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NASA TP

1565

.NASA Technical Paper 1565' - .

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Algorithm for Fi,xed-Range Optimal Trajectories


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Homer Q. Lee and "Heinz Erzberger


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TECH LIBRARY KAFB.

NM

0134603

NASA Technical Paper 1565

Algorithm for Fixed-Range Optimal Trajectories

Homer Q. Lee and Heinz Erzberger AnzesResearchCeuter Mo ffett Field, Califorllia

National Aeronautics and Space Administration


Scientific and Technical Information Branch

1980

NOMENCLATURE

A
cD

speedofsound drag coefficient lift coefficient components of l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t

cL

CL b a s i c ,
CLO CLIP CL g e a r D

dragforce ground t r a c k d i s t a n c e i n t o t h e f l i g h t , r u n n i n g v a r i a b l e total cruise distance r a n g e of s y n t h e s i z e d t r a j e c t o r y totalclimb a n dd e s c e n td i s t a n c e

d dC dt dupy ddn
E

a i r c r a f te n e r g y ,f t a i r c r a f te n e r g y
rate, f t l s e c

EC

aircraft energyincruise c r u i s ee n e r g yc o r r e s p o n d i n gt ot h eo p t i m a lc r u i s ec o s t a i r c r a f t e n e r g y a t b e g i n n i n g of c r u i s e aircraftenergy aircraft energy jth energy level


a t endof

E ;

Xk

flight

a t beginningofflight

r a t e of energy change from


enginepressureratio t h r o t t l es e t t i n gi n EPR

Ej

to

Ej+l

f o ri d l et h r u s t

t h r o t t l es e t t i n gi n EPR f o r minimum and maximum t h r u s t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .N o t et h a tt h et h r u s td e l i v e r e d by t h r o t t l e s e t t i n g from EP&in t o EPQax i s c o n t i n u o u s ; on t h e other h a n d ,t h e r e i s a d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n t h r u s t d e l i v e r e d b y t h r o t t l e s e t t i n g a t EPRidle and EPRmin ( s e ef i g . 4) cruisefuel
iii

estimated cruise fuel corrected thrust climb fuel fuel consumption, lb fuel cost,$/lb fuel flow rate, lb/hr fuel flow rate associated with energy level E j acceleration of gravity 3 2 . 2 ft/sec2 Hamiltonian aircraft altitude, a running variable, ft cruise altitude at which the maximum thrust

ceiling altitude or the altitude is tangent to the drag curve aircraft altitude at end of flight

aircraft altitude at the beginning of flight altitude resulting from minimizing the Hamiltonian for the jth energy level optimal cruise altitude

quantized altitude closest to optimal cruise altitude h*; level of quantization is 1000 ft lower and upper boundaries for altitude in cruise respectively optimization,

minimum altitude which prevents the aircraft from losing altitud in climb and the maximum altitude which prevents the aircraft from gaining altitude in descent for the jth evergy level. These two limits are translated into speed limits VmaxYj and respectively via the energy equation j ' m i n , components of Hamiltonian

V cost function minimized over airspeed

iv

cost function minimized over throttle setting T optimal cost, a global minimum and the range of EPR

optimal cost, minimized over the speed V setting from EPGin to EPQax
. .

*
' i d
J

optimal cost, minimized over speed at idle thrust cost function temperature correction for fuel flow rate lift force Mach number

KC
L

P
P
PO

= fci integrand of cost function

tc

static pressure at given altitude static pressure at sea level specified range of trajectory range uniquely specified by

R
R"

Lax

%in
Rt
S

range uniquely specified by Xmin range of synthesized trajectory wing surface area

T T TSFC Ta Tmax Tmin TO


t tC

ambient temperature, K thrust , lb thrust specific fuel consumption


of altitude and ambient total air temperature, K; it is a function temperature

maximum thrust minimum thrust temperature at sea level, K time into the flight, a running variable time cost, $/hr

t i m e a t t h e end of climb
td tf vf 'gYj

t i m e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of d e s c e n t time a t t h e endof
a i r s p e e d a t endof flight flight

g r o u n d s p e e da s s o c i a t e dw i t he n e r g y airspeed at beginningofflight

level

'max,h, j Vmax , j Vmax , opr 'max

maximum a i r s p e e d r e s u l t i n g j t he n e r g yl e v e l( s e e

hax .> YJ

from a l t i t u d e r e s t r i c t i o n s from t h e

maximum a i r s p e e df o rt h ej t he n e r g yl e v e l maximum a i r s p e e d from a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n maximum a i r s p e e d from t h r u s td r a gc o n s i d e r a t i o n s .F o rc r u i s e o p t i m i z a t i o n , i t i s t h ei n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e Tmax c o s c1 v e r s u sd r a gc u r v e .F o rc l i m ba n dd e s c e n to p t i m i z a t i o n , it is t h ei n t e r s e c t i o n of t h ea p p r o p r i a t e T v e r s u st h ed r a gc u r v e lowerspeed l i m i t as a r e s u l t o f a l t i t u d e l i m i t whichkeepsthe a i r c r a f t f r o mo v e r s h o o t i n gt h ec r u i s ea l t i t u d e hc i n climb


j

,TD

Vmin , c

'min,h, Vmin , j 'min 'min

minimum a i r s p e e d r e s u l t i n g jth energy l e v e( lsee

bin .> YJ

from a l t i t u d e r e s t r i c t i o n s f r o m t h e

minimum a i r s p e e df o rt h ej t he n e r g yl e v e l minimum a i r s p e e d from a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n minimum a i r s p e e d from t h r u s td r a gc o n s i d e r a t i o n s .F o rc r u i s e o p t i m i z a t i o n , i t i s t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e Tmax c o s a v e r s u sd r a gc u r v e .F o rc l i m ba n dd e s c e n to p t i m i z a t i o n , i t is t h ei n t e r s e c t i o n of t h ea p p r o p r i a t e T v e r s u st h ed r a gc u r v e true airspeed, running variable

,o p r
,TD

V V

groundspeed descentairspeed c l i m ba i r s p e e d wind s p e e d ; f u n c t i o n o f a l t i t u d e , r u n n i n g


variEtb l e

Vdn
V

UP

vW

Vwdn vwup

wind speed i n d e s c e n t s e g m e n t , f u n c t i o n o f a l t i t u d e wind s p e e d i n c l i m b s e g m e n t , f u n c t i o n o f a l t i t u d e

vi

W W

aircraftweight,lb average cruise weight aircraft weight


a t end of c r u i s e

a i r c r a f t w e i g h t a t beginning of cruise aircraftweight aircraft weight


a t endof

flight

at beginning of flight rate

uncorrectedfuelflow

WX

component of wind component of wind components of wind shear

wY
awx/ah, awy/ah
X X X
C Y .

x and y

ground t r a c k d i s t a n c e , r u n n i n g v a r i a b l e dn
UP

ground t r a c k d i s t a n c e f o r d e s c e n t , r u n n i n g v a r i a b l e ground t r a c k d i s t a n c e f o r c l i m b , r u n n i n g v a r i a b l e a n g l e of a t t a c k r a t i o of s p e c i f i c h e a t flightpath angle


=

Y Y

1.4

i.

r a t e o fc h a n g eo ff l i g h t p a t ha n g l e
f l i g h t p a t ha n g l ea s s o c i a t e dw i t he n e r g yl e v e l E
j

f u ec l o n s u m p t i o nf ,lying from energy level


Ej +1

to energy

level

A h

d i f f e r e n c eb e t w e e na l t i t u d e sa s s o c i a t e dw i t he n e r g yl e v e l respectively
Ej+l

E . and J
Ej+l

At

t i m e t of l i g h t

from energy
P/Po

level

t o e n e r g y level

a i r p r e s s u r er a t i o

pressure ratio corrected for

Mach number e f f e c t

vii

temperature ratio

T/To
$/nm ( a l o c a l minimum) E j+l

x x x"
Ac*f

adjointvariable,cruisecostin averagecruise optimal cruise optimalcruise optimalcruise cruisecost cruise cost cost

c o s t , a g l o b a l minimum c o s t a t endof cruise

x* ci
xf

c o s t a t b e g i n n i n g of c r u i s e

a t end of c r u i s e a t beginning of cruise


It i s t h e

xi
'max Amin
TT

c r u i s ec o s tc o r r e s p o n d i n gt ot h el o w e s tc r u i s ee n e r g y . maximum c r u i s e c o s t f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s c r u i s ec o s tc o r r e s p o n d i n gt ot h eh i g h e s tc r u i s ee n e r g y . minimum c r u i s e c o s t f o r a l l practicalpurposes throttle setting

It is t h e

TT

dn
UP

throttle setting in descent throttle setting in climb

IT

air density
a i r d e n s i t y a t sea l e v e l a n d s t a n d a r d p r e s s u r e t e m p e r a t u r e (15" C)

( 2 9 . 9 2 i n Hg) and

9
$

bank angle aircraft heading p e r c e n t a gie ncrease


of

%x

above

A*

viii

ALGORITHM FOR FIXED-RANGE OPTIMAL

TWECTORIES

Homer Q. Lee andHeinzErzberger

A m e s Research Center

SUMMARY
An a l g o r i t h m f o r s y n t h e s i z i n g o p t i m a l a i r c r a f t t r a j e c t o r i e s f o r s p e c i f i e d rangehasbeendevelopedandimplemented i n a computerprogram w r i t t e n i n FORTRAN I V . T h i sr e p o r td e s c r i b e st h ea l g o r i t h m , i t s computer implementation, and a s e t ofexample optimum t r a j e c t o r i e s f o r t h e Boeing 727-100 a i r c r a f t . The a l g o r i t h m o p t i m i z e s t r a j e c t o r i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o s t f u n c t i o n t h a t i s t h ew e i g h t e d sum of f u e l c o s t and t i m e c o s t . Minimum f u e l and minimum time t r a j e c t o r i e s a r e o b t a i n e df o rs p e c i a l cases o ft h i sc o s tf u n c t i o n .P r o p e r s e l e c t i o n of t h ew e i g h t i n gf a c t o r sg i v e s minimum d i r e c t o p e r a t i n g c o s t . The u s e rh a st h ec h o i c e of two modes ofclimb and d e s c e n to p t i m i z a t i o n :o p t i m i z ingoverairspeed,oroptimizingoverbothairspeed and t h r u s t . The a l g o r i t h m i s b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e a t most t h r e e segments t o t h e t r a j e c t o r i e s - c l i m b ,c r u i s e , and d e s c e n t . T h i s r e s u l t s i n o n eo ft h ef o l l o w i n gt h r e et y p e so ft r a j e c t o r i e s : (1) climbanddescent; ( 2 ) c l i m b , c r u i s e a t an a l t i t u d e below t h e optimum c r u i s e a l t i t u d e , and ( 3 ) c l i m b ,c r u i s e a t optimum c r u i s e a l t i t u d e , and d e s c e n t . Type (1) arises i n short-rangeflightsof 300 n . m i . o r less, when o p t i m i z i n g o v e r a i r s p e e d and t h r u s t . Type ( 2 ) a l s o arises i ns h o r t - r a n g ef l i g h t s ,b u to n l y when t h r u s t i s c o n s t r a i n e d t o a maximum v a l u e i n c l i m b and t o a minimum v a l u e i n d e s c e n t . Type ( 3 ) arises i n l o n g - r a n g ef l i g h t s . The c l i m ba n dd e s c e n tp r o f i l e s are g e n e r a t e d by i n t e g r a t i n g a s i m p l i f i e d set ofkinematic anddynamic equations, whereinthetotalenergy of t h e a i r c r a f t i s t h e i n d e p e n d e n t o r t i m e - l i k e v a r i a b l e . A t eachenergy l e v e l , t h e optimum a i r s p e e d s and t h r u s t s e t t i n g s are o b t a i n e d as t h e v a l u e s t h a t m i n i m i z e t h e v a r i a t i o n a l H a m i l t o n i a n . The m i n i m i z a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t by t h eF i b o n a c c is e a r c ht e c h n i q u e . The Hamiltonianalsodependsonanadjointvariablewhich i s shown t o b e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e optimum c r u i s e c o s t a t a s p e c i f i e d a l t i t u d e . The a d j o i n t v a r i a b l e n o t onlyspecifiescruiseconditionbutalso,indirectly,theclimb and d e s c e n t p r o f i l e s and t h e r e f o r et h er a n g e .I ng e n e r a l ,t h ef u n c t i o n a lr e l a t i o n s h i p betweentheadjointvariableandrangecannotbedeterminedexplicitly;theref o r e , i t e r a t i o n i s usedtoachieve a s p e c i f i e dr a n g e . An i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e a l g o r i t h m i n v o l v e s c o r r e c t i n g t h e t r a j e c t o r i e s f o rw e i g h t loss d u e t o f u e l b u r n . Both t h e a d j o i n t v a r i a b l e and t h ee n e r g y r a t e are c o r r e c t e d d u r i n g c l i m b a n d d e s c e n t t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e c h a n g e i n weight. Thecomputerimplemented v e r s i o n of t h e a l g o r i t h m w a s u s e d t o computeand e v a l u a t et h ec h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of several typesof optimum t r a j e c t o r i e s . I n t h e s ec o m p u t a t i o n st h ea e r o d y n a m i ca n dp r o p u l s i o nm o d e l su s e d are

I . .

representative of the Boeing 727-100 e q u i p p e d w i t h P r a t t andWhitney JT8D-7A e n g i n e s .I nc o m p a r i s o nw i t h minimum-cost t r a j e c t o r i e s , minimum-fuel trajectories reach higher altitudes, using a steeper flightpath angle in climb and a s h a l l o w e ro n ei nd e s c e n t .F o rt h ec h o s e nv a l u e so ff u e lc o s t and t i m e c o s t , t h e minimum-fuel t r a j e c t o r i e s f o r s p e c i f i e d r a n g e r e d u c e f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n a b o u t 1 lb/n. m i . andincreasetheflight time 8 m i n / h r f l o w n , w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e minimum o p e r a t i n gc o s tt r a j e c t o r i e s .D i f f e r e n c e si nf u e lc o n s u m p t i o n and operatingcostbetweenclimbanddescentprofilesoptimizedwithrespectto a i r s p e e d o n l y and o p t i m i z e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o b o t h a i r s p e e d and t h r u s t , were found t o b e s l i g h t , t h o u g h t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s are s t r o n g l y modeldependent. The computerprogramand

i t s u s e are d e s c r i b e d i n t h e a p p e n d i x .

INTRODUCTION

The c o n t i n u i n g rise i n a i r l i n e o p e r a t i n g c o s t s d u e t o h i g h e r f u e l p r i c e s and o t h e r i n f l a t i o n a r y f a c t o r s h a s s t i m u l a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n r e d u c i n g c o s t s by t r a j e c t o r y o p t i m i z a t i o n . A s i m p l i f i e da n a l y t i c a la p p r o a c hf o r c a l c u l a t i n g cost-optimum t r a j e c t o r i e s f o r a i r l i n e m i s s i o n s was described in r e f e r e n c e s 1 and 2 . The optimum t r a j e c t o r i e s c a l c u l a t e d by t h i sa p p r o a c h , unlikethoseobtainedbyclassicalquasi-staticperformanceanalysis,minimize a ni n t e g r a lp e r f o r m a n c em e a s u r e ,s u c h as t o t a lm i s s i o nf u e l .A l t h o u g ht h e c a l c u l a t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by t h e a p p r o a c h are b a s e d o n r e d u c e d - s t a t e dynamic m o d e l s , t h e y are s t i l l t o o complex f o r hand c a l c u l a t i o n s andmustbedoneon a d i g i t a lc o m p u t e r .T h i sr e p o r tf i r s t summarizes t h ea n a l y t i c a la p p r o a c h and t h e n d e v e l o p s a c o m p u t a t i o n a la l g o r i t h m ,i m p l e m e n t e di n a FORTRAN program, f o r g e n e r a t i n g t h e optimum t r a j e c t o r i e s . There are s e v e r a l u s e s f o r a computerimplementationofsuchanalgorithm. F i r s t , i t c a n s e r v e as a r e s e a r c h t o o l f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of optimum t r a j e c t o r i e s . For example, i t c a nd e t e r m i n ea t t a i n a b l er e d u c tion in fuel consumption and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s by f l y i n g a n optimum r a t h e r t h a n a s t a n d a r dr e f e r e n c et r a j e c t o r y .S e c o n d , i t c a nb eu s e dt og e n e r a t e a model f o ra na i r b o r n ec o m p u t e ri m p l e m e n t a t i o n .T h i r d , i t c a nb ei n c o r p o r a t e di n t o a na i r l i n ef l i g h tp l a n n i n gs y s t e m .I nt h i s l a t t e r a p p l i c a t i o n , i t c a np r o v i d e a n optimum f l i g h t p l a n f o r a specific airline mission for conditions prevaili n g a t time of t a k e o f f .A l t h o u g hc o m p u t e r i z e df l i g h t - p l a n n i n gs y s t e m s are p o p u l a r w i t h many a i r l i n e s , t h e y do n o t now produce optimum t r a j e c t o r i e s . They a l s o do n o tp r o d u c ef l i g h tp l a n sf o rs h o r t - h a u lr o u t e s ,w h e r et h ep o t e n t i a l f o rc o s ts a v i n g sh a sb e e n shown t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t ( r e f . 3). The approachonwhichthealgorithm i s basedassumesthattrajectories c o n s i s t o fc l i m b ,c r u i s e , and descent segments. However, t h eo p t i m i z a t i o n of eachsegment i s n o td o n ei n d e p e n d e n t l y as i n c l a s s i c a l p r o c e d u r e s b u t s p e c i f i c a l l ya c c o u n t sf o ri n t e r a c t i o nb e t w e e ns e g m e n t s .T h i s i s accomplished by a p p l i c a t i o no fo p t i m a lc o n t r o lt h e o r y , as d e s c r i b e d i n r e f e r e n c e s 1 and 2 . The r e p o r t i s o r g a n i z e d as f o l l o w s : The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e f i n e s t h e p e r f o r m a n c ef u n c t i o n ,t h ed y n a m i c a le q u a t i o n so ff l i g h ta n dt h ev a r i o u so p t i m i z a t i o no p t i o n sa v a i l a b l e .I nt h es e c o n ds e c t i o n ,t h ef u n c t i o n - m i n i m i z a t i o n
2

method i s d e s c r i b e d a n d t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e r e g i o n o v e r which t h e f u n c t i o n i s t o b e minimized are e s t a b l i s h e d . The t h i r d s e c t i o n g i v e s the procedure for estimating the weights at cruise and landing in order to o p t i m i z et h ec l i m ba n dd e s c e n t . The f o u r t h s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s how t h e program g e n e r a t e s a t r a j e c t o r yw i t hs p e c i f i e dr a n g e . The l a s t s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f several e x a m p l e f u e l - a n d c o s t - o p t i m u m t r a j e c t o r i e s computedbytheprogram. An a p p e n d i xc o n t a i n st h eu s e r ' sm a n u a lf o rt h ep r o g r a m . A b r i e fd e s c r i p t i o n i s givenof a l l s u b r o u t i n e s and t h e i n p u t d a t a n e c e s s a r y f o r s p e c i f y i n g a d e s i r e dt r a j e c t o r y . The a i r c r a f t model d a t a i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e program i s a reas2nableapproximationtothelift,drag, and p r o p u l s i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f theBoeing 727-100 a i r c r a f t . The a l g o r i t h m ' sp e r f o r m a n c eh a sb e e ne x t e n s i v e l y e x e r c i s e d w i t h t h i s modelbycomputing trajectories for large variations in r a n g e ,w e i g h t ,w i n d s , and t e m p e r a t u r e s . The program i s s t r u c t u r e dt om i n i m i z e the difficulty of replacing the 727-100 a i r c r a f t model w i t h m o d e l s o f o t h e r aircraft

ANALYTICAL FORMlTLATION

Inthissection,thecostfunction and t h e e s s e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s f o r synt h e s i z i n go p t i m a lt r a j e c t o r i e s a r e g i v e n .S i n c et h e y a r e d e r i v e di nr e f e r ence 1, t h e y a r e s i m p l y s t a t e d w i t h o u t p r o o f . The c o s t f u n c t i o n t o b e m i n i m i z e d c o n s i s t s o f t h e and t h e t i m e c o s t ,


sum o f t h e f u e l c o s t

where f c and t c g r a l form,

are t h eu n i tc o s t

o f f u e l and time, r e s p e c t i v e l y .I ni n t e -

J =

ltf

(fct

tc)dt

itf
+

P dt

where

tf

i s t h e t i m e of t h ef l i g h t .

The o p t i m a l t r a j e c t o r y , w h i c h m i n i m i z e s t h e c o s t f u n c t i o n , i s assumed t o c o n s i s t of t h r e es e g m e n t s , a c l i m b , a s t e a d y c r u i s e , and a descentsegment. R e w r i t i n ge q u a t i o n( 2 )i nt h r e es e g m e n t sr e s u l t si n


J =

cc l ci r d o c m u e s o is b tsc t ee n t c o s t

-P dt

(R

dup

ddn)X

, td

P dt
I

where X d e s i g n a t e st h ec o s tp e r mile a t c r u i s e , R t h es p e c i f i e dr a n g e ( g r o u n dd i s t a n c eo ft h ef l i g h t ) and dUp and ddn are t h ed i s t a n c e sc o v e r e d d u r i n gc l i m ba n dd e s c e n t ,r e s p e c t i v e l y . The a i r c r a f t e n e r g y


i s d e f i n e d as
E = h

(1/2g)V2

and t h ee n e r g y

rate

i s o b t a i n e df r o mt h er e l a t i o n ,

k
withtheconstraintthatlift

= (T

D)V/W

(5)

i s e q u a lt ow e i g h t .

Next,changingfrom time t o e n e r g y 9s t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t i o n ( 3 ) by t h et r a n s f o r m a t i o nd t = dE/E, y i e l d s

equa-

where
E,

c r ue is ne ergy i n i t ic al i m eb nergy f i nd ae l s c ee nn t ergy

Ei
Ef

T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n assumes t h a t t h e t r a j e c t o r y c o n s i s t s o f a t most t h r e e s e g ments - c l i m b , c r u i s e , and d e s c e n t - c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y m o n t o n i c a l l y i n c r e a s i n g , c o n s t a n t , and m o n t o n i c a l l yd e c r e a s i n ge n e r g y ,r e s p e c t i v e l y .T h i sp l a c e s strict i n e q u a l i t yc o n s t r a i n t so n k. A l s o , t h ei n t e g r a t i o n limits i nt h ed e s c e n tc o s t term h a v e b e e n r e v e r s e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e . In order to calculate the distance differentialequationfordistance, d x / d t = V cos y

flown a l o n g a t r a j e c t o r y , w e need t h e

+ Vw -

+ Vw

(7)

w h e r et h ea p p r o x i m a t er e l a t i o nc a nb e (and w a s i n t h e computerprogram)used f o r small y , s i n c et h e maximum f l i g h t p a t ha n g l e y f o r most t r a n s p o r t a i r c r a f t . i s a b o u t 5". T h i sd i f f e r e n t i a le q u a t i o n i s a l s ot r a n s f o r m e d by changing t o e n e r g y as t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e and t h e n s e p a r a t i n g i t i n t o c l i m b and descent components ,
Y

We now have a problem of optimal control in which the state variable is xup + Xdn, the control variables are ' u p ' ' d n ' ITup' Tdn, and the independent or time-like variable is E.
6 ) subOne of the necessary conditions for the minimization of ( equation ject to the state of.equation (8) is

Min H (E, X)

Min ' u p ' u p


9

(9)
' d n ITdn

where H is the Hamiltonian. The quantity X is an adjoint variable which is identical to the cost of cruising at an energy E , . By distributing the minimization operator in equation ( 9 ) , H can be decomposed into climb and descent components, Min where H= Iup + Idn

The optimum climb and descent profiles are defined by the functional relation between the independent variable energy and the dependent variables, airspeed, and power setting. These relations are obtained by performing the minimization in equation( 1 1 ) for every climb and descent energy. Knowing the initial airspeed and altitude and the final airspeed and altitude, the initial climb and descent energies are specified through equa, , is generated tion ( 4 ) . The cruise-cost X, for a specified cruise energy E from the following relation,

fcf

tc

X
with trim constraints

Min

v + vw

T(T, V,

COS

~1

D = 0
= 0

T(T, V, h)sin a

+L

- W

where the thrust T is a function of power setting IT, the airspeed V, and the altitude h; L is the lift. Equations ( 1 4 ) and (15) are equations of motion along the wind and lift axes for constant-speed level flight.

