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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
1
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration (Model: FM 24) apparatus consists of a classical
Venturi made of clear acrylic. A series of wall tappings allow measurement of the static
pressure distribution along the converging duct, while a total head tube is provided to
traverse along the centre line of the test section. These tappings are connected to a
manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. Pressurization of the
manometers is facilitated by a hand pump.
This unit has been designed to be used with a Hydraulics Bench for students to study the
characteristics of flow through both converging and diverging sections. During the
experiment, water is fed through a hose connector and students may control the flow rate
of the water by adjusting a flow regulator valve at the outlet of the test section.
The venturi can be demonstrated as a means of flow measurement and the discharge
coefficient can be determined. This test section can be used to demonstrate those
circumstances to which Bernoullis Theorem may be applied as well as in other
circumstances where the theorem is not sufficient to describe the fluid behavior.
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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2.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The unit is mounted on a base board which is to be placed on top of the Hydraulic Bench
(Model: FM110). This base board has four adjustable feet to level the apparatus.
The main test section is an accurately machined acrylic venturi of varying circular cross
section. It is provided with a number of side hole pressure tappings, which are connected
to the manometer tubes on the rig. These tappings allow the measurement of static
pressure head simultaneously at each of 6 sections. The tapping positions and the test
section diameters are shown in Appendix A. The test section incorporates two unions, one
at either end, to facilitate reversal for convergent or divergent testing as illustrated in Figure
1 and Figure 2.
Gland Nut
Hypodermic probe
Adjustable feet Test section Water inlet
Unions
Manometer tubes
Air bleed screw
Figure 1: Front View of Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Unit (Model: FM24)
Additional tapping
Flow control valve
Water outlet
Figure 2: Top View of Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Unit (Model: FM24)
A hypodermic tube, the total pressure head probe, is provided which may be positioned to
read the total pressure head at any section of the duct. This total pressure head probe may
be moved after slacking the gland nut; this nut should be retightened by hand after
adjustment. An additional tapping is provided to facilitate setting up. All eight pressure
tapings are connected to a bank of pressurized manometer tubes. Pressurization of the
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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manometers is facilitated by connecting any hand pump to the inlet valve on the
manometer manifold.
The unit is connected to the hydraulic bench using flexible hoses. The hoses and the
connections are equipped with rapid action couplings. The flexible hose attached to the
outlet pipe which should be directed to the volumetric measuring tank on the hydraulics
bench. A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test section. Flow rate and
pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by adjustment of the flow control
valve and the bench supply control valve.
Please familiarize with the unit before operating the unit. The unit consists of the followings:
a) Venturi
The venturi meter is made of transparent acrylic with the following specifications:
Throat diameter : 16 mm
Upstream Diameter : 26 mm
Designed Flow Rate : 20 LPM
b) Manometer
There are eight manometer tubes; each length 320 mm, for static pressure and total
head measuring along the venturi meter.
The manometer tubes are connected to an air bleed screw for air release as well as
tubes pressurization.
c) Baseboard
The baseboard is epoxy coated and designed with 4 height adjustable stands to level
the venturi meter.
d) Discharge valve
One discharge valve is installed at the venturi discharge section for flow rate control.
e) Connections
Hose Connections are installed at both inlet and outlet.
f) Hydraulic Bench
Sump tank : 120 litres
Volumetric tank : 100 litres
Centrifugal pump : 0.37 kW, 50 LPM
