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BASE CASE DESCRIBTION

Energy saving in buildings is a very important topic that is being studied locally

Chapter 1
Introduction 1.1

and globally to reduce the cost o energy consumption! and di erent electrical and mechanical e"uipment that are used or di erent purposes# The energy saving in buildings depends on several actors including$ the com ort! the durability! the cost! and the e iciency# These actors must be studied care ully or each building that is chosen as a base case to ta%e the best options that are available ones# &rom t'o actors o them! the cost and e iciency! 'e create the com ort conditions or buildings! and have durability # or along time This type o study is chosen because its importance in our daily li e# (ost o engineers are dealing 'ith air conditioning rom many years ago until these days! and try #to ma%e successive improvements on it In (echanical Engineering ield! there is a combination o actors and methods that are discussed to save energy using the best choices and decisions or constructing #and ounding mechanical system 'ith more e icient in energy! durability! and the cost One o the mechanical energy ields is air conditioning or )*AC engineering+ it is an applied engineering science loo%ing or speci ying the techni"ues to get a medium 'ith com ort conditions or human! no matter 'hat is the case o surrounded air# )o'ever! the climate o outdoor conditions is very important role to determine the com ort indoor conditions! by increasing or decreasing the humidity and temperature or #indoor )*AC science also concerns on the "uality o indoor air! by ventilation techni"ues to obtain healthy conditions! by ta%ing the air inside that is polluted rom microbial and smo%ing outside and bring a resh air to inside! to get a com ort and healthy conditions or humans! and to produce an e,cellent products li%e medicines as an #e,ample A case study or studying energy saving in buildings is a hospital in -alestine that is located in Bethlehem city called Caritas )ospital# The hospital is chosen because the heath sector is considered as an important sector in any country! the development o healthy sector is a proo o the gro'th and progress o the country# Thus! the idea o saving energy in hospitals 'as ound to provide com ortable conditions or doctors!

patients! employees! and the visitors# In addition! there is diversity in energy acilities that number o acilities li%e the emergency centers that are open ./ hours! sterili0ation rooms! laundering rooms! and coo%ing 1%itchens2# Also! some rooms needed 3445 resh air or high ventilation rates li%e surgical rooms and sterili0ation rooms to remove the #microbial contamination To manage the energy saving in hospitals! there are several steps under consideration$ Every hospital must identi y one person to manage the hospital energy e iciency! and observing the rate o using energy and 'ater in hospital# In addition to! #controlling on air handling units! )*AC system! and lighting

Base Case Study 1.2


Caritas hospital 'hich 'as selected as case study in this pro6ect contains our levels! basement level! ground level! irst level! and second level# 7round level and irst #level are chosen to study because those levels contain the main activities in the hospital This hospital belongs to nursing aculty in Bethlehem city! thus there are e,am #rooms! school section and classrooms or the students! and there is a section or patients $ The ground level consists o #1See plan in the Appendi,2 &ive rooms o e,ams#3 T'o rooms or triage purposes#. #T'o rooms or eeding and changing or babies#8 9ater cycle 1bathroom2! the ne,t room is or 6anitor#/ #Store room and another bathroom#: #Control area room#; #Audiology booth room#< #Social 'or%er room#= #-ersonal use room#> .

#Accountant room#34 #Nurse room#33 #Reception#3. #9aiting and play %ids area#38 #(inor entrance and t'o corridors#3/ #Emergency treatment room#3: 1T'o rooms or dirty and clean linen 1laundry#3; #Dirty 'ash room#3< #Blood receiving room#3= #T'o labs o Chemistry and (icro?biology#3> #@ab store room#.4 #@aboratory o ice room#.3 #T'o rooms or laboratory use#.. #Blood storage room#.8 #A?ray room#./ #Bltrasound room#.: #Dar% room#.; #*isitorCs 'ater cycle#.< #Sta 'ater cycle#.= #E"uipment room#.> #Another bathroom#84 #T'o rooms o dirty utility#83 -layroom#8. #-hysiotherapy#88 #bedrooms! each room contain : beds 33#8/ 8

#T'o rooms or treatment discharge#8: #T'o isolation rooms#8; #Corridor or main entrance#8< #T'o rooms or tea %itchen#8= The area o the this level is 3844 mD $ &irst level consists o #1See plan in the Appendi,2 #bedrooms >#3 1classrooms# 1school section 8#. 1school o ices#1school section 8#8 #@aundry room#/ #@obby#: #@iving room E %itchen#; #Dirty utility#< #Fanitor room#= 19aiting# 1school section#> 1doctors rooms# 1school section 8#34 1@ibrary# 1school section#33 1T'o bathrooms# 1school section#3. #1Doctor 'aiting room 1school section#38 #1Dirty utility# 1School section#3/ #1premature rooms# 1-remature section 8#3: #1Bltra soundE social 'or%er# 1-remature section#3; #1-remature patient 'aiting# # 1-remature section#3<

#1DoctorsC o icesE con erence room# 1-remature section#3= #19ater cycle# # 1-remature section#3> #The area o the irst level is 3.34 mD

Climates for the region of case study 1.3


Caritas hospital is located in Bethlehem city in -alestine! thus the climate in -alestine is a ected by (editerranean Sea climate! dry summer and short! cool! rainy #'ater The climate o Bethlehem is pleasant in the most o the time in the year+ 'inter e,tends three months rom mid December to mid (arch and may be severe! during the rest o year the climate is temperate# )o'ever! the hottest months are Fuly and August# The summer is eased by bree0es that are coming rom (editerranean Sea# In addition! in the summer season the climate is hot in daytime and airly cool at night# The sunshine in summer is thirteen hours during a day! but in 'inter the sunshine is seven hours during a [day# [1

.Overview of Solar Water heating systems3#/


Solar energy and the application o solar energy are increasing because the solar radiation is parental source o energy and it is easy to get and collect and it has variety o #application# This energy reaches the earth on the orm o radiation :

Solar radiation is rene'able energy that comes rom the sun as a result o a #nuclear usion that ta%es place in the sun The radiation reaches to the earth on the shape o 'aves! about hal o these 'aves are invisible 1short?'aves2 these 'aves have an electromagnetic energy #The temperature o #solar radiation reaches to :=44G Solar 'ater heaters also called solar domestic hot 'ater systems can be a cost? e ective 'ay to generate hot 'ater or the homes# They can be used in any climate! and #the uel they use is sun shine and it is ree Solar 'ater heating systems include storage tan%s and solar collectors# There are H t'o types o solar 'ater heating systems$ active! 'hich have circulating pumps and [controls! and passive! 'hich donCt#I [2

(ost solar 'ater heaters re"uire a 'ell?insulated storage tan%# Solar storageH tan%s have an additional outlet and inlet connected to and rom the collector# In t'o?tan% systems! the solar 'ater heater preheats 'ater be ore it enters the conventional 'ater heater# In one?tan% systems! the bac%?up heater is combined 'ith the solar storage in one [tan%#I [2

Chapter . #)*AC @oad Analysis


Introduction 2.1
;

The main aim o the 1)*AC2 systems is to create com ort condition or the people inside spaces! and these conditions can be achieved by controlling the 1temperature! humidity and solar gains2 in the interest space# )ospitals are one o the most important spaces that must be conditioned in order to provide the best service or all #patients The most important thing that must be available in hospitals is the air conditioning 'hich include cooling! heating and iltration o the space! no'adays it becomes one o the most important thing that must be provided in any hospitals specially 'hen 'e are tal%ing about surgery rooms or intensive care rooms 'here the climate in #these rooms must be %ept steady on a speci ic com ort condition In our case 'e are to design an air conditioning system or 1Bethlehem2 hospital! 'e need to ind ho' much po'er must be used to accomplish this tas%! heating and cooling loads must be calculated! since they help in the selection o the air conditioning e"uipment needed or this pro6ect# The calculations o the heating and cooling load are based on the climate in ormation that is available about Ferusalem region since there are nearly the same climate bet'een Bethlehem and Ferusalem# 9hen calculating the heating needed or the pro6ect the main load that 'as ta%en into perspective 'as the #transmission load! since this load ta%es a large space 'hen considering cooling in 'inter The hospital buildings have a proper design shape and there service that must be provided# Technical systems must be designed and ad6usted to meet the re"uirements and needs o each individual environment# (ost countries have regulations that outline ho' these re"uirements may be ul illed! through proper design and operation o technical systems and the building it sel # This is mainly accomplished by regulation or thermal #insulation! ventilation! lighting! and indoor temperature and humidity levels

Comfort em!erature in medical sectors 2.2

<

Indoor temperature in hospitals is usually 13?/2 CJ higher than other natural building# A typical temperature or patientKs rooms is 1..?.82 CJ# This minimum value #should be maintained during the colder part o the year 9hen temperature discom ort is identi ied! it is usually more e icient to locali0e the source o discom ort and treat it! by controlling the temperature increasing or decreasing# This can be done! by covering cold 'alls! erecting screens against cold dra ts rom 'indo's! 'indo' rames and badly positioned air vents! and minimi0ing insulation #by installing sun shades

Indoor "ir #umidity 2.3


Indoor air should be at the middle neither too dry nor high humid 1'hich cause perspiration and increase the ris% o ungal gro'th2# The com ort rang covers relative #com ort condition in -sychometric chart )umidi ication 1due to operating cost2! and especially dehumidi ication 1due to initial cost2 are e,pensive# &or this reason it is o ten acceptable to allo' humidity levels to all belo' the supposed com ort level# Strict applied in rooms 'here conditions are #more critical! i#e# in operating theatres! intensive?care rooms! etc humidity o :4?;45! at temperature normal or hospitals 1..?./ JC2! see ig# 1.#32 or

Indoor "ir %uality 2.$


7ood indoor air "uality may be de ined as air that is ree o pollutants that cause irritation! discom ort or ill health to occupants! or premature degradation o the building materials! paintings! and urnishings or e"uipment# Thermal conditions and relative humidity also impact the perception o air "uality in addition to their e ects on thermal #com ort &ocus on indoor air "uality issues increased as reduced ventilation energy?saving strategies! and conse"uently increased pollution levels! 'ere introduced# A poor indoor environment can mani est itsel as a sic% building in 'hich some occupants e,perience

mild illness symptoms during periods o occupancy# (ore serious pollutant problems #may result in long?term or permanent ill?health e ects

Com ort condition point

[&igure '2.1() Comfort condition !oint on the *sychometric Chart. [3

#eating ,oad "nalysis 2#+


Space indicates either a volume or a site 'ithout a partition or a partitioned room or group o rooms# A room is an enclosed or partitioned space that is usually treated as a single load# A conditioned room o ten has an individual control system# A 0one is a space! or several rooms! or units o space having some sort o coincident loads or similar >

operating characteristics# A 0one may or may not be an enclosed space! or it may consist o many partitioned rooms# It could be a conditioned space or a space that is not air conditioned# A conditioned 0one is al'ays e"uipped 'ith an individual control system# A control 0one is the basic unit o control# To determine heating load or a speci ic building [the ollo'ing actors must be considered# [3

ransmission ,oad 2.+.1


)eat loss or heat gain due to a temperature di erence across a building element The heat trans erred through 'alls! ceilings! roo ! 'indo's glass! loors and doors is all [sensible heat trans er! re erred to as transmission heat loss# [$

-entilation 2.+.2
*entilation is the building service most associated 'ith controlling the indoor air "uality to provide a healthy and com ortable indoor environment# In large buildings ventilation is normally supplied through mechanical systems! but in smaller buildings such as single? amily homes it is principally supplied by lea%age through the building #1envelope 1i#e#! infiltration All structures have some air lea%age or in iltration# )eat loss??because the cold dry outdoor air must be heated to inside design temperature and moisture must be add to [the designed humidity# So the heat losses include Sensible and @atent )eat# [$

Infiltration 2.+.3
In iltration is the process o air lo'ing in 1or out2 o lea%s in the building envelope! thereby providing ventilation in an uncontrolled manner# All buildings are sub6ect to in iltration! but it is more important in smaller buildings# In larger buildings there is less sur ace area to lea% or a given amount o building volume! so the same

34

lea%age matters less# (ore important! the pressures in larger buildings are usually dominated by the mechanical ventilation system and the lea%s in the building envelope have only a secondary impact on the ventilation rate# )o'ever! in iltration in larger #buildings may a ect thermal com ort! control! and system balance

Cooling ,oad "nalysis 2..


Cooling @oad$ is a rate at 'hich energy must be removed rom a space to maintain the temperature and humidity at the design values# The cooling load 'ill generally di er rom the heat gain because the radiation rom the inside sur ace o 'alls and interior ob6ects as 'ell as the solar radiation coming directly into the space through #opening doesnKt heat the air 'ithin the space directly $There are t'o types o cooling load

/0ternal Cooling ,oads 2...1


These loads are ormed because o heat gains in the conditioned space rom #e,ternal sources through the building envelope or building shell and the partition 'alls $Sources o e,ternal loads include the ollo'ing )eat gain entering rom the e,terior 'alls and roo s .1 #Solar heat gain transmitted through the 'indo's .2 #Conductive heat gain coming through the 'indo's .3 )eat gain entering rom the partition 'alls and interior doors .$ In iltration o outdoor air into the conditioned space .+ 33

Internal Cooling ,oads 2...2


These loads are ormed by the release o sensible and latent heat rom the heat $sources inside the conditioned space# These sources contribute internal cooling loads -eople .1 Electric lights .2 E"uipment and appliances .3 I moisture trans ers rom the building structures and the urnishings are e,cluded! only in iltrated air! occupants! e"uipment! and appliances have both sensible and latent cooling loads# The remaining components have only sensible cooling loads# All sensible #heat gains entering the conditioned space represent radiative heat and convective

#eat ransfer Coefficient Calculation 2.1


)eat trans er coe icient or overall heat trans er coe icient is the reciprocal o the overall R?value# R?value is the thermal resistance or constructed materials that contain 11'alls! 'indo's! doors! etc 1BL 3Rtotal 9m.#MC (RtotalLA3G3E A.G.E A8G8ENE RoERi m.#MC9 1.#3 1.#. $9here #1A$ Thic%ness o 'all 1m G$ Thermal conductivity o the 'all# 9m#MC Ro $ Thermal Resistivity o the outside m.#MC9 Ri $ Thermal Resistivity o the inside m.#MC9

#eating load Calculation.#=


[ ransmission ,oad [3 2.2.1
("LBOAO1To?Tin2 1.#8 1B$ Overall )eat trans er Coe icient# 19Pm.# QC 3.