A c l i m bp r o f i l e i s generated by computing the Vup and T which minimizes Iup f o r a g i v e n aircraft-energy E, from Ei t o Ef EFecifically, since E is monotonically increasing, the profile starts from Ei, i n c r e m e n t s by AE and f i n i s h e s a t E,. Similarly, the descent profile i s generated by computing the Vdn and Tdny which minimizes Idn f o r a given energy E , starti n g from Ef and ending a t E,. In the climb segmen( t and a n a l o g o u s l yi ,n the descent segment), the t i m e duration A t j for any energy increment AEj, t h ed i s t a n c ei n t ot h ec l i m bd ,t h ef l i g h t p a t ha n g l e y j , and t h ec u m u l a t i v e f u e l consumption F a r e computed from

F=CAF j'

A F

?.

~j

At

where the subscript j refers to energy l e v e l E j ( E i 5 E j 5 E, for climb, and Ef 5 E j 1 . E, f o rd e s c e n t ) ; Ahj i s t h ed i f f e r e n c ei na l t i t u d e between energy l e v e l E j - 1 and E j ; and Vgj i s t h e groundspeed corresponding to the airspeed V a t energy level Ej.
A t r a j e c t o r yw i t hf i x e dr a n g e
R

must s a t i s f y t h e c o n s t r a i n t

S i n c et h er a n g e is the s u m of t h e c l i m b d i s t a n c e , t h e d e s c e n t - d i s t a n c e , and t h e c r u i s e d i s t a n c e ( i f t h e r e i s a c r u i s e s e g m e n t ) , and s i n c e a l l t h r e e d i s t a n c e s depend on E,, t h ec r u i s ee n e r g yu n i q u e l ys p e c i f i e st h er a n g e . The c r u i s ee n e r g y and t h ec r u i s ec o s t( p e rm i l e ) X a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , and knowi n gt h ev a l u eo fo n ec o m p l e t e l ys p e c i f i e st h ev a l u eo ft h eo t h e r . It i s comp u t a t i o n a l l ye x p e d i e n tt ou s e X i n s t e a d of E, to specify the range. MIN ENERGY tr w oa to j he rI e w d c n rt sio ,t r hy a AMAX ra sn pg ee cified R i s s y n t h e s i z e d by r< v a l u e t h ev a r y i n g of t h A e until sum +of t h e t h r e e g r o u n d t r a c k s e g m e n t s 8 V w i t h if na l l s a small e r r o r of R. A u t y p i c a lf u n c t i o n a ld e p e n d e n c eb e t w e e n 2 3 MAX ENERGY a X and E, i s i l l u s t r a t e di nf i g u r e 1.
V

A*

" " " " "

E : CRUISE ENERGY, E,

F i g u r e 1.- C r u i s e c o s t f u n c t i o n .

The r a n g e of a l l o w va alb ule e of s t a r t s w i t h X* and ends with Amax for short-distance trajectories. The o p t i m ac l ruise-cost X* is t h e result ofminimizingequation (12) f o r a l l c r u i s e e n e r g i e s , i. e. ,

fcf Min
X* = Min EC
V

tc

v+vw

(2W

T h i sa l s og i v e st h eo p t i m a lc r u i s ea l t i t u d e h* v i a e q u a t i o n ( 4 ) . The o p t i m a l c r u i s ec o s t A* o c c u r sn e a rt h e maximum o r c e i l i n g a l t i t u d e f o r a given a i r c r a f tw e i g h t . The c r u i s e energy corresponding to A* w i l l b ed e s i g n a t e d by E,*. The q u a n t i t y Amax is chosen to correspond to the lowest cruise e n e r g yo fi n t e r e s tf o rc o m m e r c i a lf l i g h t . Computationally, i t i s c o n v e n i e n t t o c a r r y o u t t h e s e c o n d m i n i m i z a t i o n over altitude h instead oo f ver E,. Since V is f i x e d after the first m i n i m i z a t i o n , E, i s o b t a i n e d by u s e of e q u a t i o n ( 4 ) o r known h. Equat i o n( 2 1 a )c a nb er e w r i t t e n ,t h e r e f o r e , as

fcf
A* = MinMin h V

t,

v + vw

h*, V* = a r g E n A* h YV There are two modes o f c l i m b a n d d e s c e n t o p t i m i z a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e program. I nt h ec o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s t mode, climbanddescent a r e o p t i m i z e dw i t h respect to airspeed, with power h e l d a t some maximum v a l u e i n c l i m b and a t i d l ei nd e s c e n t .I nt h ef r e e - t h r u s t mode, b o t ha i r s p e e d and power are o p t i mized i n c l i m b and d e s c e n t .T h e s e two modes w i l l g e n e r a t ed i f f e r e n tt y p e so f t r a j e c t o r i e s as t h er a n g e i s v a r i e d . In t h ef o r m e r ,t h et r a j e c t o r i e sg e n e r a l l y w i l l c o n t a i n c r u i s e segmenteven f o r s h o r t - r a n g e f l i g h t , w h e r e a s i n t h e l a t t e r no c r u i s e segment g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s u n t i l t h e r a n g e i s ofsufficient lengthtopermittheaircrafttoclimbto anddescendfrom t h e optimum c r u i s e energy. The l e n g t ho ft h ec r u i s e segment f o rt h es h o r t - r a n g e ,c o n s t r a i n e d t h r u s t mode i s o b t a i n e db y a t r i a l o r i t e r a t e d v a l u e o f X. A s shown i n r e f e r e n c e 1, t h i s l e n g t h i s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e r e l a t i o n ,

Dependingonthespecifiedrange,these modes r e s u l t i n o n e o f t h e f o l lowing three types of t r a j e c t o r i e s :( 1 )c l i m b - d e s c e n t ;( 2 )c l i m b ,c r u i s e at an energy below EC*, d e s c e n t( r e f e r r e dt o as c l i m b - c r u i s e - d e s c e n t ) ; and (3) c l i m bt oo p t i m a lc r u i s ee n e r g y Ec*, c r u i s e a t Ec*, and then descent from Ec* ( r e f e r r e d t o as climb-cruise*-descent). The range (and also t h e c r u i s e altitude or cruise energy in the second case) i n c r e a s e s w i t h d e c r e a s i n g v a l u e of X , s t a r t i n g from t o A. The r a n g c eo s rrespondin to g haxand X* are denoted by %in and R*, r e s p e c t i v e l y .I ft h es p e c i f i e dr a n g e R is g r e a t e rt h a n R*, t h e n t h e t r a j e c t o r y c o n s i s t s ofclimb-cruise*-descentsegments w i t h a c r u i s ed i s t a n c ee q u a lt o R - (dup + ddn). I f R i s between

R*, t h e n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e X w h i c hy i e l d st h ed e s i r e dr a n g em u s tb e chosen by iteration. The i t e r a t e d value of X i s e x p r e s s e d as %X, t h e p e r c e n t a gi en c r e a so ef X above X*, i . e . ,


%

qinand

=(X-

A*) (100)/X*

(23)

CONSTRAINED THRUST MODE

Intheconstrainedthrust mode, e q u a t i o n (22) i s used t o compute t h e cruise distance for any %X L 1%. I n t h e f r e e - t h r u s t mode, t h e c r u i s e d i s t a n c e i s t a k e n as z e r o f o r a n y %X 1 1%. For %X 2 1%, t h e program assumes c r u i s e t o o c c u r a t optimum cruise energy. Numerical s t a b i l i t y d i c t a t e dt h ec h o i c eo f 1%( i n s t e a d o f 0%, i . e . , a t X*) as t h e end p o i n t f o re q u a t i o n (22). The f a m i l y of trajectoriesobtainedforthe two modes o f o p t i m i z a t i o n are i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 2. F i g u r e 3 shows t h e p e r c e n t increase of X versus range for

- I

FREE THRUST MODE

60-

w D

I
n

!
1

Rf
I I

100

200 RANGE, n. mi.

300

400

F i g u r e 2.- A l t i t u d e - r a n gp er o f i lfe o F ri g u r e vd al iu ff ee sr e n t of A .

3 . - C r u i sc eo s it n
range. vs

particular case, an initial aircraft weight 136,000 of lb and minimum cost trajectories. The slope of the curve is very steep at short range (from Gin to 130 n. mi.), becomes shallow at 200 n. mi., and is constant at ranges above R*. These properties of the curve are incorporated in the algorithm for iterating on X. Table 1 summarizes the types of trajectories resulting from all combinations of modes of optimization and ranges in relationR*. to TABLE 1.- RANGE, CRUISE COST, OPTIMIZATION MODE,AND TRAJECTORY TYPE Trajectory type Climb-cruise-descend Climb-descend Climb-cruise*-descend Climb-descend Climb-cruise*-descend Climb-cruise?<-descend

CT = constrained thrust; FT = free thrust.

TECHNIQUE OF MINIMIZATION The effectiveness of the trajectory optimization program depends strongly on the numerical procedure for finding the minimum of a function of one or variables. Specifically, for cruise optimization, the cost, as expressed in equation (21b), is minimized with respect to both altitude h and true airspeed V. For climb and descent optimization,the Hamiltonian function, as expressed in equation (ll), is minimized with respect to both true airspeed and thrust.

Fibonacci search (ref.4 ) is used for minimization of these functions. The advantage of using Fibonacci search is that of all known search techniq it requires the least number of function evaluations to locate the minimum with prescribed accuracy. Also, the technique is suitable for handling tabulated data since no function differentiation is required and since it allows
9

d i s c o n t i n u i t i e si nt h ef u n c t i o n .F u r t h e r m o r e ,n o f u n c t i o n i s requiredexceptthat i t beunimodel.

a p r i o r i knowledgeofthe

A prerequisite for starting the search i s t h a t t h e l o w e r andupper boundaries of t h e s e a r c h r e g i o n b e w e l l d e f i n e d . The n u m e r i c a l a c c u r a c y o f l o c a t i n g t h e minimum w i t h i n t h i s r e g i o n d e p e n d s o n t h e r a n g e o f t h e s e a r c h r e g i o n and h i g h e s tF i b o n a c c i number u s e d ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e a c c u r a c y i s t h eq u o t i e n to f therangeandthehighestFibonacci number.
F i b o n a c c is e a r c h i s b a s i c a l l y a o n ev a r i a b l em i n i m i z a t i o np r o c e d u r e . It is adapted here for minimization with respect to two v a r i a b l e s by a p p l y i n g t h e techniquetoonevariable a t a time w h i l e h o l d i n g t h e s e c o n d v a r i a b l e f i x e d . Convergence t o t h e minimum i s a c h i e v e d b y c y c l i n g b e t w e e n t h e two v a r i a b l e s as r e q u i r e d . Applicationofthistechniqueforcruise-performanceoptimization climbanddescentprofileoptimization w i l l be discussed in that order. and f o r

CruisePerformanceOptimization

I n t h ec r u i s ep e r f o r m a n c eo p t i m i z a t i o n ,t h ec o s t i s minimizedwith r e s p e c tt ob o t h h and V s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Since cruise can occur at altitudes below t h e optimum c r u i s e a l t i t u d e , t h e program i s s e t up t o g e n e r a t e t h e optimum c r u i s e s p e e d , c r u i s e c o s t , and power s e t t i n g a t s e l e c t e d a l t i t u d e intervals. The a l t i t u d er a n g ef o rc r u i s eo p t i m i z a t i o ns t a r t s from some p r e s e l e c t e dl o w e s ta l t i t u d e ,u s u a l l ya ts e al e v e l , andends a t t h ec e i l i n g altitude.
The c e i l i n g a l t i t u d e i s t h e maximum a l t i t u d e a t w h i c h t h e a i r c r a f t c a n b e k e p t i n trim; t h a t i s , t h e h i g h e s t a l t i t u d e a t w h i c he q u a t i o n s( 1 4 ) and (15) are s a t i s f i e d . T h i s a l t i t u d e i s t h eu p p e r bound of t h ea l t i t u d er a n g ef o r cruiseperformanceoptimization.
A t t h ec e i l i n g , Tmax c o s CI i s e q u a lt od r a g . A t a n yl o w e ra l t i t u d e Tmax c o s cx i s g r e a t e r than drag. Figures 4(a) and 4 ( b )i l l u s t r a t et h i s relat i o n .F i g u r e4 ( a ) shows t h a t a c e i l i n ga l t i t u d e , Tmax c o s CI i s t a n g e n tt o t h ed r a gc u r v e and f i g u r e 4 ( b ) shows t h a t below t h e c e i l i n g , t h e maximum t h r u s t and t h ed r a gc u r v e sc r o s se a c ho t h e r a t two s p e e d s ,d e n o t e d by Vmin,TD and Vmax,TD, r e s p e c t i v e l y . They a r e t h e two speed limits f r o mt h r u s t - d r a gc o n s i d e r a t l o n . A t any speed between the two,
Tmax cos
CI

>

and t h e r e i s a l w a y se n o u g ht h r u s tt o overcome d r a g s o t h a t e q u a t i o n ( 2 4 ) c a n b es a t i s f i e d . A t low a l t i t u d e , t h e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l yw i d er a n g e of speed between Vmin ,TD and VmaxYTD. A s t h ea i r c r a f tf l i e st oh i g h e ra l t i t u d e s ,t h i s speedrange becomes smaller. A t t h e c e i l i n g a l t i t u d e , t h e r e i s onlyonespeed a t w h i c he q u a t i o n( 1 4 ) i s s a t i s f i e d , namely,the minimum d r a gs p e e d vmd. Otherconstraintsthat may l i m i t t h es p e e dr a n g e a r e t h eo p e r a t i n gs p e e d limits 10

DRAG DRAG /

I I

I I
vmd

VMIN, TD SPEED SPEED

"MAX. TD

(a) A t c e i l i n g a l t i t u d e .

(b) A t a l t i t u d e below c e i l i n g .

DRAG MAXIMUM THRUST


0

d n
n

L7

z a
ce

X(V + VW) = 0 MIN. THRUST

a n n

z
a
I -

L 3
+
I

IDLE THRUST

L, 3

a L I
IDLE THRUST

I
H = fcf + t,- X(V 'MIN, TD
'md

+ Vw) = O

'MAX, TD SPEED

SPEED

(c) A t h i g h a l t i t u d e .

(d) A t low a l t i t u d e .

Figure 4 . - Thrustanddragversusspeed.
limits f o rc u r 'min , o p r and Vmax o p r 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y .T y p i c a lv a l u eo ft h e s e r e n tt r a n s p o r ta l r c r a f t are M = 0.1 and M = 0.89. Therefore, the lower bound f o r speed Vmin i s t h eg r e a t e ro f VminyT-, and Vmin,opr and t h e upper bound Vmax i s t h e lesser of V m a x , ~and ~ Vmax,opr. The cruise performance i s computed a t v a r i o u s a l t i t u d e s b y m i n i m i z i n g t h e c o s t f u n c t i o n , e q u a t i o n (12), o v e rt h es p e e dr a n g e (Vmin, Vma,). The a l t i t u d e sw h e r et h ec o s t is computed are incremented a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , s t a r t i n g from sea level and ending at t h ec e i l i n ga l t i t u d e . The c r u i s e c o s t e x h i b i t s t h e p a r a b o l i c - l i k e s h a p e as a f u n c t i o n of a l t i t u d e shown i n f i g u r e 1, w i t h a well d e f i n e d m i n i mum. The minimum o f t h e c r u i s e c o s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d i s c r e t e a l t i t u d e s establishes the location of the optimum c r u i s e p o i n t t o w i t h i n o n e i n c r e m e n tal interval. The l o c a t i o n o f t h e optimum i s now computed more a c c u r a t e l yb y

11

applyingtheFibonaccitechniquetothenarrowaltituderegion,spannedby i n c r e m e n t a l i n t e r v a l s and c e n t e r e d o n t h e d i s c r e t e a l t i t u d e minimum.

two

A n an example, consider a case i n w h i c h t h e a l t i t u d e i s incrementedby 1,000 f t and d e n o t e t h e d i s c r e t e a l t i t u d e a t w h i c ht h ec o s t i s minimum by h#. Then t h e optimum i s i n t h e a l t i t u d e r e g i o n d e f i n e d by (bin, ha,), where
hmin provided
= h#

1000,

hmax = h#

1000

By a p p l y i n g a series of e i g h t F i b o n a c c i numbers t o s e a r c h f o r t h e optimum o v e r t h i s r e g i o n , i t c a nb el o c a t e dt ow i t h i n k 3 6 . 3 6 f t , s i n c e 2000/55 e q u a l s 36.36 f t , where 55 i s t h e e i g h t h F i b o n a c c i number. The a c c u r a c y o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e minimum can be improved by increasing t h e number o fF i b o n a c c i numbe'rs. A t o l e r a n c e o f less t h a n 210 f t i s u s u a l l y notneeded i np r a c t i c a la p p l i c a t i o n s .F o rs i m p l i c i t y ,t h en e a r l yo p t i m a l a l t i t u d e r e s u l t i n g from t h e F i b o n a c c i s e a r c h w i l l beidentifiedwiththeoptim u m c r u i s ea l t i t u d e h*.
A t t h e endof c r u i s e o p t i m i z a t i o n , a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a r r a y i s cons t r u c t e d ,c o n s i s t i n go fa na r r a y of a l t i t u d e s ( t y p i c a l l y a t 1 0 0 0 - f t i n t e r v a l s a t low a l t i t u d e s and a t smaller i n t e r v a l s i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e c e i l i n g a l t i tude)togetherwithcorrespondingarraysofoptimalcruisespeeds, power sett i n g s ,c r u i s ec o s t s ,f u e l - f l o w rates, a n de n e r g yh e i g h t s , a l l a t a f i x e d airc r a f tw e i g h t . The c a l c u l a t i o n i s r e p e a t e d a t e a c h a i r c r a f t w e i g h t o f i n t e r e s t , g i v i n go p t i m a lc r u i s ea l t i t u d e ,o p t i m a lc r u i s ec o s t ,s p e e d , power s e t t i n g , f u e l - f l o w r a t e , and e n e r g yh e i g h te a c h as a f u n c t i o no fw e i g h t . The t o t a l i t y ofthesearrays and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g o p t i m a l q u a n t i t i e s , o n e f o r e a c h f i x e d aircraftweight,ranging from t h e h e a v i e s t p o s s i b l e w e i g h t t o t h e l i g h t e s t , t y p i c a l l y i n i n c r e m e n t s of 5000 l b , w i l l b e r e f e r r e d t o as t h e c r u i s e t a b l e . The d a t a i n t h i s t a b l e are n e c e s s a r y f o r s y n t h e s i z i n g o p t i m a l t r a j e c t o r i e s .

Climb and

D e s c e n tO p t i m i z a t i o n

Intheclimb anddescentprofileoptimization,thesearch i s appliedto two c o n t r o lv a r i a b l e si ns e q u e n c e , n a m e l y ,s p e e da n dt h r u s t .I nt h i s twod i m e n s i o n a ls e a r c h ,t h es e a r c hr e g i o n i s recomputedwhenever t h e F i b o n a c c i s e a r c h i s s w i t c h e df r o mo n ec o n t r o lv a r i a b l et ot h eo t h e r .T h i s is necessary becausetherangeofthesearchregiongenerallydependsonthevalueofthe c o n t r o lv a r i a b l et h a t i s b e i n gh e l df i x e d . The two-dimensionalsearchconsists of: (1) d e f i n i n gt h er a n g e of t h ef i r s tc o n t r o lv a r i a b l e ;( 2 ) minimizingthefunctionoverthefirstcontrolvariableintheprescribedrange; (3) u s i n g t h e v a l u e of t h e f i r s t c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e o b t a i n e d i n ( 2 ) t o d e f i n e t h er a n g eo ft h es e c o n dc o n t r o lv a r i a b l e ; ( 4 ) m i n i m i z i n gt h ef u n c t i o no v e rt h e s e c o n dc o n t r o lv a r i a b l ew i t h i nt h er a n g ep r e s c r i b e di n ( 3 ) ; a n d( 5 )r e p e a t i n g t h ep r o c e s su n t i lt h ec o n t r o l sh a v ec o n v e r g e dt ot h e minimum.

12

Depending on the form of t h e e n g i n e d a t a s u p p l i e d b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r , t h et h r u s t T c a nb es p e c i f i e db ye i t h e rf a n RPM, (N1), o r b ye n g i n ep r e s s u r e r a t i o (EPR). The c o r r e s p o n d i n g maximum t h r u s t i s s p e c i f i e d by Nl,max or E P h a xa n dt h ec o r r e s p o n d i n gi d l et h r u s t i s s p e c i f i e db y N1,idle O r EPRidle. I n t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s r e p o r t , EPR w i l l b e u s e d f o r t h r u s t s e t t i n g , s i n c e the thrust data supplied by t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r f o r t h e e x a m p l e e n g i n e were g i v e n as a f u n c t i o n o f EPR. The o p e r a t i n gs p e e d limits Vmin,opr and Vmax,opr, which are common t o bothclimbanddescentoptimization,togetherwithotherappropriatespeed limits, a r e used t o d e f i n e t h e r a n g e o f a l l o w a b l e s p e e d s when m i n i m i z i n g t h e H a m i l t o n i a ng i v e ni ne q u a t i o n( 1 1 ) . A second common speed l i m i t , Vmax,ATC r e s u l t s from an ATC r e s t r i c t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s t h e maximum a l l o w a b l e s p e e d a t o r below10,000 ft to be limited to 250 KIAS. Climb p r o f i l eo p t i m i z a t i o n -D e r i v a t i o n of t h er a n g eo f IT^^ and Vup f o r c l i m bp r o f i l eo p t i m i z a t i o n w i l l now b ed i s c u s s e d .F i g u r e4 ( c ) shows t y p i c a l maximum t h r u s t , d r a g , and i d l e t h r u s t c u r v e s v e r s u s s p e e d f o r a highaltitude; f i g u r e4 ( d ) shows t y p i c a l c u r v e s f o r a low a l t i t u d e . The maximum and i d l e thrustcurvesgivethethrustdelivered by t h e e n g i n e s a t maximum EPR and i d l e EPR s e t t i n g s ,r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e g i o ne n c l o s e d by t h e maximum-thrust c u r v e and t h e d r a g c u r v e - t h e s h a d e d r e g i o n o r r e g i o n 1 - s a t i s f i e s t h e strict i n e q u a l i t y T > D and i s a v a l i dr e g i o nf o rs p e e d and EPR s e t t i n go p t i m i z a tion in climb. Considerfirstthe case i n w h i c h t h e F i b o n a c c i s e a r c h i s o v e r t h r u s t sett i n g , EPR, as some f i x e da i r s p e e d . The upper bound of t h e s e a r c h i s s i m p l y t h e maximum EPR, E P b a x , a t t h ef i x e da i r s p e e d . The lower bound i s t h e y a l u e f o rw h i c ht h r u s te q u a l sd r a g a t t h ef i x e da i r s p e e d , i . e . , t h el o c u so f E = 0. S i n c e E i s t h ed e n o m i n a t o ro ft h eH a m i l t o n i a n ,t h ef u n c t i o n becomes i n f i n i t e a t t h i s EPR s e t t i n g . To a v o i d n u m e r i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s r e g i o n , a n EPR s e t t i n g somewhat h i g h e rt h a n EPR a t T = D i s ?sed i n t h e program. This is a c c o m p l i s h e db yl i m i t i n gt h e minimum v a l u e of E t o a v a l u e s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r t h a nz e r o ,f o re x a m p l e ,t o 5 ft/sec. N e x t ,c o n s i d e rt h e case i n w h i c h t h e F i b o n a c c i s e a r c h i s overairspeed a t some f i x e d EPR. P l o t t i n g t h r u s t v s a i r s p e e d a t c o n s t a n t EPR s e t t i n g traces o u t a c u r v e similar t o t h e maximum-thrust c u r v e . The speeds a t w h i c h t h i s curveintersectsthedragcurvedefine some lowerandupper limits f o r t h e s p e e dr a n g e .I nt h e case o ft h e maximum-thrust c u r v e , V m i n , ~ and ~ Vmax,~~ d e f i n e t h e limits f r o mt h r u s t - d r a gc o n s i d e r a t i o n .T h e s e two s p e e d s w i l l b e u s e dt od e t e r m i n et h el o w e ra n du p p e rb o u n d sf o rt h es p e e dr a n g e . I nc l i m b ,t h ea i r c r a f t i s n o ta l l o w e dt od i v e ;t h e r e f o r e ,t h ea l t i t u d e d e f i n e df o rt h ec u r r e n te n e r g yl e v e lh j i s c o n s i d e r e d as t h e minimum a l t i t u d ef o rt h ec o m p u t a t i o n a t t h en e x te n e r g y level, &in j+l. T h i sa l t i t u d e limit c a n b e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a n u p p e r s p e e d l i m i t , a t &e ( j + 1 ) t h s t e p , by energyequation(41,Vmax,h,j+l = 42g(E-+, - h j ) . .F i g u r e 5 shows t h ee n e r g y contoursinthealtitudespeedplane and i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s c o n s t r a i n t . The speed a t t h e endofclimb is determinedfromthealtitudeceiling, w h i c hp r e v e n t st h ea i r c r a f tf r o mg o i n ga b o v et h ec r u i s ea l t i t u d e . The 13

CLIMB

altitude ceilingis translated into a equation ( 4 ) Vmin ,c The lower bound for speed at the jth stepin the computations, Vmin,j, is the greatest of V m i n , ~ ~ , VminYopr, and V,inYc. The upper bound Vmax , j9 is the least of Vmax,~Dy ,ATC (the Vmax,hy Vmax,opry and Vmax latter applles only if the aircraft is flying below 10,000 ft). With the range of admissible EPR and speed well defined, the Hamiltonian function can now be minimized by application of Fibonacci search. For the constrained-thrust case, the search is over V only. The search interval is defined as fromVminYj to Vmax?j along the maximum thrust llne.

