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The Welsh Triads

Llyfr Coch Hergest


Col. 588--600 The following are the Welsh Triads as recorded in the Red Book of Hergest, ca. 1425. It is a fairly complete version, though differing in order (and much expanded) from the earlier Peniarth 45 version. Unlike Rachel Bromwich's book,Trioedd Ynys Prydein, I am presenting them in the order in which they appear in the manuscript (Jesus MS 111), as I am no focusing on several collections, but only one. My resource in this is John Rhys' and J. Gwenogyrvan Evan's facimilie of the Red Book's Romances, The Text of the Mabinogion and Other Welsh Tales (1887), which has the triads in an appendix. The red initials are indicated in the text, and I have not deviated, even when it seems to be a laps on the part of the scribe.

Three Men Who Received The Might Of Adam: Hercules the Strong, and Hector the Strong, and Samson the Strong. They were, all three, as strong as Adam himself. Three Men Who Received the Beauty of Adam: Absalom son of David; Jason son of Aeson; Paris son of Priam. They were, all three, as comely as Adam himself. Three Men Who Received the Wisdom of Adam: Cato the Old, and Bede, and Siblo the Wise. They were, all three, as wise as Adam himself. Three Women Who Received The Beauty Of Eve in three third-shares: Diadema, mistress of Aeneas White-Shield, and Elen the Magnificent, the woman on whose account was the destruction of Troy, and Polixena, daughter of Priam the Old, king of Troy.

When a Host went to Llychlyn.

An army (of assistance) went with Yrp of the Hosts to Llychlyn. And that man

came here in the time of Cadyal of the Blows(?) to ask for a levy from this Island. And nobody came with him but Mathuthavar his servant. This is what he asked from the ten-and-twenty Chief Fortresses that there are in this Island: that twice as many men as went with him to each of them should come away with him (from it). And to the first Fortress there came only himself and his servant. (And that proved grievous to the men of this Island.) And they granted it to him. And that was the most complete levy that ever departed from this Island. And with those men he conquered the way he went. Those men remained in the two islands close to the Greek sea: namely, Clas and Avena. And the second (army) went with Elen of the Hosts and Maxen Wledig to Llychlyn: and they never returned to this Island. And the third (army) went with Caswallawn son of Beli, and Gwennwynwyn and Gwanar, sons of Lliaw son of Nwyfre, and Arianrhod daughter of Beli their mother. And (it was) from Erch and Heledd that those men came. And they went with Caswallawn their uncle in pursuit of the men of

Caesar from this Island. The place where those men are is in Gascony. The number that went with each of (those armies) was twenty-one thousand men. And those were the Three Silver Hosts of the Island of Britain. Three Dishonoured Men who were in the Island of Britain: One of them: Afarwy son of Lludd son of Beli. He first summoned Julius Caesar and the men of Rome to this Island, and he caused the payment of three thousand pounds in money as tribute from this Island every year, because of a quarrel with Caswallawn his uncle. And the second is Gwrtheyrn [Vortigern] the Thin, who first gave land to the Saxons in this Island, and was the first to enter into an alliance with them. He caused the death of Custennin the Younger, son of Custennin the Blessed, by his treachery, and exiled the two brothers Emrys Wledig and Uthur Penndragon from this Island to Armorica, and deceitfully took the crown and the kingdom into his own possession. And in the end Uthur and Emrys burned Gwrtheyrn in Castell Gwerthrynyawn beside the Wye, in a single conflagration to avenge their brother. The third and worst was Medrawd, when Arthur left with him the government of the Island of Britain, at the same time when he himself went across the sea to oppose Lles [Lucius], emperor of Rome, who had dispatched messengers to Arthur in Caerleon to demand (payment of) tribute to him and to the men of Rome, from this Island, in the measure that it had been paid (from the time of) Caswallawn son of Beli until the time of Custennin the Blessed, Arthur's grandfather. This is the answer that Arthur gave to the emperor's messengers: that the men of Rome had no greater claim to tribute from the men of this Island, than the men of the Island of Britain had from them. For Bran son of Dyfnwal and Custennin son of Elen had been emperors in Rome, and they were two men of this Island. And they Arthur mustered the most select warriors of his kingdom (and led them) across the sea against the emperor. And they met beyond the mountain of Mynneu [the Alps], and an untold number was slain on each side that day. And in the end Arthur encountered the emperor, and Arthur slew him. And Arthur's best men were slain there. When Medrawd heard that Arthur's host was dispersed, he turned against Arthur, and the Saxons and the Picts and the Scots united with him to hold this Island against Arthur. And when Arthur heard that, he turned back with all that had survived of his army, and succeeded by violence in landing on this Island in opposition to Medrawd. And then there took place the Battle of Camlan between Arthur and Medrawd, and was himself wounded to death. And from that (wound) he died, and was buried in a hall on the Island of Afallach.

Here Begin the Noble Triads

Three Exalted Prisoners of the Island of Britain:

Llyr Half-Speech, who was imprisoned by Euroswydd, and the second, Mabon son of Modron, and third, Gwair son of Geirioedd. And one (Prisoner), who was more exalted than the three of them. This Exalted Prisoner was Arthur. And

it was the same lad who released him from each of these three prisons- Goreu, son of Custennin, his cousin. Three Fair Princes of the Island of Britain: Owain son of Urien, Rhun son of Maelgwn, Rhufawn the Radiant son of Dewrarth Wledig. Three Frivolous Bards of the Island of Britain: Arthur, and Cadwallawn son of Cadfan, and Rahawd son of Morgant. Three Fortunate Concealments of the Island of Britain: The Head of Bran the Blessed, son of Llyr, which was concealed in the White Hill in London, with its face towards France. And as long as it was in the position in which it was put there, no Saxon Oppression would ever come to this Island; The second Fortunate Concealment: The Dragons in Dinas Emrys, which Lludd son of Beli concealed; And the third: the Bones of Gwerthefyr the Blessed, in the Chief Ports of this Island. And as long as they remained in that concealment, no Saxon Oppression would ever come to this Island. And they were the Three Unfortunate Disclosures when these were disclosed. And Gwrtheyrn the Thin disclosed the bones of Gwerthefyr the Blessed for the love of a woman. That was Ronnwen the pagan woman; And it was he who disclosed the Dragons; And Arthur disclosed the Head of Bran the Blessed from the White Hill, because it did not seem right to him that this Island should be defended by the strength of anyone, but by his own. Three Horses who carried the Three Horse-Burdens: Black Moro, horse of Elidir Mwynfawr, who carried on his back seven and a half people from Penllech in the North to Penllech in Mn. These were the seven people: Elidir Mwynfawr, and Eurgain his wife, daughter of Maelgwn Gwynedd, and Gwyn Good Companion, and Gwyn Good Distributor, and Mynach Naomon his counsellor, and Prydelaw the Cupbearer, his butler, and Silver Staff his servant, and Gelbeinevin his cook, who swam with his two hands to the horse's crupper - and that was the half-person. Corvan, horse of the sons of Eliffer, bore the second Horse-Burden: he carried on his back Gwrgi and Peredur and Dunawd the Stout and Cynfelyn the Leprous(?), to look upon the battle-fog of (the host of) Gwenddolau (in) Ar(f)derydd. And no one overtook him but Dinogad son of Cynan Garwyn, (riding) upon Swift Roan, and he won censure and dishonour from then till this day. Heith, horse of the sons of Gwerthmwl Wledig, bore the third Horse-Burden: he carried Gweir and Gleis and Archanad up the hill of Maelawr in Ceredigion to avenge their father. Three Roving Fleets of the Island of Britain: The Fleet of Llawr son of Eiryf, and the Fleet of Divwng son of Alan, and the Fleet of Solor son of Murthach. Three Harmful Blows of the Island of Britain:

The first of them Matholwch the Irishman struck upon Branwen daughter of Llyr; The second Gwenhwyfach struck upon Gwenhwyfar: and for that cause there took place afterwards the Action of the Battle of Camlan; And the third Golydan the Poet struck upon Cadwaladr the Blessed. Three Unrestrained Ravagings of the Island of Britain: The first of them when Medrawd came to Arthur's Court at Celliwig in Cornwall; he left neither food nor drink in the court that he did not consume. And he dragged Gwenhwyfar from her royal chair, and then he struck a blow upon her; The second Unrestrained Ravaging when Arthur came to Medrawd's court. He left neither food nor drink in the court; And the third Unrestrained Ravaging when Aeddan the Wily came to the court of Rhydderch the Generous at Alclud [Dumbarton]; he left neither food nor drink nor beast alive.

Three Quests that were obtained from Powys:

The first of them is the fetching of Myngan from Meigen to Llansilin, by nine the next morning, to receive privileges from Cadwallawn the Blessed, after the slaying of Ieuaf and Griffri; The second is the fetching of Griffri to Bryn Griffri before the following morning, to attack Edwin; The third is the fetching of Hywel son of Ieuaf to Ceredigiawn from the Rock of Gwynedd to fight with (on the side of?) Ieuaf and Iago in that battle.

These Are the Noble Triads:

Three Great Queens of Arthur:

Gwennhwyfar daughter of Cywryd Gwent, and Gwenhwyfar daughter of Gwythyr son of Greidiawl, and Gwenhwyfar daughter of Gogfran the Giant. Three Amazons of the Island of Britain: The first of them, Llewei daughter of Seitwed, and Rore(i) daughter of Usber, and Mederei Badellfawr. Three Noble Retinues of the Island of Britain: The Retinue of Mynyddawg at Catraeth, and the Retinue of Dreon the Brave at the Dyke of Ar(f)dery(dd), and the third, the Retinue of Belyn of Llyn (in) Erethlyn in Rhos. Three Great Enchantments of the Island of Britain: The Enchantment of Math son of Mathonwy which he taught to Gwydion son of Dn, and the Enchantment of Uthyr Pendragon which he taught to Menw son of Teirgwaedd, and the Enchantment of Rudlwm the Dwarf which he taught to Coll son of Collfrewy his nephew.