1A$ Area o plane# 1m. 1To$ Outdoor Temperature# 1QC 1Ti$ Indoor Temperature# 1QC

[-entilation [3 2.2.2
1"sL3#.8O*vO1To?Tin2 ( (2.5 1.#/ "lL8444O*vO1Ro?Rin2

#"S$ sensible heat gain rom ventilation #"@ $ latent heat gain rom ventilation 1*v$ volume lo' rate o outside air# 1@Ps #1'o$ humidity ratio o outdoor temperature# 1%g'aterP%gair #1'i$ humidity ratio o indoor temperature# 1%g'aterP%gair

[Infiltration [3 2.2.3
1"sL3#.8O*iO1To?Tin2 ( (2.7 1.#; "lL8444O*iO1Ro?Rin2

Cooling load2.3
ransmission ,oad 2.3.1
("LBOAO1To?Tin2 1.#= 1B$ Overall )eat trans er Coe icient# 19Pm.# QC 1A$ Area o plane# 1m. 1To$ Outdoor Temperature# 1QC 1Ti$ Indoor Temperature# 1QC

-entilation 2.3.2
38

1 1"lL8444O*vO1Ro?Rin2

1.#>

"sL3#.8O*vO1To?Tin2 1.#34

#"S$ sensible heat gain rom ventilation #"@ $ latent heat gain rom ventilation 1*v$ volume lo' rate o outside air# 1@Ps #1'o$ humidity ratio o outdoor temperature# 1%g'aterP%gair #1'i$ humidity ratio o indoor temperature# 1%g'aterP%gair

Infiltration 2.3.3
1"sL3#.8O*iO1To?Tin2 ("lL8444O*iO1Ro?Rin2 1.#33 1.#3.

/0ternal walls heat 4ain.#>#/


("LBOAOC@TDad6 1.#38 #C@TD$ Cooling @oad Temperature @oad 1B$ Overall )eat trans er Coe icient# 19Pm.# QC 1A$ Area o plane# 1m.

4lass #eating 4ain 2.3.+


("LS)7& OA OSC , C@& 1.#3/ 1S)7&$ Solar )eat 7ain &actor# 19P m. #SC$ Shading coe icient #1A$ Area o 'indo'# 1m. C@&$ Cooling load actor

3/

,ighting #eat 4ain.#>#;


("L@ighting Intensity 9 m.O Area S m.T 1.#3:

#&igure 1.#.2$ @ighting Intensity or any %ind o lamps

Sam!le calculation2.15
Overall heat transfer coefficient2.15.1 #By ta%ing the heat trans er coe icient o e,ternal 'alls as an e,ample

3:

&igure 1.#82$ Construction o the e,ternal 'all Table 1.#32$ The thic%ness! thermal conductivity and thermal resistance or each #constructed material o e,ternal 'all
E,ternal 9all &ace Stone Concrete Air gap Insulator )ollo' bric%s Cement plaster 1Thic%ness1m 4#4: 4#. 4#4. 4#4. 4#3 4#4. 1G19Pm#MC 3#< 3#<: 4#.= 4#4/: 4#> 3#. Ro Ri 1R1m.#MCP9 4#48 4#33 4#4< 4#// 4#33 4#4. 4#48 4#3: 5.31 LB 3#48

$1Substituting in e"uation 1.#3 RtotL4#4:3#< E 4#.3#<:E4#4.4#.=E4#4.4#4/:E4#34#>E4#4.3#.E4#48E4#3:L4#>< m.#C9 #BL34#><L3#48 9m. 3;

& ig u re 1 .# / 2$ C o n st r u ct io n o th e C oncrete -artition Table 1.#.2$ The thic%ness! thermal conductivity and thermal resistance or each #constructed material o Concrete -artition
hic6ness'm ' 4#4. 4#. 4#4. 7'W8m.9C ' 4#<. 3#<: 4#<. :'m.9C8W ' 4#48 4#33 4#48 4#3< <; +.23

Concrete !artitions Cement plaster Concrete Cement plaster

3<

#&igure 1.#:2$ Construction o the E,posed Roo Table 1.#82$ The thic%ness! thermal conductivity and thermal resistance or each #constructed material o Roo
hic6ness'm ' 5.52 4#4= 4#43 4#4; 4#3= 4#4. 7'W8m.9C ' 5.1 3#<: 4#4: 3#<: 4#>: 4#<. Ro Ri :'m.9C8W ' 4#48 4#4: 4#.. 4#48 4#3> 4#48 4#48 4#3/ 4#<. <; 1.33

/0!osed :oof Asphalt 'ater proving Concrete ba%ing Insulator Concrete )ollo' bric%s and concrete ribs Cement plaster

3=

#&igure 1.#;2$ Construction o the Roo Table 1.#/2$ The thic%ness! thermal conductivity and thermal resistance or each constructed #material o E,posed Roo
hic6ness'm ' 4#43 4#4.: 4#. 4#4= 4#. 4#4.

':oof'other floor 1Ceramic1 %armica Cement mortar Sand and gravel Concrete ba%ing )ollo' bric%s and concerts ba%ing Cement plaster

'7'W8m.9C 3#4: 3#<: 4#< 3#<: 4#>: 4#<.

':'m.9C8W 4#43 4#43 4#.> 4#4: 4#.3 4#48 4#:> <; 1..2

3>

#eating ,oad Sam!le Calculation 2.15.2


$Design conditions ToL: JC Tin L.. JC

Ro L4#43;4 Gg moistureP%g dry air Rin L 4#44=4 Gg moistureP%g dry air


This calculation or EAA( ROO(#: in ground level in the base case

ransmission ,oad 2.15.2.1


1"LBOAO1To?Tin

" E,ternal 'alls L 3#48 S9 m.# T U 3= S m. T U 3< SMCT L 83: 9 " Concrete partitions L :#=> S9 m.# T U =#8 S m. T U 4 SMCT " Roo L 3#;= S9 m.# T U3: S m. T U 4 SMCT " 9indo's L
[B 9indo's Single glass L:#< S9 m.# T [+

L 49 L 49

:#< S9 m.# T U.#. S m. T U 3< SMCT L .38 9 8 S9 m.# T U . S m. T U 4 SMCT L 4 9


=
otal

" Door L

< +22 W

-entilation 2.15.2.2
1"sL3#.8O*vO1To?Tin 1"lL8444O*vO1Ro?Rin 1*vLS No#o person ,C&(-erson T 1*vLC&( O4#/<. SC&(T 1@Ps2 1.#3; 1.#3<

9here 4#/<. is a conversion actor rom t8min to @s *v < 15 [ !ersons > ? 15 [ C&(-erson > < 155 C&@ *vL/<#. @Ps "s L 3#.8 , /<#.S @PsT ,3< SMCT L >=< 9 "@ L 8444 , /<#. S @PsT , 14#43;?4#44=42 SGg moistureP%g dry airT L 3388 9

"ventilation L >=<
.4

E 3388

L .3.4 9

Infiltration 2.15.2.3
1"sL3#.8O*iO1To?Tin 1"lL8444O*iO1Ro?Rin 1*iL 1*olume o the room2U1Air changePhr2U13444P8;442 1VRL 1@Ps2 1.#3= 1.#3> $1Substituting in e"uation 1.#3< *i L34:Sm8T , 1 34448;44 2 L .> @Ps

RO?Rin

humidity di erence

"s L3#.8 , .> [@s T , 3< SMCT L ;4; 9 "@L8444 , .>S @s T , 14#43;?4#44=42 SGg moistureP%g dry airT
L ;>; 9 "In L ;4; E ;>; L 384. 9 % total < +22 A 2125 A 1352 < 33+5 W < 3$53 7cal8hr

#Table 1.#:2$ Sample Calculation or heating load on E,cel Sheet


&loor B ) 4round room ) /?"@ :@.+ S!ecifications =o =in

4#43; 4#44= " 'mE(

'C o < + 'C 'C in < 22 'C

; 'W8mE.C(

'

oD in(

'CC(

% 'W(

.3

/0ternal walls Concrete !artition 1 Concrete !artition 2 :oof &loor Windows Foors

3#48 :#=> :#=> 3#;= 3#;= :#<4 8#44 of !erson B


34

3= =#8 3= 3: 3: .#. .

3< 4 4 4 4 3< 4

83: 4 4 4 4 .38 4

(Q ventilation (W

cfm8!erson
34 "ir changes hr8 .

,8s
/<#. ,8s .>

+22 % W 2125 %
W

(Q infiltration(W

-olume mG :.#:

1315 33+5 3$53

17rand total 19 17rand total 1GcalPhr

Cooling ,oad Sam!le Calculation 2.15.3


$Design conditions To L88 JC Tin L.. JC Gg moistureP%g dry air Gg moistureP%g dry air

Ro L4#44.= Rin L4#44=.

..

ransmission ,oad 2.15.3.1


1"LBOAO1To?Tin "'indo's L :#< S9 m.# T , .#. Sm.T , 33SMCT L 38= 9 /0ternal walls ? "LBOAOC@TDad6

East N/ Shaded

q = 1.03 S9 m.# T x 18 Sm.T x 22.5 SMCT = 417 W ... q = 1.03 S9 m.# T x 8 Sm.T x 13.5 SMCT = 111W q
total

= 528 W

4lass ? "LS)7& OA OSC OC@&

North .

q = 120 S 9m. ] 2.2 Sm.T

0.!5 = 251 W

Internal ,oad 2.15.3.2


,ight D Sq

=.: 9m. ,Area Sm. q = .: ,3:L8<: 9


Occu!ants ?

q = (# of Persons) x (q

sensible

+q

latent

"

11.#.4

q= #10" x #$0 % 40" = 1000 W


@achines ?

Heat gain due to the machines = (q


.8

se&s'(le

+ q late&t) = 305 W

Ventilation 2.15.3.3
1"sL3#.8O*vO1To?Tin 1"lL8444O*vO1Ro?Rin (*vLS No#o person ,C&(-erson T 1*vLC&( , 4#/<. *vL34 person, 34S C&(-erson T L344 *v 1C&( #)/s C*+

9here 4#/<. is a conversion actor rom t8min to @s = 344S tWPminT, 4#/<.L/<#. )/s

qs q)

=1.23x /<#. ,)/s] x 11SMCT = $38 W W q.e&t'lat'o& = $38 %7$5 = 1403 W

=3000 x /<#. S@PsT x #0.0082-0.0028" ,Gg 'aterP%g airT= 7$5

Infiltration 2.15.3.$
1"sL3#.8O*iO1To?Tin 1"lL8444O*iO1Ro?Rin *i= #/ol01e o2 the roo1" #3'r 4ha&5e/hr" #1000/3$00" 1#)/s

67= 78-7'& h01'd't9 d'22ere&4e


*i =105 Sm8T #1000/3$00" = qs =1.23x2! ,)/s] x 11SMCT =

2! )/s
3!5 W

q)=3000 2! ,)/s] #0.0082 0.0028" ,Gg 'aterP%g airT= 473 W q:&2 = 3!5%473 = 8$7 W q = 138 % 528 % 251 % 375%1000 % 305 % 1403 % 8$7 = 48$7 W 1q ./
total

total

= 1$$08

#;t0/hr

1#q q ("total sensibleL m Cp 1Troom?Tsupply2

total

= 1.4#to& re2 = 3230 W 1.#.3

se&s'(le<total

1mL "total sensibleCp1Troom?Tsupply &lo' rate in C&(L m , 3<;:#=8 Ggs #m= +ass 2lo> rate o2 a'r '& ?5/s Cp= Spe4'2'4 heat 4apa4't9 o2 a'r Cp=1004 @/?5.A

Ba'r =1.1$! A5/1C


m = (8.84344/,1..?382) Supply air flow rate = (0.357" ,A5/s] = 0.357 A5/s #17$5.83" = $31 C*+

*or the s0ppl9 o2 a'r '&s'de the roo1 the se&s'(le .e&t'lat'o& load 's s0(tra4ted 2ro1 the total se&s'(le load< s'&4e 't 4o&s01es o& the 2a& o2 $the 2a& 4o'l the& the &e> s0ppl9 a'r 2lo> rate 's 1"total sensibleL m Cp 1Troom?Tsupply 1mL "total sensibleCp1Troom?Tsupply m = (.:>.344/,1..?382) Supply air flow rate = (0. !7" ,A5/s] = 0.287 A5/s #17$5.83" = 507 C*+

#Table 1.#;2$ Sample Calculation or Cooling @oad on E,cel Sheet

.:

&loor B ) 4round room ) /?"@ :@.+ S!ecifications &loor Windows Foors Concrete !artition 1 Concrete !artition 2 /0ternal walls / S W H8 Shaded 4lass / H S W /0!osed roof

=o =in

4#44.= 4#44=. " 'mE(


3: .#. . =#8 3=

o < 33 'C'C in < 22 'C'C

; 'W8mE.C( 3#;=
5.7 3

'

oD in(

'CC(
0 11 0 0 0 'Sum 'W

% 'W(
0 138 0 0 0 138

:#=> :#=> ; 'W8mE.C( 3#48 3#48 3#48 3#48


SHGF 690 120 350 690

" 'mE(
3= 0 0 8

C, F
22.5 19 27 12 'Sum 'W SC 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 'Sum 'W