MlN, h, j+l

MAX, SPEED

h, j+l

Figure 5. - Energy contoursin the altitude-speed plane.

For the free-thrustcase, the minimization is over V and T alternately. Figure 6 shows a typical sequence of free-thrust climb optimization. The first search is along AX I the maximum-thrust line over the 3 AX) intervalfromvminto vmax and K I Iminimizing over V. The resulting speed is denoted by Vojj. The next search is along VojI, over the interval from EPR to E P % , , , minimizing the Hamiltonian over T . Denote the resulting EPR setting by noii. The SPEED along search stage next is of TO//. over V again and this process is Figure 6 . - Locus of Fibonacci search continued until the difference between two successive costs is within some for minimal cost in climb small value, i.e., optimization.
v)

I I ( V ) - I ( . r r ) l 5

(26)

where I ( V ) is the cost resulting from minimization over V at constant T and I ( . r r ) is the cost resulting from minimization over T at constant speed. Descent profile optimization- The region of permissible ?dn and Vdn for descent profile optimization will be derived. The condition E< 0 requires that thrust be less than drag; therefore, the complement of region I in figures 4(c) and 4(d) is the feasible region. It is possible to reduce the region to be searched by considering the sign of Idn in equation (11). Since

14

I d n i s t h eq u o t i e n to f P - XV and t h ea b s o l u t ev a l u eo f h, t h eH a m i l t o n i a n takesthesignof the n u m e r a t o r . I n r e g i o n I1 - t h e r e g i o n b e t w e e n l o c u s o f H = 0 (shown b y d a s h e d l i n e s i n f i g s . 4 ( c ) and 4 ( d ) ) a n d t h e d r a g c u r v e - Idn i s p o s i t i v e ,s i n c et h en u m e r a t o ro f H is positive. I n r e g i o n I11 - t h e region between the minimum-thrust curve (thrust with EPR s e t t i n g a t i t s minimum v a l u e ) and t h e H = 0 l i n e - I d n i s n e g a t i v e , since t h en u m e r a t o r i s n e g a t i v e . The v a l u eo fI d ni nr e g i o n 1 1 1 , a n e g a t i v eq u a n t i t y , i s always less t h a nt h ev a l u eo f Idn i nr e g i o n 11, a p o s i t i v eq u a n t i t y .T h e r e f o r e , region I 1 1 i s the region In which the minimum w i l l be found.
A t low a l t i t u d e , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e H = 0 l i n e t o l i e below t h e idle-thrustline.Inthis case t h e c o s t i s p o s i t i v e and t h e minimum c o s t i s l o c a t e da l o n gt h ei d l e - t h r u s tl i n e .F o r a c o n s t a n t - s p e e ds e a r c h ,t h e EPR sett i n gr a n g e s from i d l e EPR t o EPR a t T = D . To a v o i dh a v i n gt h eH a m i l t o n i a n f u n c t i o n become i n f i n i t e a t T = D , t h eu p p e r bound o f t h e EPR s e t t i n g i s c h o s e ns u c ht h a t 2 < -5 f t / s e c .

F o rt h ec o n s t a n t EPR s e a r c h , t h e r e i s no speed l i m i t f r o mt h r u s t - d r a g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . However, i n d e s c e n t , t h e a i r c r a f t i s n o ta l l o w e dt og a i n a l t i t u d e , and h j , t h e a l t i t u d e from t h e l a s t e n e r g yl e v e l , i s c o n s i d e r e d as t h e maximum a l t i t u d e ,h m a x , j + lf o rt h en e x te n e r g y level. T h i sa l t i t u d e l i m i t i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a lowerspeed l i m i t v i a t h ee n e r g ye q u a t i o n 'min,h, j + l = J2g(Ej+, - h j ) F i g u r e 5 shows t h e r e l a t i o n between hmax,j+l = h j and Vmin,h,j+l a t energy l e v e l E j . T h e r e f o r et ,he lower bound Vmin,j is the greater of Vmin,h,j and VminYopr and t h e upper for speed bound f o s rpeed Vmax,j i s VmaxyOpr a t altitudes above 10,000 f t and t h e lesser of Vma,,opr and V m a X , ~(~ oc r 250 KIAS) below 10,000 f t .

Withboth EPR s e t t i n g andspeedranges w e l l defined,theHamiltonian functionfordescentcan now beminimizedbyapplicationofFibonaccisearch. I nt h eu n c o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s t case, t h ef i r s tm i n i m i z a t i o n i s o v e r T a t cons t a n t V*, where V* i s t h e optimal speed resulting from minimization at the last energy level. The i t e r a t i o n s t a r t s by s e l e c t i n gt h ef i n a ls p e e d Vf for t h e f i r s t e n e r g yl e v e l Ef. The n e x ts t e p i s t om i n i m i z et h ef u n c t i o no v e r V and t o repeat t h e p r o c e s s u n t i l t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e minimum, as e x p r e s s e d i n e q u a t i o n( 2 6 ) , is satisfied. The d a t au s e di nt h ec o m p u t e rp r o g r a m , as s u p p l i e d b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r , typicallyhave a discontinuity in thrust versus EPR, i n t h a t t h e r e i s u s u a l l y a gapbetween t h e l o w e s t EPR s e t t i n g f o r which t h r u s t and f u e l f l o w are tabul a t e d and t h ei d l e - p o w e rs e t t i n g . To a c c o u n tf o rt h i sg a p ,t h el o w e r bound f o r EPR s e t t i n g i n r e g i o n I11 i s r e d e f i n e d as t h e l o w e s t EPR s e t t i n g c u r v e , i n s t e a do ft h ei d l e - p o w e rs e t t i n gc u r v e . The area o fs e a r c h i s expanded t o i n c l u d eb o t hr e g i o n 1 1 1 and t h e idle-power line. Denote by IC*and I i d *t h e minimum v a l u e so fc o s to b t a i n e df r o mm i n i m i z i n gt h eH a m i l t o n i a no v e r V and a l o n gt h ei d l e - t h r u s tc u r v e ,r e s p e c t i v e l y . Then t h e minimum v a l u ef o rd e s c e n t o p t i m i z a t i o n I* i s t h e lesser of t h e two v a l u e s I* = m i n ( I c * I , id*)I .n t h ec o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s t case, t h em i n i m i z a t i o n i s o v e r V o n l ya l o n gt h es p e c i f i e dt h r u s tl i n e , namely, t h e i d l e - t h r u s t l i n e . To i l l u s t r a t e t h e n u m e r i c a l a c c u r a c y , c o n s i d e r t h e case i n whichthe F i b o n a c c i number i s u s e d f o r t h e s e a r c h and t h e o p e r a t i n g s p e e d r a n g e i s from
15

M = 0 . 1t o M = 0.9. The a c c u r a c yo ft h eo p t i m a ls p e e do b t a i n e df r o mt h e s e a r c h i s w i t h i n (0.9 - 0 . 1 ) / 1 4 4 = 0.0056 Mach number u n d e r t h e w o r s t c o n d i t i o n ,w h e r e1 4 4 i s t h e1 1 t hF i b o n a c c i number. Such a l a r g es p e e di n t e r v a lh a s n o tb e e ny e te n c o u n t e r e di np r a c t i c e ;t y p i c a l l y ,t h es p e e dr a n g e i s a b o u th a l f of this.


T y p i c a lv a l u e sf o rE P h i n and EPQ,, a r e 0.1 and 0 . 2 4 ,r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e EPR s e t t i n g i s a c c u r a t e t o a t least (2.4 - 1 . 1 ) / 1 4 4 = 0.009 undertheworstcondition,sincethis EPR r a n g e i s f o r b o t h c l i m b and d e s c e n t anddoesnotaccountfor smaller maximum EPR v a l u e a t h i g h e r a l t i t u d e and h i g h e rt e m p e r a t u r e .

WEIGHT ESTIMATION

The H a m i l t o n i a nf u n c t i o n s( e q .( 1 1 ) )f o rc l i m ba n dd e s c e n tb o t hc o n t a i n A , t h ec r u i s ec o s ts ot h a tt h ev a l u eo f X must b e known b e f o r eo n ec a n generate the climb and d e s c e n tp r o f i l e s . The v a l u e of X can b e computed by r e a r r a n g i n g terms i n e q u a t i o n ( 2 3 ) ,

where X* i s t h e optimac l ruise cost. The v a l u e of A* d e p e n d s on the cruise w e i g h t .F o rt r a j e c t o r i e sc o n t a i n i n g a c r u i s es e g m e n t ,t h ei n i t i a lc r u i s e w e i g h t d i f f e r s from t h e f i n a l c r u i s e w e i g h t by t h e f u e l b u r n d u r i n g c r u i s e . These two d i f f e r e n t w e i g h t s r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f X* and t h u sd i f f e r e n tv a l u e so f A ; one f o rc l i m b and t h eo t h e rf o rd e s c e n t .D e n o t e by h i and Xf t h ec r u i s ec o s tf o rc l i m b and d e s c e n t ,r e s p e c t i v e l y ;t h e ne q u a t i o n( 1 1 ) can be rewritten as

and e q u a t i o n( 2 7 a )c a nb er e w r i t t e n
Xi

as

= XCi*(WCi) ( 1

%X/loo)

Xf = XCf*(WCf)( 1

+ %X/loo)

The s u b s c r i p t sc i a n dc fr e f e rt oi n i t i a lc r u i s e and f i n a lc r u i s e ,r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t i s c l e a r f r o me q u a t i o n s( l l a ) and (27b) t h a tt h ei n i t i a l and f i n a l c r u i s e w e i g h t s must b e known b e f o r e o n e c a n p r o c e e d w i t h t h e c l i m b and d e s c e n t optimization. The denominator of the Hamiltonian function ( s e ee q . ( 5 ) ) , t h ea i r c r a f tw e i g h t must be w e i g h t( a p p r o x i m a t e l ye q u a lt ot h et a k e o f fw e i g h t )

is E. I no r d e rt o compute known. The i n i t i a l a i r c r a f t i s assumed t o b e s p e c i f i e d ;

16

i t i s t h ea i r c r a f tw e i g h t a t e n e r g y level E i . But t h e f i n a l a i r c r a f t w e i g h t (approximately equal to the landing weight) W f , which i s t h e a i r c r a f t w e i g h t a t e n e r g y level E f , must b ee s t i m a t e d . The i n i t i a l c r u i s e w e i g h t , t h e f i n a l c r u i s e w e i g h t , and t h e f i n a l a i r c r a f t w e i g h t are e s t i m a t e d as f o l l o w s :

The i n i t i a l cruise w e i g h t W c i i s t h ed i f f e r e n c eb e t w e e nt h ei n i t i a l airc r a f tw e i g h t W i (a known q u a n t i t y ) and t h ec l i m bf u e l Fvp: The c l i m bf u e l i s e s t i m a t e db yt h ef o l l o w i n gp r o c e d u r e .F i r s t ,u s et h el n l t i a la i r c r a f t w e i g h t W i t o s t a r t t h ei t e r a t i o n , i . e . , set W c i = W i . This assumes thathe i n i t i a lg u e s sf o rt h ec l i m bf u e l is z e r o .S e c o n d ,o b t a i nt h ev a l u eo f A*(Wci) by i n t e r p r e t i n g from t h ec r u i s et a b l et h ev a l u eo f A" c o r r e s p o n d i n gt o Wci, and compute the value of X b yt h eu s eo fe q u a t i o n( 2 7 b )( n o t et h a t %X i s known h e r e ) .T h i r d ,o b t a i nt h ev a l u eo f E c i , t h ec r u i s ee n e r g y , by i n t e r p o l a t i n g from t h ec r u i s et a b l et h ev a l u eo f E c o r r e s p o n d i n gt o X and u s et h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n t o compute t h e c l i m b f u e l :

where K,, K, are c o n s t a n t s shown i n t a b l e 2 , E i i s t h e i n i t i a l a i r c r a f t energy(which i s computedfrom known i n i t i a l a i r c r a f t a l t i t u d e and s p e e d ) , and Wref i s some r e f e r e n c ei n i t i a lw e i g h t ,s a y1 3 6 , 0 0 0l b ,f o rw h i c ht h ec o n s t a n t s K, and K, were d e r i v e d . The v a l u e s of K, and K, shown i nt a b l e 2 are f o r the exampleoptimaltrajectionpresentedinthisreport and are obtainedfrom c u r v e f i t t i n g a l a r g e number of t r a j e c t o r i e s s y n t h e s i z e d f o r t h e B o e i n g 727 a i r c r a f t .F o u r t h , test t h ec l i m bf u e l computed i n t h e last s t e p w i t h t h e c l i m bf u e l computed i n t h e p r e v i o u s i t e r a t i o n . I f i t i s w i t h i n some t o l e r a b l e e r r o r , s a y 100 l b ,t h e nt h ee s t i m a t i o n i s f i n i s h e d .I fn o t ,u p d a t et h ev a l u e o ft h ec r u i s ew e i g h t W c i = W i - Fup and r e t u r n t o t h e s e c o n d s t e p .
TABLE 2.-

CONSTANTS FOR CLIMB-FUEL ESTIMATION

Kl K,

0.11

The f i n a l c r u i s e w e i g h t Wcf i s t h ed i f f e r e n c eb e t w e e nt h ei n i t i a lc r u i s e w e i g h t and Fc, t h ef u e lc o n s u m p t i o nd u r i n gc r u i s e( c r u i s ef u e lf o rs h o r t ) . The c r u i s e f u e l i s computedby

where f i s tbe f u e l - f l o w rate, d c the cruise d i s t a n c ea , zd Vg t h e ground speed. Both f and Vg d e p e n do nt h ea v e r a g ec r u i s ec o s t X , whlch i n t u r n i s a f u n c t i o no fa i r c r a f tw e i g h t .P r o c e d u r e sf o ro b t a i n i n gt h ea v e r a g ec r u i s e c o s t ,t h ec r u i s ef u e l ,f i n a lc r u i s ew e i g h t ,g r o u n d s p e e d ,c r u i s ed i s t a n c e , and f i n a l a i r c r a f t w e i g h t w i l l now b e d i s c u s s e d i n t h a t o r d e r . The a v e r a g ec r u i s ec o s t i s computed i n two s t e p s : the cruise cost-based on the initial cruise weight, use this

(1) d e t e r m i n e Ac(Wc), cruise c o s t t o


17

compute t h ef u e l - f l o w rate g(7) , and t h e n s u b s t i t u t e ;(Xc) i n t oe q u a t i o n (29) t od e t e r m i n et h ea p p r o x i m a t ec r u i s ef u e l PC; (2) estimate t h ea v e r a g e cruise weight by = W c i - FC/2 - and determine the value of the optimal cruise cost X*(Gc) c o r r e s p o n d i n gt o Kc (from c r u i s e t a b l e look-up, e.g. , see t a b l e 3) and s u b s t i t u t et h i sv a l u ei n t oe q u a t i o n (27) t o compute X . T h i sc r u i s ec o s t is used t o compute t h e c r u i s e f u e l from t h e c r u i s e t a b l e .

cc

Strictly speaking, the cruise fuel should have been computedby i n t e g r a t ing the fuel burn along the cruise segmentof the trajectory, d F =J o C [ i(x),/Vg (x) ] dx,where f. and Vg a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y u p d a t e d t o a c c o u n t a f o rt h ei n s t a n t a n e o u sf u e lb u r na l o n gt h et r a j e c t o r y . An examplerunof 1000-n. m i . r a n g e t r a j e c t o r y shows t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n f u e l b u r n o b t a i n e d by t h e method s t a t e d and by i n t e g r a t i o n amounts t o o n l y 1 . 3 3 % . T h e r e f o r e ,t h e approximatemethod i s c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e t o a r r i v e at theoptimal d e s c e n t p r o f i l e , s i n c e f u e l b u r n i s a small p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e w e i g h t o f t h e aircraft. The f i n a lc r u i s ew e i g h t Wcf i s o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n gt h ec r u i s ef u e l from t h e i n i t i a l c r u i s e w e i g h t W,i. The groundspeed i s computed by t h eu s e t h e wind component takenintoconsideration. oftheenergyequationwith Specifically,
Vg = 42g(E - h )

Vw(h) known

( 3 01

Here, E and h are o b t a i n e d f r o ms e a r c h i n gt h ec r u i s et a b l ef o r Vw(h) i s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e wind p r o f i l e f o r known a l t i t u d e .

X , and

The c r u i s ed i s t a n c e dc i s computed by u s eo fe q u a t i o n( 2 2 )f o rt h e c l i m b - c r u i s e - d e s c e n tt r a j e c t o r y , and by d , = R - (dup ddn) f o r t h e climbc r u i s e * - d e s c e n t r a j e c t o r yS . ince Idn and ddn a r e unknown q u a n t i t i e s prior t ot h ed e s c e n tp r o f i l es y n t h e s i s , dc i s a l s oa n unknown. To overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , a t r i a l d e s c e n t p r o f i l e i s g e n e r a t e d from a rough estimate of f i n a l c r u i s e w e i g h t andof final aircraft weight.

As a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e trial descentprofilesynthesis,thecruisefuel i s i n i t i a l l ye s t i m a t e d by a polynomial f i t i n S i m i l a r l y ,t h ed e s c e n t f u e l i s a l s oe s t i m a t e db u t by a q u a d r a t i c i n A f t e rt h e trial descent profile i s synthesized,thecruisefuel i s computed by t h e u s e ofequat i o n( 2 a ) ;t h ed e s c e n tf u e l i s known w i t h s u f f i c i e n t a c c u r a c y .

%x. %x.

Exactknowledgeofdescentfuelburn is notcriticaltotheoptimization, sincetheweightofthedescentfuel i s a small p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e w e i g h t o f theaircraft.Infact,in some a p p l i c a t i o n st h ew e i g h tc h a n g ed u r i n gd e s c e n t may b ec o n s i d e r e dn e g l i g i b l e . The a i r c r a f t w e i g h t i s o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h ed e s c e n tf u e l from t h e f i n a l c r u i s e w e i g h t . A f t e r t h i s i s d o n e ,t h ef i n a l c r u i s ew e i g h t and t h e f i n a l a i r c r a f t w e i g h t are known f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y . Then a secondorrefineddescentprofile is generatedtocompletethetrajectory s y n t h e s i sp r o c e d u r e .

18

TABLE 3 . - CRUISE TABLE FOR 150,000 LB CRUISE WEIGHT


Fuel f l o w r a t e f r o m P r a t t W h i t n e y c u r v e s No w i n d r u n = 0.0626; t i m ec o s t ,$ / h r F u e lc o s t ,$ / l b A i r c r a f t c r u i s e w e i g h t = 150000 l b
"~

= 5 0 0 . 0 0 ;t e m p e r a t u r ev a r i a t i o n ,
.__.

K = 0.00 Minimum f u e l / t i m e Speed, KTAS 222 225 227 231 2 34 237 24 0 24 5 250 252 261 265 270 273 279 281 286 289 293 298 30 3 31 3 318 324 329 333 338 34 2 351 364 371 378 382 389 395 403 403 402 402 402 402 Fuel, Mach Power setting, EPR

M in

Minimum c o s t / d i s t a n c e Max KIAS 477 476 473 474 472 470 469 466 463 461 458 457 4 54 448 44 3 4 37 431 426 420 41 6 41 0 404 39 7 39 1 38 5 378 368 360 351 34 2 331 320 308 285 265 262 259 259 258 258 258 KIAS 391 386 381 382 381 390 390 388 38 6 38 5 384 38 3 383 388 384 385 38 1 380 376 382 379 379 372 364 356 348 341 338 336 328 321 31 4 30 7 284 265 262 2 59 2 58 258 258 258 Speed, KTAS 376 376 377 383 387 401 406 41 0 41 3 418 423 4 28 4 35 445 448 454 457 462 464 478 4 81 488 48 7 485 483 481 4 80 483 487 485 48 3 482 479 456 4 35 4 38 437 4 37 4 37 4 37 437 Mach 0.569 .571 .574 .585 .593 .616 .627 .635 .643 .653 .663 .673 .686 .705 .712 .726 .732 .744 .750 .776 .784 .797 .a00 .799 .799 .799 300 .a09 .820 .a19 .a20 .a21 ,820 .783 .751 .759 .759 .759 .759 .759 .759 Power setting, Fuel EPR $/n. m i .

Altitude, speed, speed ft KIAS

KIAS 225 225 224 224 224 224 223 224 2 26 224 229 229 230 229 230 2 28 229 228 227 228 228 232 232 233 232 232 231 2 30 233 2 38 2 38 239 237 2 38 238 239 2 36 236 236 2 36 2 36

lb/hr 8294 8204 81 20 8037 7957 7881 7807 1737 7673 7622 7565 7504 7444 7386 22865 7330 7269 7210 7156 7107 7065 7043 7024 6999 6970 6931 6890 6873 6868 6890 6902 6923 6951 6995 7053 7122 7169 71 75 7176 71 77 7177

E, f t
~~

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21 000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31 000 32000 33000 34000 35000 35500 35563 35578 35586 35588

2 39

2%
24 1 24 1 24 0 239 24 2 240 2 39 24 1 240 24 2 240 24 2 24 3 241 242 24 3 244 245 245 245 246 246 24 5 24 5 247 24 7 246 248 249 248 249 250 245 239 2 36 236 236 2 36 236

1 .346 1 .352 1 .358 1 .372 1 .385 1 .412 1.427 1 .439 1 .451 1 .465 1 .481 1 .495 1 .51 3 1 .537 1 ,548 1 .566 1 ,578 1 .596 1 .608 1 .638 1 .652 1 .672 1 .683 1.693 1 .705 1.718 1 .734 1 ,758 1 .786 1 .so3 1 .826 1.852 1 ,880 1 .898 1 .916 1 .963 1 .988 1.992 1 .993 1.993 1.993

3.61 3.55 3.48 3.42 3.36 3.29 3.23 3.17 3.1 1 3.06 3.00 2.95 2.89 2.84 2.79 2.73 2.68 2.64 2.59 2.54 2.50 2.45 2.41 2.37 2.34 2.30 2.28 2.25 2.23 2.21 2.19 2.17 2.1 6 2.19 2.23 2.22 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23

0.335 1.214 .342 1 .223 1 .233 .346 1 .243 .353 1 .253 .359 1.265 .365 1.277 .370 1 .289 .379 1 .301 .389 I .31 7 .393 .409 1 .329 1 .343 .417 1 .359 .426 1 .376 .433 1 .392 .443 1 .411 .448 .458 1 .428 1 .449 .466 1 .470 ,473 1 .491 .483 1 .516 ,493 1.536 .512 1 .562 .522 .534 1 .587 1 .613 .544 .553 1 .640 .564 .6691 .7001 .573 6879 .7291 ,591 38502 1 .752 .614 1 .784 .629 1 .816 .645 1 .856 ,653 1 .892 .670 1.933 .682 1.972 .700 .700 2.001 2 .O05 .700 2.006 .700 2.006 .700 2.006 .700

6254 7269 8290 9484 10618 12099 13296 14427 15554 16738 17932 19090 20353 21765 241 37 25226 26462 27541 29119 30255 31 531 32505 33406 34309 35234 36174 37306 39396 40340 41256 42150 42187 42358 43472 43937 43994 44009 44016 44018

M i n i m i z i n gf u e l / d i s t a n c e : Optimum a l t i t u d e = 32750 ft; optimumspeed = 0.8198 Mach, 302 KIAS, 477 KTAS; minimum (FOOT/V) = 2.162 $/n. m i . ; c r u i s e power s e t t i n g = 1.9063 EPR; o p t i m u m c r u i s e e n e r g y = 42830 ft Minimizingfuel/time: speed = 0.5691 Mach, 230 K I A S , 340 KTAS; minimum (FOOT) = 6868 l b / h r ; Optimum a l t i t u d e = 26646 ft; optimum c r u i s e power s e t t i n g = 1.6894 EPR; o p t i m u mc r u i s ee n e r g y = 36942 f t

19

SYNTHESIZING FIXED-RANGE TRAJECTORIES


A f i x e d - r a n g et r a j e c t o r y i s s y n t h e s i z e db ym a t c h i n gd t - t h e t o t a l ground distance(the s u m of t h e c l i m b p r o f i l e ( t h e c r u i s e s e g m e n t , i f t h e r e i s one) and t h ed e s c e n tp r o f i l e ) - t ot h es p e c i f i e dr a n g e R. A s shown i n f i g u r e 2 , different values of cruise cost X r e s u l ti nd i f f e r e n t ground d i s t a n c e s . The value of X can be specified by %X, as s t a t e di ne q u a t i o n (23). The algorithm f o r s y n t h e s i z i n g a f i x e d - r a n g e t r a j e c t o r y c o n s i s t s of i t e r a t i n g on ( t h u sc h a n g i n gt h ev a l u eo fd t )i fn e c e s s a r yu n t i lt h et o t a l ground d i s t a n c e i s w i t h i n some small d i s t a n c e , say 5 n. m i . , o f R. I t e r a t i o n on %X i s r e q u i r e do n l yi ft h ed e s i r e dr a n g e i s less t h a n some RJ;, t h er a n g ec o r r e sponding t o A* ( s e et a b l e 1).