Three Chief Officers of the Island of Britain: Gwydar son of Rhun song of Beli; and Cawrdaf son of Caradawg; and Owain son of Maxen Wledig. Three Well-Endowed Men of the Island of Britain: Rhiwallawn Broom-hair, and Gwal(chmai) son of Gwyar, and Llachau son of Arthur. Three Unfortunate Counsels of the Island of Britain: To give place for their horses' fore-feet on the land to Julius Caesar and the men of Rome, in requital for Meinlas; and the second: to allow Horsa and Hengist and Rhonwen into this Island; and the third: the three-fold dividing by Arthur of his men with Medrawd at Camlan. Three Diademed Men of the Island of Britain: Gweir son of Gwystyl, and Cei son of Cynyr, and Drystan son of Tallwch. Three Red Ravagers of the Island of Britain: Rhun son of Beli, and Lleu Skilful Hand, and Morgant the Wealthy. But there was one who was a Red Ravager greater than all three: Arthur was his name. For a year neither grass nor plants used to spring up where one of the three would walk; but where Arthur went, not for seven years. Three Seafarers of the Island of Britain: Geraint son of Erbin, and Gwenwynwyn son of Naf, and March son of Meirchiawn. Three Chieftains of Arthur's Court: Gobrwy son of Echel Mighty-Thigh, and Ffleudur Fflam son of Godo, and Caedrieith son of Seidi. Three Bull-Chieftains of the Island of Britain: Adaon son of Taliesin, and Cynhafal son of Argad, and Elinwy son of Cadegr. Three Chieftains of Deira and Bernicia, and the Three were Sons of a Bard: Gall son of Disgyfdawd, and Ysgafnell son of Disgyfdawd, and Diffydell son of Disgyfdawd. These Three performed the Three Fortunate Assassinations: Gall son of Dysgyfdawd who slew the Two Birds of Gwenddolau. And they had a yoke of gold on them. Two corpses of the Cymry they ate for their dinner, and two for their supper; And Ysgafnell son of Dysgyfdawd, who slew Edelfled king of Lloegr; And Diffydell son of Dysgyfdawd who slew Gwrgi Garwlwyd ('Rough Grey'). That Gwrgi used to make a corpse of one of the Cymry every day, and

two on each Saturday so as not to slay on Sunday. Three Savage Men of the Island of Britain, who performed the Three Unfortunate Assassinations: Llofan Llaw Ddifro who slew Urien son of Cynfarch; Llongad Grwm Fargod Eidyn who slew Afaon son of Taliesin; and Heiden son of Efengad who slew Aneirin of Flowing Verse, daughter of Teyrnbeirdd--the man who used to give a hundred kine every Saturday in a bath-tub to Talhaearn. And he struck her with a woodhatchet on the head. And that was one of the Three Hatchet-Blows. The second (was) a woodcutter of Aberffraw who struck Golydan with a hatchet, on the head. And the third, one of his own men struck upon Iago, son of Beli, with a hatchet, on the head. Three Battle-Leaders of the Island of Britain: Selyf son of Cynan Garrwyn, and Urien son of Cynfarch, and Afaon son of Taliesin. This is why they were called battle-leaders: because they avenged their wrongs from their graves. [?] Three Pillars of Battle of the Island of Britain: Dunawd son of Pabo Pillar of Britain, and Gwallawg son of Lleenawg, and Cynfelyn the Leprous. Three Generous men of the Island of Britain: Nudd the Generous, son of Senyllt, Mordaf the Generous, son of Serwan, and Rhydderch the Generous, son of Tudwal Tudglyd. Three Brave Men of the Island of Britain: Gruddnei, and Henben, and Edenawg. They would not return from battle except on their biers. And those were three sons of Gleissiar of the North, by Haearnwedd the Wily their mother. Three Arrogant Men of the Isle of Britain: Gwibei the Arrogant, and Sawyl High-Chief, and Arnuawn Penyr the Arrogant. Three Prostrate Chieftains of the Island of Britain: Llywarch the Old son of Elidir Llydanwyn, and Manawydan son of Llyr HalfSpeech, and Gwgon Gwron son of Peredur son of Eliffer of the Great Retinue. And this is why those were called 'Prostrate Chieftains': because they would not seek a dominion, which nobody could deny to them. Three Enemy-Subduers of the Island of Britain: Greidiawl Enemy-Subduer son of Envael Adrann, and Gweir of Great Valour, and Drystan son of Tallwch. Three Slaughter-Blocks of the Island of Britain: Gilbert son of Cadgyffro, and Morfran son of Tegid, and Gwgawn Red-Sword.

Three Gate-Keepers at the Action of Bangor Orchard: Gwgon Red Sword, and Madawg son of Rhun, and Gwiawn son of Cyndrwyn. And three others on the side of Lloegr: Hawystyl the Arrogant, and Gwaetcym Herwuden, and Gwiner. Three Golden Corpses of the Island of Britain: Madawg son of Brwyn, and Cengan Peilliawg, and Rhu(f)awn the Radiant son of Gwyddno. Three Fettered War-Bands of the Islands of Britain: The War-Band of Cadwallawn Long-Arm, who each one put the fetters of their horses on their (own) feet, when fighting with Serygei the Irishman at the Irishmens' Rocks in Mn; And the second, the War-Band of Rhiwallawn son of Urien when fighting with the Saxons; And the third, the War-Band of Belyn of Llyn when fighting with Edwin at Bryn Edwin in Rhos. Three Faithful War-Bands of the Island of Britain: The War-Band of Cadwallawn, when they were fettered; and the War-Band of Gafran son of Aeddan, at the time of his complete disappearance; and the WarBand of Gwenddolau son of Ceidiaw at Ar(f)derydd, who continued the battle for a fortnight and a month after their lord was slain. The number of each one of the War-Bands was twenty-one hundred men. Three Faithless War-Bands of the Islands of Britain: The War-Band of Goronwy the Radiant of (Penllyn), who refused to receive the poisoned spear from Lleu Skilful-Hand on behalf of their lord, at the Stone of Goronwy at the head of the Cynfal; and the War-Band of Gwrgi and Peredur, who abandoned their lord at Caer Greu, when they had an appointment to fight the next day with Eda Great-Knee; and there they were both slain; And the WarBand of Alan Fyrgan, who turned away from him by night, and let him go with his servants to Camlan. And there he was slain. Three Fettered Men of the Island of Britain: Cadwaladr the Blessed, and Rhun son of Maelgwn, and Rhiwallawn Broom-Hair. And this is why those men were called Fettered: because horses could not be obtained that were suited to them, owing to their size; so they put fetters of gold around the small of their legs, on the cruppers of their horses, behind their backs; and two golden plates under their knees, and because of this the knee is called 'knee-pan'.) Three Bull-Spectres of the Island of Britain: Three Spectre of Gwidawl, and the Spectre of Llyr Marini, and the Spectre of Gyrthmwl Wledig. Three Wild Spectres of the Island of Britain:

The Spectre of Banawg, and the Spectre of Ednyfedawg the Sprightly, and the Spectre of Melen. Three Unrestricted Guests of Arthur's Court, and Three Wanderers: Llywarch the Old, and Llemenig, and Heledd. Three Faithful Women of the Island of Britain: Arddun wife of Cadgor son of Gorolwyn, and Efeilian wife of Gwydyr the Heavy, and Emerchred wife of Mabon son of Dewengan. Three Red-Speared Bards of the Island of Britain: Dygynnelw, bard of Owain son of Urien, and Arouan Bard Selen son of Cynan, and Afan Ferddig, bard of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan. Three Exalted Prisoners of the Island of Britain: Llyr Half-Speech, who was imprisoned by Euroswydd, and the second, Mabon son of Modron, and third, Gwair son of Geirioedd. And one (Prisoner), who was more exalted than the three of them, was three nights in prison in Caer Oeth and Anoeth, and three nights imprisoned by Gwen Pendragon, and three nights in an enchanted prison under the Stone of Echymeint. This Exalted Prisoner was Arthur. And it was the same lad who released him from each of these three prisons- Goreu, son of Custennin, his cousin.
For some reason, the scribe repeats this triad, which was the first after the account of the Host of Llychlyn. Here, though, the triad is expanded to include the locations of Arthur's imprisonment. Goreu also appears in Culhwch and Olwen as the killer of Yspaddaden Penkawr.

These Are the Triads of the Horses:


Three Bestowed Horses of the Island of Britain: Meinlas [Slender Grey], horse of Caswallawn son of Beli, Melyngan Gamre [Pale Yellow of the Stud], horse of Lleu Skilful-Hand, and Lluagor [Host-Splitter], horse of Caradawg Strong-Arm. Three Chief Steeds of the Island of Britain: Tall Black-Tinted, horse of Cynan Garrwyn, and Eager Long Fore-Legs, horse of Cyhored son of Cynan, and Red... Wolf-Tread, horse of Gilbert son of Cadgyffro. Three Plundered Horses of the Island of Britain: Karnaflawc [Cloven-Hoof], horse of Owain son of Urien, and Long Tongue, horse of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan, and Bucheslom, horse of Gwgawn of the Red Sword Three Lively Steeds of the Island of Britain:

Gwineu Gwdwc Hir [Chestnut Long-neck] horse of Cei, and Grei hourse of Edwin, and Llwyd [Grey] horse of Alfer son of Maelgwn. Three Adulterers' Horses of the Island of Britain: Fferlas [Grey Fetlock] horse of Dalldaf son of Cunin, and Gwelwgan Gohoewgein horse of Caradawg son of Gwallawc, and Gwrbrith [Spotted Dun] horse of Rahawd. Tri penn uarch ynys brydein dugant y tri marchlwyth y mae eu henwen dracheuyn.
Is this a mistake of the scribe, leaving the triad incomplete?

Three Powerful Swineherds of the Island of Britain: Pryderi son of Pwyll, Lord of Annwfn, tending the swine of Penndaran Dyfed his foster-father. These swine were the seven animals which Pwyll Lord of Annwfn brought, and gave them to Penndaran Dyfed his foster-father. And the place where he used to keep them was in Glyn Cuch in Emlyn. And this is why he was called a Powerful Swineherd: because no one was able either to deceive or to force him; and the second, Drystan son of Tallwch, tending the swine of March son of Meirchyawn, while the swineherd went with a message to Essyllt. Arthur and March and Cai and Bedwyr were (there) all four, but they did not succeed in getting so much as one pigling - neither by force, nor by deception, nor by stealth; And the third, Coll son of Collfrewy, tending the swine of Dallwyr Dallben in Glyn Dallwyr in Cornwall. And one of the swine was pregnant, Henwen was her name. And it was prophecied that the Island of Britain would be the worse for the womb-burden. Then Arthur assembled the army of the Island of Britain, and set out to seek to destroy her. And then she set off, about to bring forth (?), and at Penrhyn Awstin in Cornwall she entered the sea, and the Powerful Swineherd after her. And in the Wheat Field in Gwent she brought forth a grain of wheat and a bee. And therefore from that day to this the Wheat Field in Gwent is the best place for wheat and for bees. And at Llonion in Pembroke she brought forth a grain of barley and a grain of wheat. Therefore, the barley of Llonion is proverbial. At the Hill of Cyferthwch in Arfon she brought forth a (wolf-cub) and a young eagle. The wolf was given to (M)ergaed and the eagle to Breat, a prince of the North: and they were both the worse for them. And at Llanfair in Arfon under the Black Rock she brought forth a kitten, and the Powerful Swineherd threw it from the Rock into the sea. And the sons of Palug fostered it in Mn, to their own harm: and that was Palug's Cat, and it was one of the Three Great Oppressions of Mn, nurtured therein. The second was Daronwy, and the third was Edwin, king of Lloegr.
It is worth noting that this triad is likely the inspiration of Lloyd Alexander's series The Chronicles of Prydein, an awardwinning fantasy series that retells elements of Welsh legend and myth contained in the Red Book, particularly the Mabinogi and the triads. Henwen the pig, Coll, Dallben, Gwydion, and Pryderi all play prominent rolls in the series.