% 'W(
417 0 0 111 528

" 'mE( 4
2.2 0 0

% 'W(
0 251 0 0 251

; 'W8mE.C(
0 Intesity

" 'mE(
0

C, F
15 Area 3: 375 q/person

% 'W(
0

,ight

W8mE .:
(q (W of #

Occupants

person 10 q sensible q latent

W/person ;4 q/sens !"e q/"atent 40 #ca"/$r 262 0

% 'W(
1555

'% 'W
305 0 305

@achines

sum of !erson B cfm8!erson

.;

Fomestic #ot Water ,oad Calculation2.11


Domestic hot 'ater is used in several ields in the hospitals! in laundry to clean the clothes! and in the %itchen to clean the dishes and preparing the ood! in 'ater cycles or in baths or cleaning and 'ashing! and may be used in 'ashing the cars! and or the machines that are used or hot drin%s li%e co ee and tea! etc# and there are many #applications or the domestic hot 'ater The temperature o domestic hot 'ater that is reaching to the desired place o ten ranges :4?;4 QC# But or %itchens the temperature o 'ater is usually ;: QC according to the hygienic standards# In addition to! or %indergartens the temperature o 'ater is #bet'een /4 and :4 QC that is or sa ety reasons Basic elements o solar 'ater system are lat plate collector! storage tan%! pump! #connecting pipes and valves 9ater circulation in the storage tan% and collector can be either by natural circulation or by orced circulation 'here a pump is activated by means o temperature #di erential controller

$9ater heating systems can also classi y as Direct circulation systems$ 'here the dra'n 'ater is the same! 'hich circulates #3 #through the collectors Indirect circulation systems$ the luid that removes heat rom collector is di erent #. than that dra'n 'ater# A heat e,changer is added 'here the heat is e,changed 1trans erred2 rom the collector loop or luid 'ith the 'ater 'ithdra'n rom the #system The evaluation o hot 'ater consumption is based on the act that the occupants #and visitors need no more than cleaning and lavatory use

Calculation of #ot Water Consum!tion .#33#3


.<

&or (edical and educational center sta ! the average daily consumption o hot #'ater assumed as 8: @P-erson The daily hot 'ater demand can be calculated by using the ollo'ing e"uation The daily hot 'ater demand L Average personal demand O X person &or .;4 occupants he daily hot water demand < 3+ I 2.5 <3155 ,8day

) Fomestic #ot Water Ca!acity 2.11.2


As the heating load o building varies during the year! depending on the #temperature outside and the building 'ill be under service all over the year season The heat load o the system can be calculated by the ollo'ing e"uation 1YD#)#9LmD#)#9 , Cp' , ZT 1.#.. $9here 1mD#)#9 $ )ot 'ater lo' rate 1%gPs VT$ temperature di erence bet'een re"uired temperature hot 'ater supply [ #1inlet 'ater temperature 1oC C- $ speci ic heat o 'ater L /#3=/ %FP%g#G #1Y $ heat load o system 1%9 The mass lo' rate o 'ater is calculated by the ollo'ing e"uation 1mD#)#9 <\'aterI* 1.#.8 1\ at /4 JC L >>. 1%gPmW 9here #1\$ 'ater density 1%gPmW #1* $ volume lo' rate o hot 'ater 1mWPs #1mD#)#9 $hot 'ater lo' rate 1%gPs $&or 3. hour operation per day ,34?8 m8day ,>>.S%gm8T#3.hrday,S8;44TSshrTL4#.4> %gs >344

.=

&rom 'eather data -alestinian in ormation! the Fanuary has the lo'est ambient #temperature 'hich 'ill be our design temperature or cold 'ater supply Tin L : JC Tout L ;4 JC 1Y L 4#.4> O /#3=/O 1;4?:2 L /=#4> %9 19ithout heat losses

#eat ,osses /stimation 2.11.3


-iping system 1steel pipes! Schedule? /42# -ipes system insulated using -//FO #&,/? insulator 'ith lo' thermal conductivity %L 4#4.< 9Pm#G Total pipe length L :4 m [)eat losses in insulated -iping System L 84 9P m# [. -ipe heat losses L :4 O 84 L 3#: %9 Y tot L heat load E piping losses Y tot L /=#4> E 3#: L />#:> %9

System and /=ui!ment Selections3#33


#Table 1.#<2$ The )eating Cooling load or both t'o levels in Gilo'atts or base case
Level !"o#nd $i"st %ota" (Heating Load (KW 194 185 379 ( ooling Load (KW 301 254 555

Boiler Selection for #eating ,oad 2.12.1 Total )eating load or irst and ground level L8<> G9 -iping system 1steel pipes! schedule /42 'ith insulation o type -//FO &,/? #insulator 'ith lo' thermal conductivity GL4#4.< 9Pm#G

.>

#Total pipe length <4 m [&rom 1AS)RAE handboo%! )*AC Application2 [. )eat losses in insulated piping system L84 9Pm -ipe lossesL<4 , 84 3444L.#3 G' YTotalL)eating loadE-iping losses YTotalL8<>E.#3L8=3#3 G' #Bsing Fedietrich boiler Catalog 'e select the boiler that has capacity rom 844 to 8>4 G' O type 4 $52

S Table 1.#=2$ Technical data or heating boiler rom Catalog AppendixSC


Lengt% L $l#e no''le D o#t side ( $lo) and "et#"nta**ing D o#tside + / 0 Wate" ,onta,t Wate" "esistan,e 1o" Zt =15 K o&b#stion %a&be" /ia&ete" Widt% Lengt% 2ol#&e 5il 7at#"al gas && && in,%es && && lite"s &ba" && && && &33 &33 6g.% 6g.% &ba" 6g 1505 250 1.2 --2 235 1427 366 17 530 638 1183 0.31 0.563 650 700 1.1 8 1470

$l#e )a4s vol#&e $l#e gas )eig%t o&b#stion %a&be" "esistan,e 8e,tion n#&be" Weig%t

Burner Selection 2.12.2 The selection o Burner 'as rom Fe Fietrich &;/, OI, B;:H/:S -roducts #Catalog STable 1.#>2$ Technical data or burner rom Catalog AppendixSC
95/0L 9 42:18

84

7#&be" o1 stages +#"ne" o#t*#t $#el oil 1lo) "ate ="eset o#t*#t an be 1itted to boile"s ?e,o&&ended no''le 1o" t%ese boile"s 9a@. abso"bed *o)e" 9oto" *o)e" =o)e" s#**l4 7oise level at 1& 7et )eig%t

6W 6g.% 6W !> !>0

2 285:515.;185 15<6.24<1:43<5 450.;280 309<408 507

W W (d+ (( 6g.%

1100 650 &ono.50H']230 69 ^ 51

#eating System *um! Selection 2.12.3 )ot 'ater -ump or heating system #The total heating load L 8<> %9 mheating boilerL Total loadCp, ZT VT L TS ? Tr L3: QC 9here TS L supply hot 'ater temperature L <4QC Tr L return 'ater temperature L ::Q C mL 8<>/#3=O3:L ; GgPsec Y L m\'ater L;>=4 L4#44;3.. m8Ps Set the velocity o 'ater L.#: mPs 1Area L 9ater lo' rate1 m8s2*elocity ms 1.#./

AL _d./L Y* L 4#44;3.. .#:L.#/: ,34?8 m. CCdL4#4:; m 'e ta%e dL.#:

#To select the hot 'ater pump the lo' rate and the head must be %no'n #The lo' rate 'as calculated and it is e"ual ` mD#)#9L ; GgPsec 83

Calculating the head riction losses To ind the riction actor rom (oody chart the Reynolds number and relative #roughness must be %no'n At lo' rate e"uals to ; @Ps and diameter e"ual :; mm * L .#: mPs [The %inematic viscosity o 'ater is 4#/:,34?; mDPs# [1 ReL*D\aL*DvL.#: , 4#4:;4#/:,34?;L8#3 ,34: [&or commercial steel the roughness 1b2 L4#444; m# [1 bDL4#444;4#4:;L4#434< &rom (oody chart at Re L 8#3 ,34: and bD L4#434<! the riction actor is 4#4/3
1 p

h = hf +hm + Z

1 .#.:

:Where #hp L pump head re"uired in m # Vc L elevation bet'een the boiler and the highest point in the system #h L head riction losses in m #hm L head minor losses in m

h L ,l,*..,g,DL4#4/3,;<,.#:..,>#=3,4#4:;L3:#;. m

.#ead minor losses The e"uivalent length o the pipes 'ithin ittings! elbo's and valves in this building #about <4 m hmL ,le"u#,*..,g,DL4#4/3,3/#:,.#:..,>#=3,4#4:;L8#8= m

hp L 3:#;.E8#8=E =1 (a,imum building height2 L .< m

8.

The selection o the -ump 'as rom ,OW":" -roducts Catalog! the pump
selection at total head L .< m and lo' rate L.. m8h ! the model is 'S# 2+ J S# 32 series( ' 32D255835( (Operating characteristics at .>44 rpm :4 )0 ! . -oles# Appendix (C

/0!ansion an6 Selection for #W Boiler 2.12.$ An e,pansion tan% or e,pansion vessel is a small tan% used in closed 'ater heating systems and domestic hot 'ater systems to absorb e,cess 'ater pressure! 'hich can be caused by thermal e,pansion #as 'ater is heated

Re"uired volume o closed e,pansion tan%s can be e,pressed as '*e,pL.*'v3v4?3pap4?pap3 '2.2. $9here #1*' L *olume o 'ater in the system 1gallon! liter #1v4 L Speci ic volume o 'ater at initial 1cold2 temperature 1 m8P%g #1v3 L Speci ic volume o 'ater at operating 1hot2 temperature 1m8P%g #1pa L Atmospheric pressure 1psia #1p4 L System initial pressure ? Cold pressure 1psia #1p3 L System operating pressure ? )ot pressure 1psia 1*olume o 'ater in the boiler L 8;; @ 1&rom the catalog *olume o 'ater in the heating coil L .44 @ *olume o 'ater in the piping L Total length o pipe O area , _/ ,4#43>4: .E :4 , _/ ,4#4:4= .E 34 , _/ ,4#4;8: .L.4< @ .;4L 88

*olume o 'ater in the supply tan% L .444 @ #Total volume o 'ater in the system L .<<8 @iter $&or this pro6ect To L :J C ! T3 L <:J C *' L .<<8 @ v4 L 4#443 m8P%g! v3 L 4#4434.; m8P%g pa L 343#8 %-a! p4 L =4 %-a! p3 L <44 %-a *e,pL. , .<<8,4#4434.;4#443 ?3343#8=4?343#8<44 @ 3.> L

&rom the Bell and 4osset Catalog in the Appendix [C ] I Industries K the @odel B is #& D35-K thus the volume of the e0!ansion tan6 is 1...1 ,

Chiller Selection 2.12.+ Total Cooling load or irst and ground levelL::: %9 L 3:> TR . Bsing -etra Catalog the type o chiller is *SC 1.+ S Table 1.#342$ Technical data or Chiller rom Catalog AppendixSC

8/

Chilled Water *um! Selection 2.12.. #The total cooling load L::: %9 mLTotal @oad %'Cp , ZT $9here VT L TS ? Tr L3: TsL= MC TrL.8 MC mL::: /#3= , 3:L=#=:. Ggs At TavgL=E.8.L3:#: MC \'aterL>>= Ggm8 YL m\'aterL =#=:. >>=L4#44==;> m8s Set the velocity o 'ater L.#:mPs Area L 9ater lo' rate1 m8s2*elocity ms AL4#44==;>.#:L8#:: ,34?8 m. KKDL 4#4;<. m ! DL 8 #To select Chilled 9ater pump lo' rate and head must be %no'n

hp = hf +hm + Z
:Where #hp L pump head re"uired in m # Vc L elevation bet'een the boiler and the highest point in the system #h L head riction losses in m #hm L head minor losses in m

Calculating the head riction losses At lo' rate e"ual =#=:. @Ps and diameter e"ual ;<#.4 mm * L .#:mPs [The %inematic viscosity o 'ater is mDPs# [1

3#44: 34
8:

ReL*D\aL*DvL.#: , 4#4;<.3#44:,34?;L3;< 3;/

[&or commercial steel the roughness 1b2 L 4#444; m# [1 bDL4#44=>8 #&rom (oody chart at ReL 3;< 3;/ and bPD L4#44=>8! the riction actor is 4#48= h L ,l,*..,g,DL4#48=,;<,.#:..,>#=3, 4#4;<. L3. m

.#ead @inor losses The e"uivalent length o the pipes 'ithin ittings ! elbo's and valves in this building a # bout 3/#: m hmL ,@e"u,*..,g,DL4#48=,3/#:,.#:..,>#=3, 4#4;<. L.#; m

hp L 3.E.#; E= L ..#; m

The selection o the -ump 'as rom ,OW":" -roducts Catalog! the pump
'selection at total head L ..#; m and lo' rate L 83#=< m8h! the model is 'S#$5series (Operating characteristics at .>44 rpm :4 )0 ! . -oles# Appendix(C K ' $5D1.58$5(

Boiler Selection for F#W 2.12.1 The capacity o boiler that used in Domestic hot 'ater is :4 G'# &rom Fe Fietrich hermi=ue S. ". HiederLronnK &:"HC/ .The type selected is DT7 3.4?34

S Table 1.#332$ Technical data or D#)#9 Boiler rom Catalog AppendixSC

8;