Overall Algorithm The o v e r a l la l g o r i t h mo r" o u t e rl o o p "c o n s i s t s of i t e r a t i o n on %X u n t i l t h ed e s i r e dr a n g e i s a c h i e v e d . The l a r g e rt h ev a l u eo f %X, t h es h o r t e r is the resulting distance dt. Conversely, the smaller t h e value of %x, t h e longer i s t h e resulting distance dt. The l a r g e s t value of % A used i s chosen as t h e lesser of 50% and t h ev a l u e of %X c o r r e s p o n d i n gt o a c r u i s e a l t i t u d e of 10,000 f t . Example c a l c u l a t i o n s show t h a t a v a l u eo f 50% g e n e r a t e s a r a n g e ofabout 60 n. m i . T h i s i s a b o u tt h es h o r t e s tr a n g eo fp r a c t i c a li n t e r e s t . The smallest v a l u eo f %X i s 0 ,w h i c hc o r r e s p o n d st oc r u i s i n g at optimal c r u i sa el t i t u d e T . h e se ex t r e mv ea l u e s of referred to as % and % 'max %in ' e s t a b l i s ht h e minimum r a n g e (ground distance dt) Rmin and t h eq u a n t i t y R*, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,f o rt h ei t e r a t i o n .

%x,

Each i t e r a t i o n r e s u l t s i n t h e s y n t h e s i s o f a c o m p l e t et r a j e c t o r y . The a p p r o x i m a t e l y known s h a p e of t h e v sd tc u r v e( s e ef i g . 3 ) i s used t o m i n i m i z et h e number o f i t e r a t i o n s . To t a k ea d v a n t a g eo ft h el o c a ls h a p eo f thecurve,differentregionsofthecurve a r e approximated by d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s( s e e P C C O M P i n t h e Appendix). Using t h i sp r o c e d u r ee x p e r i e n c e shows t h a ta b o u t two i t e r a t i o n s are r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h t h e d e s i r e d r a n g e ( w i t h i n 5 n. m i . ) .

%x

Q u a n t i t i e st h a ts p e c i f yt h ed e s i r e dt r a j e c t o r yi n c l u d et h ef u e lc o s t ( f c ) , time c o s t( t , ) ,t e m p e r a t u r ev a r i a t i o n from t h es t a n d a r da t m o s p h e r e (AT), a i r c r a f th e a d i n gw i t hr e s p e c t t o t h e wind ($1, a i r c r a f t t a k e o f f w e i g h t (Wi), t h ed e s i r e dr a n g e( R ) ,t h ei n i t i a la l t i t u d e( h i ) ,t h ei n i t i a la i r s p e e d (Vi), t h ef i n a la l t i t u d e( h f ) , and t h ef i n a la i r s p e e d( V f ) .I f a c r u i s et a b l e i s t o begenerated,thenthe maximum w e i g h t , t h e minimum weightandtheweight i n t e r v a l must b es p e c i f i e d .O t h e ri n p u td a t ar e q u i r e di n c l u d ee n g i n e d a t a , l i f t and d r a g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and wind p r o f i l e . F i g u r e 7 shows a m a c r o f l o w c h a r tf o rs y n t h e s i z i n g trajectory. I t i s done i nt h ef o l l o w i n gs t e p s( t h es t e p t h e numbers i n t h e b l o c k s o f t h e f l o w c h a r t : a f i x e dr a n g eo p t i m a l numbers correspond to

1. profile
20

I n p u tt h ee n g i n ed a t a ,l i f t

and d r a gc h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,

and wind

I I I

GENERATE CRUISE TABLE


1

IN

READ

CRUISE TABLE

I
READ IN INITIAL WEIGHT Wi, RANGE R, INITIAL ALTITUDE AND SPEED hi, Vi FINAL ALTITUDE ANDSPEED hp Vf

"1 "

- - - --

"_

- - -- -

"_

----

COMPUTE %AMAX GENERATE TRAJECTORY FOR SPECIFIED %AMAX, Wi, hi, Vi, hp V f RANGE OF GENERATE TRAJ = RM~N STORE %AMAXINTO THE THE RM~N INTO
%A

I
I

I I I
1

(.I

ARRAY AND

R(.) ARRAY

TRAJECTORY SYNTHESIZED
4

I I I

I
TRAJECTORY NO EXISTS

" g
L
" " " " " "

I I I

" " " " " _ I

Figure 7.- Flowchart for synthesizing fixed-range optimal trajectory.

21

r-----GENERATE TRAJECTORY FOR SPECIFIED %AMIN, Wf, hf. V e he Vf RANGE FOR SYNTHESIZED TRAJ = R * STORE %AMIN INTO THE
AND R*

%x(.)

ARRAY

INTO THE R(.) ARRAY

I I

I
I

TRAJECTORY SYNTHESIZED

CLIMB-CRUISE*-DESCENT TRAJ REGENERATETHE REFINED DESCENT PROFILE

I
I
I

I I

I I
I

I, .
" " " " " " " 2

TRAJECTORY SYNTHESIZED

I I I
I

I
" " L

0 ;
I
I

15

"_

1
I I I

I
USE EQN (Al), (A2)OR (A3) TO COMPUTE

%x

GENERATE TRAJECTORY FOR SPECIFIED %A, Wi, hi, Vi. hf, Vf


I

RANGE OF SYNTHESIZED TRAJ = dt STORE %A INTO THE ARRAY AND dt INTO THE R(.) ARRAY

I I I

%x(.)
I

I I

I I I I
I I

I
SELECT TWO BEST POINTS FROM THE %A(.) AND R(.) ARRAYS

TRAJECTORY SYNTHESIZED

I
I I
I
I

F i g u r e 7.- Concluded.
22

2 . Read i n the c r u i s e table i f i t i s a v a i l a b l e and g e n e r a t e the c r u i s e t a b l e i f i t is not. 3.


Read i n
W i , R, h i , Vi,

hf, and

Vf.

4 . Compute The q u a n t i t ire esa ds -it in e np ( 3 ) and % x , are ~ ~ used for generating a t r a j e c t o r yo fr a n g e Gin. The d e s i r e dr a n g e R - i s t h e n compared w i t h hin. I f R is less t h a n hin,t h e n no t r a j e c t o r y i s computed. I f it is w i t h i n E of % i nt ,hen a trajectory has been synthesized. If greater, then proceed.
5.
I n a manner similar t o t h a t o f s t e p

( 4 ) , use

b i n

and t h e lcnown

(3) t og e n e r a t e a t r a j e c t o r yo fr a n g e R* and compare R q u a n t i t i e sf r o ms t e p w i t h R*. I f R i s less t h a n R* and is w i t h i n E d i s t a n c e of R*, t h e n a trajectory has been synthesized. If R is greater than R*, t h e n the traject o r y i s a climb-cruise*-descenttype. I n t h i s case, t h e c r u i s e d i s t a n c e is computed from dc = R - (dup ddn). The f i n a l w e i g h t i s t h e nd e t e r m i n e d . Next,thisupdatedcruiseweight i s used i n r e g e n e r a t i n g t h e r e f i n e d d e s c e n t p r o f i l e ,t h u sc o m p l e t i n gt h ec l i m b - c r u i s e * - d e s c e n tt r a j e c t o r y .

Qax) a s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t s t o compute Use (% , Gin) and (X bin Lax a new v a l u e of %x and i t e r a t e on %x u n t i lt h ed e s i r e dr a n g et r a j e c t o r y is s y n t h e s i z e d . The s o l u t i o n always exists because the fact that is within (% %xmax ) w h i c im h plies R i s w i t h i n (%in, hax). &in

6.

%x

G e n e r a t i n g a T r a j e c t o r yf o rF i x e dV a l u eo f

%x
of

G e n e r a t i n g a t r a j e c t o r yf o rf i x e dv a l u e o f %x c o n s i s t sp r i m a r i l y generatingtheclimbanddescentprofilesandestimatingthefinalcruise w e i g h ta n dt h el a n d i n gw e i g h t .

F i g u r e 8 i s a m a c r o f l o w c h a r ts h o w i n gt h e s es t e p si nd e t a i l . The known q u a n t i t i e s are E i , Ef ( t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a la i r c r a f te n e r g i e s ,r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and W i , t h e a i r c r a f t t a k e o f f w e i g h t ( s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , t h e a i r c r a f t weight a t t h e beginning of climb). The e n e r g i e s E i and Ef are computed from known i n i t i a l a i r c r a f t a l t i t u d e and s p e e d a n d f r o m s p e c i f i e d f i n a l a i r c r a f t a l t i t u d e and s p e e d ,r e s p e c t i v e l y .T h et r a j e c t o r y i s g e n e r a t e di nt h ef o l l o w ing steps:

%x,

1. E s t i m a t e t h ei n i t i a lc r u i s ew e i g h t W c i and u s e i t i nc o n j u n c t i o n w i t h %x t oo b t a i n h i ( W c i ) and E c i , t h ei n i t i a lc r u i s ec o s t and c r u i s e e n e r g y ,r e s p e c t i v e l y . The i n i t i a l c r u i s e w e i g h t i s o b t a i n e db ys u b t r a c t i n g t h ec l i m bf u e l Fup f r o m takeoff weight Wi. The c l i m bf u e l i s e s t i m a t e d as describedintheprecedingsection, and e q u a t i o n (29) i s used t o compute t h e climb fuel. The o p t i m a c l ruise cost X*(Wci) c o r r e s p o n d i n g to Wci is o b t a i n e df r o mt h ec r u i s et a b l e (see, e . g . ,t a b l e 3 ) . Next, t h e cruise c o s t f o rc l i m bo p t i m a t i o n Ai(W . ) i s computed by t h eu s eo fe q u a t i o n ( 2 8 ) . The CZ c r u i s ee n e r g y Eci i s o b t a m e df r o mt h ec r u i s et a b l ef o rt h ec o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u eo fc r u i s ec o s t Ai(Wci).

GIVEN: %X, Ei, Ef, Wi

-1

+
1 COMPUTE Xi, E i, FOR CLIMB INTEGRATION:
(a)

ESTIMATE-INITJAL CRUISE WEIGHT WC. W.I - Fup'' Fup FROM EQN.(29) I

(b) READ OFF

X*(E,.d

AND SET hi = h*(WCi) (1

FROM CRUISE TABLE %A + -) 100

I
2

(c)

READ OFF E,i(hi)

FROM CRUISE TABLE

GENERATE CLIMB PROFILE (a) EVALUATE MIN V,EPR OR V f ,

+ t, - hi(W,i)
E

(V + Vwa)

FROM Ei TO E i,

1
I

(b) GENERATE ARRAYS

r , d,y, F,W VS E

I
I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

COMPUTE FINAL CRUISE WEIGHT DESCEND Wcf = Wci

NO A
W f,
= (Wi - F

(a)

)-F , U P DETERMINE INITIAL ESTIMATE OF CRUISE FUEL :, F , f(hi) dc = F ,, Vg(hi) =42g[E,(Xi) - h,(hi)l + Vwa[h(hi)l Vg(h;)

I I

I I I I I I

I I
I

d, = b % l:

+ b2%: + b3%: + b4%A + bg

I
I

(b) REFINE

ESTIMATE OF CRUISE FUEL:

I I I I
I
I L " " " " " " " " " " " ~

I I I

F i g u r e 8.- F l o w c h a r tf o rg e n e r a t i n gt r a j e c t o r yw i t hf i x e d
24

%X.

4
ESTIMATE Xf, E f,
(a)

FOR DESCENT INTEGRATION:

READ OFF A*(Wcf) FROM CRUISE TABLE hf = X*(WCf) (1 + %X/lOO) READ OFF E,f(Xf) FROM CRUISE TABLE

(b)

ESTIMATE LANDING WEIGHT Wf: wfowcf Fdn = b,%f

- Fdn
+ b2%X + bg

4
6

GENERATE TRIAL DESCENT PROFILE; EVALUATE:

17

REFINE FINAL

CRUISE AND LANDING


~

WT COMPUTATION:
+

w,.

'up Idn = w i - Fup - F , (SEE STEP 3);d , = d X


"

COMPUTE EXACT Xf AND Ecf; GENERATE REFINED DESCENT PROFILE:


(a)

EVALUATE MIN V, EPR OR V


f j

+ tC- hf(W,f)

(V + Vwa)

E 1

1.

FROM Ef TO E f ,

IE<O

(b)
(c)

GENERATE ARRAYS 7.d.Y. F,W VS E COMPUTE PERTINENT QUANTITIES WHICH SUMMARIZE THE GENERATED TRAJECTORY.

Figure 8 . - Concluded.
25

2 .G e n e r a t et h ec l i m bp r o f i l eb ym i n i m i z i n g the H a m i l t o n i a nf u n c t i o n (eq. (11)) f o r climb, starting from E i and ending a t Eci. The c r u i s e cost o b t a i n e di ns t e p (1) i s used i ne v a l u a t i o no ft h eH a m i l t o n i a nf u n c t i o n .A l s o , g e n e r a t e t i m e h i s t o r i e so ft h ed i s t a n c et r a v e r s e dd ,t h ef l i g h t p a t ha n g l e y, t h ef u e lb u r nF , and t h ea i r c r a f tw e i g h t W, by u s e of e q u a t i o n s (16) t h r o u g h (19)

3 . Estimate t h e final cruise weight Wcf and t h e landing weight Wf. The f i n a l c r u i s e w e i g h t i s o b t a i n e d b y s u b t r a c t i n g t h e c r u i s e f u e l from t h e i n i t i a lc r u i s ew e i g h t . F o rc l i m b - d e s c e n tt y p et r a j e c t o r i e st h ec r u i s ef u e l is zero and Wcf i s o b t a i n e d by e q u a t i n g i t t o W c i . For any other type of traj e c t o r y , i t i s computed by t h eu s eo fe q u a t i o n( 2 9 ) . The numeratorofequat i o n (29) c o n t a i n sd c ,t h ec r u i s ed i s t a n c e .T h i sd i s t a n c ec a nb e computed by t h eu s eo fe q u a t i o n (22). The n u m e r a t o r of (22) contains Idn, an unknown q u a n t i t yp r i o rt ot h es y n t h e s i so f a d e s c e n tp r o f i l e . To overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y ,t h ec r u i s ed i s t a n c e i s e s t i m a t e d by a polynomial i n

%x.

4 . I n a manner similar t o t h a t o f s t e p ( l ) , compute t h e c r u i s e c o s t f o r d e s c e n t Xf (Wcf) and t h ef i n a lc r u i s ee n e r g y Ecf by r e f e r e n c et ot h ec r u i s e t a b l e and by s u b s t i t u t i n gt h ev a l u eo f %X i n t oe q u a t i o n( 2 7 b ) .F o rt h e c l i m b - d e s c e n tt y p eo ft r a j e c t o r y ,t h e y are o b t a i n e d by e q u a t i n g them t o c o r r e sponding initial cruise cost and i n i t i a l c r u i s e e n e r g y .
5. O b t a i n t h e f i n a l w e i g h t by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e d e s c e n t f u e l from t h e f i n a lc r u i s ew e i g h t . The d e s c e n tf u e l Fdn i s e s t i m a t e d by a q u a d r a t i ci n

%x.

6. I n a manner similar t o t h a t o f s t e p ( 2 ) g e n e r a t et h e t r i a l d e s c e n t p r o f i l e by minimizing the Hamiltonian function for descent, starting from Ef t o E c f , and g e n e r a t e a t i m e h i s t o r y of d , , y , F, and W.
7 . Compute t h ee x a c tf i n a lc r u i s ew e i g h t and e x a c tf i n a lw e i g h t .S i n c e a d e s c e n tp r o f i l e i s now a v a i l a b l e ,I d n i s known and dc can now b e computed exactly. Similarly, since both Fdn and Wcf a r e a l s o known, Wf can also be computed e x a c t l y .
8. Compute Af and Ecf b a s e d on the refined value of r e f i n e dd e s c e n tp r o f i l e , and compute pertinentquantitiesfor thegeneratedtrajectory.
EXAMPLE C O M P U T E R PROGRAM OUTPUT

Wcf,

generate the a l l segmentsof

The computerprogram i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a w i d e r a n g e o f u s e r s w i t h u s e f u li n f o r m a t i o na b o u tt h et r a j e c t o r yb e i n gs y n t h e s i z e d . The i n f o r m a t i o n o u t p u t by thecomputer w a s e v o l v e d a f t e r a s e r i e s o f c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h airc r a f tm a n u f a c t u r e r s ,c o m m e r c i a la i r l i n ep e r s o n n e l , and o t h e ru s e r s .O u t p u t i n f o r m a t i o ni n c l u d e s (1) optimum c r u i s e t a b l e s a t s e l e c t e dw e i g h t s , ( 2 ) a summary of optimalcruisequantities as a f u n c t i o n o f c r u i s e w e i g h t , (3) the o p t i m a lc r u i s eq u a n t i t i e s as a f u n c t i o n of c r u i s e d i s t a n c e , ( 4 ) dh/dE f o r s e l e c t e dc r u i s ew e i g h t s , (5) c l i m bp r o f i l e , ( 6 ) d e s c e n tp r o f i l e , and ( 7 ) a summary of t h ec o m p l e t es y n t h e s i z e dt r a j e c t o r y .I nt h i ss e c t i o n ,t h e computer

26

program output w i l l b e i l l u s t r a t e d b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e Boeing 727 a i r c r a f t .

a sample case f o r a modelof

Computation of t h ec r u i s et a b l e is t h e f i r s t s t e p . T h i s t a b l ec o n t a i n s a l l precomputed q u a n t i t i e s f o r s y n t h e s i z i n g t h e c r u i s e segmentof known c r u i s e d i s t a n c e . It a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e c r u i s e c o s t f o r g e n e r a t i n g t h e c l i m b and d e s c e n tp r o f i l e s . Each c r u i s e t a b l e i s computed f o rs p e c i f i e dv a l u e so f time c o s t ,f u e lc o s t , wind p r o f i l e , and a t m o s p h e r i cc o n d i t i o n . The t a b l e i s dividedintopages,witheachpagecontainingthepertinentquantitiesfor a fixed cruise weight.

A typical page of the cruise table for the example a i r c r a f t i s shown i n t a b l e 3. The p a r a m e t e r s t h a t d e f i n e t h e caseare $0.0626/1b f u e l c o s t , $500/hr time c o s t , z e r o t e m p e r a t u r e v a r i a t i o n from t h e s t a n d a r d a t m o s p h e r i c c o n d i t i o n ,a n dz e r ow i n d . The page shown i s f o r a 150,000 l b c r u i s e w e i g h t . The f i r s t column i s t h e a l t i t u d e i n f e e t , i n c r e m e n t e d a t 1 , 0 0 0 - f ti n t e r v a l s , except in the vicinity of t h e c e i l i n g , w h e r e t h e i n c r e m e n t i s decreased. Columns (2)and(3) are t h ec o r r e s p o n d i n g minimum d r a gs p e e da n dt h e maximum a l l o w a b l es p e e d ,b o t hi n KIAS ( i n d i c a t e da i r s p e e di nk n o t s ) . Columns (4) t h r o u g h( 8 ) are t h e r e s u l t s o f m i n i m i z a t i o n of e q u a t i o n ( 1 2 ) f o r t h e g i v e n altitude. Columns ( 4 ) ,( 5 ) , and (6) are t h eo p t i m a lc r u i s es p e e di n KIAS, KTAS ( t r u ea i r s p e e di nk n o t s ) , and Mach number, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Column (7) i s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g power s e t t i n g e x p r e s s e d i n e n g i n e p r e s s u r e r a t i o (EPR); column (8) i s t h eo p t i m a lc r u i s ec o s ti n$ / n . mi. S i m i l a r l y , columns (9) through(13) are theresultsofminimizationofthefuelflow at eachaltitude. Thisinformation i s n o t u s e d i n t h e optimum t r a j e c t o r y s y n t h e s i s , b u t i s of i n t e r e s ts i n c e i t s p e c i f i e st h e optimum h o l d i n gs p e e d . Columns ( 9 ) ,( l o ) , and(11) are t h e o p t i m a l h o l d i n g s p e e d s i n KIAS, KTAS, and Mach number. Columns (12)and(13) are t h e EPR s e t t i n g andfuel-flow rate i nl b / h r ,w h i c h i s t h e minimum f u e l - f l o w r a t e a c h i e v a b l e a t t h a t a l t i t u d e . Column (14) i s t h e c r u i s ee n e r g yi nf e e t . The l a s t e n t r y i n t h e c r u i s e t a b l e ( i . e . , a n a l t i t u d e of 35,588 f t )g i v e sc o n d i t i o n s a t t h ec e i l i n g .A d d i t i o n a li n f o r m a t i o n at the bottomofthepagegivestheoptimalcruisequantitiesforthespecified c r u i s ew e i g h t , i . e . , 150,000 l b . They are o b t a i n e d as a r e s u l to fm i n i m i z i n g thecostfunction,expressedbyequation(21b),withrespecttobothaltitude h and a i r s p e e d V. The o p t i m a lc r u i s ea l t i t u d ef o rt h ee x a m p l e case i s shown t o b e 32,750 f t . The c o r r e s p o n d i n go p t i m a lc r u i s es p e e d s are 302 KIAS, 477 KTAS, o r 0.8198 Mach number. The o p t i m a lc r u i s ec o s t i s $2.162/n. m i . , o p t i m a l EPR s e t t i n g , 1 . 9 0 6 9 ,a n do p t i m a lc r u i s ee n e r g y ,4 2 , 8 3 0f t .
A similar set of q u a n t i t i e s i s o b t a i n e d b y m i n i m i z i n g t h e f u e l - f l o w w i t hr e s p e c tt ob o t h h and V. A s shown a t t h eb o t t o mo ft h ep a g e ,t h eo p t i mal cruisealtitudeforthis case i s 26,646 f t . The o p t i m a lc r u i s es p e e d 230 KIAS, 340 KTAS, and 0.5691 Mach number. The minimum f u e l f l o w i s 6 , 8 6 8l b / h r ,t h ec r u i s e - e n e r g y i s 36,942 f t , and t h e c r u i s e - p o w e r s e t t i n g 1.6906 EPR.

rate
is is

T a b l e 4 i s a summary o f t h e o p t i m a l q u a n t i t i e s as a f u n c t i o n o f a i r c r a f t weight a t c r u i s e . Column ( 1 ) i s t h ec r u i s ew e i g h t . Column ( 2 ) i s t h ec o r r e spondingoptimalcruisealtitude; i t i n c r e a s e s as t h e c r u i s e w e i g h t d e c r e a s e s . Columns (3)and(4) show t h e o p t i m a l c r u i s e s p e e d i n KTAS and Mach number, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and column ( 5 )g i v e st h e EPR s e t t i n g . Column ( 6 ) shows t h e 27

TABLE 4 . - OPTIMAL CRUISE


Cruise

ENERGY, SPEED, AND ALTITUDE VS WEIGHT


EPR setting
"

w t , lb
150000 145000 140000 135000 130000 125000 120000 115000 110000

Opt H, ft
32760 33442 34176 34918 35721 37065 37911 38792 39689

KTAS
477.35 475.90 474.35 472.77 471.05 469.93 469.93 469.93 469.93

Opt Mach
0.8198 .8198 .8198 .8198 .8198 .8194 .8194 .8194 ,8194

cost , $/n. m i .
2.162 2.130 2.097 2.065 2.033 1.998 1.963 1.927 1.892

Fuelflow, lb / h r
8490.71 8194.45 7898.65 7602.05 7302.05 7006.03 6739.86 6474.53 6207.10

Opt E, ft
42842 43463 44132 44808 45540 46836 47683 48564 49460

1.9069 1.9052 1.9050 1.9039 1.9042 1.9248 1.9245 1.9244 1.9231


~

c r u i s ec o s ti n$ / n . m i . ; i t d e c r e a s e sw i t hi n c r e a s i n gc r u i s ew e i g h t . Column ( 7 ) shows t h e minimum f u e l - f l o w r a t e w h i c h d e c r e a s e s w i t h d e c r e a s i n g cruise weight. Finally, column ( 8 ) shows t h e optimal cruise energy. Although t h e o u t p u t s are f o r a s p e c i f i c a i r c r a f t , t h e s e t r e n d s are g e n e r a l l yt r u ef o r a l l subsonictransportaircraft. T a b l e 5 shows t h e o p t i m a l c r u i s e q u a n t i t i e s as a f u n c t i o n o f c r u i s e d i s t a n c e .T h i st a b l e assumes t h ei n i t i a lc r u i s ew e i g h t i s known. A s t h e airc r a f t c r u i s e s , i t l o s e sw e i g h tb e c a u s eo ff u e lb u r n .S i n c et h eo p t i m a lc r u i s e q u a n t i t i e s dependon c r u i s e w e i g h t , t h e i r v a l u e s c h a n g e as t h e a i r c r a f t l o s e s w e i g h t .T h i st a b l ec o n t a i n st h e new q u a n t i t i e s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e change i n w e i g h t ,i nt h i s case a t incrementsof 100 n . m i . c r u i s i n gd i s t a n c e . Column (1) shows t h e c r u i s e d i s t a n c e i n n a u t i c a l miles, column ( 2 ) shows t h ec o r r e s p o n d i n g time from t h e s t a r t o f c r u i s e i n h r : m i n : s e c , and column (3) shows t h e c r u i s ew e i g h tu p d a t e dt oa c c o u n tf o rf u e lb u r n . Columns ( 4 ) and ( 5 ) g i v et h e c r u i s ee n e r g ya n dt h ec r u i s ea l t i t u d e ,r e s p e c t i v e l y ,b o t hi nf e e t . Columns ( 6 ) and (7) show t h e c r u i s e s p e e d i n Mach number and KIAS, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and column ( 8 ) g i v e st h e ground speed i nk n o t s . Column ( 9 ) shows t h ec r u i s ec o s t indollarspernautical m i l e , and column (10) g i v e s t h e power s e t t i n g i n e n g i n ep r e s s u r er a t i o . Table 6 d i s p l a y s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s d e r i v a t i v e dX/dE, where dX/dE = AE + o nc r u i s ew e i g h t( s e ef i g . 1 ) . Column weight in pounds, column ( 2 ) t h ev a l u e of a p o l y n o m i a lf o rc o m p u t i n gt h e B and t h ev a l u e s of A and B depend (1) of t h e t a b l e shows t h ec r u i s e of A , and column ( 3 ) t h ev a l u e o f B.