Three Favourites of Arthur's Court, and Three Battle-Horsemen: they would never endure a PENTEULU over them. And Arthur sang an ENGLYN: These are my Three Battle-Horsemen:

and Lludd Llurugawc [of the Breastplate], and the Pillar of the Cymry, Caradawg. Three Golden Shoemakers of the Island of Britain: Caswallawn son of Beli, when he went to Rome to seek Fflur; and Manawydan son of Llyr, when the Enchantment was on Dyfed; and Lleu Skilful-Hand, when he and Gwydion were seeking a name and arms from his mother Ar(i)anrhod. Three Kings who were (sprung) from Villeins: Gwriad son of Gwrian in the North, and Cadafel son of Cynfeddw in Gwynedd, and Hyfaidd son of Bleiddig in Deheubarth. Three Defilements of the Severn: Cadwallawn when he went to the Action of Digoll, and the forces of Cymry with him; and Edwin on the other side, and the forces of Lloegr with him. And then the Severn was defiled from its source to its mouth; The second, the gift of Golydan from Einiawn son of Bedd, king of Cornwall; And the third, Calam the horse of Iddon son of Ner from Maelgwn...
Here the triads end, according to Rhys and Evans.

The Welsh Triads


Peniarth MS 54 1. Three tribal thrones of the Island of Prydain. Arthur the Chief Lord at Menevia, and David the chief bishop, and Maelgwyn Gwyned the chief elder. Arthur the chief lord at Kelliwic in Cornwall, and Bishop Betwini the chief bishop, and Caradawg Vreichvras the chief elder. Arthur the chief lord in Penrionyd in the north, and Cyndeyrn Garthwys the cheif bishop, and Gurthmwl Guledic the chief elder. 2. Three generous ones of the Island of Prydain. Nudd Hael, son of Senyllt; Mordaf Hael, son of Servan; Rhydderch Hael, son of Tutwal Tudelyt. 3. Three fair lords of the Island of Prydain. Run son of Maelgwyn; Owen son of Urien; Ruawn Pefyr son of Deorath Guledig. 4. Three naturalists of the Island of Prydain. Gwalchmei son of Gwyar; and Llachau son of Arthur; and Rhiwallawn Gwallt Banadlen. 5. Three pillars of battle of the Island of Prydain. Dunawd son of Pabo pillar of Britain; and Gwallawc son of Lleenawc; and Cynfelyn Drwsgl. 6. Three bulls of battle of the Island of Prydain. Kynvarch Cat Caduc son of Kynnwyt Kynwytyon; and Gwenddoleu son of Coidyaw; and Uryen son of Kynvarch.

7. Three bull-princes of the Island of Prydain. Elmwr son of Cadeir; and Cynhafal son of Argat; and Afaon son of Taliessin. Three sons of bards were these. 8. Three Humble Princes of the Island of Prydain. Llywarch Hen son of Elidyr Lydanwyn; and Manawydan son of Llyr Lledyeith; and Gwgawn Gwrawn son of Peredur son of Eliffer Gosgordvaur. 9. Three princes of the Court of Arthur. Goronwy son of Echell Fordwyten; and Cadreith son of Porthfaurgaddu; and Fleidur Fflam. 10. Three princes of Deira and Bernicia. Gall son of Desgyfedawdt and Ysgafnell son of Disgyfedawt; and Diffydell son of Disgyfedawt. Three sons of bards were these three. 11. Three ruddy-speared bards of the Island of Prydain. Tristvardd bard of Urien; and Dygynelw bard of Owen; and Mainferdic, bard of Cadwallawn, son of Catfan; and they were sons of Morgant. 12. Three supreme servants of the Island of Prydain. Caradawc son of Bran; and Caurdaf son of Caradawc; and Owen son of Maxen Guledic. 13. Three fleet owners of the Island of Prydain. Gereint son of Erbin; and Gwenwywnwyn son of Naf; and March son of Meirchiaun. 14. Three strong-crutched ones of the Island of Prydain. Rineri son of Tangwn; and Tinwaed faglaw; and Pryder son of Dolor of Deira and Bernicia. 15. Three fettered ones of the Island of Prydain. Cadwaladyr the blessed; and Run son of Maelgwyn; and Rhiwallawn wallt Banadlen. 16. Three cavaliers of battle of the Island of Prydain. Caradawg freichfras; Menwaed of Arllechwedd; and Llyr Lluydauc. 17. Three hostile ovates of the Island of Prydain. Greidiawl Galovyd, son of Enfael Adran; and Gweyr of great manliness; and Trystan son of Tallwch. 18. Three red-spotted ones of the Island of Prydain. Arthur; and Run son of Beli; and Morgant Mwynfawr. 19. Three front leaders of battle of the Island of Prydain. Trystan son of Tallwch; and Huil son of Caw; and Cei son of Cynyr Cynfarfawc and one person was supreme over these three: Bedwyr son of Pedrawt was that one. 20. Three heroes of the Island of Prydain. Th three sons of Hayarnwed the treacherous: Grudnei and Henpen and Edenawc.

21. Three arrogant ones of the Island of Prydain. Sawyl penuchel; and Pasgen son of Uryen; and Run son of Einiaun. 22. Three obstructers of slaughter of the Island of Prydain. Gilbert son of Catgyffro; and Morfran son of Tegid; and Gwgun of the ruddy sword. 23. Three powerful swineherds of the Islad of Prydain. Trystan son of Tallwch, who kept the swine of March, son of Meirchiawn, while the swineherd went on a message to Essyllt to desire a meeting with her, and Arthur desired one pig by deceit or by theft, and could not get it; and Pryderi son of Pwyll, who kept the swine of Pendaran Dyfed in Glencuwch in Emlyn; And Coll son of Collfrewy, who kept the ancient sow of Dallweir Dalben, who went burrowing as far as Penryn Awstin in Cornwall, and there going to the sea, landed at Abertorogi in Gwent Iscoed, and Coll son of Collfrewy having his hand on her bristles, wherever she went on the sea or on the land, and at Maes Gwenith in Gwent she dropped wheat and bees, and from henceforth there is the best wheat there, and from thence she went to Lonwen in Penbro, and there she dropped barley and bees, and from thence there is the best barley in Lonwen, and from thence she proceeded to the Riw Cyferthwch in Eryri, and there she dropped a wolf-cub and an eagle, and Coll son of Collfreuy gave the eagle to Brynach Gwyddel of the north, and the wolf he gave to Menwaed fo Arllechwedd, and these are the wolf of Menwaed and the eagle of Brynach, and thence going to Maendu in Llanfare, in Arvon, and there she dropped a kitten, and Coll son of Collfrewy threw the kitten in the Menai, and she became afterwards the Paluc cat. 24. Three chief-gleaming ones of the Island of Prydain. Coll son of Collfrewy; and Meniw son of Teirgwaed; and Drych son of Kiwdar. 25. Three primary illusions of the Island of Prydain. The illusion of Math son of Mathonwy; and the illusion of Uthyr Pendragon; and the illusion of Gwydelen Gor. 26. Three loyal households of the Island of Prydain. The household of Catwallaun son of Cadfan, who were seven years in Ywerdon with him, and in that time demanded no pay nor compensation from him; and the household of Gafran son of Aedan, who went to sea with their lord; and the third the household of Gwendoleu son of Ceidyaw at Arderyd, who maintained the contest forty-six days after their lord was slain. The number of the households each one of their warriors one hundred men and a score. 27. Three disloyal households of the Island of Prydain. The household of Goronw Pebyr of Penllyn who refused to stand in place of their lord to recieve the poisoned darts from Lew Law Gyffes in Lech Goronwy in Blaen Cynfael; and the household of Gwrgi and Peredur, who deserted their lords at Caer Greu, when there was appointment for battle next morning against Eda Glinmaur, and they were both slain; and the third, the household of Alan Fyrgan, who returned

back by stealth from their lord, on the road at night with his servants at Camlan, and there he was slain. 28. Three pass retinues of the Island of Prydain. The retinue of Mynydawg of Eidyn; the retinue of Melyn son of Cynvelyn; and the retinue of Dryan son of Nudd. 29. Three warriors who made the three good assassinations of the Island of Prydain. Gall son of Dysgyfedawt, who slew the two birds of Gwendoleu, who had a yoke of gold about them, and devoured two bodies of the Cymry at their dinner and two at their supper; and Ysgafnell son of Dysgyfedawt, who slew Edelfled king of Lloegyr; and Diffedel son of Dysgyfedawt, who slew Gwrgi Garwlwyt, and this Gwrgi a male and female of the Cymry, and two on Saturday that he might not kill on Sunday. 30. Three atrocious assassinations of the Island of Prydain. Eidyn son of Einygan, who slew Aneiryn Gwawdrud, the supreme of bards; and Llawgat Trumbargawt, who slew Afaon son of Taliessin; and Llovan Llawdino, who slew Urien son of Kynvarch. 31. Three atrocious axe-strokes of the island of Prydain. The axe-stroke of Eidyn on the Head of Aneiryn; and the axe-stroke on the head of Godlan the bard; and the axe-stroke on the head of Iago son of Beli. 32. Three combined expeditions that went from this island and never returned. One went with Helen Luydawg and Cynan her brother. Another went with Yrp Luydawc, in the time of Cadyal son of Erynt, he came to ask assistance, and he asked not from each city, but the same number he should bring with him and there came with him to the first only one youth, and he obtained one given him. He was the greatest levier fo an expedition that went from this island, and none of the warriors returned. They went on an invasive expedition, these warriors, to two islands in the sea of Greece. These are teh two islands, Gals and Avena. The third host went with Caswallaun son of Beli, and Gwenwynwyn, and Gwanar sons of Lliaws son of Nwyure, and Aranrot daughter of Beli, was their mother, and from Arllechwed were these wariors, and they went with Caswallawn, their uncle, against the Cesariot over the sea, and these warriors are now in Gwasgwyn. There went with each of these hosts one thousand and twenty. These are the three silver hosts. They were thus called, for they took the gold and silver of the island with them, as much as they could. 33. Three oppressions came to this Island, and did not go out of it. The nation of the Coranyeit, who came in the time of Llud son of Beli, and did not go out of it; the Oppression of the Gwyddyl Fichti, and they did not again go out of it. The third, the oppression was the Saxons, and they did not again go out of it.

34. Three closures and three disclosures of the Island of Prydain. The blessed head of Bran son of Llyr, which was buried in the Gwynfryn in London, and while the head remained in that state, no invasion would ever come to this island. The second, the bones of Gwerthefyr the blessed, which are buried in the principle ports of this island; and the third, the dragons which Llud son of Beli buried in Dinas Emreis in Eryri.
SOURCE The Four Ancient Books of Wales. ed. by William F. Skene. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1868.