*um! selection for F#W 2.12.2 #The total load or domestic hot 'ater L :4 %9 mLTotal @oad %'Cp , ZT $9here VT L TSupply d T eed L:: TsupplyL;4 MC 1T eedL:MC 1 The 'orst temperature in 'inter mL:4 /#3= , ::L4#.3<: Ggs At TavgL:E;4.L8.#: MC \'aterL>>: Ggm8 YL m\'aterL 4#.3<:>>:L.#3=; , 34?/ m8s (Set the velocity o 'ater L3#: mPs Appendix (A Area L 9ater lo' rate1 m8s2*elocity ms AL.#3=; , 34?/3#:L3#/:<. , 34?/m. DL./ , A_ L ./ , 3#/:<. , 34?/ _L4#438;. m CC DL4#:8; CC #eeeeee DL8/ #To select D)9 pump lo' rate and head must be %no'n hp = hf +hm + Z :Where #hp L pump head re"uired in m # Vc L elevation bet'een the boiler and the highest point in the system #h L head riction losses in m

8<

#hm L head minor losses in m

Calculating the head riction losses At lo' rate e"ual 4#.3=; @Ps and diameter e"ual 38#;. mm * L 3#: mPs [The %inematic viscosity o 'ater is 4#4<: , 34?; mDPs# [1 ReL*D\aL*DvL3#: , 4#438;.4#4<: , 34?;L.<. /44 [&or commercial steel the roughness 1b2 L 4#444; m. [1 bDL4#4//4:8 #&rom (oody chart at ReL .<. /44 and bPD L4#4//4:8! the riction actor is 4#4;< h L ,l,*..,g,DL4#4;<,;.,3#:..,>#=3, 4#438;. L8/#>= m )#ead @inor losses The e"uivalent length o the pipes 'ithin ittings ! elbo's and valves in this building a # bout 3. m hmL ,@e"u,*..,g,DL4#4;<,3.,3#:..,>#=3, 4#438;. L;#<< m

.hp = 8/#>= + ;#<< A 2 < $3.1+ m

The selection o the -ump 'as rom ,OW":" -roducts Catalog! the pump
selection at total head L />#<: m and lo' rate L 4#<=; m8h! the model is 'S#2+ D S# 32 series( '32D2558$5 ( KOperating characteristics at .>44 rpm :4 ()0! . -oles# Appendix (C

/0!ansion an6 Selection for F#W 2.12.3 The boiler 'ater content is 3> @ The pipes 'ater content is about :44 @ Total volume o 'ater in the system L :3> @ *e,p#tan%L 3.4 , *systL 3.4 , :3>L.; @ #SThe e,pansion tan% volume is .=#< @ SSee appendi, The e,pansion tan% is rom ITT Company (odel )&T?;4#
&igure 1.#<2 $ E,pansion Tan%

8=

STable 1.#3.2$ Technical data or D#)#9 E,pansion Tan% rom Catalog Appendi,SC

Storage an6 Selection for F#W 2.12.15 The daily hot 'ater demand L Average personal demand O Number o persons !&or .;4 occupants he daily hot water demand < 3+ I 2.5 < 3155 ,8 day It is recommended by the designer to design the volume o storage tan% assuming that <45 o hot 'ater in +the tan% is usable storage tan% capacity L >344P4#< L 38444 @ Storage tan% capacity L 38 m8 Burner Selection for F#W 2.12.11 9ith boiler capacity :4 G9 rom Fe Fietrich catalogue the burner selected is (@ 25581S (odule o capacity range is rom 8= ?<3 G9 Appendix (C &an Coil Selection 2.12.11 &an coil unit 1&CB2 is one o di erent )*AC systems! it orm as closed?loop that containing cooling and heating coils and an !It can be used to control the temperature in the space 'here it is installed only # It is controlled either by a manual onPo s'itch or by #thermostat 8>

&CB could be used in residential! commercial! and industrial buildings# The most #important characteristic o an coil system is that it does not have any duct'or%

re

&igu #'2.2() Schematic diagram or the cycle o the an coil

&CB 'or% by receiving hot or cold 'ater rom a central plant by pipes and add or #removes heat rom air in the limited space using an to move the air through the coil (The selected an coils is selected rom *etra Catalogue See Appendix (C "ir FistriLution and Fuct Selection 2.12.12 The supply air should in the right temperature! humidity and in the right "uantity so that 'hen it is mi,ed 'ith the room air! the resultant room air condition alls 'ithin #the com ort condition The correct amount o air 1m8Ps or? C&(2 that passes in each section or branch o duct must be %no'n and can be calculated rom room sensible heat gain #Noise level? -ressure drop in dampers! outlets!? coilsNetc# are obtainable rom #manu acturer catalogues

/4

-ressure drop in straight ducts and

ittings is calculated or selected based on ? #recommended velocities Com!onents of a duct system #a2 Straight sections #1b2 &ittings 1Bends! Branches N etc #c2 Dampers

d2 Terminal units and air outlets as grills! di users! register N #1etc #e2 )eating coil # 2 &ilters

)@ethods of duct siMing 1*elocity method 1simple! not accurate 132 #*olume lo' rate in each branch and main duct has been given *elocity o air in each branch and main duct has been selected rom recommended #velocities 1E"ual pressure drop 1or e"ual riction method! accurate enough! 'idely used 1.2 This method gives better results# It reduces si0e o duct and cost and is suitable or #completer system #1Static region method 1 or balancing o branches 182 1T?method 1 or computer simulation 1/2

he method used is
/=ual friction method #(ain duct recommendation velocity is rom = mPs Branches recommendation velocity is rom ; mPs Ste!s of using this method

/3

Determine the air "uantity re"uired or each 0one to cover the cooling load 1since the D1 cooling load is more critical than the heating load# So the duct design must depend on the .'cooling load .@ocating the supply di users on the plane D2 .'ta%e the main duct velocity < mPsec 1&rom velocity recommended or the buildingsD3 NAnd by using the ductilator )9e can determine the remaining un%no'n values '-ressure &riction 1-aPm 'Rectangular Duct Dimensions 19idth A Depth 4rill Selection 2.12.13 Su!!ly 4rill The grills selected is rom "nemostat Catalogue The selected grills are sho'n in plans o duct distribution or the pro6ect (See Appendix ( C

Supply grill

:eturn air

/.

All return grills are located in the corridors and 'e added door grills or each room in order to allo' return air to pass through these door grills to return grills e,ists in (corridors# The grills selected is rom "nemostat Catalogue See Appendix ( C

Return grill

CEFGEH GEHEE= :+FH8/EI C3SE


Introduction 3.1
Ghe '1pro.e1e&ts '& o&e s'de o2 e&er59 4o&s01pt'o&< the other s'des are a22e4t'&5 >'th those '1pro.e1e&ts< s04h as sele4t'&5 te4h&'q0es to de4rease the '&2'ltrated a'r '& doors a&d >'&do>s (9 0s'&5 '&s0lat'o& '& >'&do>s< th0s >'ll red04e the 4ool'&5 a&d heat'&5 loads '& the (0'ld'&5s< a&d (9 spe4'2'4 ?'&ds o2 >alls a&d 0s'&5 the '&s0lat'o& >'ll red04e the heat'&5 a&d 4ool'&5 loads< too. :& add't'o& to< the ?'&d o2 5laJ'&5 #s'&5le or do0(le 5laJ'&5" that 's 0s'&5 the do0(le 5lass 's 1ore e22'4'e&t tha& s'&5le 2or de4reas'&5 the loss '& e&er59K #th0s< 5'.e 0s a 4o12ort 4o&d't'o& >'th lo> e&er59 4o&s01pt'o& /8

Ghose '1pro.e1e&ts are do&e (9 pro.'d'&5 pro4ed0res 2or '1pro.'&5 s04h as l'5ht'&5 s9ste1 (9 0s'&5 4o&trol s9ste1 o& l'5hts '& the (0'ld'&5s< >h'4h &o &eed to ?eep the l'5hts s>'t4h'&5 o& '2 there 's &o (od9 '& the spa4e '& the (0'ld'&5 a&d 0s'&5 the l'5hts >'th lo> e&er59 4o&s01pt'o& per 0&'t t'1e< a&d 0s'&5 a spe4'2'4 t9pes o2 l'5hts that 5'.e 0s a lo>er e22e4t o& the 4ool'&5 load a&d 1ore e22'4'e&t '& l'5ht'&5< also 1ore e22'4'e&t '& 4o&s01'&5 ele4tr'4al po>er 2ro1 the so0r4e. *0rther1ore< 0s'&5 a spe4'2'4 ?'&d o2 shad'&5 s04h as '&ter&al #shad'&5 or exter&al shad'&5 l'?e roller (lades 's also a22e4t o& the load

Im!roved factors that affect the load 3.2 Overall #eat ransfer Coefficient Calculations 3.2.1
The B ?value or overall heat trans er coe icient is one o the actors that a ect in heating and cooling modes# The B?value represents the value o trans erring heat o any %ind o i,tures in the space per unit area in such a speci ic temperature di erence! and it is the inverse o the total resistances o all the components in the i,ture such as 'alls! thus 'hen the total thermal resistance o a speci ied 'all increases! then the value o overall heat trans er coe icient decreases# Thus! the thermal insulation is used in both base case and improvement! but in the improving the thic%ness o the insulation is increased rom .cm to 8cm! that is increasing the value o the total thermal resistance o #the e,ternal 'alls and e,posed roo s In 'indo's! the base case the type o the 'indo's is chosen as single glass and its overall heat trans er coe icient is :#< 9PmD#G! and in the double glass 'ith ;mm thic%ness the value o B is 8#: 9PmD#G# The data belo' sho'ed the values or base case #and improvement or B?values Base Case './0ternal walls ';D-alue < 1.53 W8mE.7 1Insulation thic%ness! . cm 1E,truded -olystyrene //

'./0!osed :oof ';D-alue < 1.33 W8mE.7 1Insulation thic%ness! 3 cm 1E,truded -olystyrene '.Windows ';D-alue < +.1 W8mE.7 #Single glass! clear glass Im!roved Case './0ternal walls ';D-alue < 5.2$ W8mE.7 1Insulation thic%ness! 8 cm 1E,truded -olystyrene './0!osed :oof ';D-alue < 1.5. W8mE.7 1Insulation thic%ness! . cm 1E,truded -olystyrene '.Windows ';D-alue < 3.+ W8mE.7 #Single glass! clear glass #Table 8#3$ Bf *alue or di erent 'alls and 'indo's
+ase ase B:1a,to" W.&2.K 1.03 5.89 1.39 1.68 5.7 A&*"ove&ent ase B:1a,to" W.&2.K 0.84 5.89 1.06 1.68 3.5

0@te"nal )all Ante"nal )alls 0@*osed ?oo1 1loo" !lass o1 )indo)s

#&igure '3.1() cross section sho's the main construction o the 'all /:

Shading Coefficient 3.2.2


The shading coe icient is de ined as the ratio o solar heat gain o a gla0ing assembly o speci ic construction and shading devices at summer design solar intensity and outdoor and indoor temperatures! to the solar heat gain o a re erence glass at the #same solar intensity and outdoor and indoor temperatures The shading coe icient SC is an indication o the characteristics o a gla0ing and the associated shading devices# The data belo' sho's the values or base case and [improvement or SC value# [$ Base Case Shading coefficient 9ith no shading 4#>: Im!roved Case Shading coefficient Dar% roller shads 'ith double glass regular shade #4#; &or electric lights installed inside the conditioned space! such as @ight g,tures

,ighting 3.2.3

hung belo' the ceiling! the sensible heat gain released rom the electric lights! the emitting element! and light g,tures is e"ual to the sensible heat released to the conditioned Space! both depend mainly on the criteria o illumination and the type and #e iciency o electric lights Base Case 1 Incandescent light bulb 1 ;4 9 Intensity .:9m. Im!roved Case 1 Compact luorescent 1 3: 9

/;

#&igure 18#.2$ Compact &lorescent

$There are t'o types o lights that are used in the pro6ect Incandescent d that are used in the base case! they have relatively short lives#3 1typically 3444 to .444 hours o use2 and are the lo'est e icient o common light sources# In act! only about 3: percent o the energy they use as light d the rest #becomes heat Compact &luorescent @amps d that are used in the improved case ! this type is#. similar in operation to standard luorescent lamps but it is manu actured to produce colors similar to incandescent lamps# They are available in a range o types and si0es to meet most applications including do'n lighting! ambience! tas% and general space lighting# Compact &luorescent @amps are about our times as e icient as incandescent and last up to 34 times longer# C&@Ks combinations that replace incandescent in standard i,tures are substantially more e,pensive than [their incandescent counterparts.[2

&igure '3.3($ The comparison bet'een base and improved cases or the previous three # actors

/<

Im!roved Case ,oad Calculations 3.3 #eating ,oad Calculations 3.3.1 A ter improving the three actors1B?values! SC and lighting2 ! 'e too% as a sample calculation as base case EAA( R(#: to compare bet'een heating load and cooling load Table 1 8#.2 )eating load calculation or EAA( R(#: room in ground level
&loor B )4:O;HF room ) /?"@ :@.+ S!ecifications /0ternal walls Concrete !artition 1 Concrete !artition 2 :oof &loor Windows Foors =o =in

4#43; 4#44= " 'mE(


3= =#8 3= 3: 3: .#. .

'C o < + 'C 'C in < 22 'C

; 'W8mE.C( 4#=/ :#=> :#=> 3#;= 3#;= 8#:4 8#44 of !erson B


34

'

oD in(

'CC(
3< 4 4 4 4 3< 4

% 'W(
.:< 4 4 4 4 383 4

(Q ventilation (W

C&@8!erso n
34 "ir changes hr8 .

