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1 CSE370, Lecture +

Logic gates
Last lecture
Boolean algebra
Axioms
Useful laws and theorems
Simplifying Boolean expressions
Today's lecture
Logic gates and truth tables
!mplementing logic functions
CNOS switches
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X Y Z
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
X
Y
Z
X Y Z
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
X
Y
Z
Logic gates and truth tables
AND X-Y XY
OR X+Y
NOT X X'
Buffer X
X Y
0 1
1 0
X Y
X Y
0 0
1 1
X Y
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X Y Z
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
X
Y
Z
Logic gates and truth tables (con't)
NAND
NOR
XOR
XNOR
X Y XY
X Y +
X Y
X Y
X Y Z
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0
Z
X
Y
X Y Z
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
X
Y
Z
X Y Z
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
Z
X
Y
+ CSE370, Lecture +
Definitions
Schematic: A drawing of interconnected gates
Net: Wires at the same voltage (electrically connected)
Netlist: A list of all the devices and connections in a
schematic
Fan-in: The # of inputs to a gate
Fan-out: The # of loads the gate drives
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Example: F = (A-B)' + C-D
Example: F = C-(A+B)'
Napping Boolean expressions to logic gates
D
C
A
B
F
16
AND2
19
NAND2
17
OR2
C
F
A
B
22
AND2
21
NOR2
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1-bit binary adder
!nputs: A, B, Carry-in
Outputs: Sum, Carry-out
A B Cin S Cout
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
Cout = A'BCin + AB'Cin + ABCin' + ABCin
Sum = A'B'Cin + A'BCin' + AB'Cin' + ABCin
Example: A binary full adder
A
B
Cin
Cout
Sum
Adder
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Full adder: Sum
Before Boolean minimization
Sum = A'B'Cin + A'BCin'
+ AB'Cin' + ABCin
After Boolean minimization
Sum = (AB) Cin
Cin
Sum
B
A
33
XOR
32
XOR
Cin
A
B
Cin'
Cin'
A
B'
Sum
Cin
A'
B
B'
A'
31
AND3
30
AND3
29
AND3
27
OR4
28
AND3
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Before Boolean minimization
Cout = A'BCin + AB'Cin
+ ABCin' + ABCin
After Boolean minimization
Cout = BCin + ACin + AB
Cin
A
B
Cin
Cin'
B'
A
B
Cout
Cin
B
A'
A
4
AND3
2
AND3
3
AND3
5
OR4
1
AND3
A
B
Cin
A
Cout
Cin
B
13
AND2
12
AND2
14
OR3
11
AND2
Full adder: Carry-out
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Preview: A 2-bit ripple-carry adder
A
1
B
1
C
out
C
in
Sum
1
A
B
Cin
A
Cout
Cin
B
13
AND2
12
AND2
14
OR3
11
AND2
Cin
Sum
B
A
33
XOR
32
XOR
A
Sum
C
out
C
in
B
1-Bit Adder
A
2
B
2
Sum
2
C
out
C
in
0
Overflow
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Napping truth tables to logic gates
Given a truth table
Write the Boolean expression
Ninimize the Boolean expression
Draw as gates
A B C F
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
F = A'BC'+A'BC+AB'C+ABC
= A'B(C'+C)+AC(B'+B)
= A'B+AC
C
A
A'
B
F
25
AND2
26
AND2
24
OR2
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Nany possible mappings
Nany ways to map expressions to gates
Example:
Z A B C D A B C D
= +
( )
= +
( )
A
B
C
D
Z
A
B
C
D
Z
Z
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What is the optimal gate realization?
We use the axioms and theorems of Boolean algebra
to optimize" our designs
Design goals vary
Reduce the number of inputs?
Reduce the number of gates?
Reduce number of gate levels?
How do we explore the tradeoffs?
CAD tools
Logic minimization: Reduce number of gates and complexity
Logic optimization: Naximize speed andfor minimize power
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X Y X nand Y
0 0 1
1 1 0
X Y X nor Y
0 0 1
1 1 0
We can implement any logic function from NOT, NOR,
and NAND
Example: (X and Y) = not (X nand Y)
!n fact, we can do it with only NOR or only NAND
NOT is just NAND or NOR with two identical inputs
NAND and NOR are duals: Can implement one from the other
X nand Y = not ((not X) nor (not Y))
X nor Y = not ((not X) nand (not Y))
Ninimal set
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Nark Bohr
!ntel
0.13m
X Y
0V 1.8V
1.8V 0V
X Y
X Y
1.8v
0v
Y X
1.8v
0v
Nost digital logic is CNOS
CNOS technology
Complementary Netal-
Oxide Semiconductor
Transistors act as voltage-
controlled switches
0V Logic 0
1.8V Logic 1
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Nulti-input logic gates
CNOS logic gates are inverting
Get NAND, NOR, NOT
Don't get AND, OR, Buffer
X Y Z
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
Z
X
1.8v
0v
Y
1.8v
X Y
X
Z
1.8v
0v
Y
1.8v
X Y
X
Y
Z