The North Britain Triads


Henceforth follow excerpts from the same codex (i.e. the book of Sir Richard Wynn): Three Niggardly [Miserly] Stocks: The first is Madog son of Mabon; the second is Cantelli the Irishman; and the third is Osbwrn the Irishman. Three who were raised to the Nobility: the Short Bone, Tegwared son of Cynrig, and Moel of the Boasting. [Elsewhere in the same codex:] King Mwrchath had three Sons, and they were the three men of greatest fame in Ireland in their time, and they were the swiftest men in Ireland. These were their names: Dwnchead who was king in Munster, and Sitrig who was king in Dublin, and Moel Kelin (== Maelsechlainn) who was king in Meath. Kynyr or Kevyr (by another name) and Meilir and Yneigr, sons of Gwron ap Cunedda, who were all three with Cadwallon Lawhir their cousin when he drove the Gwyddyl Ffichti from Mn. And then they destroyed them (the Gwyddyl Ffichti) completely, when Cadwallon Lawhir slew Seregri Wyddel (=the Irishman) in Llan y Gwyddyl at Caer Gybi (=Holyhead) in Mon. These are the three times when the Lordship of Gwynedd went by the Distaff:
One of them was Stratweul daughter of Cadfan ap Cynan ab Eudaf ap Caradog ap Bran ap Llyr Llediaith; and this Stratweul was wife of Coel Godebog. She was the mother of Cenau ap Coel and the mother of Difyr. Others say that she was called Seradwen daughter of Cynan ab Eudaf ap Caradog. The second was Gwawl daughter of (Coel) Godebog, mother of Cunedda Wledig and wife of Edyrn son of Padarn Peisrudd. And the third was Essyll(t) daughter of Cynan Tindaethwy, mother of Rhodri Mawr and wife of Merfyn Frych.

Three Cousins were: Rhirid Flaidd and Cynddelw ap Gwgan and Iarddwr ap Dinwrig; and their mothers were three daughters of Cynfyn Hirdref. Three daughters of Cynfyn Hirdref by Haer daughter of Gillin son of the Red Wolf: One of them was Sannant mother of Cynddelw ap Gw(g)on of Llyn, the second was Perwevyr wife of Dinwrig mother of Iarddw ap Dinwrig, and the thir was Generys wife of Urgenei Collwyn son of an uchelwr from Mochnant, mother of Rhirid Flaidd. And because he was a grandson to Haer daughter of Gillin son of the Red Wolf he was called Rhirid Flaidd. Three sons of Hedd ap Molynoc ap Greddyf. Neutur and Gwyllonen and Gwrgi (or Gwrgi (M)eutur from Cwll in Mn). From Neutur come the men of Llanfair Dalhaiarn. From Gwyllonen come the men of Dyffryn Elwy. From Gwrgi come the men of Nant Aled. The children of Meirchiawn ap Gorwst Ledlwm (== Half Bare): Cynfarch ap Meirchiawn ap Gorwst ap Cenau ap Coel, and he was called Meirchiawn G~l Q= the Lean) ap Gorwst Ledlwm. And because of Cynfarch ap Meirchiawn they were called the Three Hundred Swords of the sons of Cynf arch. And from Cynwyd Cynwydion there came the Three Hundred Shields of Cynwydion. And from Coel they were called the Three Hundred Spears of the sons of (Coel). Whatever quest they went upon together, they never failed. Five Plebeian Tribes of Wales. The Red Wolf of Gest in Efionydd in Gwynedd, Adda the Great in Deheubarth, Gwenwys and Alla and Heilyn Ystailforch in Powys.

SOURCE: Bromwich, Rachel. Trioedd Ynys Prydein. Cardiff: UWP, 1963.

The Twenty-Four Knights of Arthur's Court


Twenty-four ordained Knights were in Arthurs Court dwelling continuously, and each one of them had an inflate peculiarity of achievement beyond other people. Three Golden-Tongued Knights were in Arthurs Court: Gwalchmai son of Llew son of Cynfarch, and Drudwas son of Tryffin, and Eliwlod son of Madog son of Uthur: and there was neither king nor lord to whom those came who did not listen to them; and whatever quest they sought, they wished for and obtained it, either willingly or unwillingly. Three Virgin Knights were in Arthurs Court: Bwrt son of Bwrt King of Gascony, and Peredur son of Earl Efrog, and Galath son of Lanslod Lak. Wherever those came, where there might be giant or witch

or fiendish being(such) could not withstand one of those Three Virgin Knights. Three Knights of Battle were in Arthurs Court: Cadwr Earl of Cornwall, and Lanslod Lak, and Ywain son of Urien Rheged. The peculiarities of those were that they did not flee for fear of spear or sword or arrow; and Arthur was never shamed in battle on the day that he saw their faces in the field. And therefore they were called Knights of Battle. Three Enchanter Knights were in Arthurs Court: Menw son of Teirgwaedd, and Trystan son of Tallwch, and E(i)ddilig the Dwarf; since they changed themselves into the form they wished when they were hardpressed, and therefore no one could overcome them. Three Royal Knights were in Arthurs Court: Nasiefn son of the King of Denmark, and Medrod son of Llew son of Cynfarch, and Howel son of Emyr Llydaw. The peculiarities of those were that there was neither king nor emperor of the world who could refuse them, on account of their beauty and wisdom in peace; while in war no warrior or champion could withstand them, despite the excellence of his arms. And therefore they were called Royal Knights. Three Just Knights were in Arthurs Court: Blaes son of the Earl of Llychlyn, and Cadog son of Gwynlliw the Bearded, and Pedrog Splintered-Spear, son of Clement Prince of Cornwall. The peculiarities of those were that whoever might do wrong to the weak, they contended against him who did him wrong in the cause of justice; and whoever might do wrong they slew, however strong he might be. For those three had dedicated themselves to preserve justice by every Law: Blaes by earthly Law, Cadog by the Law of the Church, and Pedrog by the Law of arms. And those were called Just Knights. Three Offensive Knights were in Arthurs Court: Morfran son of Tegid, and Sanddef Angel-Face, and Glewlwyd Mighty-Grasp. The peculiarities of those were that it was ~repugnant to anyone to refuse them anything: Sanddef because of his beauty, Morfran because of his ugliness, and Glewlwyd because of his size and his strength and his ferocity. And therefore they were called Offensive Knights. Three Counsellor Knights were in Arthurs Court: Cynon son of Clydno Eiddyn, and Aron son of Cynfarch, and Llywarch the Old son of Elidir Lydanwyn. And those three were Counsellors to Arthur: whatever hardship came pon him, they counselled him, so that nobody could overcome him. And thus Arthur triumphed over everyone, and in every eat, and over every nation in the world; through the strength the powerful spirit and the faith and

hope that were in his eart towards those men, and through the sacred weapons at God had given him: Rhongomiant his spear, Caledfwlch a sword, and Carnwennan his dagger. SOURCE: Bromwich, Rachel. Trioedd Ynys Prydein. Cardiff: UWP, 1963.

Bardic Triads
Peniarth 20 Tri ryw brifgerd ysyd, nyt amgen: kerd dant, kerd vegin, a cherd dauawt. Teir prifgerd tant ysyd, nyt amgen: kerd grwth, kerd delyn, a cherd timpan. Teir prifgerd megin ysyd, nyt amgen: organ, a phibeu, a cherd y got [god]. Teir prifgerd tauawt ysyd: prydu, a dachanu, a chanu gan delyn. TRANSLATION: There are three primary musical forms, namely: string music; bellows music; and music of the tongue.[1] The three primary forms of string music, namely: court music, harp music, and drum music. The three primary forms of bellows music, namely: organ, and pipes, and music of the bag.[2] The three primary forms of singing: poetry, recitation, and singing with the harp.

NOTES 1. "music of the tongue": i.e. singing 2. "music of the bag": i.e. bagpipes SOURCE: Harper, Sally. "Instrumental Music in Medieval Wales." North American Journal of Welsh

Studies, Vol. 3, no. 1. Flint, MI: North American Association for the Study of Welsh Culture and History, 2004.

Translation by Mary Jones 2004

O gals Trades
Llyfr Coch Hergest
coronel 588-600 A seguir esto as trades galesas como registrado no Livro Vermelho da Hergest, ca. 1425. uma verso bastante completa, embora de modo diferente (e muito alargada) da verso anterior Peniarth 45. Ao contrrio do livro de Rachel Bromwich, Trioedd Ynys Prydein, estou apresentando-os na ordem em que aparecem no manuscrito (Jesus MS 111), como eu no estou focando vrias colees, mas apenas um. Meu recurso neste processo John Rhys 'e facimilie de Romances do Livro Vermelho, de J. Gwenogyrvan Evan O texto do Mabinogion e outros contos galeses (1887), que tem as trades em um apndice. As iniciais vermelhas so indicadas no texto, e no se desviaram, mesmo quando parece ser um voltas por parte do escriba.

T rs homens que receberam o poder de Ado: Hercules, o Forte, e Hector, o Forte, e Sanso, o Forte. Eram, todos os trs, to forte quanto o prprio Ado. T rs homens que receberam a beleza de Adam: filho Absalo de Davi, filho de Jason Aeson; Paris, filho de Pramo. Eram, todos os trs, como aprazvel como o prprio Ado. T rs homens que receberam a sabedoria de Ado: Cato, o Antigo, e Bede e Siblo o Sbio. Eram, todos os trs, to sbio quanto o prprio Ado. Trs mulheres que receberam a beleza de Eva em trs terceiros-partes: Diadema, senhora de Enias Branco-Shield, e Elen, o Magnfico, a mulher em cuja conta foi a destruio de Tria e Polixena, filha de Pramo, o Velho, rei de Tria.

Quando um anfitrio foi para Llychlyn.