,8s
/< ,8s .>

322 % W 2125 %
W

(Q infiltration(W

-olume mG :.#:

1315 3212 3223

17rand total 19 17rand total 1GcalPhr

/=

Cooling ,oad Calculations 3.3.2 Table 18#82$ Cooling load calculation or EAA( R(#: room in ground level
&loor B ) 4round room ) /?"@ :@.+ S!ecifications &loor Windows Foors Concrete !artition 1 Concrete !artition 2 /0ternal walls / S W H8 Shaded 4lass / H S W /0!osed roof =o =in o < 33 'C'C in < 22 'C'C

4#44.= 4#44=. " 'mE(


3: .#. . =#8 3=

; 'W8mE.C( 3#;=
3.5 3

'

oD in(

'CC(
0 11 0 0 0 'Sum 'W

% 'W(
0 85 0 0 0 85

:#=> :#=> ; 'W8mE.C( 4#=/ 4#=/ 4#=/ 4#=/


SHGF 690 120 350 690

" 'mE(
3= 0 0 8

C, F
22.5 20.5 28.5 13.5 'Sum 'W SC 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 'Sum 'W

% 'W(
340 0 0 91 &31

" 'mE( 4
2.2 0 0

% 'W(
0 158 0 0 158

; 'W8mE.C(
= lam!s

" 'mE(
Fu

C, F

% 'W(
0 C,&

FL

/>

,ight

..: (q (W of # person 10 q sensible q latent

3#.
q/person

3 270

Occupants

@achines

W/person ;4 q/sens !"e q/"atent 40 #ca"/$r 262 0

% 'W(
1555

'% 'W
305 0 305

sum of !erson B (Q ventilation (W


34 -olume

C&@8!erson
34 "ir changes hr8 .

,8s
/< ,8s .>

% W 1$53 %
W

(Q infiltration(W

mG :.#: ' O ", 'W ' O ", 'Btu8hr '. O ", 'ton ref O ", =8sensiLle @ass flow rate m ' O ", 'C&@

2.1
&&7& 152'' 1(27 21)8 0(2&3 &30

Table 18#/2 Total heating and cooling load in base and improved case
Level !"o#nd $i"st %ota" (Heating Load (K) ( ooling Load (K)

3;> 3:<
326

.8< 3>:
432

&or Calculating the -ercentage saving Energy Saving EnergyLTotal load in base case dTotal load improved case Total load in base 5 case

:4

Saving EnergyLTotal load in base case dTotal load improved case Total load in base 5 case &or the percentage saving energy in cooling load is
5 Saving EnergyL::: d/8.:::L 22.1$ 5

&or the percentage saving energy in heating load is


5 Saving EnergyL8<> d8.;8<>L 13.!8 5

# Table 18#:2 The percentage saving energy in cooling load


Spa4e Lro0&d *loor *'rst *loor Gotal ;ase Case Gotal )oad AW 843 .:/ ::: :1pro.ed Case Gotal )oad AW .8< 3>: /8. Sa.'&5 E&er59 AW ;/ :> 3.8 5 Sa.'& 5 .3#.; .8#.8 ..#3;

# Table 18#;2 The percentage saving energy in heating load


Spa4e Lro0&d *loor *'rst *loor Gotal ;ase Case Gotal )oad AW 3>/ 3=: 8<> :1pro.ed Case Gotal )oad AW 3;> 3:< 8.; Sa.'&5 E&er59 AW .: .= :8 5 Sa.'& 5 3.#=> 3:#3/ 38#>=

# &igure '3.$ ( ) The percentage saving energy in )eating load

:3

# &igure '3.+ ( ) The percentage saving energy in Cooling load

Solar water heating system $ .3 Solar domestic 'ater system is used the sun to provide hot 'ater to the buildings to use in di erent ields# A solar system is installed in a building that has conventional heating system by oil or gas boiler# Solar 'ater heating systems are a good #technology that 'or%s 'ell even in cold climates y!es of solar collectors 3.$.1 A solar collector is a %ind o heat e,changer than trans orm the solar radiant energy into heat# In the solar collector! the energy trans er is rom distant source o #radiation energy to luid# Collectors are divided into three types #a2 &lat plate collector #b2 Concentrating collectors #c2 Evacuated tube collectors

:.

And each type divided into other individual types! in this chapter 'e 'ill ocus on the lat #plate and evacuated tube collectors 'hich 'ill be used in our pro6ect

&igure '3..( ) Solar collectors F#W system &lat !late solar collectors system design 3.$.2 &lat?plate collectors are the most common solar collectors or use in solar 'ater? #heating systems A lat?plate collector consists basically o an insulated metal bo, 'ith a glass or plastic cover 1the gla0ing2 and a dar%?colored absorber plate# Solar radiation is absorbed plate and luid by the absorber trans erred to a

:8

&igure '3.1( )&lat !late solar collectors

that circulates through the collector in tubes# In an air? based collector the #circulating luid is air! 'hereas in a li"uid?based collector it is usually 'ater &lat?plate collectors heat the circulating luid to a temperature considerably less than that o the boiling point o 'ater and are best suited to applications 'here the demand temperature is 84?<4JC 1=;?3:=J&2 andPor or applications that re"uire heat during the #'inter months

:/

,CC-*-.,%/01 SO.,2 /22,3/,+C1 (W(H/*24

9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 *O+%H

S&igure '3.2 ( (onthly average daily solar radiation or Bethlehem regions# S34 &lat collectors can be mounted in a variety o 'ays! depending on the type o building! application! and si0e o collector# Options include mounting on a roo ! in the roo it sel ! #or ree standing

/vacuated tuLe solar collectors system design 3.$.3 A type o solar collector that can achieve high temperatures! in the range 3<4J& 1<<JC2 to 8:4J& 13<<JC2 and can! under the right set o circumstances! 'or% very e iciently# Evacuated?tube collectors are! ho'ever! "uite e,pensive! 'ith unit area costs typically about t'ice that o lat?plate collector# They are 'ell?suited to commercial and industrial heating applications and also or cooling applications 1by regenerating re rigeration cycles2# They can also be an e ective alternative to lat?plate collectors or domestic space heating! especially in regions 'here it is o ten cloudy# &or domestic hot #'ater heating! lat?plate collectors tend to o er a cheaper and more reliable option

::

/vacuated tuLe solar collectors

&igure '3.3()

An evacuated?tube collector consists o parallel ro's o glass tubes connected to a header pipe# Each tube has the air removed rom it to eliminate heat loss through #convection and radiation# Evacuated?tube collectors all into t'o main groups Com!arison Letween flat !lat and evacuated collectors 3.$.$ By the same procedures and calculations that 'ere used in base case! the 'ater #heating load calculations and the heat losses estimation calculated or the improved case Y tot L heat load E piping losses Y tot L /=#4> E 3#: L />#:> %9 A ter calculating the 'ater heating load! this e"uals to the use ul heat rom the collectors! the collectors 'as selected rom A(COR CO(-ANh and the e ective #absorber area or single gla0ing collector L 3#8. m. Bethlehem city is located at 83#:
o

latitude Northern hemispheres and 8:

$longitude and the ollo'ing condition must be satis ied or 'ater heating system design #Collectors must be oriented to the south :;

#CollectorCs inclination angle calculated as ollo's 1@atitude E 3: o 1National energy research center! Amman! Fordan
o

to ma%e use o solar radiation at 'inter seasons! but or easier /;#: L 3: E83#: L #designed it 'as ta%en as /: o $9here #C ,ol $ collector e iciency #1 I $ solar radiation alling on the tilted collector 19P m. #1Y u $ use ul heat 19 #1A $ collector area 1m. $In (ay month! by the ollo'ing procedure the collectors area could be ound ALYtoti O I

The value IL >44 9Pm. is the average solar radiation value alling on the tilted collector# SS: AL/>:>44#/:O>44 L3..#// m. Number o collectors needed L AAabsorberL 3..#//3#8.L>.#< Number o collectors L >8 In order to determine the distance bet'een the collectors to avoid shading e ect! $the ollo'ing e"uation are used D L @ cos j E 1@ sin j cos k2tan l #1@ $ Collector length 1m D $ Collector slope angle #k $ A0imuth angle o the sun #l $ Solar altitude angle D L 3#>4 cos /: E 13#> sin /: cos .: 2tan 84

D L 8#/: m *alues o sunKs position ta%en rom Hguidelines or energy e icient Sbuilding designIS: :<

& igure 18#342 $ The distance bet'een the collectors to avoid shading e ect /vacuated uLe Solar system By the same procedures and calculations that 'ere used in base case! the 'ater #heating load calculations and the heat losses estimation calculated or the improved case Y tot L heat load E piping losses Y tot L /=#4> E 3#: L />#:> %9 System Design8#>#3 A ter calculating the 'ater heating load! this e"uals to the use ul heat rom the collectors! the collectors 'as selected rom A(COR CO(-ANh and the e ective #absorber area or single gla0ing collector L .#: m. Bethlehem city is located at 83#:
o

latitude Northern hemispheres and 8:

$longitude and the ollo'ing condition must be satis ied or 'ater heating system design #Collectors must be oriented to the south #CollectorCs inclination angle calculated as ollo's 1@atitude E 3: o 1National energy research center! Amman! Fordan

:=

to ma%e use o solar radiation at 'inter seasons! but or easier /;#: L 3: E83#: L #designed it 'as ta%en as /: o 5 The average annual e iciency o the collector 'as assumed to be i col L :; ALYtoti O I $9here #i col $ collector e iciency #1 I $ solar radiation alling on the tilted collector 19P m. #1Y u $ use ul heat 19 #1A $ collector area 1m.

$In (ay month! by the ollo'ing procedure the collectors area could be ound ALYtoti O I AL/>:>44#:;O>44 L >=#8> m. Number o collectors needed L A.#:L >=#8>.#: L 8>#8: Number o collectors L /4 SThe value >44 9Pm. is the average solar radiation value alling on the tilted collector# S:

&?Chart is a program that is developed by 1national energy research center! solar 'ater heater! Fordan! .4482# The energy supplied by the collector to the total consumed #load called the &? actor! 'hich can be calculated using the ollo'ing e"uation

:>

NNNN&L3#4.>h?4#4;:A?4#./:hDE4#443=ADE4#4.3:hW $9here the actors A!h are de ined as

= FRU L ( F C R P FR ) (Tref Ta ) t AC P L [ (33#; + 3#3=TW + 8#=;Tm .#8.Ta ) ]

) n ( F C R P FR ) ( ) a" P ( )n ! = FR (

N AC P L

$9here

F C R P FR = 3 + ( AC FR U L ) P ( m $ p ) (3 P

) ] 3

( ) a" P ( ) n = ( 4#4>; 4#>/)


JAmbient temperature! C $

Ta
1JRe erence temperature derived e,perimentally 1344 C $ Tref E ective collector area! mD $

AC
1Solar irradiance 1FPmD $
T

&actor o collector e iciency slope $ FRU L

;4

&actor o intersection o collector e iciency curve 'ith y?a,is $

FR ( )n

The value o &? actor e"uals to 0ero 1'hen total consumed load covered by the #1au,iliary heating2! and one 1'hen total load covered by solar collectors

The economical calculations are necessary to decide the optimum number o #collectors to provide uel and money saves along a utili0ing time

&igure '3.11() The number o lat collectors using &?chart program

;3

#1Area$ solar collector area! 1mD #1Tan% area$ storage tan% sur ace area! 1mD #1B tan%$ storage tan% heat trans er coe icient! 19PmD #)A e $ heat e,changer e iciency E iciency$ average to normal 'hen solar radiation is perpendicular to #1collector sur ace 1recommended value 4#>; #1JT'o$ re"uired collectorKs outlet 'ater temperature! 1C Storage capacity$ amount o 'ater to be stored or each s"uare meter o collectors area! #11littersPmD #1Slope$ collectors slope! 1degrees !1Speci ic heat capacity o the luid to be heated 1/3=; FP%g#CJ# or 'ater $ C% #1Daily 'ater consumption$ "uantity o re"uired hot 'ater! 1%gPday

;.