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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2.1 Parts Identification
Figure 3: Parts Identification Diagram
1. Manometer Tubes 6. Discharge Valve
2. Test Section 7. Gland Nut
3. Water Inlet 8. Hypodermic Probe
4. Unions 9. Adjustable Feet
5. Air Bleed Screw
5
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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3.0 SUMMARY OF THEORY
3.1 Derivation Using Streamline Coordinates
Eulers equation for steady flow along a streamline is
s
v
V
s
z
g
s
p
=
1
(3.1)
If a fluid particle moves a distance, ds, along a streamline,
pressure) in change (the dp ds
s
p
=
(3.2)
elevation) in change (the dz ds
s
z
=
(3.3)
speed) in change (the dV ds
s
V
=
(3.4)
Thus, after multiplying Equation 3.1 by ds,
or 0 = + + = gdz VdV
dp
VdV gdz
dp
(3.5)
Integration of this equation gives:
= + + constant gz
V dp
2
2
(3.6)
The relation between pressure and density must be applied in this equation. For
the special case of incompressible flow, = constant, and Equation 3.6 becomes
the Bernoullis Equation.
constant
2
2
= + + gz
V p
(3.7)
Restrictions:
i. Steady flow
ii. Incompressible flow
iii. Frictionless flow
iv. Flow along a streamline
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3.2 Bernoullis Law
Bernoulli's law states that if a nonviscous fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying
cross section, then the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is
higher, and the pressure is higher where the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate.
Many people find this situation paradoxical when they first encounter it (higher
velocity, lower pressure). This is expressed with the following equation:
Constant = = + +
*
h z
g
v
g
p
2
2
(3.8)
Where,
p = Fluid static pressure at the cross section
= Density of the flowing fluid
g = Acceleration due to gravity
v = Mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section
z = Elevation head of the center at the cross section with respect to a datum
h* = Total (stagnation) head
The terms on the lefthandside of the above equation represent the pressure head
(h), velocity head (hv ), and elevation head (z), respectively. The sum of these
terms is known as the total head (h
*
). According to the Bernoullis theorem of fluid
flow through a pipe, the total head h
*
at any cross section is constant. In a real flow
due to friction and other imperfections, as well as measurement uncertainties, the
results will deviate from the theoretical ones.
In our experimental setup, the centerline of all the cross sections we are
considering lie on the same horizontal plane (which we may choose as the datum,
z = 0, and thus, all the z values are zeros so that the above equation reduces to:
Constant = = +
*
h
g
v
g
p
2
2
(3.9)
This represents the total head at a cross section.
For the experiments, the pressure head is denoted as hi and the total head as h
*
i,
where i represents the cross sections at different tapping points.
3.3 Static, Stagnation and Dynamic Pressures
The pressure, p, which we have used in deriving the Bernoullis equation, Equation
3.7, is the thermodynamic pressure; it is commonly called the static pressure. The
static pressure is that pressure which would be measured by an instrument moving
with the flow. However, such a measurement is rather difficult to make in a
practical situation.
As we know, there was no pressure variation normal to straight streamlines. This
fact makes it possible to measure the static pressure in a flowing fluid using a wall
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pressure tapping, placed in a region where the flow streamlines are straight, as
shown in Figure 4 (a). The pressure tap is a small hole, drilled carefully in the wall,
with its axis perpendicular to the surface. If the hole is perpendicular to the duct
wall and free from burrs, accurate measurements of static pressure can be made
by connecting the tap to a suitable pressure measuring instrument.
Flow
streamlines
Pressure
tap
(a) Wall Pressure Tapping
Flow
Small holes
Stem
To manometer or
pressure gage
(b) Wall Pressure Tapping
Figure 4: Measurement of Static Pressure
In a fluid stream far from a wall, or where streamlines are curved, accurate static
pressure measurements can be made by careful use of a static pressure probe,
shown in Figure 4 (b). Such probes must be designed so that the measuring holes
are place correctly with respect to the probe tip and stem to avoid erroneous
results. In use, the measuring section must be aligned with the local flow direction.