Um exrcito n (de assistncia) foi com RP dos Hosts para Llychlyn. E que o

homem veio aqui na poca de Cadyal dos golpes (?) Para pedir uma taxa a partir desta ilha. E ningum veio com ele, mas Mathuthavar seu servo. Isto o que ele pediu a partir das dez e vinte Chefe Fortalezas que existem neste Island: que duas vezes mais homens do que foi com ele a cada um deles deve sair com ele (dele). E para a primeira Fortaleza, veio apenas a si mesmo e seu servo. (E isso provou grave para os homens desta ilha.) E concederam a ele. Uma que foi a taxa mais completa que j partiu deste Island. . E com esses homens que ele

conquistou a maneira como ele foiT mangueira homens permaneceram nas duas ilhas perto do mar grego: n amely, Clas e Avena. E o segundo (exrcito) foi com Elen dos Exrcitos e Maxen Wledig para Llychlyn: e eles nunca mais voltou a esta ilha. E o terceiro (exrcito) foi com Caswallawn filho de Beli e Gwennwynwyn e Gwanar, filhos de Lliaw filho de Nwyfre e Arianrhod filha de Beli sua me. E (era) de Erch e Heledd que esses homens vieram. E foram com Caswallawn seu tio em busca dos homens de Csar deste Island. T ele colocar onde esses homens esto na Gasconha. T ele o nmero que foi com cada um (os exrcitos) foi vinte e um mil homens. E esses foram os trs hosts de prata da ilha da Gr-Bretanha. T rs Homens Dishonoured que estavam na ilha da GrBretanha: Um deles: filho Afarwy de Lludd filho de Beli. Ele primeiro convocado J ulius Csar e os homens de Roma para esta ilha, e ele fez com que o pagamento de 3.000 em dinheiro como tributo a partir desta ilha a cada ano, por causa de uma briga com Caswallawn seu tio. E o segundo Gwrtheyrn [Vortigern] o Fino, quem primeiro deu a terra para os saxes neste Island, e foi o primeiro a entrar em uma aliana com eles. Ele causou a morte de Custennin o Jovem, filho de Custennin do Santssimo, por sua traio, e exilou os dois irmos Emrys Wledig e Uthur Penndragon desta ilha para Armrica, e enganosamente levou a coroa eo reino em sua prpria posse. E no final Uthur e Emrys queimado Gwrtheyrn em Castell Gwerthrynyawn ao lado do Wye, em um nico incndio para vingar seu irmo. T ele terceira e pior foi Medrawd, quando Arthur deixou com ele o governo da ilha da Gr-Bretanha, ao mesmo tempo quando ele mesmo atravessou o mar para se opor Lles [Lcio], imperador de Roma, que havia despachado mensageiros a Arthur em Caerleon para exigir (pagamento de) homenagem a ele e aos homens de Roma, a partir desta ilha, na medida em que ele tinha sido pago (desde o tempo de) Caswallawn filho de Beli at o momento da Custennin o Santssimo, o av de Arthur. t dele a resposta que Arthur deu aos mensageiros do imperador: a de que os homens de Roma no tinha mais direito ao tributo de os homens desta ilha, que os homens da Ilha da GrBretanha tiveram com eles. Para Bran filho de Dyfnwal e Custennin filho de Elen tinha sido imperadores em Roma, e eram dois homens desta ilha. Uma nd eles Arthur reuniu os guerreiros mais seletos do seu reino (e levou) atravs do mar contra o imperador. E eles se encontraram alm da montanha de Mynneu [Alpes], e um nmero incontvel foi morto em cada lado naquele dia. Uma nd no final Arthur encontrou o imperador, e Arthur, o matou. E melhores homens de Artur foram mortos l. Quando Medrawd ouviu que o exrcito de Arthur foi dispersado, ele se virou contra Arthur e os saxes e os pictos e os escoceses unidos com ele para manter esta ilha contra Arthur. Uma nd quando Arthur ouviu isso, voltou-se com tudo o que tinha sobrevivido de seu exrcito, e conseguiu pela violncia no desembarque nesta ilha em oposio Medrawd. Uma seguida teve lugar a Batalha de Camlan entre Arthur e Medrawd, e foi-se ferida de morte. E a partir desse (ferida) que ele morreu, e foi enterrado em um salo na ilha de Afallach.

Aqui comeam as Trades Nobres

T rs Presos Exaltado da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha:

Llyr Half-Speech, que foi preso por Euroswydd, eo segundo, Mabon filho de Modron, e terceiro, Gwair filho de Geirioedd. E um (Prisioneiro), que era mais exaltado do que os trs. Este Prisioneiro Exaltado foi Arthur. E era o mesmo rapaz que o liberado de cada um dos trs presdios de Goreu, filho de Custennin, seu primo. T rs Feira Princes da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Owain filho de Urien, Rhun filho de Maelgwn, Rhufawn, filho de Radiant Dewrarth Wledig. T rs Bardos frvolas da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Arthur, e Cadwallawn filho de Cadfan e Rahawd filho de . Morgant T rs ocultaes Afortunadas da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: O Chefe de Bran, o Abenoado, filho de Llyr, que estava escondido no Morro Branco, em Londres, com o seu rosto para a Frana. E enquanto ele estava na posio em que foi colocado l, no Opresso saxo jamais vir a esta ilha, T ele Ocultao segundo Fortunate: T ele Dragons em Dinas Emrys, que Lludd filho de Beli oculta, ea terceira: Ossos de Gwerthefyr do Santssimo, nas Portas Chefe da ilha. E enquanto eles permaneceram em que a ocultao, sem opresso saxo jamais vir a esta ilha. E eles eram os Trs Divulgaes infelizes quando estes foram divulgados. E Gwrtheyrn a Fina divulgou os ossos de Gwerthefyr o Santssimo para o amor de uma mulher. T chapu foi Ronnwen a mulher pag, e foi ele quem divulgou os drages; Um nd Arthur revelou o Chefe de Bran, o Abenoado do Morro Branco, porque no parecia certo para ele que esta ilha deve ser defendido pela fora de qualquer um, mas por seu prprio. T rs Cavalos que carregavam os Trs Cavalo-Encargos: Preto Moro, cavalo de Elidir Mwynfawr, que carregava em seu sete de volta e meio de pessoas de Penllech no Norte de Penllech em comum. T stas foram as sete pessoas: Elidir Mwynfawr e Eurgain sua esposa, filha de Maelgwn Gwynedd, e Gwyn bom companheiro, e Gwyn bom distribuidor e Mynach Naomon seu conselheiro, e Prydelaw o copeiro, seu mordomo, e prata equipe, seu servo, e Gelbeinevin seu cozinheiro, que nadou com as duas mos a garupa do cavalo - e esse foi o meio-pessoa. Corvan, cavalo dos filhos de Eliffer, levou o segundo cavalo-Burden: ele carregava nas costas Gwrgi e Peredur e Dunawd a Stout e Cynfelyn os leprosos, a olhar para a batalha-fog de (o host de) Gwenddolau (?) (em) Ar (f) derydd.E ningum alcanou-o, mas Dinogad filho de Cynan Garwyn, (equitao) sobre Swift Roan, e ele ganhou censura e desonra a partir de ento at hoje. Heith, cavalo dos filhos de Gwerthmwl Wledig, levou o terceiro cavalo-Burden: ele carregava Gweir e Gleis e Archanad at o morro de Maelawr em Ceredigion para vingar seu pai. T rs Roving Frotas da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: a frota de Llawr filho de Eiryf, ea Frota de Divwng filho de Alan, e da Frota de Solor filho de Murthach. T rs Blows nocivos da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: A primeira delas Matholwch o irlands bateu em cima de Branwen filha de Llyr, o segundo Gwenhwyfach atingido sobre Gwenhwyfar, e por essa causa teve lugar depois da

ao da Batalha de Camlan eo terceiro Golydan o Poeta bateu em cima Cadwaladr do Santssimo. T rs Ravagings irrestritas da Ilha da GrBretanha: A primeira delas quando Medrawd veio para Arthur Tribunal na Celliwig em Cornwall, deixou nem comida, nem bebida no tribunal que ele no consome. E ele arrastou Gwenhwyfar de sua cadeira real, e, em seguida, ele desferiu um golpe em cima dela; T ele segundo desenfreado que assola quando Arthur chegou ao tribunal de Medrawd. Ele deixou nem comida, nem bebida no tribunal, eo terceiro desenfreado que assola quando Aeddan o Wily chegou ao tribunal de Rhydderch o Generoso em Alclud [Dumbarton], ele no deixou nem comida, nem beber, nem animais vivos. rs Quests que foram obtidos a partir de Powys: O primeiro deles a busca de Myngan de Meigen para Llansilin, por volta das nove da manh seguinte, para receber privilgios de Cadwallawn do Santssimo, aps o assassinato de Ieuaf e Griffri, o segundo a busca de Griffri para Bryn Griffri antes do manh seguinte, para atacar Edwin, o terceiro a busca de Hywel filho de Ieuaf para Ceredigiawn da Rocha de Gwynedd para lutar com (ao lado do?) Ieuaf e Iago nessa batalha.

Estas so as Trades Nobres:

T rs Grande Queens of Arthur:

Gwennhwyfar filha de Cywryd Gwent, e Gwenhwyfar filha de Gwythyr filho de Greidiawl, e Gwenhwyfar filha de Gogfran the Giant. t rs amazonas da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: A primeira delas, Llewei filha de Seitwed e Rore (i) filha de

Usber e Mederei Badellfawr. T rs squitos nobres da ilha da GrBretanha: a comitiva de Mynyddawg em Catraeth, ea comitiva de Dreon the Brave, no Dique do Ar (f) Dery (dd), e o terceiro, a comitiva de Belyn de Llyn (in) Erethlyn em Rhos. t rs Grandes Encantos da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: o encantamento de Matemtica filho de Mathonwy que ele ensinou para Gwydion filho de Don, eo Enchantment of Uthyr Pendragon que ele ensinados a Menw filho de Teirgwaedd, eo Enchantment of Rudlwm o Ano que ele ensinou para Coll filho de Collfrewy seu sobrinho. t rs Diretores da ilha da GrBretanha: Gwydar filho de Rhun cano de Beli e Cawrdaf filho de Caradawg e Owain filho de Maxen Wledig. T rs Bem-Dotados Homens da ilha da GrBretanha: Rhiwallawn Vassoura-de cabelo, e Gwal (chmai) filho de Gwyar e Llachau filho de Arthur. T rs Conselhos infeliz da ilha da GrBretanha: Para dar colocar para fore-ps dos seus cavalos na terra de Jlio Csar e os homens de Roma, em retribuio para Meinlas, eo segundo: permitir Horsa e Hengist e Rhonwen nesta ilha, eo terceiro: a diviso de trs vezes por Arthur de seus homens com Medrawd em Camlan. T rs Diademed Homens da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Gweir filho de Gwystyl e Cei filho de Cynyr e Drystan filho de Tallwch. t rs Ravagers vermelhas da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Rhun filho de Beli e Lleu hbil mo e Morgant os ricos. Mas havia um que era um Ravager Red maior do que todos os trs: Arthur era seu nome. Durante um ano, nem capim nem plantas utilizadas a surgir onde um dos trs ia a p, mas onde Arthur foi, no por sete anos. t rs martimos da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Geraint filho de Erbin e Gwenwynwyn filho de Naf, e Maro filho de Meirchiawn. t rs Chieftains do Tribunal de Arthur: Gobrwy filho de Echel Mighty-Coxa, e Ffleudur Fflam filho de Godo, e Caedrieith filho de Seidi. T rs Bull-Chieftains da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Adaon filho de Taliesin, e . Cynhafal filho de Argad e Elinwy filho de Cadegr T rs Chieftains de Deira e Bernicia, e os trs eram filhos de um bardo: Gall filho de Disgyfdawd e Ysgafnell filho de Disgyfdawd e Diffydell filho de Disgyfdawd.