&igure18#3.2 The number o evacuated collectors using &?chart program

&rom the previous &?chart igures 'e see that the total utili0ing o 'ater heating is 8>5 o all months in the year ! The other ;35 o hot 'ater 'ill depend on the au,iliary system such as boiler The evacuated tube 'ill give a bout /= 5 utili0ing o 'ater heating is o all months in the year The other :. 5 o hot 'ater 'ill depend on the au,iliary system such # as boiler System and /=ui!ment Selections of the im!roved case 3.+ Boiler Selection for heating load +.1 .3 Total )eating load or irst and ground level L326 G9

;8

-iping system 1steel pipes! schedule /42 'ith

insulation o type -//FO &,/? #Total pipe length <4 m

#insulator 'ith lo' thermal conductivity GL4#4.< 9Pm#G 1 &rom 1AS)RAE handboo% ! )*AC Application )eat losses in insulated piping system L84 9Pm -ipe lossesL<4 , 84 3444L.#3 G' YtotalL)eating loadE-iping losses YtotalL8<>E.#3L8.=#3 G' #Bsing Fedietrich boiler Catalog 'e select the boiler that has capacity 8;4 G' O type 4 333" (See Appendix (C Burner Selection +.2 .3 The selection o Burner 'as rom Fe Fietrich &;/, OI, B;:H/:S -roducts [ > o type @ 32D3 S (See Appendix (C

#eating System *um! Selection +.3 .3 )ot 'ater -ump or heating system As the same procedure in base case #The total heating load L 8<> %9 mL Total loadCp, ZT VT L TS ? Tr L3: QC ;/

9here TS L supply hot 'ater temperature L <4QC Tr L return 'ater temperature L ::Q C mL 8.;/#3=O3:L :#. GgPsec Y L m\'ater L:#.>=4 L4#44:84: m8Ps Set the velocity o 'ater L.#: mPs Area L 9ater lo' rate1 m8s2*elocity ms

AL _d./L Y* L 4#44:84: .#:L.#3..,34?8 DL./ , A_ L ./ , .#3..,34?8 _L4#4:3> m CC DL. #To select the hot 'ater pump the lo' rate and the head must be %no'n #The lo' rate 'as calculated and it is e"ual ` L :#. GgPsec
m&

Calculating the head riction losses To ind the riction actor rom (oody chart the Reynolds number and relative #roughness must be %no'n At lo' rate e"uals to :#. @Ps and diameter e"ual :3#> mm * L .#: mPs #The %inematic viscosity o 'ater is 4#/:,34?; mDPs ReL*D\aL*DvL.#: , 4#4:3> 4#/:,34?;L.#== ,34: #&or commercial steel the roughness 1b2 L4#444; m bDL4#444;4#4:3>L4#433: &rom (oody chart at Re L .#== ,34: and bD L 4#433:! the riction actor is 4#4/4 h L ,l,*..,g,DL4#4/4,;<,.#:..,>#=3,4#4:3>L3;#// m ;:

Head minor losses The e"uivalent length o the pipes 'ithin ittings! elbo's and valves in this building #about <4 m hmL ,le"u#,*..,g,DL4#4/4,3/#:,.#:..,>#=3,4#4:3>L8#:; m

hp L 3;#//E8#:; E =1 (a,imum building height2 L .= m

The selection o the -ump 'as rom ,OW":" -roducts Catalog! the pump
'selection at total head L .= m and lo' rate L3> m8h ! the model is 'S#2+ J 32Series (Operating characteristics at .>44 rpm :4 )0 ! . -oles# See Appendix (C

/0!ansion an6 Selection 3.+.$ An e,pansion tan% or e,pansion vessel is a small tan% used in closed 'ater heating systems and domestic hot 'ater systems to absorb e,cess 'ater pressure! 'hich #can be caused by thermal e,pansion as 'ater is heated

Re"uired volume o closed e,pansion tan%s can be e,pressed as '*e,pL.*'v3v4?3pap4?pap3 '3.1 $9here #1*' L *olume o 'ater in the system 1gallon! liter #1v4 L Speci ic volume o 'ater at initial 1cold2 temperature 1 m8P%g #1v3 L Speci ic volume o 'ater at operating 1hot2 temperature 1m8P%g #1pa L Atmospheric pressure 1psia ;;

#1p4 L System initial pressure ? Cold pressure 1psia #1p3 L System operating pressure ? )ot pressure 1psia 1*olume o 'ater in the boiler L8:4 @ 1&rom the catalog *olume o 'ater in the heating coil L .44 @ *olume o 'ater in the piping L Total length o pipe O area , _/ ,4#43>4: .E :4 , _/ ,4#4:4= .;4L .E 34 , _/ ,4#4;8: .L.4< @ *olume o 'ater in the supply tan% L3:44 @ Total volume o 'ater in the system L ..:< #@iter $&or this pro6ect To L :J C ! T3 L <:J C *' L .<<8 @ v4 L 4#443 m P%g! v3 L 4#4434.; m8P%g pa L 343#8 %-a! p4 L =4 %-a! p3 L <44 %-a *e,pL. , ..:<,4#4434.;4#443 ?3343#8=4?343#8<44 @ 34: L &rom the Bell and 4osset Catalog in the "!!endi0 [C > I Industries K the @odel B
8

(is #& D.5-K thus the volume of the e0!ansion tan6 is 121.1 , See Appendix (C #&igure 18#3/2 Technical data or e,pansion tan%

Chiller Selection 3.+.+ Total Cooling load or irst and ground levelL/8. %9 L 3.8#: TR ;<

.Bsing *etra Catalog the type o chiller is *SC 12+ 1&igure '3.1+() Technical Data or chiller selected rom -etra catalog# 1See Appendi, C @ 9 T $ @ #eaving 'ater Temperature L :MC 1CA-$ Total Cooling Capacity 1TR Cooling System *um! Selection 3.+.. #The total cooling load L /8. %9

(mLTotal @oad 1%'2Cp , ZT

18#. $9here VT L TS ? Tr L3: TsL= MC TrL.8 MC mL/8. /#3= , 3:L:#>= Ggs K At TavgL=E.8.L3:#: MC

Ghe& the de&s't9 o2 >ater 's= \'aterL>>= Ggm8d ) The flow rate of waterd YL m\'aterL :#>= >>=L4#44:>>> m8s #Set the velocity o 'ater L.#:mPsd Area L 9ater lo' rate1 m8s2*elocity ms AL4#44:>>>.#:L.#8>; ,34?8 m. DL./ , A_ < ./ , .#8>; ,34?8 _L4#4:::. m CC DL.#: ;=

#To select Chilled 9ater pump lo' rate and head must be %no'nd hp ' hf (hm ( )* :Where #hp L pump head re"uired in m # Vc L elevation bet'een the boiler and the highest point in the system #h L head riction losses in m #hm L head minor losses in m

Calculating the head friction losses At lo' rate e"ual :#>= @Ps and diameter e"ual ::#.: mm * L .#:mPs #The %inematic viscosity o 'ater is mDPs

3#44: 34 ;
ReL*D\aL*DvL.#: , 4#4:::. 3#44:,34?;L38< /:8 #&or commercial steel the roughness 1b2 L 4#444; m bDL4#434=4 #&rom (oody chart at ReL 38< /:8and bPD L4#434=4! the riction actor is 4#48> h L ,l,*..,g,DL4#48>,;<,.#:..,>#=3, 4#4:::. L3/#>>m .#ead minor losses The e"uivalent length o the pipes 'ithin ittings! elbo's and valves in this building #about 3/#: m hmL ,@e"u,*..,g,DL4#48>,3/#:,.#:..,>#=3, 4#4:::. L8#./ m h! < 3/#>> A 8#./ A 2 < 2..23 m

The selection o the -ump 'as rom ,OW":" -roducts Catalog! the pump
selection at total head L .;#.8 m and lo' rate LYL.3#; m8h! the pump selected is #'S#2+DS#32 series( '32 D1.581+( K Operating characteristics at .>44 rpm :4 )0 ! . -oles ;>

Boiler Selection for F#W 3.+.1 The boiler used to provide hot 'ater in 'inter is the same as the base case boiler o :4 G9# The capacity o boiler that used in Domestic hot 'ater is :4 G'# &rom FeD Fietrich hermi=ue S. ". HiederLronnK &:"HC/ .The type selected is DT7 3.4?34. #The burner selection is same as base case *um! selection for F#W 3.+.2

The selection o the -ump 'as rom ,OW":" -roducts Catalog! the
pump selection at total head L />#<: m and lo' rate L 4#<=; m Phr! the model is 'S#2+ D S# 32 series( '32D2558$5 ( KOperating characteristics at .>44 rpm :4 #)0! . -oles
8

/0!ansion an6 Selection for F#W 3.+.3 The e,pansion tan% selected or D)9 is the same as Base case e,pansion tan% Storage an6 Selection for F#W 3.+.15 The daily hot 'ater demand L Average personal demand O Number o persons !&or .;4 occupants The daily hot 'ater demand L 8: O .;4 L >344 @P dayd It is recommended by the designer to design the volume o storage tan% assuming +that <45 o hot 'ater in the tan% is usable storage tan% capacity L >344P4#< L 38444 @ Storage tan% capacity L 38 m8 Assume that @ L 8D L ;R $9here #1@ L storage tan% length# 1m #1D L storage tan% base diameter 1m #1R L Storage tan% base radius 1m

<4

$Storage tan% volume can be estimated using the ollo'ing e"uation *L_ R. O @ L ;_OR8 $9here #1* L storage tan% volume 1m8 #R L 1 *;_ 2 3P8 L 4#==/ m #D L 3#<;< m #@ L :#84/ m $Storage tan% sur aces area Storage tan% bottom and top area L . _ O r. L /#>3 m. Storage tan% side sur ace area L . r _ @ L 3. _ r. L .># /; m. Storage tan% total sur ace area L /#>3E .># /; L 8/#8< m.

Storage an6 Insulation


E"uation can be used to determine the vertical tan% insulation actor 19Pm.2 ((+,-A.

f, 3 3 = R A 1t a"/ t a 2
$9here #R$ thermal resistivity o insulation! m.m G P 9 $ speci ied raction o stored energy that can be #lost in time n #1Y $ stored energy! 1F #1 A $ e,posed sur ace area o storage unit! 1m. #1n $ given time period! 1s 1tavg$ average temperature in storage unit! 1JC ta $ ambient temperature surrounding storage unit during season 'hen it 'ill be #1heated! 1JC

<3

$9here t avg L :: JC t a L 3: JC 1R L 8#;; 1m.m GP' 1R L 4#.<8 1'P m.m GP3 f,-A.0 ' 34#>0 But R L @ P % $9here #1@ $ insulation thic%ness 1m 1% $ thermal conductivity 19Pm#G [&rom -alestinian energy e icient building code! page 33.2# [+2 +&or e,truded polystyrene as insulator 1% L 4#4.= 1'Pm#G #@ L % O R L 4#4.= O 8#;; L 4#34.: m L 34#.: cm B L thermal transmittance 19P m.m G2 L 3PR ; < 5.213 W8 m2O 7

Solar Collectors Selection 3.+.11


&rom the calculation in section 8#8#/! the collector is selected is evacuated tube 'ith X o collectors that are /4 collectors# &rom the Catalog H"S /* CO@*"HP! the #collection area o the collector is .#;. m.1 See Appendix (C! or more details

/0haust &an Selection 3.+.12


&or the e,haust &an that is selected by calculating the total lo' rate o the supply air in 1C&(2 or the bathrooms and %itchens! and dirty utilities! the total lo' rate is :/44 C&(# Thus! it is needed to provide the system 'ith 8 e,haust ans rom the catalog o SO,/: Q *","; Com!anyK the model o those 8 ans is 1CB@D2158255D R(K or .(more in ormation See Appendix (C -ariaLle :efrigerant -olume '-:-( #-"C system 3.. SWhat is -:- 3...1 <.

A *R* uses the same principle as every airconditioner+A compressor compresses the re rigerant 1gas phase2 to high pressure P high temperature! Then gas condensate in the condenser and it give the heat to the outside air! then lo'er the pressure by use o an e,pansion valve to get lo' pressure P lo' temperature li"uid! This li"uid passes then to #the indoor 'here it ta%es on heat by evaporating to gas again! And the cycle restarts The di erence 'ith a simple split is that! 'ith *R*! there is an e,pansion valve in the indoors ! every indoor can be controlled individually 1o course this means another control algorithm than split! Separate rooms 'ith di erent heat loads and di erent re"uired room temperatures

.&igure '3.1.() The distribution o the indoor units o *R* system The presence o people in a room 'ill increase heat production in the room! so the temperature 'ill start to rise# 9hen the temperature sensor eels this it 'ill react by increasing the opening o the e,pansion valve# This 'ill increase the re rigerant lo' #through the indoor unit and so increase his capacity .&igure '3.11() The distribution o air o *R* system 9hen the re rigerant lo' through an indoor unit is increased! this e ect the pressure the main line 'hich 'ill go do'n# The compressor 'ill react to this by #increasing his rotation speed and so increasing re rigerant lo' .&igure '3.12() The principle o the outdoor units o *R* system

<8

*R* systems represent the only capital pro6ect applications that genuinely operate on the direct e,pansion principle# *R* systems enable a single outdoor unit to operate in con6unction 'ith as many as 84 indoor units! each o 'hich can be controlled individually# The ma6or di erence bet'een *R* and conventional split 1SRA2 applications is that in the latter! every indoor unit must be piped directly to the outdoor unit# The latest *R* systems ho'ever! lin% indoor and outdoor units in much the same #'ay that computers are connected to a net'or%

/=ui!ment used in -:- system 3...2 The main e"uipment used in *R* system is the outdoor unit! indoor unit! copper #pipes and control system #&igure '3.132$ *R* system including Outdoor! Indoor units and piping system

In a *R* system! the heat absorbed rom a room is e,hausted directly to the outside air 'ithout the intervention o any other medium# The system is there ore! the most energy e icient today or capital pro6ect applications# The dra'ing sho's clearly! #the impact made by a *R* system on a typical building

</

&igure 18#.42$ Indoor unit used in *R* system#

&igure18#.3 2 $ re net 6oint

-:- /=ui!ment Selection 3...3 All e"uipment the selected in *R* system ta%en rom Fai6en Company

Material List
2Table 18#<2$ the devices that are used in *R* system in base case 2See Appendix 3

@odel
RAhY/.-<93BA RAhY//-=93BA &ASY3.:-<*EB &ASY8.-<*EB &ASY/4-<*EB &ASY:4-<*EB &ASY;8-<*EB &ASY=4-<*EB G)RY..(.4T G)RY..(.>T G)RY..(;/T G)RY..(<:T BRC3D:. B)&Y..-3:3<

%ty
3 3 3 . 3 84 . / 8 8 3. .4 /4 .