T a b l e 7 shows t h e o u t p u t f o r a c l i m bo p t i m i z a t i o nf o ru n c o n s t r a i n e d t h r u s t . The a i r c r a f tt a k e o f fw e i g h t i s 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 l b and t h ec r u i s ew e i g h t is e s t i m a t e dt ob e 1 4 5 , 3 5 6 l b . The c r u i s ee n e r g y( e n e r g yh e i g h tf o rt e r m i n a t i n g t h ec l i m bi n t e g r a t i o n ) i s 3 7 , 4 6 8 e n e r g yf e e t . The i n i t i a l a l t i t u d e and speed are 0 f t and 2 1 0 KIAS, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A s b e f o r e t h e f u e l c o s t i s $0.0626/1b and t h e time c o s t$ 5 0 0 / h r . The t e m p e r a t u r ev a r i a t i o n from t h es t a n d a r dp r o f i l e i s z e r o . The c r u i s ec o s tc o r r e s p o n d i n gt ot h ee s t i m a t e dc r u i s ew e i g h t is $2.231/n. m i . F o rc o m p u t a t i o n a ln u m e r i c a ls t a b i l i t y , i t is s e t t o a value
28

TABLE 5.- CRUISE QUANTITIES AS FUNCTION OF CRUISE Cruise dist n. mi.


0.00

DISTANCE

Time hr:mn:sec

T
1

Weighty Energy 3 ft lb

Altitude ft

Mach no.

Ground

i100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00 700.00 800.00 900.00 1000.00

0: 0: 0 144874 143181 0:12:37 141488 0:25:15 139802 0:37:53 0:50: 33138166 136529 1: 3:13 1:15:54 134896 1:28:37 133317 131738 1:41:19 1:54: 2 130159 2: 6:47 128632

33460 43480 33709 43707 33958 43933 34206 44159 34448 44380 44601 34691 34934 44823 45054 35188 45285 35442 455 16 35696 36089 45894

0.8198 .8198 .8198 .8198 .8198 ,8198 .8198 .8198 .8198 .8198 .8197

TABLE 5 . - COEFFICIENTS FOR dX/dE FOR DIFFERENT CRUISE WEIGHT dX/dE Cruise 150000 145000 140000 135000 130000 115000 110000 wt
= A

+B
A

in $In. mi.*,t2
B

Power setting $In. mi. EPR


X Y

2.129 2.118 2.107 2.096 2.086 2.075 2.065 2.054 2.044 2.034 2.023

1.905 1.905 1.905 1.905 1.905 1.904 1.904 1.904 1.904 1.904 1.910

0.18380193-04 -0.8058240E 00 .1831762E-04 -.8144628E 00 .1645151E-04 -.7424970E 00 .1588525E-04 -.7276682E 00 .15028703-04 -.6994290E 00 00 .1498086E-04 - ,7166300E 125000 00 .13572293-04 -.6607372E 120000 .1190378E-04 - .5899974E 00 .1106663E-04 -.5584263E 00

TABLE 7.- CLIMB PROFILE

Aircrafttakeoff weight = 150000 lb; initial weight = 145356 lb;cruise energy = 37468 ft Initial altitude, ft; speed, KIAS = 0 210 Fuel cost, $/lb = 0.0626; time Cost. $/hr = 500.00; temperature variation, K = 0.00; lambda I Climb optimization:
1

2.231 $ l n . mi. Fuel used, lb


61 119 173 226 278 331 3 83 43 6 488 540 593 645 697 749 801 852 904 956 1008 1060 1111 1163 1215 1267 1319 1370 1421 1472 1523 1574 1627 lbao 1734 1789 1844 1898 1954 2009 2064 21 20 2176 2232 2289 2346 2403 2461 2519 2577 2636 2695 2754 2815 2875 2936 3000 3064. 3128 31 93 3259 3526 3394 3463 3533 3603 3675 3748 3786 3824 3863 3902. 3942. 3984. 40284076. 4128. 4186. 4260. 4386. 4515.

Energy, ft
19C1 2069 2565 3069 ' 3565 4069 4569 5069 5565 .. 6069 6560 7069 7569 8065 8565 9069 $565 10069 10565 11069 11565 I2069 125t5 ljOt5 135t9 14069 14565 15069 1EF.69 lt065 16569 17069 1756G 18059 1~56s 190t9 19569 20069 20569 21069 2156c 22069 22569 23060 2356C 24069 24569 250t9 25=t5 26069 265tV 27069 275t0 28069 2P569 29065. 25569 30069 ?C56@ 31069 31560 32069 32569 330hc 33565 34060 34569 54819 35069 35310 35565 35815 3606V 36319 3t569 3tP19 37069 37319 3751R

Altitude, ft

bch

VIAS, VTAS, knots 'knots


2 19 244 2 53 252 216 240 25C 251 253 2 54 z 5.2 2 58 26C 261 263 265 267 265 270 272 274 27t 278 280 2 82 2 84 i 86 288 29c 308 325 341 356 370 575 376 388 3sc 351 352 393 396 397 400 40 1 403 404 407 4i8 411 412 414 415 418 42C 422 424 43 4 437 439 441 442 444 448 450 452 454 457 458 462 465 4t6 468 470 472 474 475 478 478 478 465 468

ft/s

EWT.

Gama, deg
0.00 -04 "11 4.73 7.31 t.98 t.87 6.74 t.62 6.50 6.38 6.27 6.16 6.05 5.93 5.82 5.71 5.61 5.46 5.39 5.28 5.18 5.08 4.97 4.87 4.77 5.23 0-26 0.30 0.32 0.35 2.93 3.69 0.73 3.45 3.42 3.39 3.32 2.90 3.21 2.81 3.0M 2.67 2.95 2.55 2.86 2.45 2.70 2.33 2.60 2.24 2.19 2.40 2.05 G.15 1.77 1.97 1.91 1.87 1.19 1.51 1.68 1.63 1.57 1.41 1.56 2.32 0.94 1.20 1.08 1.16 0.96 0.82 0.93 0.68
0.86

Time,
hr:min:s n.
0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0:

Oist., mi.
0.000 1.144 1.737 2.347 2.967 3.598 4.239 4.891 5.555 6-230 6.916 7.b14 8.324 9.046 9.781 10.529 11.290 12.070 12.860 13.664 14.483 15.318 16.168 17.035 17.9 19 18.812 19.744 20.717 21.739 22.820 23.953 25.111 26.305 27.535 28.787 30 . O 60 31.365 32.687 34.034 35.409 36.821 38.263 39.735 41.239 42.162 44.332 45.935 47.576 49 -241 50.946 52.696 54.487 56.340 58.257 60.243 62.282 64.372 6b.518 68.739 71.029 73.386 75.793 78.292 80.873 83.532 84.939 86.352 87.799 09.281 90.804 92.432 54.190 96.128 98.265 100.814 104.161 110.512 116.973

Power setting,
EPR
47.213 1.802 1.800 1.791 1.791 1.796 1.801 1.806 1.811 1.817 1.822 1.827 1.832 1.837 1.842 1.848 1.853 1.858 1.863 1.864 1.873 1.878 1.883 1.888 l.e93 1.898 1.904 1.894 1.885 1.875 1.867 1.858 1.856 1.861' 1.858 1.863 1.868 1.873 1.875 1.882 1.888 1.891 1.894 1.898 1.903 1.907 1.915 1.916 1.921 1.925 1.933 1.937 1.941 1.946 1.946 1.944 1.947 1.951 1.955 1.959 1-960 1.962 1.966 1.973 1.974 1.977 1.9bl 1.978 1.984 1.984 1.984 1.983 1.972 1.959 1.944 1.929 1.904 1.870 1.812 1.814

Cost/E, $/E ft
45.289 39.824 38.400 38.287

49.22 0.317 1 21C 213 -327 4 -.364 il .378 3uo -380 785 .384 1246 381 1708 .3?0 2109 ' .393 2629 .397 3C89 -.400 3543 .453 40U6 4464 -407 .410 4921 .414 5377 5b33 -417 -421 6.298 -425 6 743 -428 7196 7b49 .432 -436 nu1 -439 8553 .443 9uu3 *4 47 5453 -451 99J2 -455 la351 -4M3 10372 .510 1u39R -535 10423 .55 5 10464 -581 10503 -589 1.1056 .592 11309 -611 1~4J2 -615 11852 -618 12307 - 5 21 12767 13226 .624 13634 .629 -632 14 394 .637 145J4 149bb .640 b45 15315 15635 -648 .65 3 16242 -656 It 7.14 .661 17113 17572 -664 -669 17Y71 -672 18437 .677 18U43 692 15249 .be6 19735 :dl23 .691 .706 20261 iC633. 713 -717 2lJb.I 214Y3 .721 .126 21903 -735 22323 -737 iio9M -742 23117 -746 i35>4 -751 23952 -757 243,n -76 1 L477Y -768 i51L5 -773 25266 -776 2 5453 -780 25610 .783 2 5d08 .187 25974 -791 26117 ibJi3 -794 .799 26474 i6707 -800 .8JO 26981 .782 2 7748 27825 .787 322

0:10
U:19

2 53
2 53 253 2 53 2 53 2.53 2 53 2 53 2 53 2 53 2 53 2 53 253 2 54 2 54 2 54 2 54 2 54 2 54 2 54 2 54 271 287 301 316 32s 332 331 542 34 1 340 338 337 337 336 336 335 335 3 33 333 3 32 3 32 331 331 329 3 29 329 328 328 335 336. 335 4 34 3 34 3 33 3 34 333 3 33 332 3 32 331 332 333 334 334 3 34 335 3 36 336 3 37 336 3 34 323

...

50.93 56 -20 57.16 56.50 55.96 55.39 54.85 54.31 53.77 53.22 52.72 52.21 51.69 51.17 50.65 50.12 49.58 48.72 48.49 47.96 47.42 46.87 46.32 45.77 45.20 46.48 47.14 47.48 47.29 46.65 45.57 44.93 44.41 43.81 43.21 4 2 . bC 41.65 61.39 40.80 40.17 39.27 38.64 38.04 37.40 37.00 36.15 35.55 34.90 34.55 33.89 33.23 32.59 31.67 31.04 30.39 29.76 29.16 28.55 27.70 27.04 26.41 25.99 25.15 24.49 23.87 22.68 22.77 22.32 21.81 21.37 20.06 18.67 17.00 15.48 13.01 9.91 5.15 5.01

0:28

0.77 1.14 0.11

0:37 0:46 0:55 0 : 14 : 0: 1 : 1 3 0: 1:22 0: 1:32 0: 1 : 4 1 5 : 1:50 0: 2: 0 0 : 2:10 0 : 2:19 0: 2:29 0: 2 : 3 9 0: 2:49 0: 5: G 0: 3 : 1 0 0 : 3:20 0: 3:31 0: 3:42 0 : 3:52 9: 4 : 3 0: +:I4 0: 4 : 2 5 0: 4:36 U: 4 : 4 6 0: 4:57 J: 5: 8 0: 5:19 J: 5 : 3 0 0: 5:41 0 : 5:52 0: 6 : 4 0: 0:16 0: b::8 0: 6:40 0 : 6:52 0: 7: 4 0: 7 : 1 7 u: 7:30 0: 7:43 0 : 7:57 0 : 8:lo 0 : 9:24 0 : b:38 0 : 8:52 0 : s: 7 J: 9 : i 2 0: 9:37 J: 9 : 5 2 0:10: 8 0:13:24 0:10:40 u:10:57 0:11:14 0:11:32 0:11:50 0:12: 8 0:12:27 O:li:46 3:13: 6 0:13:27 0:13:48 5:13:59 0:14:10 0:14:21 0:14:32 0: 14: 44 0:14:56 0:15:10 0:15:25 0:15:41 0:16: 0 0:16:25 0:17:14 3:18: 4

38.082
37.893 37.695 37.506 37.315 37.126 36.904 36.684 36.467 36.252 36.040 35.83 c 35.623 35.418 35.21 5 35.01C 34.808 34.608 34.41 I 34.21 5 34-025 32.007 30.573 25.448 28.721 28.320 28.131 27.952 27.733 27.513 27.292 27.071 26.845 26.618 26.390 2 t . 16 1 25.931 25.690 25.46 6 25.231 24.994 24.754 24.510 24.263 24.01 3 23.759 23.50~ 23.238 22.971 22.687 22.364 22.035 21.698 21.354 21.002 2C.640 2C.268 15.885 19.491 15.082 18.665 1e.288 lE.lll 17.930 11.743 11.55 1 17.34s 17.133 lt.895 16.636 16.319 15.905 15.027 14.278

30

s l i g h t l yh i g h e rt h a n the o p t i m a l c r u i s e c o s t , s p e c i f i c a l l y , 1%above. The t a b u l a t e d d a t a show t h e c l i m b i n t e g r a t i o n ; e a c h l i n e r e p r e s e n t s a n e n e r g y level t h a t s t a r t s f r o mt h ei n i t i a le n e r g y Ei, i n c r e m e n t s a t 500 e n e r g yf e e t( e x c e p t nearthecruiseenergy,wheretheincrement i s d e c r e a s e d ) , and t e r m i n a t e s a t a ne n e r g y level h i g h e r t h a n t h e c r u i s e e n e r g y . (A s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f i n a l energylevelprovidesanextrapointinthetable.Thispoint i s u s e df o r interpolation). I n t a b l e 7, column (1) shows t h ee n e r g yh e i g h t i n f e e t ; column (2) shows t h e a l t i t u d e ; and columns ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) , and (5) show t h e a i r c r a f t s p e e d i n Mach number, KIAS, and KTAS, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Column ( 6 ) shows t h e rate o fe n e r g y change and column (7) shows t h e f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e i n d e g r e e s . The f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e as a f u n c t i o no fe n e r g y shows d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s a t several p l a c e s .T h i s is due to the use of tabulated engine data with a low-orderdynamicmodel ( i . e . ,n e g l e c t i n gr o t a t i o n a ld y n a m i c s ) .T h e s ed i s c o n t i n u i t i e sc o u l db e elimi n a t e d i f some s m o o t h i n go ra v e r a g i n gp r o c e s s were u s e d . Column (8) shows t h e time i n t o t h e c l i m b i n h r : m i n : s e c ; column (9) i s t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e r s e d i n n a u t i c a l miles; and column (10) i s t h ec u m u l a t i v ec l i m bf u e li n pounds. Column (11) shows t h e EPR s e t t i n g andcolumn(12) theminimizedHamiltonian functio Iu np Table 8 shows t h e r e s u l t o f i n t e g r a t i n g t h e d e s c e n t t r a j e c t o r i e s f o r t h e same example a i r c r a f t and t h eu n c o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s t case. The l a n d i n gw e i g h t i s e s t i m a t e dt ob e1 4 4 , 8 4 3l b , and t h e c r u i s e e n e r g y is 37,461 f t , t h e same as t h a tf o rt h ec l i m bs i n c et h e r e i s no c r u i s e segment i n t h i s case. The f i n a l a l t i t u d e and speed are 0 f t and 210 KIAS, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The o u t p u t s are v e r y similar t ot h o s ef o rt h ec l i m bo p t i m i z a t i o n .Q u a n t i t i e s shown i n columns (1) t h r o u g h( 1 1 )c o r r e s p o n dt ot h o s ei nt h ec l i m bt a b l e . The energy r a t e , as shown i n column ( 6 ) , i s n e g a t i v e . The EPR s e t t i n g , shown i n column ( l l ) , starts with1.450 a t c r u i s e a l t i t u d e a n d s w i t c h e s t o i d l e a t o r belowan a l t i t u d e o f 24,490 f t . Column ( 1 2 ) shows I d n , the minimized Hamiltonian function for d e s c e n t . Column (13) shows t h e s u m of Iup a n dI d n ,t h e s u m of the minimized H a m i l t o n i a nf u n c t i o nf o rb o t hc l i m b and d e s c e n t .T h i s s u m i s u s e dt oe v a l u a t e t h ec r u i s ed i s t a n c ef o rt h ec o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s t case ( s e ee q .( 2 2 ) ) . It is a l s o used t o l o c a t e t h e a l t i t u d e at whichtheclimbprofilejoinsthedescent p r o f i l ei nt h eu n c o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s t case. T h i s a l t i t u d e i s t h ez e r o - i n t e r c e p t of ( I u p + I d n ) v s a l t i t u d e . T a b l e 9 summarizes t h es y n t h e s i z e dt r a j e c t o r y . The f i r s t p a r t o f t h e table gives the aircraft weight in pounds; cost i n d o l l a r s p e r n a u t i c a l mile; energyheightinfeet;altitudeinfeet;trueairspeed,indicatedairspeed, andgroundspeed, a l l i n k n o t s ; and t h e Mach number f o r b o t h i n i t i a l and f i n a l c r u i s ec o n d i t i o n s .F o rt h ec l i m b - d e s c e n dt y p eo ft r a j e c t o r y ,t h ec o r r e s p o n d ing quantities for the initial and f i n a l c r u i s e are t h e same, s i n c e t h e a i r c r a f t w e i g h t a t t h e endof a climb is t h e same as t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a d e s c e n t ( i . e . , no c r u i s es e g m e n t ) . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t a b l e 9 shows t h e f u e l u s e d i n p o u n d s , t h e g r o u n d track distance covered in nautical miles, t h e e l a p s e d t i m e i n h r : m i n : s e c , t h e c o s t i n d o l l a r s , and the u n i t c o s t i n d o l l a r s p e r n a u t i c a l mile f o r t h e c l i m b profile,descentprofile,cruisesegment, and s y n t h e s i z e d o v e r a l l t r a j e c t o r y . The l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e t a b l e shows t h e f i n a l a i r c r a f t w e i g h t i n pounds,and

31

TABLE 8.- DESCENT PROFILE


Aircraft landingweight = 144843lb;cruiseenergy F i n a la l t i t u d e , ft; speed, KIAS = 0 210 Descend o p t i m i z a t i o n : = 37461 ft

Altitude, Energy, ft
0.317 1951 2Ot2 2562 3062 3562 4062 4562 5062 5562 6062 6562 7nt2 7562 8062 9562 q962 $562 IC062 10562 11062 Il5t2 12062 12562 130t2 135t2 14562 14 56 2 15062 1qr.62 16062 16562 17062 17562 I8052 1P5t2 IQOF2 15562 20062 20562. 21062 7 1 562 22q67 22562 23nt2 23K62 540.52 2L562 25062 255t2 26062 265t2 27067 27567 LP062 2SC62 2O062 29562 20062 30562 31 0 6 i 31562 32062 32562 73062 33562 34062 31562 34812 25062 35112 35562 75812 36062 36312 ?t562 36812 37062 37?12

ft
5

Hach
.32t -363 .378 .385 -384
.387
*
I

VIAS, YTAS, knots knots


21s 244 2 53 2 52 2 53 2 53 2 53 2 53 216 240 25C 251 253 254 256 258 260 2tl 263 265 261 269 21c 212 214 2 76 276 280 2 82 284 286 2e8 290 308 325 34 1 356 37G 3 84 391 452 400 40 I 401 401 400 400 400 400 434 404 403 403 40 3
403

_____~
-21.95 -22.32 -25.15 -26.13 -26.86 -21.12 -27.36 -27.61 -21.96 -28.11 -28.36 -28.62 -28.80 -29.14 -29.39 -29.65 -29.90 -30.16 -30.41 -30.67 -30.92 -31.18 -31.44 -31.69 -31.95 -32.11 -35.76 -39.15 -44. 0 8 -49.65 -53.41 -58.35 -63.45 -65.19 -63.64 -t2.s9 -62.33 -61.68 -60.31 -50.80 -59.22 -58.63 -59.29 -58.5Q -57.9 1 -57.25 -50.60 -55.$6 -55.90 -55.24 -54.59 -54.50 -53.a2 -53.58 -52.98 -5L.32 -52.68 -52.45 -51.21 -52.45 -52.12 -52.28 -36.79 -36.95 -37.79 -37.Q3 -38.07 -38.16 -38.25 -38.34 -38.43 -38.56 -37.78 -36.21 -24.97 -33.35 -33.92
-18.54

EOOT , ftls

~~

13

Gama, deg 0.00 -0.02

Time, hr:min:s

Dist., n. m i .
0.000 1.323 2.581 3.852 5.143 6.429 1.112 8.993 10.271 11.546 12.8 18 14.008 15.354 16.618 17.880 19.140 20.397 21.652 22.906 24.158 25.408 26.656 27.903 25.148 30.392 31.635 32.795 33.900 34.548 35.942 36.885 37.782 38.636 39.486 40.356 41.235 42.124 43.023 43.939 44.863 45.757 46.741 41.68G 48.632 49.59b 55.511 51.556 52.553 53.553 54.566 55.591 56.621) 51.662 58.713 59.771 65. d45 61.916 62.997 64.084 6 5 .I 7 2 66.270 67.369 68.960 70.569 12.152 13.141 14.533 75.328 70.123 16.918 11.712 78.506 19.318 -30.169 81.054 81.971 eL.889 84.565
~~

Fuel used, lb
19 37 54 69 84 99 114 128 141 155 168
180

Power setting, EPR IDLE


IDLE IDL F IDLE IliLE

Cost/E, $/E f t
16.578 15.388 1C.218 e.217 1.830 7.329 t.e44 6.363 5.8F8 5.419 4.955 4.50 2 4.053 3.61 0 3.20 1 2.805 2,413 2.026 1.643 1.265 0.89 1 n. 52 2 0.156 -0.206 -0.563 C . 90 3 -2.613 -3.856 -4.735 -5.377 -5.836 -t.lbO -t.369 -t.522 -t.673 -6.828 -6.985 -1.145 -7.308

Sum cost/E, $/E ft


63.791 60.678 50.042 46.616 46.1 17 45.411 44.736 44.062 43.394 42.734 42.081 41.406 40.7 37 40.077 30.4 54 38.845 38.243 31.649 37.061 36.4 9 0 35-90? 35.330 34.764 34.205 33.652 33.122 29.394 26.718 24.708 23.344 22.484 21.911 21.583 21.211 20.839 20.464 20.086 19.700 19.310 18.917 18.520 18.1 18 17.728 17.338 16.944 16.545 16.141 15.732 15.319 14.R99 14.474 14.043 13.610 13.1 7 3 12.718 12.224 11.726 11.223 10.711 10.186 9.650 9.100 8.505 1.849 7.212 6.579 5.988 5.705 5.418 5.126 4.829 4.522 4.190 3.821 3.425 2.966 2.426 0.084

11
3J3 779 124J I702 2li3 2623 3id3 3 542 4 000 4458 4915 5371 E827 6286731 719d 7643 8595 8541 8931 S 4 ' + 7 ?9Yl 10345 10305 1G391 10423 10453 13499 105'*3 1053~ 1G915 11468 11931 i2.455 129't9 134518 12S3d 14479 14511 15350
15859

-0.05
-2.16 -3.41 -3.31 -3.39 -3.39 -3.39 -3.39 -3.40 -3.40 -3.40 -3.40 -3.41 -3.41 -3.41 -3.41 -5.41 -3.41 -3.41 -3.40 -3.40 -3.40 -3.40 -3.40 -3.17 -J.22 -0.28 -0.34 -0.40 -0.47 -0.55 -3.51 -5.96 -5.27 -5.22 -5.17 -5.63 -4.99 -4.94 -4.9u -3.85 -4.97 -4.91 -4.85 -4-19 -4.14 -4.21 -4.71 -4.65 -4.12 -4.60 -4.08 -4.55 -4.49 -3.51 -4-04 -4.34 -3.56 -4.09 -3.60 -0.41 -2-66

390 .39 3 .397 .4JO -453 -407 .410 -414 .417 -421 .4L5 -428 -4312 -43 6 .439 .443 -447 -45 1 .45 5 .4(13 .510 -535 559

2 53
2 53 253 2 53 2 53 2 53 2 53 2 53 2 53 2 54 2 54 254 2 54 2 54 2 54 2 54 L 54 21I 287 3c1 316 329 342 35: 365 351 3 54 351 349 3 45 341
34J

-58 1

.6J3 .623 .632 .631 -632 -634 -635 -634 -630


.538

16323 i6865 11309 17871

leJrn
rtldL5

lY33l

.635 -645 .646 -647 -649 -653 .65 1 .654 -655 656
.663 bb 1

337
337 3 35 333 J 30 327 324 313 321 318 3 I5 314 3 LZ

19752
;LIZ?-

LJ 7-6 2120J 21173 '2112 i2636 L 3 13L 22,514 i3YY1 -4411 24492 24945 25232 256t9 i6lJ3 263~2
Lt539 26755
26969

.664 -665
.6Uh

310
357 5 06 3'35 303 303 302 301
507

-671 -674 .677


.682

405 404 404 406 405 4c7 406 436 409


'116.

