
At what single point will you schedule production?
This is called the pacemaker process.
How you control the production here sets the pace for all of
the upstream processes.
Any process after the pacemaker process must be
continuous- flow ( no Supermarkets or pulls downstream of
the pacemaker process.
Therefore, the pacemaker process is frequently the most
downstream continuous-flow process in the value stream.
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
8
4

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 22
VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION 6
How will you level the production mix at the pacemaker
process?
Distribute the production of different products evenly over
time at the pacemaker process.
Grouping products makes it difficult to serve customers
who need something different than the batch being
produced at that time.
On-time deliveries suffer. A part that is due tomorrow
might not make it because it has to wait for the long
batches to complete.
The icon for leveling is

OXOX
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
8
5

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION 7
What increment of work will you consistently release and
take away at the pacemaker process?
Start by releasing small consistent amounts at the
pacemaker process, while simultaneously taking away equal
amounts of finished goods or paced withdrawal
This consistent increment of work is called the PITCH
Can be based on packout container quantity
Establishes interval for monitoring status of production
The key is to create a predictable flow which enables you to
act quickly to problems.

September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
8
6

A tool used to by some is the (heijunka box)
A load leveling box with a column for Kanban slots for each PITCH
interval and a row of Kanban slots for each product type.
The box indicates both the quantity produced and the time allocated
to make it (based on TAKT time)
VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION 7 - HEIJUNKA BOX
Type
A
Type
B
Type
C
8 8.10 8.20 8.30 8.40 8.50
Kanban
card A
Kanban
card C
9.00 9.10
Kanban
card A
Kanban
card A
Kanban
card B
Kanban
card B
Kanban
card B
Kanban
card C
One column p/pitch
pitch=10 min.
One row per
product type
Kanbans
responded
to from left
to right at
pitch
increments
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
8
7

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION 7 - SAMPLE
Type
A
Type
B
Type
C
8 8.10 8.20 8.30 8.40 8.50
Kanban
card A
Kanban
card C
9.00 9.10
Kanban
card A
Kanban
card A
Kanban
card B
Kanban
card B
Kanban
card B
Kanban
card C
Customer
requirement
Shipping


4
1
3
2
Pacemaker
process



Drop Kanban
at process
Pick up one
finished
quantity
Move finished
parts to
supermarket
Pick up
next
kanban
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
8
8

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 23
VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION 8
What process improvements will be necessary for the value
stream to flow as your Future State Map specifies?
If you dont answer this, youve just been wasting time.
Improvements to
Equipment
Procedures
Changeover time
Yield
Cycle time
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
8
9

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP QUESTION SUMMARY
What is the takt time?
Will we build to shipping or to a supermarket?
Where can we use continuous flow?
Where do we have to use supermarket pull systems?
+ At what single point in the production chain do we trigger
production?
What levels of work will we release and take away from the
pacemaker process?
; How will we level the production mix at the pacemaker process?
^ What supporting improvements will be necessary?
(e.g. uptime, set-up, training)
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
9
0

ACME Stamping
Case Study
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
9
1

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
FUTURE STATE MAP ACME CO. EXAMPLE
First View of the Future-State map Showing
Takt Time, Weld/Assembly Cell, and the
Finished-Goods Supermarket
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
9
2

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 24
VALUE STREAM STEP 6
ACME CO. FUTURE STATE 1
ST
VIEW
Stamping

Takt=60 sec.
C/T=56 sec.
C/O= 0
Uptime=100%l
2 shifts




Weld& Assy
L
R
Shipping
Staging
1X
Daily

State St.
Assembly
18,400 pcs/mo
-12,000 L
-6,400 R
Tray=20 pcs.
2 Shifts
Notice that on this Future-State Map the four
welding and assembly process boxes have been
combined into one process box to indicate the
continuous flow. A small sketch of a cell inside the
process box also indicates the cellular
manufacturing concept.
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
9
3

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
ACME CO. FUTURE STATE 2
ND
VIEW
Second View of the Future-State Map
Showing Stamping and Raw Material
Supermarkets
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
9
4

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
ACME CO. FUTURE STATE
Signal or Batch kanban
The stamping process needs to produce batches larger than 60
pieces.
A trigger point is set up in the stamping supermarket which includes
changeover, replenishment delay and other stamping problems. In this
case stamping will keep 1.5 days of parts in its supermarket
A signal Kanban is sent to the stamping process whenever the number
of bins remaining drops to a trigger ( minimum ) level
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
9
5