Fescri!tion
)eat pump *R* III - CO(-ACT )eat pump *R* III - CO(-ACT S ? Concealed ceiling mounted S ? Concealed ceiling mounted S ? Concealed ceiling mounted S ? Concealed ceiling mounted S ? Concealed ceiling mounted S ? Concealed ceiling mounted RE&NET branch piping %it RE&NET branch piping %it RE&NET branch piping %it RE&NET branch piping %it Remote Controller Outdoor unit multi connection piping %it or 8 outdoors

Chapter / Economic Analysis


Base Case Cost "nalysis $.1
In determining the base case cost+ the e ected e"uipments and elements only 'ill be compared because the other e"uipments and elements are constant by si0e and cost #and 'ill not change in the total cost o the pro6ect <:

) &i0ed cost analysis for Lase case $.1.1


#Table belo' sho's the details o i,ed cost o the e"uipment and devices #Table 1/#32 &i,ed cost base analysis$ this is sho'n in table belo'
+a&02a4t0 rer 1#Co1pa&9 M0a&t' t9 3 3 3 3 . . 3 3 Gotal Fr'4e 1 o2 NS >!344 .;4 3=4!444 3>=!444 /!:44 /!444 .!.44 :4 4 AW / AW : AW ; AW = AW > AW 34 AW 33 AW 3/ AW 3> ;!444 3!=44 ;!<:4 :!384 :!.44 <.4 3!;44 .!444 .!<.4 3!.44 3;!.:4 34!4=4 ..!444 3!:44

Eq0'p1e&t
Boiler 1heating2 Capacity E,pansion tan% 1heating2 *olume Chiller Capacity )#9#-ump C#9# -ump Boiler 1D)92 Capacity D)9 -ump E,pansion tan% 11D)9 &an Coils price / 6 / 8 / 10 / 12 / 14 / 18 / 20 / 24 / 30 Storage tan% price 11D)9 Insulated Air Ducts Non? insulated Air Duct Ceiling (ounted 1Di user 1S"uare Ceiling Return 7rill &uel Tan% 1)eating and D)92! 9ee%ly consumption &uel -ipes E,ternal 9alls Insulation E,posed roo Insulation

*eat0res 1AW #327$01 ?4al/hr 8=3 ) .8/ 1AW#15! GH ::: E =27 1 < M= 22 1COh E=22.$ <31.87 1COh 1AW #42!!2 ?4al/hr :4 E=4!.75 1 < M= 0.78$ 1COh ) .=#<

N&'t #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No 12 12

o Fr'4e >344 .;4 3=4!444 3>=444 ..:4 .444 ..44 :4 844 8;4 /:4 :<4 ;:4 <.4 =44 3444 38;4 3.44 .: 3; 344 34

De?detritch ITT -etra @o'ara @o'ara De?detritch @o'ara ITT -etra

.4 : 3: > = 3 . . .
1 650 630 220 150

? ? ? ? ? &it0? Sommons Systems ? ? ?

1C > 1P ;:4
(&P (("ea 630

4000) 11 4opper 20el p'pes 3; 41 th'4?&ess . 41 th'4?&ess 3

1 10 1340 1200

#No 1 12 12

.:;4 = 3 4#<:

.!:;4 =4 3!8/4 >44

<;

7lass price E,haust &an @ighting lamps cost

?
SO@ER [ -A@AB

s'&5le N = 5.7 M=5400C*+ :&4a&des4e&t

200 3 800

12 #No #No

=#: 8444 3

3!<44 >!444 =44 $31K$$5

1 o Total o (echanical Bill 1 Bs

)Annual Operating

ost for base !ase $.1.2


ost (#eating

)'"oiler Operating

Eeat'&5 (o'ler 4apa4't9 381 AW ;0r&er 4apa4't9= &uel oil lo' rate S GghrT , 3444@m8 \diesel #Where B #d'esel" = 850 ?5/1C ;0r&er 4apa4't9= 8: Gghr, 3444@m8 =:4 L/3#3<; @h Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3 'ee%yrL3<;/ hryr Where .3 'ee%yr represe&ts the per'od o2 the >'&ter seaso& a&d 't 's #eq0'.ale&t to 5 1o&ths '& the 9ear I'esel pr'4e= $ NIS@ = %&' o@ ;o'ler operat'&5 4ost = #(0r&er 4apa4't9" Q #operat'&5 per'od" Q #d'esel 1pr'4e @h, 3<;/ hryr , 3#: o@L34=!>:. oyr /3#3<;

)'"oiler Operating

ost ((#)

IEW (o'ler 4apa4't9 's 50 AW ;0r&er 4apa4't9= &uel oil lo' rate S GghrT , 3444@m8 \diesel ;0r&er 4apa4't9= ; Gghr, 3444@m8 =:4 L< @h Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , :. 'ee%yrL/8;= hryr Where :.'ee%yr represe&ts all >ee?s '& the 9ear that the (o'ler 0sed to #s0ppl9 hot >ater '& 12 hr per da9 I'esel pr'4e= $ NIS@ = %&' o@

<<

;o'ler operat'&5 4ost = #(0r&er 4apa4't9" Q #operat'&5 per'od" Q #d'esel 1pr'4e @h , /8;= hryr , 3#: o@L/:!=;/ oyr <L

) hiller Operating

ost

#Ele4tr'4al 4h'ller 4apa4't9 = 555 ?W Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3'ee%yrL3<;/ hryr Electric G9hpriceL4#< NISG9hL 4#3<: oG9h Ch'ller 8perat'&5 4ost = #Ch'ller 4apa4't9" x #operat'&5 per'od" x #0&'t 1e&er59 4ost %9 , 3<;/ hryr , 4#3<: oG9hL3<3!8.> oyr ::: L ) *an oils Operating ost

2 3.era5e ele4tr'4al *a& 4o'l 4apa4't9 = 0.7 AW "see #ppendi$ % Ghese .al0es re2er to theor9 4hapter as '& 4atalo5< see #ppendi$ Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3'ee%yrL 3<;/ hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = +&, NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h *.Cs operat'&5 4ost = #*.C 4apa4't9 x &01(er o2 *.CG'unit " x 1 #operat'&5 per'odo%9h " x #0&'t e&er59 4ost o%9h G'unit , ;/ unit ,3<;/ hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL38!;== oyr 4#< L ) 'Pu-p Operating 2 3.era5e ele4tr'4al p01p 4apa4't9 = 3 AW ost ( heating "see #ppendi$ %

Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3'ee%yrL 3<;/ hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = +&, NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h F01p operat'&5 4ost = #F01p 4apa4't9 G'unit x &01(er o2 p01p" x 1#operat'&5 per'od ,hryrT " x #0&'t e&er59 4osto%9h 8G'unit , .unit ,3<;/ hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL3!=:. oyr L <=

) hille. water Pu-p Operating 2 3.era5e ele4tr'4al p01p 4apa4't9 = 4 AW

ost

"see #ppendi$ %

Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3'ee%yrL 3<;/ hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = +&, NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h F01p operat'&5 4ost = #F01p 4apa4't9 G'unit x &01(er o2 p01p" x '#operat'&5 per'od ,hryrT " x #0&'t e&er59 4osto%9h G'unit , .unit ,3<;/ hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL.!/<4 oyr / L (#) Pu-p Operating 2 3.era5e ele4tr'4al p01p 4apa4't9 = 4 AW ost "see #ppendi$ %

Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , :.'ee%yrL /8;= hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = +&, NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h F01p operat'&5 4ost = #F01p 4apa4't9 G'unit x &01(er o2 p01p" x 1#operat'&5 per'od ,hryrT " x #0&'t e&er59 4osto%9h G'unit , 3unit ,/8;= hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL8!4:= oyr / L "urner (#eating) Operating ost 3.era5e ele4tr'4al p01p 4apa4't9 = 1.1 AW # at 1ax. 4o&s01pt'o&" 2"see #ppendi$ % Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3'ee%yrL 3<;/ hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = +&, NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h F01p operat'&5 4ost = #;0r&er 4apa4't9G'unit" x #operat'&5 per'od 1,hryrT " x #0&'t e&er59 4osto%9h G9 ,3<;/ hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL8/4 oyr 3#3 L

"urner ((#)) Operating

ost

3.era5e ele4tr'4al p01p 4apa4't9 = 0.215 AW # at 1ax. 4o&s01pt'o&" 2 "see #ppendi$ % Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , :.'ee%yrL /8;=hryr <>

Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = +&, NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h F01p operat'&5 4ost = #;0r&er 4apa4't9 G'unit" x #operat'&5 per'od 1,hryrT " x #0&'t e&er59 4ost o%9h G9 ,/8;= hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL3;: oyr 4#.3: L

)Im!roved Case Cost "nalysis $.2

)&i0ed cost analysis for im!roved case $.2.1


Table belo' sho's the details o i,ed cost o the e"uipment and devices or the #improved case . aLle '$.2( &i0ed Cost analysis) using the taLle Lelow
M0a&t't 9 3 3 3 . . 3 3 3
17 5 13 8 7 1

Eq0'p1e&t Boiler 1heating2 Capacity E,pansion tan% 1heating2 *olume Chiller Capacity )#9#-ump C#9# -ump Boiler 1D)92 Capacity D)9 -ump 1E,pansion tan% 1D)9 &an Coils price
/ / / / / / 6 8 10 12 14 18

*eat0res 32$AW#8$0 1A4al/hr ) 3.3 1AW#124 GH /8. E =27 1 < M= 22 1COh E=22.$ <M=31.87 1COh AW #42!!2 :4 1?4al/hr E=4!.75 1 < M= 0.78$ 1COh 1) #/ol01e .=#< AW / AW : AW ; AW = AW > AW 34

N&'t #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No #No

o Fr'4e =/44 38: 334!444 3=44 ..44 .444 ..44 :4 844 8;4 /:4 :<4 ;:4 <.4

Gotal Fr'4e NS 1 o2 =!/44 38: 334!444 8!;44 /!/44 .!444 .!.44 :4 4 :!344 3!=44 :!=:4 /!:;4 /!::4 <.4

=4

/ 20 / 24 / 30

AW 33 AW 3/ AW 3> 13 > :44 11P#3rea ;84


11P #3rea

2 1 1

#No #No #No #No 12 12 #No #No #No 1 12 12 12 #No #No #No

=44 3444 38;4 3.44 .: 3< 344 >4 ./44 = 3#: 3 3= /44 8444 38

3!;44 3!444 3!8;4 3!.44 3.!:44 34!<34 .4!444 33!<44 .!/44 =4 .!434 3!.44 8!;44 3;!444 >!444 34!/44 2+2K12+

Storage tan% price 11D)9 Insulated Air Ducts Non? insulated Air Duct Ceiling (ounted 1Di user 1S"uare Ceiling Return 7rill &uel Tan% 1)eating and D)92! 9ee%ly consumption &uel -ipes E,ternal 9alls Insulation E,posed roo Insulation 7lass price Solar Collectors 1 1 evacuated E,haust &an @ighting lamps cost

3
500 630 200 130

10005alo&#3785 1) 11 4opper 3; 20el p'pes 41 th'4?&ess 8 41 th'4?&ess . Io0(le N = 3.5

1 10 1340 1200 200 40

C;+/270/270 *l0ores4e&t

3 800

1 o Total o (echanical Bill 1 Bs

)Annual Operating

ost for /-pro0e. !ase /#.#.


ost (#eating

)'"oiler Operating

Eeat'&5 (o'ler 4apa4't9 328.1 AW ;0r&er 4apa4't9= &uel oil lo' rate S GghrT , 3444@m8 \diesel #Where B #d'esel" = 850 ?5/1C ;0r&er 4apa4't9= 84 Gghr, 3444@m8 =:4 L8:#8 @h Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3 'ee%yrL3<;/ hryr Where .3 'ee%yr represe&ts the per'od o2 the >'&ter seaso& a&d 't 's #eq0'.ale&t to 5 1o&ths '& the 9ear I'esel pr'4e= $ NIS@ = 1.5 o@

=3

;o'ler operat'&5 4ost = #(0r&er 4apa4't9" Q #operat'&5 per'od" Q #d'esel 1pr'4e @hr, 3<;/ hryr , 3#: o@L>8!/4/ oyr 8:#8L T )'"oiler Operating ost ((#)

IEW (o'ler 4apa4't9 's 50 AW ;0r&er 4apa4't9= &uel oil lo' rate S GghrT , 3444@m8 \diesel ;0r&er 4apa4't9= ; Gghr, 3444@m8 =:4 L< @h Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .4'ee%yrL3;=4 hryr Where .4'ee%yr represe&ts the >ee?s '& >'&ter that the (o'ler 0sed to #s0ppl9 hot >ater '& 12 hr per da9 I'esel pr'4e= $ NIS@ = 1.5 o@ ;o'ler operat'&5 4ost = #(0r&er 4apa4't9" Q #operat'&5 per'od" Q #d'esel 1pr'4e @h , 3;=4 hryr , 3#: o@L3<!;/4 oyr < L

) hiller Operating

ost

#Ele4tr'4al 4h'ller 4apa4't9 = 432 ?W Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3'ee%yrL3<;/ hryr Electric G9hpriceL4#< NISG9hL 4#3<: oG9h Ch'ller 8perat'&5 4ost = #Ch'ller 4apa4't9" x #operat'&5 per'od" x #0&'t 1e&er59 4ost %9 , 3<;/ hryr , 4#3<: oG9hL388!8:= oyr /8. L ) *an oils Operating ost

#3.era5e ele4tr'4al *a& 4o'l 4apa4't9 = 0.7 AW =.