Static pressure probes or any variety of forms are available commercially in sizes
as small as 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) in diameter. The stagnation pressure is obtained
when a flowing fluid is decelerated to zero speed by a frictionless process. In
incompressible flow, the Bernoulli Equation can be used to relate changes in
speed and pressure along a streamline for such a process. Neglecting elevation
differences, Equation 3.7 becomes
constant = +
2
2
v p
(3.10)
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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If the static pressure is p at a point in the flow where the speed is v, then the
stagnation pressure, Po, where the stagnation speed, Vo, is zero, may be
computed from
2 2
2 2
V p V p
o o
+ = +
(3.11)
Therefore,
2
2
1
V p p
o
+ = (3.12)
Equation 3.12 is a mathematical statement of stagnation pressure, valid for
incompressible flow. The term V generally is the dynamic pressure. Solving
the dynamic pressure gives:
p p V
o
=
2
2
1
(3.13)
Or
( )
p p
V
o
=
2
(3.14)
Thus, if the stagnation pressure and the static pressure could be measured at a
point, Equation 3.14 would give the local flow speed.
Small hole
Flow
To manometer or
pressure gage
Figure 5: Measurement of Stagnation Pressure
0
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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Flow
p po
A
Total
head
tube
(a) Total Head Tube Used with Wall Static Tap
Flow
Small holes
Stem
p
B
C
po
(a) PitotStatic Tube
Figure 6: Simultaneous Measurement of Stagnation and Static Pressures
Stagnation pressure is measured in the laboratory using a probe with a hole that
faces directly upstream as shown in Figure 5. Such a probe is called a stagnation
pressure probe (hypodermic probe) or Pitot (pronounced peatoe) tube. Again, the
measuring section must be aligned with the local flow direction.
We have seen that static pressure at a point can be measured with a static
pressure tap or probe (Figure 4). If we know the stagnation pressure at the same
point, then the flow speed could be computed from Equation 3.14. Two possible
experimental setups are shown in Figure 6.
In Figure 6(a), the static pressure corresponding to point A is read from the wall
static pressure tap. The stagnation pressure is measured directly at A by the total
head tube, as shown. (The stem of the total head tube is placed downstream from
the measurement location to minimize disturbance of the local flow)
Two probes often are combined, as in the Pitotstatic tube shown in Figure 6(b).
The inner tube is used to measure the stagnation pressure at point B, while the
static pressure at C is sensed using the tapping on the wall. In flow fields where
the static pressure variation in the streamwise direction is small, the Pitotstatic
tube may be used to infer the speed at point B in the flow by assuming pB =pC and
using Equation 3.14. (Note that when pB pC, this procedure will give erroneous
results)
Remember that the Bernoulli equation applies only for incompressible flow (Mach
number, M 0.3).
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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Note:
c
u
Ma = (3.15)
Where,
u = fluid velocity
c = sonic velocity
3.4 Pressure Varies Along the Pipe
A number of factors can cause for pressure to vary along the pipe such as:
Friction from the pipes inner surface,
The diameter of the pipe; if it is small the pressure is lower because the
velocity is increased (Bernoullis Theory),
Density of the fluid in the pipe,
The height of the pipe at which the pipe stands or the height at which the flow
through i.e. gravity,
Turbulence of the fluid
3.5 Venturi Meter
The venturi meter consists of a venturi tube and differential pressure gauge. The
venturi tube has a converging portion, a throat and a diverging portion as shown in
the figure below. The function of the converging portion is to increase the velocity
of the fluid and lower its static pressure. A pressure difference between inlet and
throat is thus developed, which pressure difference is correlated with the rate of
discharge. The diverging cone serves to change the area of the stream back to the
entrance area and convert velocity head into pressure head.
Figure 7: The Venturi Tube
Assume incompressible flow and no frictional losses, from Bernoullis Equation
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
2 2
Z
g
v p
Z
g
v p
+ + = + +
(3.16)
Use of the continuity Equation Q = A1V1 = A2V2, equation (1) becomes
(
(