VALUE STREAM STEP 6
ACME CO. FUTURE STATE
What about Raw Material?
To build a plant level value stream the Future State must also
show a third supermarket at the receiving dock which holds
coils of steel
Acme can attach an internal withdrawal Kanban to each coil and
send these Kanbans to their own production control department
whenever another coil is used.
Production control can order coils based on their actual usage
instead of a best guess determined by MRP
The cards are then returned to the receiving dock as a signal
for shipments that are due.
Milk runs for daily deliveries should be considered at this point
September6, 2013
Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro
9
6

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 25
Stamping

Takt=60 sec.
C/T=56 sec.
C/O= 0
Uptime=100%l
2 shifts




Weld& Assy
L
R
Shipping
Staging
1X
Daily

State St.
Assembly
18,400 pcs/mo
-12,000 L
-6,400 R
Tray=20 pcs.
2 Shifts
20
1.5 days
batch
bin
Coils
PRODUCTION
CONTROL


State St.
Assembly
6-WEEK
Forecast
Daily
Order
1X
Daily
c
o
i l
coil
(at the press)
Value Stream Step 6
Acme Co. Future State 2
nd
View
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VALUE STREAM STEP 6
ACME CO. FUTURE STATE 3
RD
VIEW
Third (Final) view of the Future State Map
Showing Load Leveling, Changeovers, and
Timeline
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The material handler pulls the Kanbans out of
the leveling box one-by-one at the PITCH
increment and moves trays of brackets from
the finished goods supermarket to the
staging area one-by- one according to the
withdrawal Kanban.
Production
Control


Daily Orders
bin
bin
bin
OXOX
WELD&ASSY




L
R
bin
Shipping

Staging

Load Leveling Box
VALUE STREAM STEP 6
ACME CO. FUTURE STATE
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Stamping

Takt=60 sec.
C/T=56 sec.
C/O= 0
Uptime=100%l
2 shifts




Weld& Assy
L
R
Shipping
Staging
1X
Daily

State St.
Assembly
18,400 pcs/mo
-12,000 L
-6,400 R
Tray=20 pcs.
2 Shifts
1.5 days
batch
bin
Coils
PRODUCTION
CONTROL


State St.
Assembly
6-WEEK
Forecast
Daily
Order
1X
Daily
c
o
i l
coil
(at the press)

EPE= 1 shift.
EPE <10 min..
change
over
Weld
change
over
Welder
uptime
1 sec.
1.5 days
1 day
168 sec
2 days
Production Lead-time= 4.5 days



Processing Time= 169sec
20
20
20
20
OXOX
Daily order
90/60/30 day
Forecasts
Daily
Order
Value Stream Step 6
Acme Co. Future State Complete View
1
0
0

Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 26
VALUE STREAM STEP 7
GENERATE A VALUE STREAM PLAN
Create the yearly Value Stream Plan
Tie it to business objectives
Relate the Future State Map to your layout
What to do, by when, by whom
Fix the obvious
Broken equipment, needed maintenance
Purchase small tools, replace home-made fixtures
5S
Break the implementation into steps
Break your future state into loops
Each loop contains the flow up to and including a supermarket

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Pacemaker Loop
Stamping
Loop
Supplier Loop
Value Stream Step 7
Acmes Value Stream Loops
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Value Stream Step 7
Example Value Stream Plan
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VALUE STREAM STEP 8
START MAKING THE IMPROVEMENTS
Make continuous Value Stream Improvement the
responsibility of management
Dont wait to get your future state map perfect
The main point is ACHIEVING the future state

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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 27
VALUE STREAM STEP 9
CONDUCT VALUE STREAM REVIEWS
Make continuous Value Stream Improvement the responsibility
of management
Conduct regular Value Stream Reviews while walking the floor
Value Stream Manager and Plant Manager
Focus on obstacles to implementation

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Assy
Stamping
Coils
Suggestions:
- Review walking the flow
- Concentrate on the problems
Value Stream Step 9
Example Value Stream Review
1
0
6