Ghese .al0es re2er to theor9 4hapter as '& 4atalo5< see #ppendi$ Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3'ee%yrL 3<;/ hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = 0.7 NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h *.Cs operat'&5 4ost = #*.C 4apa4't9 x &01(er o2 *.C G'unit " x 1 #operat'&5 per'od o%9h " x #0&'t e&er59 4ost o%9h 4#<G'unit , :: unit ,3<;/ hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL33!==: oyr L ) ' Pu-p Operating 2 3.era5e ele4tr'4al p01p 4apa4't9 = 2.3 AW ost ( heating "see #ppendi$ %

Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3'ee%yrL 3<;/ hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = 0.7 NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h F01p operat'&5 4ost = #F01p 4apa4't9 G'unit x &01(er o2 p01p" x 1#operat'&5 per'od ,hryrT " x #0&'t e&er59 4ost o%9h .#8G'unit , .unit ,3<;/ hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL3!/.4 oyr L ) hille. water Pu-p Operating ost 2 3.era5e ele4tr'4al p01p 4apa4't9 = 3 AW "see #ppendi$ % Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3'ee%yrL 3<;/ hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = 0.7 NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h F01p operat'&5 4ost = #F01p 4apa4't9 G'unit x &01(er o2 p01p" x 1#operat'&5 per'od ,hryrT " x #0&'t e&er59 4ost o%9h G'unit , .unit ,3<;/ hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL3!=:. oyr 8 L (#) Pu-p Operating 2 3.era5e ele4tr'4al p01p 4apa4't9 = 4 AW ost

"see #ppendi$ %

Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .4'ee%yrL 3;=4 hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = 0.7 NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h F01p operat'&5 4ost = #F01p 4apa4't9 G'unit x &01(er o2 p01p" x 1#operat'&5 per'od ,hryrT " x #0&'t e&er59 4ost o%9h =8

G'unit , 3unit ,3;=4 hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL3!3<;oyr / L "urner (#eating) Operating ost

3.era5e ele4tr'4al p01p 4apa4't9 = 0.$ AW # at 1ax. 4o&s01pt'o&" 2 "see #ppendi$ % Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , .3'ee%yrL 3<;/ hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = 0.7 NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h F01p operat'&5 4ost = #;0r&er 4apa4't9G'unit" x #operat'&5 per'od 1,hryrT " x #0&'t e&er59 4osto%9h G9 ,3<;/ hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL3=: oyr 4#; L "urner ((#)) Operating ost

3.era5e ele4tr'4al p01p 4apa4't9 = 0.215 AW # at 1ax. 4o&s01pt'o&" 2 "see #ppendi$ % Operating periodL3. hrday , < day'ee% , :.'ee%yrL /8;=hryr Ele4tr'4 #?Wh" pr'4e = 0.7 NIS%9h = 4#3<: o%9h F01p operat'&5 4ost = #;0r&er 4apa4't9 G'unit" x #operat'&5 per'od 1,hryrT " x #0&'t e&er59 4ost o%9h G9 ,/8;= hryr , 4#3<: o%9hL3;: oyr 4#.3: L

,ighting O!erating Cost Bsing &luorescent @amps Operating periodL.4 hrday , < day'ee% , :.'ee%yrL <.=4hryr Ele4tr'4 #?W" pr'4e = 0.7 NIS%9 = 4#3<: o%9 8perat'&5 Ele4tr'4al Cost = 9att used , Energy rate ,Operating period3444 3.444, 4#3<: ,<.=43444L3:!.== oyr

=/

. aLle'$.3( Summary of the o!erating cost in Lase case


Base Case Eq0'p1e&t 1Boiler Operating Cost 1)eating 1Boiler Operating Cost 1D)9 Chiller Operating Cost &an Coils Operating Cost 1 -ump Operating Cost 1heating Chilled 'ater -ump Operating Cost D)9 -ump Operating Cost @ighting Operating Cost Total 18perat'&5 Cost #R/9r 34>!.>. /;!4.> 3<3!8.> 38!;>4 3!=:. .!/<4 8!4:= ;3!3:. $52K212U

. aLle '$.$( Summary of the o!erating cost in the im!roved case


Improved Case Eq0'p1e&t 1Boiler Operating Cost 1)eating 1Boiler Operating Cost 1D)9 Chiller Operating Cost &an Coils Operating Cost 1 -ump Operating Cost 1 heating Chilled 'ater -ump Operating Cost D)9 -ump Operating Cost @ighting Operating Cost Total 18perat'&5 Cost #R/9r >8!:=> 3<!=4: 388!8:= :!4>/ 3!/.4 3!=:. 3!3<; 3:!.== 2.3K+22U

$otal Cost Cal%ulation " #


&i,ed charge Rate &CRLiE i3Ein?3E InsuranceETa,es 5 nL/4 year1 li e o pro6ect 2 ! i L3. 5 &CRL4#3.E 4#3.3E4#3./4?3E 4#4. E4#43L3:#3/

=:

&or Base case Total Annual CostL&CR , Capital Cost E Operating Cost Total Annual CostL4#3:3/ , /><!//4E /4=!=<.L/=/!3=/ oyr &or Im!roved case Total Annual CostL&CR , Capital Cost E Operating Cost Total Annual CostL4#3:3/ , .:=!3.:E.;>!:=.L84=!;;. oyr

Total saving costLTotal costbase?Total costimproved Total saving costL/=/!3=/oyr?84=!;;. oyr L3<:!:.. oyr Saving CostLTotal costbase?Total costimprovedTotal costbase 5 5 Saving CostL/=/!3=/ ?84=!;;. /=/!3=/ L8;#.: 5

( &olar s'stem %ost anal'sis " "


Solar collectors are used to heat domestic hot 'ater 'hich saves uel used or this #6ob especially in summer# )o'ever these collectors arenKt used in the base case o Collector price L /44oPunit O /4 collector L 3;444 E,pansion tan% price L :4o o Storage tan% price L 38;4 o -ipes price L 38 oPm O . O .: m L ;:4 o Total price L 3;444 E :4 E 38;4 E ;:4 L 3=!4;4 )Cost of fuel saved Ly inserting solar system )eat gain by collector L :4 %9 O /4 1collectors2 L .444 %9 -eriod o heating L 3.1hrPday2 O < 1dayP'%2 O .3 1'%Pyr2 L 3<;/ hrPyear )igh heating value o diesel L 8;;>8 GFPGg Amount o diesel early L .444 1%FPs2 O 8;44 1sPhr2 O 3<;/ 1hrPyr2 P 8;;>8 %gPyear 8/;38< L =;

1%gPyr2 O 34441@PmW2 P =:41%gPmW2 8/;38< L @Pyear /4<..4 L L /4<..4 O 1;P/2 oP@ Cost o diesel yearly year Po ;34!=84 L L Solar System Cost P cost o uel saved ;34!=84 P 3=!4;4 L hEAR 4#4.> L Repair cost 1-ay bac% period2

Case study between chiller system and VRV III " )


The !ase stu.1 will be for out.oor units onl1 for both )s1ste-s )V2V PO)32 /4P5T $.+.1 344ord'&5 to 4ool'&5 4apa4't9 ta(les '& /H/ s9ste1< >e 2o0&d #that the /H/ s9ste1 >or? 1ost t'1e '& the part'al load 9e 'ill calculate the electrical po'er consumption depend in our values o the combination ratio 1partial time2 or *R* that ta%en rom cooling capacities! and then ta%e +1the average value or them as ollo's$ 1indoor temperatureL.8 SC! outdoor tem# L8>S C #&or RAhY.4-L.4hpL.4 tonL<4 G9 Combination ratio 3845 3445 <45 =< -o'er input G9 1compressor Eoutdoor 1unit an 3:#. 33 ;#=/

:45

/#;3 Average po'er inputL 13:#.E33E;#=/E/#;32/L >#/ G9 +No'! to calculate the electric consumption or the.4 ton unit 1CostLenergyUprice 1NIS 1EnergyLpo'erUtime 1G#9#)

I 'e assume that the system 'ill 'or% or 3. hours a day! and seven days a 'ee% +and 84 days in month! and price or G9)L4#< NIS 1EnergyLpo'erUtimeL>#/ G9 U3.U84L88=/ G#9#) 1&OR 84 DAhS CostLenergyUpriceL88=/ G9)U4#<NISPG9)L23.2.2 HIS #&or RAhY8.-L8.hpL8:#; tonL3./#; G9 Combination ratio 3845 3445 <45 :45 -o'er input G9 1compressor Eoutdoor 1unit an .=#< .4#= 3.#> =#;=

Average po'er inputL1.=#<E.4#=E3.#>E=#;=2/L 3<#<< G9 +No'! to calculate the electric consumption or the 8:#; ton unit 1CostLenergyUprice 1NIS 1EnergyLpo'erUtime 1G#9#) I 'e assume that the system 'ill 'or% or 3. hours a day! and seven days a 'ee% +and 84 days in month! and price or G9)L4#< NIS 1EnergyLpo'erUtimeL3<#<< G9 U3.U84L;8><#. G#9#) 1&OR 84 DAhS CostLenergyUpriceL;8><#. G9)U4#<NISPG9)L$$12 HIS #&or RAhY/.-L/.hpL88#; tonL3:.#; G9 Combination ratio 3845 3445 <45 :45 -o'er input G9 1compressor Eoutdoor 1unit an 8:#< .:#= 3:#> 34#=

Average po'er inputL 18:#<E.:#=E3:#>E34#=2/L ..#4: G9 +No'! to calculate the electric consumption or the 88#; ton unit ==

1CostLenergyUprice 1NIS 1EnergyLpo'erUtime 1G#9#) I 'e assume that the system 'ill 'or% or 3. hours a day! and seven days a 'ee% +and 84 days in month! and price or G9)L4#< NIS 1EnergyLpo'erUtimeL..#4: G9 U3.U84L<>8= G#9#) 1&OR 84 DAhS CostLenergyUpriceL<>8= G9)U4#< NISPG9)L+++. HIS #&or RAhY//-L//hpL8:#. tonL3.8#. G9 Combination ratio 3845 3445 <45 :45 -o'er input G9 1compressor Eoutdoor 1unit an 8=#3 .<#; 3<#3 33#:

Average po'er inputL 18=#3E.<#;E3<#3E33#:2/L .8#;G9

I 'e assume that the system 'ill 'or% or 3. hours a day! and ive days a 'ee% +and 84 days in month! and price or G9)L4#< NIS 1EnergyLpo'erUtimeL.8#; G9 U3.U84 L =/>; G#9#) 1&OR 84 DAhS CostLenergyUpriceL =/>; G9)U4#<NISPG9)L+3$1 HIS :W4 A54 6N T 4 %R784CTS T 6S NU9:4R 7F 7UT377R UN6TS RAhY.4-<93B$ ONE BNIT RAhY8.-<93B$ T9O BNITS RAhY/.-<93B$ ONE BNIT RAhY//-<93B$ ONE BNIT SO 9E CONC@BDE T)AT T)E E@ECTRICA@ CONSB-TION &OR A@@ T)E $BNITS 9I@@ BE I 'e assume that the system 'ill 'or% or 3. hours a day! and seven days a 'ee% and 84 +days in month! and price or G9)L4#< NIS TOTA@ CONSB-TION IN 1NIS2 L.8;>E//<=U.E:::;E:>/<L..!=.= NISmonth

=>

NIS / L o 3 Then L 1o2 TOTA@ CONSB-TION IN NISmonth , 3 o/ NIS , 3. month3 ..!=.= yearL=;!/=/ oyear )Chiller System Calculation /lectrical *ower/#:#. As 'e %no' rom all catalogues o most types o Chiller systems! each one ton cooling need = Ampere to 'or%L 3#<; G9! and all %no' that the chiller system 'or% 'ith 6ust ON?O&& compressors 1no capacity steps! no combination ratio2! so these types #can 'or% only 'ith 3#<; G9ton or Bh cERO #As or our pro6ect! .44 hpL3;4 ton o cooling need 13;4U3#<; G92 L.=3#; G9 +As be ore! 'e calculate no' the cost by 1Energy Lpo'erUtimeL.=3#; G9U3.U84 L343!8<; G#9#) 1&OR 84 DAhS CostLenergyUpriceL343!8<; G9hU 4#< NISPG)9L <4!>;8 NIS NISmonth , 3 o/ NIS , 3. month3 yearL.3.!==> oyear <4!>;8 So 'e conclude that the o'ner 'ill save Chiller Operating Cost?*R* Operating CostL year ? =;!/=/ oyearL3.;!/44 oyearo .3.!==>L

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CE3FGEH *:/E= C8NC)NS:8N 3NI HEC8++ENI3G:8NS


COHC,;SIOH +.1 In this pro6ect! the main goals that 'ill be considered in the beginning o the pro6ect 'ill be achieved success ully in spite o per orming them partially# The improvement that is ta%ing place in this pro6ect is per ormed by saving in the cost in each # i,ed cost and annual cost Saving energy in the building 'as achieved by reducing the B?value o the e,ternal 'alls and the roo ! this reducing 'as by inserting -olyethylene layer in the e,ternal 'alls construction and increasing hollo' bric%s thic%ness# Also the B?value o the glass 'as changed by choosing shaded glass 'ith di erent thic%ness# The solar collectors save energy used or heating domestic hot 'ater+ this energy 'as consumed by the boiler in the base case! the type o collectors that is chosen evacuated tube collectors! since it is more e icient in maitainting on the temperature o 'ater and it is more #e icient in collecting the solar energy 'ith area that is less than lat plate collector In shading coe icient actor! the base case is 'ithout shading! and in improved case 'ith roller blades shading! and this is minimi0ed the load! and thus minimi0ing in the cost o the boiler# In lighting system! it is used Incandescent type in base case! and in

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the improved case! it is used lorescent type o lights# The lorescent type o lighting is #more e icient because the li e o it is more than the incandescent In *R* system! the annual operating cost is less than the annual operating cost in an coil system! and also in i,ed cost! and the problems o *R* system is less then #*9* system or an coil system Saving energy appears clearly in chapters o improved case and economic analysis# And the results 'ill be sho'n in igures as a comparison bet'een the cases! and # it is noted the saving cost is about 3<:!444 o and that is good amount o saved money

):ecommendations +.2 :t 's re4o11e&ded that 1a&9 2a4tors sho0ld (e ta?e& '& 4o&s'derat'o& '& a&9 proTe4t that >'ll (e per2or1ed a&d des'5&ed< these $2a4tors are Ghe e22e4t o2 '&s0lat'o&13 !the e22e4t o2 l'5ht'&5 1. Ghe e22e4t o2 shad'&5 4oe22'4'e&t '& E/3C s9ste1 a&d 'ts18 e22e4ts o& the load. *'&all9= 4hoos'&5 the s9ste1 that has 5ood 2eat0res 2ro1 a&9 other s9ste1s '& the s'de o2 2'xed 4ost< operat'&5 4ost< a&d 4hoos'&5 te4h&'q0es to 1'&'1'Je the #load

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