\

= +
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
1
2
2 1
A
A
g
Z Z
p p
(3.17)
Ideally,
2 / 1
2 1
2 / 1
2
1
2
2 2 2
2 1
2 1
(
(


\

+
(
(


\

= =
Z Z
p p
g
A
A
A V A Q
i
(3.18)
However, in the case of real fluid flow, the flow rate will be expected to be less
than that given by equation (3.18) because of frictional effects and consequent
head loss between inlet and throat. Therefore,
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
1
2
2
2 1
2 1
(
(


\

+
(
(


\

=
Z Z
p p
g
A
A
A C Q
d a
(3.19)
In metering practice, this nonideality is accounted by insertion of an
experimentally determined discharge coefficient, Cd that is termed as the
coefficient of discharge. With Z1 = Z2 in this apparatus, the discharge coefficient is
determined as follow:
i
a
d
Q
Q
C = (3.20)
Discharge coefficient, Cd usually lies in the range between 0.9 and 0.99.
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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4.0 GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES
4.1 General Startup Procedures
The Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration (Model: FM 24) is supplied ready for use
and only requires connection to the Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM 110) as follows:
1. Ensure that the clear acrylic test section is installed with the converging
section upstream. Also check that the unions are tighten (hand tight only). If
necessary to dismantle the test section then the total pressure probe must be
withdrawn fully (but not pulled out of its guide in the downstream coupling)
before releasing the couplings.
2. Locate the apparatus on the flat top of the bench.
3. Attach a spirit level to baseboard and level the unit on top of the bench by
adjusting the feet.
4. Fill water into the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench until approximately
90% full.
5. Connect the flexible inlet tube using the quick release coupling in the bed of
the channel.
6. Connect a flexible hose to the outlet and make sure that it is directed into the
channel.
7. Partially open the outlet flow control valve at the Bernoullis Theorem
Demonstration unit.
8. Fully close the bench flow control valve, V1 then switch on the pump.
9. Gradually open V1 and allow the piping to fill with water until all air has been
expelled from the system.
10. Also check for Trapped Bubbles in the glass tube or plastic transfer tube.
You would need to remove them from the system for better accuracy.
Note:
To remove air bubbles, you will have to bleed the air out as follow:
i. Get a pen or screw driver to press the air bleed valve at the top right side
of manometer board.
ii. Press air bleed valve lightly to allow fluid and trapped air to escape out.
(Take care or you will wet yourself or the premise).
Allow sufficient time for bleeding until all bubbles escape.
11. At this point, you will see water flowing into the venturi and discharge into the
collection tank of hydraulic bench.
12. Proceed to increase the water flowrate. When the flow in the pipe is steady
and there is no trapped bubble, start to close the discharge valve to reduce the
flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.
13. You will see that water level in the manometer tubes will begin to display
different level of water heights. If the water level in the manometer board is too
low where it is out of visible point, open V1 to increase the static pressure. If
the water level is too high, open the outlet control valve to lower the static
pressure.
Note: The water level can be adjusted facilitate by the air bleed valve.
14. Adjust V1 and outlet control valve to obtain a flow through the test section and
observe that the static pressure profile along the converging and diverging
sections is indicated on its respective manometers. The total head pressure
along the venture tube can be measured by traversing the hypodermic tube.
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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Note:
The manometer tube connected to the tapping adjacent to the outlet flow
control valve is used as a datum when setting up equivalent conditions for flow
through test section.
15. The actual flow of water can be measured using the volumetric tank with a
stop watch.
4.2 General Shutdown Procedures
1. Close water supply valve and venturi discharge valve.
2. Turn off the water supply pump.
3. Drain off water from the unit when not in use.
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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5.0 GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES
5.1 Discharge Coefficient Determination
Objective: To determine the discharge coefficient of the venturi meter