27175 27.36~ 2755J Z7129 L7510 201L7 28337

.ba4 -689 "I38 .711 .7L2 .li6 13 5 .732 - 13 4 - 7 36 1 38 -141 .744 .141 .151

. .

306 3 35 3JY

41 1 413 414 416 427 428


434

-1.71
-2.59 -5.2u -2.54 -2.55 -2.55 -2.56 -2.45 -2.11 -2.08 -1.90 -1.96 -2.15
-1.01

307
306 306
375

.75+
.157 .165

305 3 35 >c5 355 3 05 j 36


3 95

3G6

436 437 430 435 440 441 442 443 445 441 448 449 451

0: 1 : 5 0 : 1:23 0 : 1:4; 0 : 2: 0 3 : 2:19 5 : 2:37 3 : L:55 0 : 3:12 0 : 3:30 0 : 3:48 0: 4: 5 J: 4 : 2 2 0 : 4:59 3: 4:56 0: 5:13 a: 5 : L 9 2 : 5:46 0: 6: 2 0 : a:l8 3: b : 3 4 0: 6:50 0 : 7: 6 0: 1:cl 0 : 1:31 3: 7 : 5 1 3 : 8: 4 J: b : l 5 3: 8:25 0 : 8:>5 u: 5 : 4 3 0 : 8:51 d: d : 5 9 0 : 97 : 0 : 9:14 0: 9:22 0 : 5:3L 0: 9 : 5 5 0 : 9:41 U: 9 : 5 6 0:10: 4 0: lU: 13 3:10:21 0: 10:30 0 : IC): 39 3:lU:47 0:19:56 0:11: 5 U:Lr:14 0:11:23 IJ:ll:33 0:11:42 3:i1:,51 0:12: 1 0:12:10 3:12:23 3:lL:LS 0:12:39 0:12:4P 0:l~:56 0:13: 8 9:13:21 0:13:35 'J:13:48 J : 1 41 : J:14: 8 0:14:14 0:14:LI J:14:i7 0 : 14: 34 J:14:40 0:14:41 Y: 1 4 : 5 4 3:15: 1 3:15: 8

lOLF
IDLE

IDLE
IDLE IDLE

IDLE IDLE
IDLE

193
205 216 22d 2 39 250 261 L7 I 281

IDLi IDLE
IVLC

IDLE IDLt IbLF IDLF


IDLE IDLE IDLE IDLE IDLE

291
3 00 310 319 328 336 3 44 351 357 363 368 373 318 383 388 393 398 403 407 412 417 42 I 426 430 435 439 443 447 452 456 450 464 466 412. 476 4 79 483 487 491 494 49: 5 15 52534 546 552 551 563 569 514 580 586 592 579 607 615 635

IOLk
lOLt

ILJLE IGLF !DL

I OLF
!DLF

lGL F IDLt
IDLE

I IJLL
IL,LE

IDLE IULE IDLE


IDLt

-7.473
-7.641 - 7 . ~ 2 -7.971 - E . 12 8

IDLE
1UL E

I DL L
IDLt IDLE IDLE

-e.zea
-8.449

IDLE IGLt
ICL' lGLt IDLC

- F. 7 1 8
-8.?45 -5.114 -5.285 -5.45 7 -5.625 -5.798 -5.969 1C. 14 1 -1C.308 1 C.kl5 -1C.643 -10.815

-8.613

IDLE
I D L ~

IULE
lDLt

IbLt I LlLE IDLE lGLt IULk


IDLE

1.104 1.104 1.104 1.104 1.104 1.134 l.lU4 1.104 I.LU4 1.104 1.121 1.150 1.176 1.198 1.199 1.450
.~

-1C.900 - 1 1. L6e -11.380

-11.641 -11.870 -12.OP6

-12.30C
-12.406 -12.512 -12.61 7 -12.722 -12.027 -12.943 -13.074 -13.211 -13.353 -13.480

32

. .

"~

TABLE 9.- SUMMARY OF SYNTHESIZED TRAJECTORY


I

Parameters

Initial cruise

Final cruise 145,499


2.233

Parameters

Initial cruise 481.00 335.60

Final cruise 481.00 335.60 480.82 .80606

Aircraft weight, lb 145,499 cost, 2.233 $/n. mi. Energy 37,392 height, ft Altitude, 27,166 ft

TAS, knots IAS, knots

37,392 27,166

Groundspeed, knots 480.82 Mach number .80606 cost, $/n. mi.


$

mi.

Hr :min: used, Distance, n. lb


115.99 85.46
0

4500.83 Climb Descend 644.75 0 Cruise

0:17:57 0:15:38 0: 0: 0 0:33:35


0.000

431.42 170.65
0
"_

3.72 2.00
0

,-...

Total
" .
~~

5145.58 201.45
-.

602.07

2.99

Landing weight= 144,854 Cruise and overall efficiency Cost, %x = 4.69 Number of iterations= 4

25.543 lb/n. mi.

the cruise fuel efficiency and the overall fuel efficiency, in pounds both per nautical mile. It also shows the numerical value of %x and the number of iterations required to synthesize the trajectory. RESULTS In this section, a selected class of trajectories is synthesized by the computer-implemented algorithm to determine the effect of selected parameters on: (1) the unit cost (in dollars per nautical mile), (2) the unit fuel consumption (in pounds per nautical mile), (3) the mission cost (in dollars), and (4) the total fuel consumption (in pounds).The parameters include (1) the range, (2) cost function (minimum cost versus minimum fuel), (3) mode of optimization (free thrust vs constrained thrust),(4) environmental conditions, such as wind and temperature variation (from standard atmosphere), (5) an ATC restriction placing a 250-KIAS limit on speed when flying at or below 10,000 ft, and (6) the takeoff weight. In all cases, the time cost is $500/hr and the fuel cost is $0.0626/1b. The characteristic trajectories are shown in the following formats: (1) altitude and speed vs distance, and altitude'vs speed; (2) unit operating cost and unit fuel cost vs range; ( 3 ) summary tables of the synthesized trajectories; and (4) tables showing the effect of speed limit, optimization mode, and takeoff weight on fuel consumption and mission cost.
33

F i g u r e 9 ( a ) shows f o u r a l t i t u d e p r o f i l e s f o r m i n i m a l - c o s t t r a j e c t o r i e s as a f u n c t i o no fr a n g e . The t a k e o f f w e i g h t f o r t h e s e t r a j e c t o r i e s i s 150,000 l b and t h er a n g e s are 100, 200, and 1,000 n. m i . The s o l i d l i n e i s t h e c o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s t mode o f o p t i m i z a t i o n a n d t h e d a s h e d l i n e t h e f r e e - t h r u s t mode. I n a l l f o u r t r a j e c t o r i e s , t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e c l i m b and t h e last p a r t o ft h ed e s c e n t are n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l . The g r a d i e n to fc l i m b is steepestinthe b e g i n n i n g , a t a na v e r a g eo fa b o u t 530 f t / n . m i . It i s g r a d u a l l yr e d u c e dt o a b o u t 260 f t / n . m i . a t a n a l t i t u d e o f a b o u t 10,000 f t , and e v e n t u a l l y t o 81 f t / n . m i . a t t h e endofclimb. The d e s c e n t p r o f i l e s s t a r t w i t h a n i n i t i a l d e s c e n tg r a d i e n to f2 5 1f t / n . m i . T h i sg r a d i e n t i s g r a d u a l l yi n c r e a s e dt o 370 f t / n . m i . a t a n a l t i t u d e o f about10,000 f t and t h e n g r a d u a l l y r e d u c e d t o 210 f t / n . m i . a t t h e endofdescent.

35

-"

CONSTRAINED THRUST FREE THRUST

"_

CONSTRAINED THRUST FREE THRUST

30
m 25

x 20
v-

$ 15
3

10

0 RANGE, n. mi.

900

1000

100

200 " 800 RANGE, n. mi.

900

1000

(a)Altitudeprofile. F i g u r e 9.Profiles for

( b )T r u ea i r s p e e dp r o f i l e . minimal-DOC t r a j e c t o r i e s .

A t about 10,000 f t , b o t h t h e c l i m b and d e s c e n t p r o f i l e s are i n t e r r u p t e d by s h o r ts e g m e n t so fa l m o s tl e v e lf l i g h tf o r a l l cases. T h i s i s a r e s u l to f t h e 250 KIAS l i m i t imposed on t h e t r a j e c t o r y below 10,000 f t . I n c l i m b , a f t e r reaching10,000 f t , t h e s p e e d b o u n d a r y i s removed,andmostof t h ee n e r g y r a t e i s u s e dt ot e m p o r a r i l y accelerate t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e o p t i m a l s p e e d at that a l t i t u d e ,t h u sr e s u l t i n gi np r a c t i c a l l y l e v e l f l i g h t .A f t e rr e a c h i n gt h e o p t i m a ls p e e d ,t h ec l i m b i s resumed. S i m i l a r l y , i n d e s c e n t t h e a i r c r a f t e n t e r s thespeedboundary a t 10,000 f t and t h e n e g a t i v e e n e r g y rate i s u s e d f o r t e m p o r a r i l yd e c e l e r a t i n gt h ea i r c r a f ti nn e a r l yl e v e lf l i g h tt o 250 KIAS. A f t e r r e a c h i n gt h a ts p e e d ,t h ed e s c e n t i s resumed.
Intheconstrained-thrusttrajectories,there i s a s h o r t c r u i s e segment i n a l l cases. The c r u i s e a l t i t u d e f o r t h e s e s e g m e n t s i n c r e a s e s w i t h r a n g e u n t i lt h eo p t i m a lc r u i s ea l t i t u d e i s r e a c h e d . Beyond t h i sr a n g e ,t h eo p t i m a l c r u i s e a l t i t u d e i s u s e dr e g a r d l e s so fr a n g e .F o rt h es h o r t - r a n g e cases (100 and 200 n . m i . ) , t h e c r u i s e a l t i t u d e i s p r a c t i c a l l yc o n s t a n t .F o rt h e long-range case (1,000 n . m i . ) , t h e o p t i m a l c r u i s e a l t i t u d e i n c r e a s e s at a

34

rate of 2.5 f t / n . m i . of c r u i s ed i s t a n c e . It i n c r e a s e sb e c a u s et h e becomes l i g h t e r as a r e s u l t o f f u e l b u r n d u r i n g cruise.

aircraft

The f r e e - t h r u s t t r a j e c t o r y f o r t h e 200-n. m i . r a n g e d o e s n o t h a v e c r u i s e segment. The p o i n t a t w h i c ht h e climb and d e s c e n t segments j o i n i s t h e maximum e n e r g yp o i n t . It i s a l s o t h e h i g h e s t a l t i t u d e and t h eh i g h e s ts p e e dp o i n t . A s shown i n t h e f i g u r e , t h e 200-n. m i . r a n g e f r e e - t h r u s t t r a j e c t o r y d i f f e r s from i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n s t r a i n e d t h r u s t t r a j e c t o r y o n l y i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e maximum e n e r g y p o i n t , s p e c i f i c a l l y , at analtitudeof24,500 f t andabove. Below t h i s a l t i t u d e , t h e o p t i m a l t h r u s t , as d e t e r m i n e db yt h ea l g o r i t h m , is t h e maximum t h r u s t f o r c l i m b and i d l e t h r u s t f o r d e s c e n t . Above t h i s a l t i tude, a gradual reduction in thrust occurs during climb until the maximum e n e r g yp o i n t i s reached. A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e t r a j e c t o r y s w i t c h e s from climb t o d e s c e n t , i . e . , t h ee n e r g y r a t e becomes n e g a t i v e . The i n i t i a l p a r t o f t h e descent trajectory calls f o r a continuation in gradual thrust reduction until t h e 24,500 f t a l t i t u d e i s r e a c h e d . A t t h a t a l t i t u d e , t h e t h r u s t i s r e d u c e dt o idle. Intheconstrained-thrust mode, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e t h r u s t s c h e d u l e c a l l s f o r maximum t h r u s t i n c l i m b , s w i t c h i n g t o c r u i s e t h r u s t a t t h e end of climb,maintainingthisthrustduringcruise and s w i t c h i n g t o i d l e t h r u s t at t h e end o fc r u i s e , and m a i n t a i n i n gi d l et h r u s td u r i n gd e s c e n t . For t h e 200 n. m i . r a n g e t r a j e c t o r i e s , a f u e l s a v i n g i s r e a l i z e d by o p t i m i z i n g o v e r b o t h t h r u s t andspeed as opposed t o o p t i m i z i n g o v e r s p e e d a l o n e . F i g u r e9 ( b ) shows t h ec o r r e s p o n d i n gt r u ea i r s p e e dp r o f i l e . It calls f o r a high rate o f a c c e l e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t p o r t i o n of t h e c l i m b ; t h i s rate i s g r a d u a l l yr e d u c e df o rt h er e m a i n d e ro ft h ec l i m b . The d e s c e n t p r o f i l e i s symmetrical t o t h e c l i m b i n t h e s e n s e t h a t it calls for a slowdecelerationin the beginning of descent and gradually increases the deceleration until the f i n a la i r s p e e d i s r e a c h e d . The c r u i s es p e e d sf o rt h es h o r t - r a n g e ,c o n s t r a i n e d t h r u s tt r a j e c t o r i e s are p r a c t i c a l l yc o n s t a n t .F o rt h el o n g - r a n g ef l i g h t ,t h i s speed i s r e d u c e d s l i g h t l y d u r i n g c r u i s e , i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e o p t i m a l c r u i s es p e e d ,w h i c h i s a functionofaircraftweight;theoptimalcruisespeed, as d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e a l g o r i t h m , d e c r e a s e s s l i g h t l y as t h e a i r c r a f t b u r n s fuel.

! ? 32

CONSTRAINED-THRUST TRAJECTORY FREE-THRUST TRAJECTORY

"[

---

390 210 330 270


TRUE AIRSPEED, knots

450

F i g u r e 10 shows t h e s p e e d - a l t i t u d e p r o f i l e sf o rt h e 200-n. m i . c o n s t r a i n e d t h r u s t and f r e e - t h r u s t t r a j e c t o r i e s . I n c l i m b , mostof t h e e n e r g y rate i s used t o accelerate t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e o p t i m a ls p e e d a t a l m o s t c o n s t a n t a l t i t u d e . When t h e 250 K I A S limit i s r e l a x e d and i n d e s c e n t , mostof the n e g a t i v e e n e r g y rate i s used t o d e c e l erate t h e a i r c r a f t i n n e a r l y level f l i g h t as t h e 250 KIAS l i m i t i s reimposed. F i g u r e s l l ( a ) , l l ( b ) , and12 show the corresponding altitude profile,

F i g u r e 10.- A l t i t u d e - s p e e d p r o f i l e f o r 200-n. m i . minimal-cost trajectories.

35

CONSTRAINED THRUST FREE THRUST


-

CONSTRAINED THRUST FREE THRUST

I!

rr

100

200 800 RANGE, n. mi.

210

900

1000

100

2\00 k 3 0 0 RANGE, n. mi.

1
900 1000
I

Aa lT i t( p r ia rr t s p u ) u ( o p r b e d f o e) ie e f li d el.e . F i g u r e 11.- P r o f i l e s f o r m i n i m a l - f u e l t r a j e c t o r y . s p e e d p r o f i l e , andspeed a l t i t u d e (VH) profilefortheminimal-fuel trajectoriesforthe same case as b e f o r e . I n comparison with the corresponding m i n i m a l - c o sttr a j e c t o r i e st,h e minimalf u e tl r a j e c t o r i e s c a l l f o r a higher cruise a l t i t u d e and lower cruise speed. The a l t i t u d e p r o f i l e h a s a steeper angle of climb and a shallower descent a n g l e and t s hp ee p ed r o f ih la es a s l o w e r rate o f a c c e l e r a t i o n and decelVH p r o f i l e ,t h e e r a t i o n .I nt h e a c c e l e r a t i o n and d e c e l e r a t i o n s e g m e n t s al 1t a n 0 in e o t ,u 0 a fd 0 re 0 f t are shorterorabsent, as a r e s u l t o f l o w e r optimal climb-out and d e s c e nstp e e d sF . igure
48 -

CONSTRAINED THRUST FREE THRUST

r9

E32r

5 a
3

16

0 210

270390 330 TRUE AIRSPEED, knots

450

12.- Altitude-speed profile f o rm i n i m a l - f u e l 200-n. m i . range

F i g1 u3 re (a) shows t c th r o ia e n sjte c t o r i e s . dollars per nautical m i l e vs range for t h em i n i m a lc o s ta n dt h em i n i m a l - f u e lt r a j e c t o r i e s .I nt h es h o r t - r a n g ef l i g h t s ( i . e . , from100n. m i . t o 250 n .m i . ) ,t h es l o p eo ft h ec u r v e s i s v e r ys t e e p , implyingthat a s l i g h t l y l o n g e r r a n g e f l i g h t w i l l result in substantial saving i nc o s t . For long-range f l i g h t s( 1 , 0 0 0n . m i . o rm o r e ) ,t h es l o p eo ft h e curve i s a l m o s tf l a t ,i m p l y i n gt h a tt h ec o s t i s a l m o s tc o n s t a n t and p r a c t i c a l l yi n d e p e n d e n to fr a n g e . A t l o n g e rr a n g e st h ev e r t i c a ld i s t a n c eb e t w e e n t h e two c u r v e s becomes s i g n i f i c a n t ;f o re x a m p l e , a t 1,000n. mi. it is $0.08/n. m i . T h i sd i s t a n c er e p r e s e n t st h es a v i n gi nc o s tr e a l i z e d by minimizi n gt h ec o s ti n s t e a do ff u e lc o n s u m p t i o n .

As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , t h e c l i m b and d e s c e n t p r o f i l e s are r e s t r i c t e d by t h e 250-KIAS l i m i t a t o r b e l o wa na l t i t u d e of 10,000 f t . I n s h o r t - r a n g e

36

4.(

"3.t

MIN COST MIN FUEL

TIME COST = $500./hr FUEL COST = $.0626/1b

E e $ 3.c

.-

4.0

s"

+-

"FREE THRUST THRUST

MIN COST MIN FUEL

3.5 2.5

c'

3.0

' 2.0

2.6 ~.
~

I
~

100

500 900 RANGE, n. m i .

1300

50

100

150 RANGE, n. mi.

200

250

( a )C o s tv sr a n g e .

( b )C o s tf o r

minimum-cost and fuel trajectories.

minimum-

F i g u r e 13.- C o s tv sr a n g e :m i n i m a l - c o s ta n dm i n i m a l - f u e lt r a j e c t o r i e s .
is i n e f f e c t f o r a l a r g ep o r t i o no ft h ef l i g h t and flights,thisconstraint therefore the difference in cost between minimal-cost andminimal-fueltraject o r i e s i s small. F o rv e r yl o n gr a n g ef l i g h t s ,o nt h eo t h e rh a n d ,m o s to ft h e f l i g h t is s p e n ti nc r u i s e( a to p t i m a lc r u i s ea l t i t u d e and s p e e d )a n d ,t h e r e fore,thedifferencebetweenminimal-cost andminimal-fueltrajectories is the differencebetweentheirrespectivecruisecosts.

F i g u r e1 3 ( b ) i s a ne x p a n d e dv e r s i o no ff i g u r e( 1 3 ( a ) ; i t shows t h e d i f ferenceincostbetweentheconstrained-thrust mode and t h e f r e e - t h r u s t mode o fo p t i m i z a t i o n a t s h o r tr a n g e s .F o rt h em i n i m a l - c o s t case, a t a rangeof 100 n. m i . , t h ec o s ts a v i n gb e t w e e nt h e two modes i s $0.03/n. m i . A t a r a n g e ofabout135n. m i . , t h i sd i f f e r e n c ed i m i n i s h e st oz e r o and t h e two c u r v e s m e r g e ,i m p l y i n gt h a tf o rf l i g h t so f 135 n. m i . o rl o n g e r , no s i g n i f i c a n t savi n g i n u n i t c o s t i s r e a l i z a b l e by f l y i n g t h e f r e e - t h r u s t t y p e o f t r a j e c t o r y . I n t h e m i n i m a l - f u e l case, t h e f u e l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two modes i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t a t a l l ranges. F i g u r e 14 shows t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f u e l e f f i c i e n c y v e r s u s r a n g e c u r v e s . The f u e l s a v i n g i n t h e minimum-fuel t r a j e c t o r y r e l a t i v e t o t h e minimum-cost
37

trajectory is about 1 lb/n. in long-range flight (more than 500 n. and 1.1 lb/n. mi. in short-range flights.

m i .

mi.)

MIN COST

0 summarizes the characTable 1 teristics of selected minimal-cost trajectories for a takeoff weight of 150,000 lb. Column (1) gives the environment for the flight, namely the temperature deviation from standard temperature and the wind condition. Column (2) gives the mode of optimization (FT for free thrust and CT for constrained thrust). Column (3) shows the range and column (4) the time duration of flight. Columns ( 5 ) and (6) show the operating cost in $/n. mi. and fuel consumption in lb/n. mi., respectively. The remaining columns give the cruise altitude, the climb distance, and the descent distance.
100 500 800 1300 Table 1 0 shows that the differRANGE, n. mi. ences in cost and fuel consumption between the free-thrust and the Figure 14.- Fuel efficiency vs range. constrained-thrust modes of optimization for the 200-n. mi. range trajectories are $0.04/n. mi. and 0.44 lb/n. mi., respectively, amounting to a 1% difference in cost and a 1.75% difference in fuel consumption. Reducing the temperature (in the free-thrust mode) at all altitudes results in insignificant cost and fuel reductions. However, raising it to 20" C at all altitudes increases the cost $O.ll/n. mi. and the fuel consumption 0.95 lb/n. m i ; this is an increase of 2.3% in cost and of 3.75% in fuel consumption.

Next, consider the effect of wind. The wind profile used for the example trajectories of table 1 0 is shown in figure 15. Although it is the average profile in January over Cape Kennedy (ref. 5 ) , the profile would be similar at other locations at the same latitude. It starts with a 10-knot wind at zero altitude that increases to 70 knots at an altitude of 36,000 ft; the increase is at a rate of 1-2/3 knots/1,000 ft. Above 36,000 ft, the wind decreases at a rate of 2 - 1 / 4 knots/1,000 ft. If the aircraft is flying against the wind, the unit cost increases $0.27/n. mi., 9.1%, or and the fuel consumption increases 2.78 lb/n. mi., or 11%. If flying with the wind, the cost decreases $0.16/n. mi., or 5.4%, and the fuel consumption decreases 1.82 lb/n. mi., or 7.2%. Table 11 summarizes the characteristics of selected minimal-fuel trajectories corresponding to the minimal-cost trajectories shown in table 9. The takeoff weight for all the trajectories is again 150,000 lb. The differences in cost and fuel consumption between the free- and constrained-thrust modes 38

TABLE 10.- MINIMAL DIRECT OPERATING COST TRAJECTORIES: TAKEOFF WEIGHT 150,000 LB Environmental condition Nowind Standard temperature Time , Thrust Range , mode n. mi. hr:min:sec Cruise Fuel, cost , $In. mi. lb/n. mi. ft
3.58 3.00 2.96 2.28 3.07 2.96 3.23 2.80 30.40 25.77 25.33 18.78 26.28 25.31 28.11 23.51

Climb distance, n. mi.