T stas Trs realizados os Trs Assassinatos Afortunadas: Gall filho de Dysgyfdawd que mataram os dois pssaros de Gwenddolau. E eles tinham um jugo de ouro neles. Dois cadveres dos Cymry comiam para o seu jantar, e dois para o jantar, e Ysgafnell filho de Dysgyfdawd, que matou Edelfled rei de Lloegr; E Diffydell filho de Dysgyfdawd que matou Gwrgi Garwlwyd ('spera Grey'). . Isso Gwrgi usado para fazer um cadver de um dos Cymry todos os dias, e dois em cada sbado, para no matar no domingo T rs Savage Homens da ilha da Gr-Bretanha, que realizou os Trs Assassinatos infelizes: Llofan Llaw Ddifro que matou Urien filho de Cynfarch; Llongad Grwm Fargod Eidyn que matou Afaon filho de Taliesin, e Heiden filho de Efengad que matou Aneirin de Fluxo Verso, filha de Teyrnbeirdd - o homem que costumava dar cem vacas, todos os sbados em uma banheira de Talhaearn. E ele a golpeou com um woodhatchet na cabea. E esse foi um dos trs Hatchet-golpes. O segundo (era) um lenhador de Aberffraw que feriu Golydan com um machado, na cabea. E o terceiro, um de seus prprios homens bateu em cima de Iago, filho de Beli, com um machado, na cabea. T rs batalha Lderes da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Selyf filho de Cynan Garrwyn e Urien filho de Cynfarch e Afaon filho de Taliesin. por isso que eles foram chamados de lderes de batalha: porque vingou seus erros de seus tmulos. [?] T rs Pilares da Batalha da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Dunawd filho de Pabo Pilar da Bretanha, e Gwallawg filho de Lleenawg e Cynfelyn os leprosa. Trs homens generosos da ilha da GrBretanha: Nudd, o Generoso, filho de Senyllt , Mordaf o Generoso, filho de Serwan e Rhydderch o Generoso, filho de Tudwal Tudglyd. T rs homens bravos da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Gruddnei e Henben e Edenawg. Eles no iriam retornar de batalha, exceto em seus esquifes. E esses foram os trs filhos de

Gleissiar do Norte, por Haearnwedd o Wily sua me. T rs homens arrogantes da ilha de Gr-Bretanha: Gwibei o Arrogante, e Sawyl de alta Chefe, e Arnuawn Penyr os arrogantes. t rs Prostrado Chieftains do Ilha da GrBretanha: Llywarch filho Velha de Elidir Llydanwyn e Manawydan filho de Llyr Half-Speech, e Gwgon Gwron filho de Peredur filho de Eliffer da Grande Retinue. E por isso que aqueles que eram chamados de "Prostrado Chieftains ':. Porque no iria procurar um domnio, que ningum poderia negar a eles T rs Inimigo-subjugadores da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Greidiawl filho de Envael Adrann Inimigo-Dominador, e Gweir de Grande filho valentia e Drystan de Tallwch. T rs Chacina-Blocos da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: . Gilbert filho de Cadgyffro e Morfran filho de Tegid, e Gwgawn Red-Sword T rs porteiros na Ao de Bangor Orchard: Gwgon Espada Vermelha e Madawg filho de Rhun e Gwiawn filho de Cyndrwyn. Uma nd outros trs do lado de Lloegr: Hawystyl o Arrogante, e Gwaetcym Herwuden e Gwiner. t rs Ouro cadveres da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Madawg filho de Brwyn e Cengan Peilliawg e Rhu (f) awn filho Radiant de Gwyddno. t rs Fettered Guerra-Bandas das ilhas da GrBretanha: A Guerra-Band de Cadwallawn longo Arm, que cada um colocar os grilhes de seus cavalos em seu (prprios) ps, ao lutar com o irlands Serygei em rochas os Irishmens 'em Mn, eo segundo, filho de Urien Guerra-Band de Rhiwallawn ao lutar com os saxes, eo terceiro, a Guerra-Band de Belyn de Llyn ao lutar com Edwin em Bryn Edwin em Rhos. t rs fiis Guerra-Bandas da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: A Guerra-Band de Cadwallawn, quando foram acorrentados, e da Guerra-Band de Gafran filho de Aeddan, no momento da sua desaparecimento completo; eo filho Guerra-Band de Gwenddolau de Ceidiaw no Ar (f) derydd, que continuou a batalha por uma quinzena e, um ms depois de seu senhor foi morto. O nmero de cada uma das bandas-guerra tinha vinte e um cem homens. T rs Faithless Guerra-Bandas das ilhas da Gr-Bretanha: A Guerra da Banda de Goronwy Radiante de (Penllyn), que se recusaram a receber a lana envenenada de Lleu hbil mo em nome do seu senhor, na Pedra de Goronwy na cabea do Cynfal; ea Guerra-Band de Gwrgi e Peredur, que abandonou o seu senhor em Caer Greu, quando tinha um compromisso para lutar no dia seguinte com Eda Grande-Knee, e ali os dois estavam mortos, e da Guerra-Band de Alan Fyrgan, que se afastou dele por noite, e deix-lo ir com os seus servos a Camlan. E l ele foi morto. T rs Aprisionados Homens da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Cadwaladr o Abenoado, e Rhun filho de Maelgwn e Rhiwallawn Broom-Hair. E por isso que esses homens foram chamados Aprisionados: porque os cavalos no puderam ser obtidas, que foram adaptados a eles, devido ao seu tamanho, assim que colocar grilhes de ouro ao redor da pequena de suas pernas, nas cruppers de seus cavalos, nas suas costas ., e duas placas de ouro sob seus joelhos, e por causa disso o joelho chamado de "kneepan ') Trs Bull-espectros da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Trs Spectre de Gwidawl, ea Spectre de Llyr Marini, eo Spectre de Gyrthmwl Wledig. T rs selvagem espectros da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: . The Spectre de Banawg, ea Spectre de Ednyfedawg o enrgico, eo espectro de Melen T rs irrestritos Os hspedes do Tribunal de Artur e Trs Wanderers: Llywarch o Velho, e . Llemenig e Heledd T rs mulheres fiis da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Arddun esposa de

Cadgor filho de Gorolwyn, e mulher Efeilian de Gwydyr o Heavy, e Emerchred esposa de Mabon, filho de Dewengan. t rs Bardos Vermelho-Speared da Ilha de Gr-Bretanha: Dygynnelw, bardo de Owain filho de Urien e Arouan Bard Selen filho de Cynan e Afan Ferddig, bardo de Cadwallawn filho de Cadfan. T rs Presos Exaltado da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Llyr Half-Speech, que foi preso por Euroswydd , eo segundo, Mabon filho de Modron, e terceiro, Gwair filho de Geirioedd. E um (Prisioneiro), que era mais exaltado do que os trs, foi de trs noites na priso em Caer Oeth e Anoeth, e trs noites presos por Gwen Pendragon, e trs noites em uma priso encantado sob a Pedra do Echymeint.Este Prisioneiro Exaltado foi Arthur. E era o mesmo rapaz que o liberado de cada um dos trs presdios de Goreu, filho de Custennin, seu primo. Por alguma razo, o escriba repete essa trade, que foi o primeiro aps a conta do host de Llychlyn. Aqui, porm, a
trade expandida para incluir os locais de priso de Arthur. Goreu tambm aparece em Culhwch e Olwen como o assassino de Yspaddaden Penkawr.

Estas so as Trades dos Cavalos:


T rs concedeu Cavalos da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Meinlas [Magro Cinza], cavalo de Caswallawn filho de Beli, Melyngan Gamre [amarelo plido do Stud], cavalo de Lleu hbil mo, e Lluagor [Host-Splitter], cavalo de . Caradawg Strong-Arm T rs Chefe Steeds da ilha da GrBretanha: Alto Black-Tinted, cavalo de Cynan Garrwyn, e ansioso longas ForePernas, cavalo de Cyhored filho de Cynan e Red ... Wolf-Tread, cavalo de Gilbert filho de Cadgyffro. t rs pilhado Cavalos da Ilha da GrBretanha: Karnaflawc [Cloven-Hoof], cavalo de Owain filho de Urien, e Long Tongue, cavalo de Cadwallawn filho de Cadfan e Bucheslom, cavalo de Gwgawn da Espada Red T rs Steeds alegre da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Gwineu Gwdwc Hir [Castanha longo pescoo] cavalo de Cei, e Grei hourse de Edwin, e Llwyd [Cinza] cavalo de Alfer filho de Maelgwn. T rs Adlteros "Cavalos da Ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Fferlas [Cinza boleto] cavalo de Dalldaf filho de Cunin e Gwelwgan Gohoewgein cavalo de Caradawg filho de Gwallawc e Gwrbrith [manchado Dun] cavalo de Rahawd. T ri penn Uarch ynys brydein dugant y tri marchlwyth . y mae eu dracheuyn henwen este um erro do escriba, deixando a trade

incompleta? T

rs Swineherds poderosos da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Pryderi filho de Pwyll, Senhor de Annwfn, tendendo a suna de Penndaran Dyfed seu pai adotivo.Estes suna foram os sete animais que Pwyll Senhor dos Annwfn trouxe, e os deu a Penndaran Dyfed seu pai adotivo. E o lugar onde ele costumava mant-los estava em Glyn Cuch em Emlyn. E por isso que ele foi chamado de Swineherd poderosa: porque ningum foi capaz nem de enganar ou para for-lo, ea segunda, Drystan filho de Tallwch, tendendo a suna de Maro filho de Meirchyawn, enquanto o guardador de porcos foi com uma mensagem para Essyllt. Arthur e maro e Cai e Bedwyr foram (no) todos os quatro, mas eles no conseguiram obter sequer um Pigling - nem pela fora, nem por engano, nem por furto; Um nd a terceira, Coll filho de Collfrewy, tendendo os porcos de Dallwyr Dallben em Glyn Dallwyr em Cornwall. E um dos suna estava grvida, Henwen era o nome dela. E foi profetizado que a ilha da Gr-Bretanha seria o pior para o tero fardo. Ento Arthur montou o exrcito da ilha da GrBretanha, e comeou a procurar destru-la. E ento ela partiu, prestes a dar luz (?), E pelo Penrhyn Awstin em Cornwall ela entrou no mar, eo Swineherd poderosa atrs dela. E no campo de trigo em Gwent ela deu luz um gro de trigo e uma abelha. E, portanto, a partir daquele dia a este campo de trigo em Gwent o melhor lugar para o trigo e para as abelhas. E no Llonion em Pembroke ela deu luz um gro de cevada e um gro de trigo. Portanto, a cevada de Llonion tpica. No Morro da Cyferthwch em Arfon deu luz um (lobo-cub) e uma jovem guia. O lobo foi dado a (M) ergaed ea guia de Breat, um prncipe do Norte: e ambos estavam a pior para eles. E no Llanfair em Arfon sob o Black Rock deu luz um gatinho, eo Swineherd Poderosa jogou da Rocha no mar. E os filhos de Palug promoveu-o em Mon, a seu prprio dano, e que era gato de Palug, e era uma das trs grandes opresses de segunda-feira, a alimentadas. O segundo foi Daronwy, eo terceiro foi Edwin, rei de Lloegr. Vale a pena notar que essa trade
provvel que a inspirao da srie de Lloyd Alexander As Crnicas de Prydein, uma srie de fantasia premiada que reconta elementos da lenda galesa e mito contido no Livro Vermelho, em particular o Mabinogi e as trades. Henwen o porco, Coll, Dallben, Gwydion, e Pryderi todos desempenham rolos de destaque na srie. t rs Favoritos de Tribunal de

Arthur, e trs Battle-Cavaleiros : eles nunca iria suportar um PENTEULU sobre eles. Uma nd Arthur cantou uma ENGLYN:Estes so meus trs Battlecavaleiro: e Lludd Llurugawc [do Peitoral], eo pilar da Cymry, Caradawg. t rs Sapateiros de Ouro da ilha da Gr-Bretanha: Caswallawn filho de Beli, quando ele foi para Roma para buscar Fflur e Manawydan filho de Llyr, quando o encantamento estava em Dyfed e Lleu hbil mo, quando ele e Gwydion estavam procurando um nome e nos braos de sua me Ar (i) anrhod. T rs reis que estavam (arqueadas) de viles: Gwriad filho de Gwrian no Norte, e Cadafel filho de Cynfeddw em Gwynedd, e Hyfaidd filho de Bleiddig em Deheubarth. T rs Contaminaes do Severn: Cadwallawn quando ele foi para a Ao de Digoll, e as foras de Cymry com ele, e Edwin em do outro lado, e as foras do Lloegr com ele. Uma nd ento o Severn foi contaminado desde a sua nascente at foz, o segundo, o dom de Golydan de Einiawn filho de Bedd, rei da Cornualha, ea terceira, Calam a cavalo de Iddon filho de Ner de Maelgwn ...