Procedures:
1. Perform the General Startup Procedures in Section 4.1.
2. Withdraw the hypodermic tube from the test section.
3. Adjust the discharge valve to the maximum measurable flow rate of the venturi.
This is achieved when tube 1 and 3 give the maximum observable water head
difference.
Note: Refer to the venturi specification for the designed flow rate.
4. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric method
and record the manometers reading.
5. Repeat step 4 with at least three decreasing flow rates by regulating the
venturi discharge valve.
6. Obtain the actual flow rate, Qa from the volumetric flow measurement method.
7. Calculate the ideal flow rate, Qi from the head difference between h1 and h3
using Equation 3.18.
8. Plot Qa Vs Qi and finally obtain the discharge coefficient, Cd which is the slope.
Results:
Volume
(L)
Time
(s)
Qa
(LPM)
Water Head (mm)
hA hB hC hD hE hF
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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5.2 Flow Rate Measurement with Venturi Meter
Objective: To measure flow rate with venturi meter
Procedures:
1. Perform the General Startup Procedures in Section 4.1.
2. Withdraw the hypodermic tube from the test section.
3. Adjust the discharge valve to a high measurable flow rate.
4. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric method
and record the manometers reading.
5. Repeat step 4 with three other decreasing flow rates by regulating the venturi
discharge valve.
6. Calculate the venturi meter flow rate of each data by applying the discharge
coefficient obtained.
7. Compare the volumetric flow rate with venturi meter flow rate.
Results:
Volume
(L)
Time
(s)
Qa
(LPM)
Water Head (mm)
hA hB hC hD hE hF
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BERNOULLIS THEOREM DEMONSTRATION UNIT (Model: FM 24)
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5.3 Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration
Objective: To demonstrate Bernoullis Theorem
Procedures:
1. Perform the General Startup Procedures in Section 4.1.
2. Check that all manometer tubings are properly connected to the corresponding
pressure taps and are airbubble free.
3. Adjust the discharge valve to a high measurable flow rate.
4. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric method.
5. Gently slide the hypodermic tube (total head measuring) connected to
manometer #H, so that its end reaches the cross section of the Venturi tube at
#A. Wait for some time and note down the readings from manometer #H and
#A. The reading shown by manometer #H is the sum of the static head and
velocity heads, i.e. the total (or stagnation) head (h
*
), because the hypodermic
tube is held against the flow of fluid forcing it to a stop (zero velocity). The
reading in manometer #A measures just the pressure head (hi) because it is
connected to the Venturi tube pressure tap, which does not obstruct the flow,
thus measuring the flow static pressure.
6. Repeat step 5 for other cross sections (#B, #C, #D, #E and #F).
7. Repeat step 3 to 6 with three other decreasing flow rates by regulating the
venturi discharge valve.
8. Calculate the velocity, ViB using the Bernoullis equation where;
) ( 2
8 i iB
h h g V =
9. Calculate the velocity, ViC using the continuity equation where
ViC = Qav / Ai
10. Determined the difference between two calculated velocities.
Results:
Cross
Section
Using Bernoulli equation
Using Continuity
equation
Difference
i
h* = hH
(mm)
hi
(mm)
ViB =
[2*g*(h
*
 hi )]
(m/s)
Ai =
Di
2
/ 4
(m
2
)
ViC =
Qav / Ai
(m/s)
ViBViC
(m/s)
A
B
C
D
E
F
* Please refer to Appendix C for Cross Section Diameter
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6.0 MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
1. It is important to drain all water from the apparatus when not in use. The apparatus
should be stored properly to prevent damage.
2. Any manometer tube, which does not fill with water or slow fill, indicates that tapping
or connection of the manometer is blocked. To remove the obstacle, disconnect the
flexible connection tube and blow through.
3. The apparatus should not be exposed to any shock and stresses.
4. Always wear protective clothing, shoes, helmet and goggles throughout the
laboratory session.
5. Always run the experiment after fully understand the unit and procedures.
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7.0 REFERENCES
Applied Fluid Mechanics 5th Edition, Robert L. Mott, PrenticeHall
Elementary Fluid Mechanics 7
th
Edition, Robert L. Street, Gary Z. Watters, John K.
Vennard, John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Fluid mechanics 4th Edition, Reynold C. Binder
Fluid Mechanics with applications, Anthony Esposito, PrenticeHall International Inc.