43.15 101.42 116.00 135.76 122.35 112.50 117.99 109.33

Descent distance, iltitude, n. mi.


52.66 77.85 84.00 85.38 77.65 89.51 82.01 90.67

CT CT FT CT FT FT

100
200 200 1000 200 200 200 200

20 :06 33:02 33: 00 2: 13:07 34:07 32 :54 35: 16 31:46

1 4 ,899
26,970 27,827 30,819 25 ,007 31,467 28,934

+zoo c
-15" C

Headwind FT Standard temperature Standard Tailwind FT temperature

26 ,300

= Free thrust. Note: CT = Constrained thrust, FT

TABLE 11.- MINIMAL FUEL TRAJECTORIES: TAKEOFF WEIGHT 150,000 LB Environmental condition No wind Standard temperature

I-

"

~~

Time , Thrust Range , n. mi. hr:min:sec mode CT CT FT CT FT FT FT FT


100
200 200 1000 200 200 200 200 21:26 37 :03 37: 06 2:29:14 37 :00 36:OO 40:Ol 34: 36

Climb i Descent Cruise cost , Fue1, '3ltitude, distance, j distance, $/n. mi. lb/n. mi. ft n. mi. n. mi.
"

3.60 3.07 3.06 2.36 3.11 3.04 3.34 2.85

29.25 24.38 24.27 17.76 25.06 24.05

1 7 ,531

37.73 80.06 101.93 121.07 112.38 95.31 101.30 99.99

54.12 83.21 98.07 103.51 87.62 104.69 98.70 100.01

+zoo c -15" C

Standard Headwind temperature Tailwind Standard temperature

26.67
22.43

33 ,185 27 ,273 32 ,330 29 ,043

27 ,226 28 ,011

27 ,045

f o r t h e 200-n. m i . t r a j e c t o r i e s a r e $0.01/n. m i . and0.11lb/n. mi. , r e s p e c t i v e l y ; t h e y are e q u i v a l e n t t o $1.08 and 23 l b o ff u e l .I ft h e temp e r a t u r e i s 15" C below t h e s t a n d a r d , c o s t and f u e l r e d u c t i o n s are $0.02/n.mi. and 0.12 lb/n. m i . , r e s p e c t i v e l y .I f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i s 20" C a b o v e t h e s t a n d a r d ,t h ec o s ti n c r e a s e s $0.05/n. m i . , o r 1 . 6 % , a n d t h e f u e l c o n s u m p t i o ni n c r e a s e s0 . 7 9l b / n . mi., o r 3 . 3 % . I ft h ea i r c r a f t is flying a g a i n s tt h ew i n d ,t h ec o s ti n c r e a s e s $0.28/n. m i . , o r 9 % , and t h e f u e l cons u m p t i o ni n c r e a s e s 2 . 4 l b / n . m i . , o r 10%. I f t h e a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n gw i t ht h e w i n d ,t h ec o s td e c r e a s e s$ 0 . 2 1 / n . mi., o r6 . 9 % ,a n dt h ef u e lc o n s u m p t i o n d e c r e a s e s 1.8 l b / n . m i . , o r 7.6%.

50

40

30

c u-

W '

5
a

20

10

F i n a l l y ,c o n s i d e rt h ee f f e c t of t h e 250-KIAS l i m i t a t o r belowan a l t i 0 5010 25 tudeof10,000 f t on f u e l u s e and m i s - 75 WIND VELOCITY, knots s i o nc o s t( n o t shown i n t h e t a b u l a t e d results). The i n c r e a s ei nc o s td u et o F i g u r e 15.- Wind p r o f i l e . t h i s l i m i t i s e s s e n t i a l l yi n d e p e n d e n t o fr a n g eb u ts t r o n g l yd e p e n d e n to n t a k e o f fw e i g h t . A t a t a k e o f fw e i g h to f1 8 0 , 0 0 0I b ,t h es p e e dc o n s t r a i n t resultsintheconsumption o fa na d d i t i o n a l1 3 3l bo ff u e l ;t h ec o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s ei nc o s t i s $18.02. A t a t a k e o f fw e i g h t of 150,000 l b , a n a d d i t i o n a l 66 lb o f f u e l are consumed and t h e c o s t i n c r e a s e i s $9.77.

CONCLUSIONS

The a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d h e r e , w h i c h u s e s a s t r u c t u r e o f optimum t r a j e c toriessuitableforairlineoperations,hasyieldedanefficient computer a l g o r i t h mf o rc a l c u l a t i n gt h et r a j e c t o r i e s . The a l g o r i t h mc a nb ei n c o r p o r a t e d intoanairlineflightplanningsystemorcanbeusedfordeterminingtheperformancepenaltyofsimplifiedonboardalgorithm. The l a t t e r a p p l i c a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t a t t h i s time i n viewof thecurrenteffort by i n d u s t r y t o d e v e l o p onboard f l i g h t management systems. The computerimplementation of t h e a l g o r i t h m c a n b e u s e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t ingthetrade-offbetweencost and f u e l consumptionand togiveinsightinto t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of minimal-fuel and minimum-cost trajectories. It was found t h a t m i n i m a l - f u e l t r a j e c t o r i e s , compared w i t h m i n i m a l - c o s t t r a j e c t o r i e s , h a v es t e e p e rc l i m ba n g l e s ,h i g h e rc r u i s ea l t i t u d e s ,l o w e rc r u i s es p e e d s , and s h a l l o w e rd e s c e n ta n g l e s .

40

Optimizingtheclimbanddescentwithrespecttoairspeedonlywhile constraining the thrust to a maximum i n c l i m b and t o i d l e i n d e s c e n t , r e s u l t e d in only a slight increase in total fuel consumptionandoperatingcost compared with optimizing the climb and d e s c e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o b o t h a i r s p e e d and t h r u s t . The a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e are s t r o n g l yd e p e n d e n to nt h e p r o p u l s i o n andaerodynamicmodels. I f t h ed i f f e r e n c e sc a nb ev e r i f i e dt ob e n e g l i g i b l e , as i n t h e e x a m p l e c a l c u l a t i o n , t h e o p t i m i z a t i o n n e e d o n l y b e d o n e w i t h ,r e s p e c tt oa i r s p e e d ,t h u sr e d u c i n gt h ec o m p u t a t i o n time. That may b ea n importantconsiderationinonboardimplementation. Althoughtheemphasis inthisreporthasbeenanoff-line,open-loop computation,eventuallythe mostimportantapplication of t h e a l g o r i t h m w i l l b e i t s u s e i n a n onboard f l i g h t management system.Thisapproachwouldallowthe optimum t r a j e c t o r y t o b e u p d a t e d w i t h i n - f l i g h t m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t e m p e r a t u r e and w i n d s , r e s u l t i n g i n c l o s e d - l o o p o p t i m a l i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e f l i g h t .

A m e s ResearchCenter N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s andSpaceAdministration M o f f e t tF i e l d ,C a l i f o r n i a 94035, January 2 , 1980

41

APPENDIX

COMPUTER P R O G R A M AND ITS USE

T h i sa p p e n d i x i s a d d r e s s e d t o u s e r s o f t h i s program. A s a p a c k a g e ,t h e programcontains 1 mainprogram, 39 s u b r o u t i n e s ( a l l o f w h i c h a r e programmed i n FORTRAN IV),and 3 s a m p l ei n p u td a t a sets. The p r o g r a mc a nb eo b t a i n e d from t h e c e n t r a l i z e d f a c i l i t y known as COSMIC, l o c a t e d a t t h e Computer S o f t w a r e Management and I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t e r , Barrow Hall, U n i v e r s i t y ofGeorgia,Athens, G e o r g i a , 30601. The FORTRAN programs, a c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c a l l i n g p r o g r a m andsubr o u t i n e s , a c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e of l a b e l e d commons, t h e i n p u t d a t a sets, t h e FORTRAN u n i t s f o r i n p u t / o u t p u t , and a d i c t i o n a r y o f a l l FORTRAN programs are inc lu ed d

ComputerPrograms The computerprograms may b e c o n v e n i e n t l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h e m a i n p r o g r a m a n df o u rg r o u p so fs u b r o u t i n e s . The main program c a l l s t h ea p p r o p r i a t es u b routinestoexecutethemainsteps of t h e a l g o r i t h m e n u m e r a t e d i n f i g u r e s 7 and 8. According t ot h e i rf u n c t i o n s ,t h ef o u rg r o u p s are (I) t r a j e c t o r y synt h e s i s and o p t i m i z a t i o ns u b r o u t i n e s ,( 2 )a e r o d y n a m i c sa n dp r o p u l s i o ns u b r o u t i n e s ,( 3 )e n v i r o n m e n t a lc o n d i t i o ns u b r o u t i n e s ,a n d ( 4 ) g e n e r a l and s u p p o r t i n g subroutines. An a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g of a l l t h e s u b r o u t i n e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h a one-phrase d e s c r i p t i o n ofeach, i s shown i n t a b l e 1 2 . The most o f t e n u s e d s u b r o u t i n e s i n each group w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d . Inthefirstgroup,thesubroutines MINF and MINF2 are u s e d f o r minimizi n g a s p e c i f i e d f u n c t i o n by F i b o n a c c is e a r c ho v e r some g i v e n i n t e r v a l . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s s e a r c h e d w i t h i n 1/144 o f t h e g i v e n i n t e r v a l when u s i n g MINF and w i t h i n 1 / 5 5 , when u s i n g MINF2, where144and55 are t h e e l e v e n t h and e i g h t hF i b o n a c c in u m b e r s ,r e s p e c t i v e l y .T h e s et w o ,t o g e t h e rw i t ho t h e ra p p r o p r i a t e s u b r o u t i n e s , are u s e d f o r g e n e r a t i n g t h e r e q u i s i t e b o u n d a r i e s and e x t r e m a 1p o i n t s . The s u b r o u t i n e MINF, t o g e t h e rw i t h FBOUND, i s u s e df o r generating (1) the speed boundaries designated as Vmin,TD and V,,,,T~ in f i g u r e s 4 ( b ) and 4 ( c ) ; and(2)with PILIMT f o r g e n e r a t i n g t h e l o w e r EPR l i m i t f o rc l i m bo p t i m i z a t i o n and t h eu p p e r EPR l i m i t f o rd e s c e n to p t i m i z a t i o n . It i s a l s ou s e d ,t o g e t h e rw i t h FDRAG, f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e minimum d r a gs p e e d . Furthermore, i t i s u s e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h FCLIMB and w i t h FTHRST, f o r d e t e r m i n i n g ,r e s p e c t i v e l y ,t h e minimum c o s tw i t hr e s p e c tt o V and t h a tw i t hr e s p e c t t o EPR s e t t i n g f o r g e n e r a t i n g b o t h t h e o p t i m a l c l i m b and t h e o p t i m a l d e s c e n t profile. It i s u s e d ,t o g e t h e rw i t h FCOST, f o rg e n e r a t i n gt h eo p t i m a lc r u i s e c o s t a t a f i x e d a l t i t u d e , i . e . , f o rd e t e r m i n i n gt h ev a l u e of X by minimizing the cruise cost over V , as shown i ne q u a t i o n( 1 2 ) .F i n a l l y ,t h es u b r o u t i n e s

42

MINF, MINF2, and FOPT are used for generating the optimal cruise X* cost for all altitudes, as shown in equation (21b). TABLE 12.- LIST OF PROGRAMS
" "
~~

" ~~

. "

Brief description - . MAINPROG Overall algorithm AT62 Compute atmospheric density, pressure, temperature, and speed of sound CDRAG Compute drag coefficient CLIFT Compute lift coefficient CPMEPR Read in engine data CRUTBL Read in cruise table CRUZOP Generate cruise table ENGEPR Compute thrust from engine data EPRlO Auxiliary read/write program for CPMEPR FBOLJND Compute drag or Tmax- D FCLIMB Evaluate the cost function at constant EPR setting, for climb/descent FCLMB2 Minimizes the cost function for climb/descent FCOST Evaluate cruise cost FDRAG Compute drag FOPT Compute optimal cruise speed FTHRST Evaluate cost function at constant speed FTJLEST Fuel estimation ICLOCK Change seconds into hours, minutes, seconds JTRUNC Truncate a unimodal series into a monotonically decreasing series LSQPOL Least-square polynomial fit MATINV Matrix inversion MINF Minimize a function over a given interval MINF2 Minimize a function over a given interval PCCOMP Compute %X over X* PILIMT Compute minimum EPR setting for climb and maximum EPR setting for descent POLY 1 E Evaluate a polynomial Search an element in a monotonically decreasing series SERCHD SERCH 1 Search an element in a monotonically increasing series TRIM1 Compute thrust, etc., to keep the aircraft in trim VALUE2 Extract a number from a two-dimensional array UPDOWN Generate the climb/descent profile Compute fuel, time, and distance for the overall trajectory VOPTRJ WATEST Weight estimation Compute wind component along the wind axis WIND Read in wind model and compute wind shear all for altitudes WINDIN WLEFHV Compute X, etc., for given cruise weight WRITE1 Auxiliary writing subroutine for VOPTRJ XTRPL1 Extrapolate a point outside the lower end of a table XTRPL2 Extrapolate a point outside the upper-end of a table Data Sets INP. TRJ Optimal trajectory specification INP.WIND Wind profile 1NP.ENGINE Engine data
. "
~

Name

-.

43

I n t h e same g r o u p , t h e s u b r o u t i n e CRUZOP i s u s e d f o r g e n e r a t i n g t h e c r u i s et a b l e( s e et a b l e3 ) and CRUTBL, f o r r e a d i n g i n t h e c r u i s e t a b l e , i f it i s a v a i l a b l e . The s u b r o u t i n e FCLMB2 i s u s e df o rg e n e r a t i n gt h eo p t i m a lc o s t f o rc l i m b - d e s c e n tt r a j e c t o r yo p t i m i z a t i o n , a t some f i x e de n e r g y level. The subroutine U P D O W N is calledtogenerateeithertheclimbordescentprofile, as s p e c i f i e d i n t h e c a l l i n g program. The s u b r o u t i n e VOPTRJ i s u s e dt o compute thefuelused,thedistancetraversed, and t h e time d u r a t i o n f o r t h e c l i m b , c r u i s e ,d e s c e n t , and t h e o v e r a l l t r a j e c t o r y . The s u b r o u t i n e FULEST i s c a l l e d forestimatingtheclimbordescentfuel, as s p e c i f i e d i n t h e c a l l i n g program. The s u b r o u t i n e WATEST i s u s e dt o estimate t h el a n d i n gw e i g h t . The s u b r o u t i n e WLEFHV i s used t o p r o v i d e a mapping between X , as a f u n c t i o n of c r u i s e w e i g h t and of % A , and t h ec o r r e s p o n d i n gc r u i s e - e n e r g yh e i g h t ,f u e l - f l o w rate, a l t i t u d e , a n dg r o u n ds p e e d .F i n a l l y ,t h es u b r o u t i n e P C C O M P i s u s e dt o estimate t h e %X t o a c h i e v e a g i v e n range R. I n t h e s e c o n dg r o u p ,t h es u b r o u t i n e CLIFT i s used f o r computingthe l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t a s a f u n c t i o no f Mach number, a l t i t u d e , and a n g l e of a t t a c k . The c o e f f i c i e n t s o fp o l y n o m i a l - f i t t e dc u r v e sf o rd e t e r m i n i n gt h el i f tc o e f f i c i e n t are s t o r e d i n t h e a r r a y s CL216, CL217, CL218, CL219, CL17, and CL18 i n t h e s u b r o u t i n e . The s u b r o u t i n e CDRAG i s u s e df o rc o m p u t i n gt h ed r a gc o e f f i c i e n t as a f u n c t i o n of Mach number and l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t . The c o e f f i c i e n t s of polynomialfittedcurvesfordeterminingthedragcoefficient are s t o r e d i n t h e a r r a y s CD223, CD224, CD10, and C D l l i nt h es u b r o u t i n e . The s u b r o u t i n e ENGEPR i s u s e df o rc o m p u t i n gt h et h r u s t and f u e l f l o w as f u n c t i o n s o f a l t i t u d e , Mach number, t e m p e r a t u r e v a r i a t i o n f r o ms t a n d a r da t m o s p h e r i cc o n d i t i o n , and EPR s e t t i n g . The t h r u s t i s computed from tabulated engine data. The f u e l - f l o w r a t e i s computedfromoneof two a l t e r n a t i v e s , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e u s e r ' s c h o i c e . The f i r s t i s o b t a i n e df r o me v a l u a t i n gp o l y n o m i a l s ,t h ec o e f f i c i e n t so fw h i c h were o b t a i n e d by f i t t i n g a s e t o f c u r v e s s u p p l i e d b y t h e e n g i n e m a n u f a c t u r e r , P r a t t and Whitney. These c o e f f i c i e n t s are s t o r e di nt h ea r r a y W F i n t h e ENGEPR s u b r o u t i n e . The f u e l - f l o w r a t e t h u so b t a i n e d i s a f u n c t i o n of EPR s e t t i n g , a l t i t u d e , and Mach number, c o r r e c t e df o rt e m p e r a t u r e and p r e s s u r e . The second a l t e r n a t i v e , w h i c hr e q u i r e sc o n s i d e r a b l y more d a t a s t o r a g e t h a n t h e f i r s t , is t o compute t h e f u e l - f l o w r a t e from t a b u l a t e d TSFC ( t h r u s t s p e c i f i c f u e l cons u m p t i o n )d a t a . The f u e l - f l o w r a t e i s a p r o d u c to ft h r u s t and TSFC, c o r r e c t e d f o rt e m p e r a t u r e . The t a b u l a t e d TSFC d a t a are f u n c t i o n so ft h r u s t , Mach number, and a l t i t u d e . The f u e l - f l o w r a t e t h u so b t a i n e dt a k e si n t oc o n s i d e r a t i o na v e r a g eb l e e dl o s s e s .T h e r e f o r e ,t h i s method g e n e r a l l yg i v e sf u e l - f l o w rates t h a t a r e 2% - 4% h i g h e rt h a nt h o s ed e t e r m i n e d by t h e f i r s t method.Thissubroutine h a st h r e e s a t e l l i t e s u b r o u t i n e s( f u n c t i o n s ) ,n a m e l y , VALUE2, XTRRPL1, and XTRPL2. The f i r s t i s u s e df o r interpolating-extrapolating a p o i n t i n a twod i m e n s i o n a la r r a y ,t h es e c o n d and t h i r d f o r e x t r a p o l a t i n g , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a p o i n t beyond t h e smallest e l e m e n ta n dt h el a r g e s te l e m e n ti nt h ea r r a y . The s u b r o u t i n e CPMEPR i s u s e d f o r r e a d i n g i n t h e t a b u l a t e d e n g i n e d a t a , from t h e d a t a s e t l a b e l e d 1NP.ENGINE. The s u b r o u t i n e TRIM1 i s u s e df o rd e t e r m i n i n gt h e t h r u s tf o rm a i n t a i n i n gc o n s t a n ts p e e d and l e v e l f l i g h t . Inthispackage,thedata set 1NP.ENGINE and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r d e t e r miningthefuel-flow rate s t o r e d i n t h e s u b r o u t i n e ENGEPR are f o r t h e P r a t t Whitney JT8D-7 e n g i n e s . A l s o , t h ea e r o d y n a m i cm o d e l ,s t o r e dp e r m a n e n t l y as d a t a i n t h e CLIFT and CDRAG s u b r o u t i n e s , i s f o r t h e B o e i n g 727-100 a i r c r a f t . If o t h e r a i r c r a f t were u s e d , t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e d a t a set 1NP.ENGINE

44

wouldhave t o b e r e p l a c e d t o r e f l e c t t h e a i r c r a f t consideration.

andenginesunder

Inthethirdgroup,thesubroutine AT62 i s u s e d f o r g e n e r a t i n g t h e atmosphericdensity,pressure,temperature, andspeedofsoundeach as a f u n c t i o n o fa l t i t u d e . The v a l u e s o f t h e s e f o u r q u a n t i t i e s f o r some f i x e d a l t i t u d e i s g i v e n i n a Boeing handbook ( r e f . 7 ) . The s u b r o u t i n e W I N D I N is u s e df o rr e a d i n g t h e wind p r o f i l e , shown i n f i g u r e 1 5 , from t h e d a t a s e t 1NP.WIND. It i s a l s ou s e df o rc o m p u t i n gt h ew i n ds h e a rf r o mt h ep r o f i l ej u s tr e a di n . The s u b r o u t i n e WIND i s u s e d f o r c o m p u t i n g t h e component ofwindand a l s o t h e componentof wind s h e a r p r o j e c t e d a l o n g t h e p r i n c i p a l a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . I f a n y o t h e r windmodel r e p l a c e dt or e f l e c tt h ec h a n g e .

were u s e d , t h e s u b r o u t i n e

W I N D I N wouldhave

to be

I nt h ef o u r t hg r o u p ,t h es u b r o u t i n e si n c l u d e SERCH1, SERCHD, JTRUNC, LSQPOL, POLYE1, MATINV, ICLOCK, and WRITE1. A b r i e fe x p l a n a t i o n of t h e i r u s e i s shown i n t a b l e 1 2 ; a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n i s g i v e n i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y at the end o f t h i s a p p e n d i x .

CROSS-REFERENCES

Table 13 p r o v i d e s a c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c a l l i n g p r o g r a m s and t h e subr o u t i n e sb e i n gc a l l e d . Each row l i s t s t h es u b r o u t i n e sc a l l e d by t h ea p p r o p r i a t e c a l l i n gs u b r o u t i n e .F o re x a m p l e , FOPT c a l l s t h es u b r o u t i n e s AT62, CDRAG, ENGEPR, FBOUND, FCOST, MINF, and W I N D . Each column l i s t s a l l t h e c a l l i n g programs f o rt h ea p p r o p r i a t es u b r o u t i n e . For example, ENGEPR i s c a l l e d by t h e CRUZOP, FBOUND, FCLIMB, FDRAG, FOPT, FTHRST, PILIMT, and TRIM1 s u b r o u t i n e s . T a b l e 14 p r o v i d e s a c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e l a b e l e d commons andsubr o u t i n e si nw h i c ht h e s e commons a r e used. Each row l i s t s a l l t h el a b e l e d commons usedby theappropriatesubroutine, and e a c h column l i s t s a l l t h e s u b r o u t i n e si nw h i c ht h ea p p r o p r i a t el a b e l e d common i s u s e d .W i t h i nt h ea p p r o p r i a t e s u b r o u t i n e , t h e s e commons a r e d e c l a r e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r .

INPUTS

Inputstothis program c o n s i s t of (1) s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f d e s i r e d t r a j e c t o r y , ( 2 ) wind p r o f i l e , and ( 3 ) e n g i n ed a t a . I n p u t sf o rt r a j e c t o r ys p e c i f i c a t i o n are shown i nt a b l e1 5 . The i n p u t c o n s i s t s of f i v e c a r d s i f t h e c r u i s e t a b l e i s n o t a v a i l a b l e and t h r e e c a r d s i f it is available. Card 1 c o n t a i n sl o g i c a lv a l u e ss p e c i f y i n gw h e t h e rt h ec r u i s e t a b l e i s a v a i l a b l e ;t h e mode o f o p t i m i z a t i o n , e i t h e r c o n s t r a i n e d t h r u s t o r f r e et h r u s t ;w h e t h e rt h e wind p r o f i l e i s t o b eu s e d ;w h e t h e rt h ef u e l - f l o w r a t e o ra l t e r n a t i v es h o u l db eo b t a i n e df r o mt h eP r a t t - W h i t n e yc u r v e - f i t t e d d a t a o r f r o md a t as o u r c e ;w h e t h e rt h et r a j e c t o r y i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a maximum speedof 250 K I A S a t o r b e l o wa na l t i t u d eo f 10,000 f t , o r i s u n r e s t r i c t e d ; 45

TABLE 13.- CROSS REFERENCE

OF SUBROUTINES AND CALLING PROGRAMS

x x x

x x

X %
%
"

X %

X X
"

x x
X X

- . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . - ..- -

" "

X
X

F'TbkSt

..

"_

....

.....

FliLtSi

x
x x x
VOPTRJ
X

X
" "

x
X

. .-

X
. . . .

- . . .

X . X
. . .

X X X

x x
.....

x x

- .. ...
"

X
wLEFHV

I NO

.........

................

dR1TEl

. . .