Aqui as trades acabar, de acordo com Rhys e Evans.

Peniarth MS 54 1. Trs tronos tribais da ilha de Prydain. Arthur o Senhor Chefe de Menevia, e David, o chefe bispo e Maelgwyn Gwyned o chefe mais velho. Arthur o chefe senhor em Kelliwic na Cornualha, e Bishop Betwini o chefe bispo e Caradawg Vreichvras o chefe mais velho. Arthur o chefe senhor em Penrionyd no norte, e Cyndeyrn Garthwys o bispo chefe, e Gurthmwl Guledic o chefe mais velho. 2. Trs uns generosos da Ilha de Prydain. Nudd Hael, filho de Senyllt; Mordaf Hael, filho de Servan; Rhydderch Hael, filho de Tutwal Tudelyt. 3. Trs senhores justos da Ilha de Prydain. Execute filho de Maelgwyn; Owen filho de Urien; Ruawn Pefyr filho de Deorath Guledig.

4. Trs naturalistas da Ilha de Prydain. Gwalchmei filho de Gwyar e Llachau filho de Arthur e Rhiwallawn Gwallt Banadlen. 5. Trs pilares da batalha da Ilha de Prydain. Dunawd filho de Pabo pilar da GrBretanha, e Gwallawc filho de Lleenawc e Cynfelyn Drwsgl. 6. Trs touros de batalha da Ilha de Prydain. Kynvarch Cat Caduc filho de Kynnwyt Kynwytyon e Gwenddoleu filho de Coidyaw e Uryen filho de Kynvarch. 7. Trs bull-prncipes da Ilha de Prydain. Elmwr filho de Cadeir e Cynhafal filho de Argat e Afaon filho de Taliessin. Trs filhos de bardos eram estes. 8. Trs Prncipes humildes da Ilha de Prydain. Filho Llywarch Hen de Elidyr Lydanwyn e Manawydan filho de Llyr Lledyeith e Gwgawn Gwrawn filho de Peredur filho de Eliffer Gosgordvaur. 9. Trs prncipes do Tribunal de Arthur. Goronwy filho de Echell Fordwyten e Cadreith filho de Porthfaurgaddu e Fleidur Fflam. 10. Trs prncipes de Deira e Bernicia. Gall filho de Desgyfedawdt e Ysgafnell filho de Disgyfedawt e Diffydell filho de Disgyfedawt. Trs filhos de bardos eram esses trs. 11. Trs bardos espetou-rosadas da Ilha de Prydain. Tristvardd bardo de Urien e Dygynelw bardo de Owen, e Mainferdic, bardo de Cadwallawn, filho de Catfan, e eles eram filhos de Morgant. 12. Trs funcionrios supremos da Ilha de Prydain. Caradawc filho de Bran, e Caurdaf filho de Caradawc e Owen filho de Maxen Guledic. 13. Trs proprietrios de frotas da Ilha de Prydain. Filho Gereint de Erbin e Gwenwywnwyn filho de Naf, e filho de maro Meirchiaun. 14. Trs fortes-muletas da Ilha de Prydain. Rineri filho de Tangwn e Tinwaed faglaw e Pryder filho de Dolor de Deira e Bernicia. 15. Trs os agrilhoados da Ilha de Prydain. Cadwaladyr o bem-aventurado, e Run filho de Maelgwyn e Rhiwallawn wallt Banadlen. 16. Trs cavaleiros de batalha da Ilha de Prydain. Freichfras Caradawg; Menwaed de Arllechwedd e Llyr Lluydauc. 17. Trs ovates hostis da Ilha de Prydain. Greidiawl Galovyd, filho de Enfael Adran e Gweyr de grande virilidade, e Trystan filho de Tallwch.

18. Trs os vermelhos-manchado da Ilha de Prydain. Arthur, e Run filho de Beli e Morgant Mwynfawr. 19. Trs lderes de frente da batalha da Ilha de Prydain. Trystan filho de Tallwch e huIL filho de Caw e Cei filho de Cynyr Cynfarfawc e uma pessoa foi supremo sobre estes trs: Bedwyr filho de Pedrawt era aquele. 20. Trs heris da ilha de Prydain. Th trs filhos de Hayarnwed o traioeiro: Grudnei e Henpen e Edenawc. 21. Trs arrogantes da Ilha de Prydain. Sawyl penuchel e Pasgen filho de Uryen; and Run filho de Einiaun. 22. Trs obstrutores de abate da Ilha de Prydain. Gilbert filho de Catgyffro e Morfran filho de Tegid, e Gwgun da espada corado. 23. Trs swineherds poderosos do Islad de Prydain. Trystan filho de Tallwch, que manteve o porco de maro, filho de Meirchiawn, enquanto o guardador de porcos passou uma mensagem para Essyllt para desejar um encontro com ela, e Arthur desejado um porco por engano ou por roubo, e no poderia obt-lo, e Pryderi filho de Pwyll, que manteve o porco de Pendaran Dyfed em Glencuwch em Emlyn e Coll filho de Collfrewy, que manteve a antiga porca de Dallweir Dalben, que foi escavando tanto quanto Penryn Awstin na Cornualha, e no ir para o mar, desembarcou em Abertorogi em Gwent Iscoed e Coll filho de Collfrewy ter sua mo em seus plos, onde quer que fosse sobre o mar ou sobre a terra, e no Maes Gwenith em Gwent, ela caiu de trigo e abelhas, e daqui em diante o melhor trigo l, e de l ela foi para Lonwen em Penbro, e l ela caiu cevada e abelhas, e dali no a melhor cevada em Lonwen, e dali ela procedeu RIW Cyferthwch em Eryri, e ela deixou cair um lobo- filhote e uma guia, e Coll filho de Collfreuy deu a guia para Brynach Gwyddel do norte, e do lobo que ele deu ao Menwaed fo Arllechwedd, e estes so o lobo do Menwaed ea guia de Brynach e indo da para Maendu em Llanfare , em Arvon, e ela deixou cair um gatinho, e Coll filho de Collfrewy jogou o gatinho no Menai, e ela tornou-se mais tarde o gato Paluc. 24. Trs queridos-reluzente chefe da ilha de Prydain. Coll filho de Collfrewy e Meniw filho de Teirgwaed e Drych filho de Kiwdar. 25. Trs iluses primrias da Ilha de Prydain. A iluso de Matemtica filho de Mathonwy; ea iluso de Uthyr Pendragon, ea iluso de Gwydelen Gor. 26. Trs famlias fiis da Ilha de Prydain. A famlia de Catwallaun filho de Cadfan, que foram sete anos na Ywerdon com ele, e nesse tempo exigido nenhum pagamento, nem compensao a partir dele, e casa de Gafran filho de Aedan, que foi para o mar com o seu senhor, eo terceiro a casa de Gwendoleu filho de Ceidyaw em Arderyd, que manteve o concurso 46 dias aps o seu senhor

foi morto. O nmero das casas de cada um de seus guerreiros de cem homens e uma pontuao. 27. Trs famlias desleais da Ilha de Prydain. A famlia de Goronw Pebyr de Penllyn que se recusou a ficar no lugar de seu senhor para receber os dardos envenenados de Lew Lei Gyffes em Lech Goronwy em Blaen Cynfael, e da famlia de Gwrgi e Peredur, que abandonou seus senhores em Caer Greu, quando h foi a nomeao para a batalha na manh seguinte contra Eda Glinmaur, e ambos estavam mortos, eo terceiro, a famlia de Alan Fyrgan, que retornou em segredo de seu senhor, na estrada noite com seus servos em Camlan, e l estava ele mortos. 28. Trs passar comitivas da Ilha de Prydain. A comitiva de Mynydawg de Eidyn, a comitiva de Melyn filho de Cynvelyn, ea comitiva de filho Dryan de Nudd. 29. Trs guerreiros que fizeram as trs boas assassinatos da Ilha de Prydain. Gall filho de Dysgyfedawt, que matou as duas aves de Gwendoleu, que tinham um jugo de ouro sobre eles, e devorou dois corpos do Cymry no jantar e dois na sua ceia, e Ysgafnell filho de Dysgyfedawt, que matou Edelfled rei de Lloegyr e Diffedel filho de Dysgyfedawt, que matou Gwrgi Garwlwyt, e este Gwrgi um macho e fmea do Cymry, e dois no sbado que ele pode no matar, no domingo. 30. Trs assassinatos atrozes da Ilha de Prydain. Eidyn filho de Einygan, que matou Aneiryn Gwawdrud, o supremo dos bardos, e Llawgat Trumbargawt, que matou Afaon filho de Taliessin e Llovan Llawdino, que matou filho de Urien Kynvarch. 31. Trs machado-cursos atrozes da ilha de Prydain. O machado tempos de Eidyn na cabea de Aneiryn; eo machado tempos na cabea de Godlan o bardo, eo machado tempos na cabea de Iago filho de Beli. 32. Trs expedies que foram combinados a partir desta ilha e nunca mais voltou. Um foi com Helen Luydawg e Cynan seu irmo. Outra foi com RP Luydawc, no tempo de Cadyal filho de Erynt, ele chegou a pedir ajuda, e ele no pediu de cada cidade, mas o mesmo nmero que ele deve trazer com ele e veio com ele para o primeiro apenas uma juventude, e ele obteve um dado a ele. Ele foi o maior levier fo uma expedio que saiu desta ilha, e nenhum dos guerreiros retornado. Eles passaram em uma expedio invasora, estes guerreiros, a duas ilhas no mar da Grcia. Estes so teh duas ilhas, Gals e Avena. A terceira srie foi com Caswallaun filho de Beli e Gwenwynwyn, e os filhos de Gwanar Lliaws filho de Nwyure e Aranrot filha de Beli, era a sua me, e de Arllechwed eram esses wariors, e eles foram com Caswallawn, seu tio, contra o Cesariot sobre o mar, e esses guerreiros esto agora em Gwasgwyn. L se foi com cada um desses hospedeiros mil e vinte. Estes so os trs anfitries prata. Eles foram assim chamados, pois levou o ouro e prata da ilha com eles, tanto quanto podiam.