VALUE STREAM STEP 10
REPEAT THE CYCLE
Keep working for perfection
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WHAT CAN BE ACHIEVED?
75% of wasted steps eliminated
Throughput time shrinks to less than 10% of current
state time
Demand amplification is eliminated
Quality higher and consistent from start to finish
Transport links and information needs shrink
dramatically
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 28
CONCLUDING COMMENTS
A future state cant be implemented all at once
Kaizen events help work towards the future state
Value Stream Mapping:
Helps you visualise more than a single process level
Links the material and information flows
Provides a common language
Provides a blueprint for implementation
Can be more useful than quantitative tools
Ties together lean concepts and techniques
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REVIEW OF GOALS
AND EXPECTATIONS
To introduce Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
To draw a current state map
Learn the mapping concepts and icons
To be able to design an improved value stream
Develop the ability to see the flow of a value stream
To draw a future state map
Learn the mapping concepts and icons

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QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?
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QUIZ 1
CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER
1. Value Stream Mapping looks at
A. The people, materials, and information flow in a value stream
B. The material and information flow in a value stream
C. The detailed operation steps within a cell
D. The steps that people take in designing and producing a product
2. A product family is used to:
A. Create a listing of all your products and the steps that are taken to
produce them
B. Decide which customers are most important to your customers
C. Identify and group products into families based upon whether they
pass through similar steps in your downstream processes
D. Divide the mapping teams up into groups with individual mapping
assignments
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 29
QUIZ 2
CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER
3. The best way to draw a value stream map is:
A. In pencil on the work floor, mapping the whole value stream
B. In your office with a good drawing software package
C. In pencil, by dividing the value stream into segments, and
assigning each segment to a different mapping team
D. In pencil, on the floor using standard times from engineering

4. Data boxes should contain data based on:
A. Engineering standards
B. The average measurement for a fiscal year
C. The measurement on an ideal day
D. What you observe as you draw the map
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QUIZ 3
CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER
5. Takt time is:
A. The customer demand rate
B. The rate at which the Sales departments plan to sell products to customers based
upon promotions
C. The fastest rate at which your individual operations can produce the products
D. The average amount of product brought by your customers in a week

6. A supermarket is used where:
A. Processes are close together but have different cycle times
B. A customer requires specialised products from a finished goods warehouse
C. Continuous flow is not possible due to distance, unreliability, or where processes
serve multiple product families
D. Pull can be implemented throughout the door-to-door value stream
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QUIZ 4
CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER
7. A pacemaker process:
A. Ensures that all processes downstream are controlled by supermarket
pull systems
B. Receives its products from supermarkets controlled by MRP systems
C. Is always a bottleneck, requiring constant supervision and staff
adjustment
D. Responds to the external customer, and is usually the point at which
production is scheduled in the door-to-door value stream
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5

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
Questions:
1. Describe the ways a business could use Value-stream
mapping. What will be the benefits?
2. You are visiting a production plant that has achieved
excellence and is a model site to bench mark in the
industry.
List what you are likely to see when visiting a lean
plant?
How will their current Value Stream might look like?
Read Leaning to See Parts IV and V
Pages 57-101
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Gestin de la Cadena de Suministro 30
QUIZ 5
CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER
1. Kanban cards are used to:
A. Improve flow by providing working instructions to the next operator
B. Control the lot size of a FIFO lane so that inventory doesnt build
C. Allows the operators to sort the cards into right sized batches to
minimise changeovers
D. Provides an instruction that regulates the sequence and timing of
production

2. When calculating takt time:
A. Include lunches and breaks in the available working time and reduce
them afterwards
B. Include lunches and breaks but do not include planned maintenance
C. Do not include lunches, breaks or planned machine maintenance as
available working time
D. Do not include lunches, breaks, estimated machine downtime, and any
other unavailable production time
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QUIZ 6
CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER
1. Creating value stream loops helps to:
A. Break the total value stream into manageable pieces and prioritise
them
B. Communicate the plan to senior management
C. Assign kaizen teams to be responsible for each loop
D. Develop measures for each loop based upon improving lead times

2. The point of value stream mapping is:
A. To document the current state for future reference
B. To create a future state diagram
C. To implement a future state with less waste
D. To reduce staffing in the production environment
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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
1. Summarize the steps to be taken in order to
achieve a Future-state map.
2. In your opinion, what are the conditions required
to ensure proper implementation of a future-state
map? What may be possible barriers to success?

Read Cellular Manufacturing
Getting Started (pages ix-xvii)
Chapters 1 & 2 (pages 1-21)

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