33. Trs opresses veio a esta ilha, e no sair dele. A nao do Coranyeit, que veio no tempo de Llud filho de Beli, e no sair dele; opresso do Gwyddyl Fichti, e eles no vo mais uma vez de fora. A terceira, a opresso era os saxes, e no mais uma vez ir para fora do mesmo. 34. Trs encerramentos e trs divulgaes da Ilha de Prydain. O bendito cabea de Bran, filho de Llyr, que foi enterrado no Gwynfryn em Londres, e enquanto a cabea permaneceu nesse estado, no h invaso jamais vir a esta ilha. O segundo, os ossos de Gwerthefyr o bendito, que so enterrados nos principais portos da ilha, e os terceiros, os drages que Llud filho de Beli enterrados em Dinas Emreis em Eryri.
FONTE Os Quatro Livros antigos do Pas de Gales . ed. por William F. Skene. Edimburgo: Edmonston e Douglas, 1868.

seguir Doravante trechos do mesmo codex (ou seja, o livro de Sir Richard Wynn): Trs mesquinho [Avareza] Aes: A primeira Madog filho de Mabon, o segundo Cantelli o irlands, ea terceira Osbwrn o irlands. Trs que foram elevados nobreza: o curto Bone, Tegwared filho de Cynrig e Moel da vanglria. [Em outra parte do mesmo codex:] Rei Mwrchath teve trs filhos, e eles foram os trs homens de maior fama na Irlanda, em seu tempo, e eles eram os homens mais rpidos na Irlanda. Estes so os seus nomes: Dwnchead que era o rei em Munster, e Sitrig que era o rei, em Dublin, e Moel Kelin (== Maelsechlainn) que era o rei em Meath. Kynyr ou Kevyr (com outro nome) e Meilir e Yneigr, filhos de Gwron ap Cunedda, que eram todos os trs com Cadwallon Lawhir seu primo quando ele dirigia o Gwyddyl Ffichti dos homens. E ento eles destruram eles (o Gwyddyl Ffichti) completamente, quando Cadwallon Lawhir matou Seregri Wyddel (= o irlands) em Llan y Gwyddyl em Caer Cybi (= Holyhead) em seg Estes so os trs momentos em que o senhorio de Gwynedd passou pelo Distaff:
Uma delas era filha de Stratweul Cadfan ap Cynan ab Eudaf ap Caradog ap Bran ap Llyr Llediaith, e isso era a esposa de Stratweul Coel Godebog. Ela era a me de Cenau ap Coel e me de Difyr. Outros dizem que ela foi chamada Seradwen filha de Cynan ab Eudaf ap Caradog.

O segundo foi Gwawl filha de (Coel) Godebog, me de Cunedda Wledig e esposa de Edyrn filho de Padarn Peisrudd. E o terceiro foi Essyll (t) filha de Cynan Tindaethwy, me de Rhodri Mawr e esposa de Merfyn Frych. Trs primos foram: Rhirid Flaidd e Cynddelw ap Gwgan e Iarddwr ap Dinwrig, e suas mes estavam trs filhas de Cynfyn Hirdref. Trs filhas de Cynfyn Hirdref por Haer filha de Gillin filho do Lobo Vermelho: Um deles era Sannant me de Cynddelw ap Gw (g) em de Llyn, o segundo foi Perwevyr esposa de Dinwrig me de Iarddw ap Dinwrig, eo thir foi esposa Generys de Urgenei Collwyn filho de um uchelwr de Mochnant, me de Rhirid Flaidd. E porque ele era neto de Haer filha de Gillin filho do Lobo Vermelho, ele foi chamado Rhirid Flaidd. Trs filhos de Hedd ap Molynoc ap Greddyf. Neutur e Gwyllonen e Gwrgi (ou Gwrgi (M) eutur de Cwll na segunda-feira). De Neutur vm os homens de Llanfair Dalhaiarn. De Gwyllonen vm os homens de Dyffryn Elwy. De Gwrgi vm os homens de Nant Aled. Os filhos de Meirchiawn ap Gorwst Ledlwm (== Meio nu): Cynfarch ap Meirchiawn ap Gorwst ap Cenau ap Coel, e ele foi chamado Meirchiawn G ~ l Q = Lean) ap Gorwst Ledlwm. E por causa de Cynfarch ap Meirchiawn foram chamados os trezentos Swords dos filhos de Cynf arco. E a partir Cynwyd Cynwydion veio a trezentos escudos de Cynwydion. E a partir Coel foram chamados os trezentos Spears dos filhos de (Coel). Seja qual for a misso que foi em cima juntos, eles nunca falhou. Cinco Tribos plebeu do Pas de Gales. o lobo vermelho de Gest em Efionydd em Gwynedd, Adda, o Grande em Deheubarth, Gwenwys e Alla e Heilyn Ystailforch em Powys.

FONTE: Bromwich, Rachel. Trioedd Ynys Prydein . Cardiff: UWP de 1963.

Os Vinte e Quatro Cavaleiros do Tribunal de Arthur


Vinte e quatro cavaleiros foram ordenados no Tribunal de Arthur habitao de forma contnua, e cada um deles tinha uma peculiaridade inflar de realizao para alm de outras pessoas. Trs Cavaleiros de Ouro de lngua estavam no Tribunal de Arthur: Gwalchmai filho de Llew filho de Cynfarch e Drudwas filho de Tryffin e Eliwlod filho de Madog filho de Uthur: e no havia nem rei nem senhor a quem aqueles veio que no ouvi-los , e tudo o que busca procuraram, eles queriam e obtido, seja voluntria ou involuntariamente.

Trs Virgens cavaleiros estavam no Tribunal de Arthur: Bwrt filho de Bwrt Rei da Gasconha, e Peredur filho de Earl Efrog e Galath filho de Lanslod Lak. Onde quer que aqueles vieram, onde pode haver gigante ou diablica bruxa ou ser-(tal) no poderia suportar um desses Trs Virgens Knights. Trs Cavaleiros de batalha estavam no Tribunal de Arthur: Cadwr Conde de Cornwall, e Lanslod Lak, e Ywain filho de Urien Rheged. As peculiaridades das pessoas eram de que eles no fugiram por medo de lana ou espada ou flecha, e Arthur nunca foi humilhado em batalha no dia em que ele viu seus rostos no campo. E, portanto, eles eram chamados de Cavaleiros de batalha. Trs cavaleiros Enchanter estavam no Tribunal de Arthur: Menw filho de Teirgwaedd e Trystan filho de Tallwch e E (i) ddilig o Ano, uma vez que eles mudaram-se para a forma que quisessem quando eram pressionados e, portanto, ningum poderia superar los. Trs cavaleiros reais estavam na Corte de Arthur: Nasiefn filho do Rei da Dinamarca, e Medrod filho de Llew filho de Cynfarch e Howel filho de Emyr Llydaw. As peculiaridades das pessoas eram de que no havia nem rei nem o imperador do mundo que poderia recus-los, por conta de sua beleza e sabedoria em paz, enquanto em guerra nenhum guerreiro ou campeo podia resistir-lhes, apesar da excelncia de seus braos. E, portanto, eles eram chamados de Cavaleiros Reais. Trs Apenas cavaleiros estavam no Tribunal de Arthur: Blaes filho do conde de Llychlyn e cadog filho de Gwynlliw o Barbudo, e Pedrog Splintered-Lana, filho de Clemente Prince of Cornwall. As peculiaridades das pessoas eram de que quem pode fazer mal para os fracos, que sustentou contra ele quem lhe fez mal na causa da justia, e quem pode fazer o mal que mataram, por mais forte que ele poderia ser. Para aqueles trs haviam se dedicado a preservar a justia por todos os Lei: Blaes por terrena Lei, cadog pela lei da Igreja, e Pedrog pela lei das armas. E aqueles foram chamados apenas Knights. Trs cavaleiros ofensivos estavam no Tribunal de Arthur: Morfran filho de Tegid, e Sanddef Anjo-Face e Glewlwyd Mighty-Grasp. As peculiaridades das pessoas eram de que era ~ repugnante para qualquer um de recusar-lhes qualquer coisa: Sanddef por causa de sua beleza, Morfran por causa de sua feira, e Glewlwyd por causa de seu tamanho e sua fora e ferocidade. E, portanto, eles foram chamados ofensivos Knights. Trs cavaleiros conselheiro estavam no Tribunal de Arthur: filho Cynon de Clydno Eiddyn, e Aron, filho de Cynfarch e Llywarch filho Velha de Elidir Lydanwyn. E os trs eram conselheiros para Arthur: o que veio

dificuldades pon ele, aconselhou-o, de modo que ningum poderia venc-lo. E assim Arthur triunfou sobre todos, e em todos os comer, e sobre todas as naes do mundo, com a fora do esprito poderoso e a f ea esperana que estavam em sua eart para aqueles homens, e atravs das armas sagradas de Deus lhe tinha dado : Rhongomiant sua lana, Caledfwlch uma espada, e Carnwennan sua adaga. FONTE: Bromwich, Rachel. Trioedd Ynys Prydein . Cardiff: UWP de 1963. Manuscritos: II. 12, 28, 52, 65 (1), 100, 135, Pen. 16, para. 55 (= Simwnt Vychan), Pen.127, 77, 185 (= VR), 216, Hafod 3, 5, 8 (= H), C36

Bardic Trades
Peniarth 20 Tri ryw ysyd brifgerd, nyt amgen: kerd Dant, vegin kerd, um dauawt cherd. Teir prifgerd ysyd tante, nyt amgen: grwth kerd, kerd Delyn, um timpan cherd. Teir ysyd prifgerd Megin, nyt amgen: rgo, um phibeu, um cherd y tem [Deus]. Teir prifgerd tauawt ysyd: prydu, um dachanu, um Delyn Chanu gan. TRADUO: Existem trs formas primrias musicais, a saber: . msica corda; msica fole, e msica da lngua [1] As trs principais formas de msica da corda, a saber: a msica da corte, msica de harpa e msica de tambor. As trs principais formas de fole msica, a saber: . rgo, e tubos, e msica do saco [2] As trs principais formas de cantar: poesia, recitao, e cantando com a harpa.

NOTAS 1. "a msica da lngua": ou seja, cantar

. 2 "msica do saco": ou seja, gaitas de foles FONTE: Harper, Sally. "Msica Instrumental em Medieval Pas de Gales." Norte American Journal of Studies galeses , vol. 3, n. 1. Flint, MI: Associao Norte-Americana para o Estudo da Cultura Welsh e Histria, 2004.

Traduo por Mary Jones 2004