......

. . .

"_ X ....
X

__

" "

....

. " " l

TABLE 14.- CROSS mFERENCE OF LABELLED COMMONS AND SUBROUTINES


U S I N G THESE COMMONS

LABELLED COMMON B B B l O W E I I N N D G C C C C D E E E I I I O R T T V V W W L O R R R N N P F I O P I R T T U I I I S U U A E G S T T L I R R P N N M T R Z E G M R I C I AD D D B N M GZ N M LRP W T Y G N Y N l U N D

CALLING PROGRAM

MAINPROG CDRAG CLI FT X CPMEPR CRUTBL CRUZOP x x x x ENGEPR X FBOUND FCLIMB x FCLMBZ FCOST FDRAG FOPT FTHRST x x x FULEST PILIMT T R I M1 X UPDOWN x x x x VOPTRJ WATEST WIND WINDIN WI NMOD x WLEFHV

x xx xx
X
X

x
X X

x x x
X
X

x x x

X X

X X X X X X X

x xx x x x x x x x x x x x x
X X X X

X X

x x x
X

x x x x x x x
X X

X X

x
X X

x xx xx x
X

x x x x
X X X X

x
X X

47

TABLE 15.Card Symbol

INPUTS FOR SPECIFYING Explanation

THE DESIRED TRAJECTORY Format Calling program Mainprog

ITAB

A v a i l a b i l i t y of tab clre uise


= 0

2014
and must

c r u i s et a b l e b eg e n e r a t e d c r u i s et a b l e read in

i s n o ta v a i l a b l e

# 0
IPRINT

i s a v a i l a b l e and w i l l b e

Trial-descent profile output


= 0

p r i nt r i a l - d e s c e np t rofile do n o t print trail-descent profile

# 0
IOPARM
= 0

O p t i m i z a t i o n mode optimizing over speed only or s t r a i n e d t h r u s t mode optimizing over both speed and thrust, o r f r e e t h r u s t mode con-

# 0
IWIND

E f f e c t ofwind
= 0

generate the cruise table and/or synthesize the trajectory without taking intoconsideration

wind

# 0

u s et h es u p p l i e d wind p r o f i l et og e n e r ate the cruise table and/or synthesize the trajectory

MFGR

Sourceoffuel-flow-ratedata

1 2
IBTALB
= 0

use the Pratt-Whitney curve fitted data todeterminefuel-flow rate u s et h et y p i c a lt a b u l a t e dd a t at od e t e r mine t h e f u e l - f l o w rate do n o tp r i n tt h et a b u l a t e de n g i n ed a t a print he tabulated engine data no ATC r e s t r i c t i o n on speed speed i s l i m i t e dt o 10,000 f t a l t i t u d e

# 0
I SPLMT
= 0

# 0

250 KIAS a t o r below

42

TABLE 15..
~

CONCLUDED

.~ ~ ~ _ _ _ _

Card
-- . . .

Symbol
"

Explanation
.

Format 8F10.2

..

"

..

.~

" .

Calling program
"

$/lb

i2 n

F C cost
TC

Fuel

CRUZOP

Time co $ is n /t hour
T e m p e r a t u r ev a r i a t i o nf r o ms t a n d a r d K ( o r C) s p h e r i ct e m p e r a t u r e ,d e g A i r c r a fh t eading in d e g r e e sh , eading north as 0" this input
is ignoredintheabsenceof

D T E M P K PSIA

atmo-

wind 8F10.2 CRUZOP

w
WN

Heavies ctr u i sw eeigh tb o t u es efd o gre n e r a t i n gt h ec r u i s et a b l e ,l b L i g h t e sc tr u i sw e e i g htt b ou es ef dog re n e r a t ingthecruisetable,lb Decrementa w l eight l, b, i . e . , W w i l l be used togeneratethefirst p a g eo ft h et a b l e ,t h e n W - DEW f o r t h e second page, e t c . , u n t i l WN i s reached l bw e ta iA g ki h e rt o c ,f rf aft D e s i r e dr a n g eo ft h et r a j e c t o r yt ob es y n thesized, n m I n i ta ia lt l i t u( td o ae r keo af lf titudf e t) , I n i t i a l s p e e(d o ta r keof sf peed),
KIAS

DEW

8F10.2

CRUTBL

RANGE

HTO

8F10.2

CRUTBL

VTO
HOLNDG VOLNDG

F i n a la l t i t u d e( o rl a n d i n ga l t i t u d e ) ,f t F i n a ls p e e d( o rl a n d i n gs p e e d ) ,
KIAS

49

and o t h e rp r i n t i n g( c o m p u t e ro u t p u t )o p t i o n s . Card 2 c o n t a i n st h en u m e r i c a l valueforfuelcostindollarsper pound, time c o s t i n d o l l a r s p e r h o u r , ternperaturevariationfromstandardatmosphericconditionindegreesCelsius, and a i r c r a f th e a d i n gi nd e g r e e s fromnorth.Card 3 s p e c i f i e st h eh e a v i e s tc r u i s e w e i g h t ,t h el i g h t e s tc r u i s ew e i g h t , a n di n c r e m e n t a lw e i g h tt ob eu s e df o r g e n e r a t i n gt h ec r u i s et a b l e . Card 4 c o n t a i n st h ev a l u ef o rt h et a k e o f fw e i g h t i n pounds and t h er a n g eo ft h et r a j e c t o r yi nn a u t i c a l miles. F i n a l l y , c a r d 5 containsthevalueforthetakeoffaltitudeinfeet,takeoffspeedin KIAS, l a n d i n ga l t i t u d ei nf e e t , a n dl a n d i n gs p e e di n KIAS. Cards 2 and 3 c o n t a i n i n p u tf o rg e n e r a t i n gt h ec r u i s et a b l e .T h e r e f o r e ,i ft h ec r u i s et a b l e is not a v a i l a b l e , a l l f i v e c a r d s a r e r e q u i r e df o rt r a n s m i t t i n gt h er e q u i r e dq u a n t i t i e s f o rs y n t h e s i z i n gt h et r a j e c t o r y .I ft h ec r u i s et a b l e i s a v a i l a b l e ,o n l y c a r d s 1, 4 , and 5 a r e r e q u i r e d . T h e s e q u a n t i t i e s are t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e programby t h e FORTRAN s t a t e m e n t . RFAD(5, frnt) S l y S2 where fmt i s t h ea p p r o p r i a t ef o r m a tl i s t e di n column ( 4 )( i nt h et a b l e ) and S l y S2 are t h e symbols l i s t e d i n c o l umn ( 2 ) . The program c o n t a i n i n gt h i s READ(5, f m t ) s t a t e m e n t is l i s t e d i n column ( 5 ) .

...

.. .

...

A t y p i c a l d a t a set containing a l l f i v e c a r d s u n d e rt h el a b e lo f INP.TRJ.

i s includedinthepackage

Wind I n p u t The wind model i s shown i n f i g u r e 15. I n p u t d a t a f o r t h i s p r o f i l e cons i s t s of 24 sets of numbers,each set o f w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s o n e p o i n t i n t h e c u r v e .W i t h i ne a c h set t h e r e are two numbers: t h e f i r s t number i s t h ev a l u e of t h e wind h e a d i n g $w and t h e second i s t h e wind v e l o c i t y Vw. The whole p r o f i l e i s packed i n t o two c a r d s , w i t h 1 3 sets o f numbers i n t h e f i r s t and 11 i n t h e s e c o n d , as shown i n t a b l e 16. The a l t i t u d e i s i m p l i e d by t h ep o s i t i o no ft h e set. The f i r s t set of numbers i s f o r 0 a l t i t u d e ,t h e second s e t f o r 2,000 f t , and t h e l a s t s e t f o r 48,000 f t , incremented i n a t 2,000-ft intervals.
TABLE 16.- INPUT CARDS FOR W I N D PROFILE DATA SET 1NP.WIND

100 133 533 567


%ENDDS

167 600

200 233 633 667

267 700

300 333 654 609

367 400 433 563 518 473

467

500

The i n p u t format i s 13(F2.0, lx, f3.1), where $w i s i nt e n s of d e g r e e s and Vw i nk n o t s . For example, the second s e t of numbers i nt h ef i r s tc a r d i s "-133, w h i c hs t a n d sf o r 0 " h e a d i n ga n d1 3 . 3k n o t s at analtitudeof 2,000 f t , (where - i s f o rb l a n ks p a c e ) .T h a t i s , t h e f i r s t two b l a n ks p a c e s are f o r z e r o by d e f a u l t and $ J ~= 0O.X 10 = O", and s i n c e i t i s t h es e c o n d s e t , t h e a l t i t u d e i s 2,000 f t . A 0" wind h e a d i n g s t a n d s f o r wind coming from the north.
50

T h i s set o f d a t a i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e programby t h e FORTRAN s t a t e m e n t READ(7, f m t ) (PSIW(1) , VW(1) , I=l, 2 4 ) . The s u b r o u t i n e c o n t a i n i n g t h i s statement i s WINDIN.

Engine Data andMach-CorrectedDrag

Data I n p u t

The t a b u l a t e d d a t a i n t h e d a t a set 1NP.ENGINE i n c l u d e (1) i d l e t h r u s t ( i n pounds) as a f u n c t i o n o f a l t i t u d e ( i n f e e t ) and Mach number; (2) i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n gf u e l - f l o w rate i n pounds p e r h o u r ; (3) m a x i m u m c o n t i n u o u s EPR as a f u n c t i o no fb o t ht o t a l a i r t e m p e r a t u r e , TAT ( " C ) ,a n da l t i t u d e ; ( 4 ) corrected thrust (thrust:pressure ratio) as a f u n c t i o n of EPR s e t t i n g and Mach number; (5) e f f e c t o f Mach number o nd r a g , as a f u n c t i o no f CL; and ( 6 )f u e l - f l o w rate as a f u n c t i o n of t h r u s t , Mach number,and altitude. Thesedata READ(9, fmt) subroutinethat CPMEPR.

....

a r e t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e programby t h e FORTRAN s t a t e m e n t thesubroutinecontainingthisstatement i s EPRIO and t h e c a l l s EPRIO r e p e a t e d l y t o r e a d i n a l l the engine data is

FORTRAN U n i t f o r I n p u t / O u t p u t The i n p u t / o u t p u t u n i t f o r t h i s program i s shown i n t a b l e 1 7 . The f i r s t column i s t h e u n i t f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e q u a n t i t y , i.e., READ(N, fmt) i f i t i s a ni n p u t and WRITE(N, fmt) i f i t i s a no u t p u t ,w h e r e N i s t h ea p p r o p r i a t eu n i t number. The second and t h i r d columns s p e c i f yw h e t h e r i t i s a ni n p u to ra no u t p u t ,o rb o t h , and t h e l a s t column s p e c i f i e s t h e quant i t i e s b e i n gt r a n s m i t t e d .U n i t s 5 , 7 , and 9 h a v ea l r e a d yb e e ne x p l a i n e d as i n p u t s .U n i t 6 i s f o rw r i t i n go u t p u t s shown i n t a b l e s 3 t h r o u g h 9 and o t h e r o u t p u tq u a n t i t i e s . The s u b r o u t i n ec o n t a i n i n gt h e WRITE(6, frnt) statement f o rg e n e r a t i n gt a b l e 3 i s CRUZOP; t a b l e 4 , CRUZOP o r CRUTBL; t a b l e s 5 and 6 , CRUTBL; t a b l e s 7 and 8 , UPDOWN; and f o rg e n e r a t i n gt a b l e9 , VOPTRJ. Unit 8 can be used for either writing the cruise table if i t i s beinggeneratedor f o rr e a d i n gi nt h ec r u i s et a b l ei f it i s a v a i l a b l e . The s u b r o u t i n e sc o n t a i n i n g t h e WRITE(8) and READ(8) s t a t e m e n t s a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , CRUZOP and CRUTBL. The i n p u t and o u t p u t f o r t h i s u n i t a r e unformatted.

...

TABLE 17.- INPUT/OUTPUT UNIT FOR COMPUTER PROGRAM


. .

Unit

Input
X

output

Comment Trajectory specification

5
6

X X
X X

Computer o u t p u t s , see t a b l e s 3 t h r o u g h 9 Wind i n p u t Cruise table Enginedata

7
8

-~-. -___

51

DICTIONARY ENTRY OF SUBROUTINES

The remainder of t h i s a p p e n d i x c o n t a i n s d i c t i o n a r y e n t r y f o r a l l FORTRAN programs l i s t e d i n t a b l e 12. Each e n t r yu s u a l l yc o n s i s t so f (1) a f u n c t i o n a l descriptionofthesubroutine, (2) e q u a t i o n s u s e d i n d e r i v i n g c e r t a i n q u a n t i t i e s as a p p r o p r i a t e , ( 3 ) i n p u t and o u t p u t , as a p p r o p r i a t e , and ( 4 ) a ne x p l a n a t i o n o fs y m b o l sf r e q u e n t l yu s e di nt h es u b r o u t i n e . Symbols c o n t a i n i n g a s t r i n g o f c a p i t a l l e t t e r s are always FORTRAN symbols. A s i n g l e c a p i t a l letter withoutanysubscript i s a FORTRAN symbol u n l e s s o t h e r wise d e f i n e d i n t h e t e x t , i n t h e symbol t a b l e , o r i n t h e s u b r o u t i n e u n d e r discussion.

MAINPROG

Thisprogram c a l l s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s u b r o u t i n e s f o r s y n t h e s i z i n g a fixedr a n g e ,o p t i m a lt r a j e c t o r y , as o u t l i n e d i n t h e f l o w c h a r t s shown i n f i g u r e s 7 and 8. The m a j o r steps are:

1.
2.

C a l l CPMEPR f o rr e a d i n gi nt h et a b u l a t e de n g i n ed a t a . Read i n c a r d

1, i n t a b l e

15.

3 . I f ITAB = 0 , t h e c r u i s e t a b l e i s n o ta v a i l a b l e ,t h e r e f o r e c a l l CRUZOP forgeneratingthecruisetable;if ITAB # 0 , t h e c r u i s e t a b l e i s available, s o proceed.

4 . Call CRUTBL f o r r e a d i n g i n t h e c r u i s e t a b l e i f i t i s a v a i l a b l e ;s k i p this part if i t is beinggeneratedinstep ( 3 ) and t h e n r e a d i n c a r d 4 , which c o n t a i n st h ev a l u eo ft a k e o f fw e i g h t and r a n g e . Use t h e s e v a l u e s t o estimate t h ec r u i s ew e i g h t Wc and compute i t s corresponding optimal cruise cost A*, o p t i m a lc r u i s ee n e r g y , E", e t c .
5. Compute t h e maximum v a l u o effog reneratint gh s eh o r t e srta n g e trajectory. I t i s t h e least of 5 0 % , o r the values of corresponding to 1 0 , 0 0 0 - f tc r u i s ea l t i t u d ef o rt h e two c r u i s e w e i g h t s c l o s e s t t o Wc, as containedinthecruisetable.

%x

6 . Compute t h ec r u i s ew e i g h t WCRUZ, which i s s p e c i f i e d by %x ( d e t e r mined i n t h e l a s t s t e p ) . I t i s computed by s u b t r a c t i n gt h ec l i m bf u e l from t h et a k e o f fw e i g h t .T h i sc l i m bf u e l i s e s t i m a t e db yc a l l i n gt h es u b r o u t i n e FULEST. 7.


Call UPDOWN w i t h ICLIMB set e q u a l t o

1 t og e n e r a t et h ec l i m bp r o f i l e .
and t h e

8. Call WATEST ( w e i g h te s t i m a t e ) t o estimate t h el a n d i n gw e i g h t cruise weight a t thebeginningofdescent.

9. Call UPDOWN w i t h ICLIMB s e t e q u a l t o trajectory.


52

2 t o g e n e r a t et h e

t r i a l descent

10. Call VOPTRJ t og e n e r a t et h e t r i a l o v e r a l lt r a j e c t o r y . t h e d e s c e n t and t h e l a n d i n g w e i g h t are c o m p l e t e l y known.


1 1 . Call U P D O W N w i t h ICLIMB s t i l l s e t e q u a l t o descentprofile.
12.

A t t h i ss t a g e ,

2 togeneratethefinal

Call VOPTRJ t o g e n e r a t e t h e f i n a l o v e r a l l t r a j e c t o r y .

13. Call PCCOMP t o t e s t t h e r a n g e o f t h e s y n t h e s i z e d t r a j e c t o r y a g a i n s t t h ed e s i r e dr a n g e .I f i t i s n o tw i t h i nt h ep r e s e l e c t e dd i s t a n c ee r r o r , comp u t et h e new and go t os t e p( 6 ) .I f s o , t h er e q u i r e dt r a j e c t o r yh a sb e e n synthesized.

%x

ICLIMB

if

1, g e n e r a t ec l i m bp r o f i l e

if = 2 , g e n e r a t e d e s c e n t p r o f i l e

ISPLIZ

a c r u i s e segment a t o p t i m a l c r u i s e a l t i t u d e . i f0 ,t r a j e c t o r yc o n t a i n s This i s t h e f l a g f o r a d d i n g i n a c r u i s e segment f o r t h e c l i m b d e s c e n tt y p eo ft r a j e c t o r y . ifnot0,trajectory i s n o to ft h ec l i m b - c r u i s e - d e s c e n tt y p e

RANGE

desire ra dn g e ground-track distance


of s y n t h e s i z e d trajectory

TDIST
WCRUZ

i ns t a t e m e n t 81, c r u i s ew e i g h t as a f u n c t i o n of range; i n statements 190 and 191 + ( l ) , i n i t i a l c r u i s e w e i g h t o r c r u i s e w e i g h t t h e end of climb; i n s t a t e m e n t s 350 - (1) and 211, f i n a l c r u i s e weight,ortheweight a t thebeginningofdescent f i n a lc r u i s ew e i g h t landin w ge i g h t AT62

at

WCRUZF

W L N D G

T h i ss u b r o u t i n eg e n e r a t e st h ea t m o s p h e r i cd e n s i t y( i nl bs e c 2 / f t 4 ) atmos p h e r i cp r e s s u r e( i nl b / f t 2 ) , a t m o s p h e r i ct e m p e r a t u r e( i n OK) andspeedof sound ( i nf t / s e c ) a t a g i v e na l t i t u d e H ( i nf t ) . T h e s ef o u ro u t p u t s are s t o r e d i n ANS(l), ANS(2), ANS(31, and A N S ( 4 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y .

53

C D U G (MACH, CL, GEAR, DF, CD)

This subroutine computes the drag coefficient CD given a Mach number MACH, lift coefficientCL, flap angleDF, and landing gear position (up or down). The drag coefficient consists of two terms, CD(basic) and CD(gear), both of which are functions of DF, CL,and MACH. The values of both are stored as coefficients of polynomials, which are obtained by curve-fitting the app priate data from the Boeing Handbook (ref. 7). The coefficients for CD(basic) are stored in the arrays CD223 and CD224, and for CD(gear) in the arrays CDlO and CDll

Symbols GEAR if 0, gears up if not 0, gears down DF flap angle, deg CLIFT This subroutine computes the lift coefficient CL for given Mach number MACH, altitudeH, angle of attack ALPHAP, flap deflectionDF, and gear position GEAR. The lift coefficient consists of four terms. CL = CL (basic) + CLo

C L , a

+ CLgear

The first term is the basic lift coefficient; it is expressed as apolynomial 0", 2", 5 " , 15", 25", 30" and 40". in a for different flap angles, namely, Each of these polynomials was obtained by fitting the appropriate curve, one per a specific value of flap angle. The coefficients of these polynomials are stored in the array CL216. The value of this term is checked against the buffet boundary function, a polynomial in Mach number, the coefficients of which are stored in array CL217.

The second term is the deviation from the basic airplane lift coefficien at ct = 0 due to Mach number and altitude. It is expressed as the difference between CLo at the appropriate Mach number and at zero Mach number. The former is expressed as a polynomialin Mach number with altitude as parameter, namely at altitudes of0, 20,000, and 40,000 ft. The coefficients of the polynomials are stored in the array CL218. CLo at MACH = 0 has a value of 0.0175 and this value is subtracted from CLo at the Mach number of interest to obtain the required CLo correction term. The third term corrects the basic lift coefficient for variations (due to Mach number and altitude) in the lift curve slope ct at= 0. It is expressed as the difference between the partial derivative of CL with respect to ct at the appropriate Mach number and at zero Mach number. The former is expressed as a polynomial in Mach number with altitude as parameter. Its coefficients are stored in the array CL219. At MACH = 0, CL, has a value of

54

0 . 0 8 8 , which i s s u b t r a c t e df r o m CL, e v a l u a t e d a t t h ec u r r e n tv a l u eo f t oo b t a i nt h er e q u i r e d CL, c o r r e c t i o n term.

MACH

The f o u r t h term i s t h e i n c r e m e n t o f lift coefficient due to deploymentof t h e m a i na n dn o s eg e a r s ,e x p r e s s e d as a f u n c t i o n of a , f l a p s e t t i n g , and Mach number. I ft h eg e a r s are up, i t i s z e r o .I ft h ef l a p s are down, i t s v a l u e i s computed from t h ep o l y n o m i a li n a w i t hf l a p - a n g l ed e f l e c t i o n as a p a r a m e t e r . The c o e f f i c i e n t so ft h ep o l y n o m i a l are s t o r e di nt h ea r r a y CL17. Iftheflaps a r e up, t h e n i t i s a f u n c t i o n of Mach number. I t h a s a v a l u eo f 0.02 i f the Mach number i s less t h a n o r e q u a l t o 0 . 4 . I f t h e Mach number i s g r e a t e rt h a n 0 . 4 , t h e n CLgear i s computed from a polynomial i n Mach number. The c o e f f i c i e n t s of t h e p o l y n o m i a l a r e s t o r e d i n t h e a r r a y CL18.

CPMEPR Thissubroutinereadsinthetabulatedenginedata The d a t a include: from t h e d a t a set

1NP.ENGINE.

1. I d l e t h r u s t and i d l e f u e l f l o w e a c h and Mach number,Table 18Q001.

as a f u n c t i o n o fb o t ha l t i t u d e

2. Maximum c o n t i n u o u s EPR a s a f u n c t i o n o f t e m p e r a t u r e and a l t i t u d e , T a b l e 24501 1.


3 .T h r u s tv s EPR as a f u n c t i o n of Mach number,Table
is
CD

184001.
CL

4 . Mach number e f f e c t o n d r a gt ,h a t Mach number,Table 24B003.

as a f u n c t i o n of

and

5. Weighted average TSFC ( t h r u s ts p e c i f i cf u e lc o n s u m p t i o n ) ofaltitude,thrust, and Mach number,Table 27273A.


CRUTBL

as a f u n c t i o n

T h i ss u b r o u t i n e (1) r e a d s i n t h e c r u i s e t a b l e i f i t is available; ( 2 )p r i n t so u tt h et a b l e o f dX/dE c o e f f i c i e n t s( t a b l e 6 ) a f t e rb o t ht a b l e s a r e r e a di n from u n i t ( 8 ) ; ( 3 )r e a d si nt h et a k e o f fw e i g h t W and t h ed e s i r e d r a n g e R from u n i t ( 5 ) ; ( 4 ) p r i n t so u tt h et a b l eo fo p t i m a lc r u i s ee n e r g y , speedand a l t i t u d ev sw e i g h t( t a b l e 4 ) , and g e n e r a t e s and p r i n t s o u t t h e t a b l e o f c r u i s e q u a n t i t i e s as a f u n c t i o n of c r u i s e d i s t a n c e ( t a b l e 5). Svmbols EOPT , EOPTS ( ) EPRTAR, PISTRS(.) FUELDT, FUELFL(.) HSTAR, HSTARS(.)

o p t i m a lc r u i s ee n e r g y the corresponding EPR s e t t i n g rate

the c o r r e s p o n d i n g fuel-flow

the corresponding optimal cruise altitude

55

LAMBDA, LAMBS(.) MSTAR, MSTARS(.)

the corresponding minimac l ruise cost the corresponding Mach number

CRUZOP T h i ss u b r o u t i n er e a d si nc a r d ates t h ec r u i s et a b l e( s e et a b l e 2 andcard 3).

3 ( s e et a b l e1 5 )

andthengener-

The t a b l ec o n s i s t so fp a g e s ,e a c hf o r a s p e c i f i cc r u i s ew e i g h t . Each page i n c l u d e st h eo p t i m a lc r u i s ea l t i t u d e ,s p e e d ,m i n i m a lc r u i s ec o s t ,t h ec o r r e sponding EPR s e t t i n g , and t h e optimum c r u i s ee n e r g y .T h e r e a r e two sets of t h e s eq u a n t i t i e sf o rt h es p e c i f i e dc r u i s ew e i g h t . The f i r s t s e t i s o b t a i n e d f r o mm i n i m i z i n ge q u a t i o n( 2 1 )o y e rb o t ha l t i t u d ea n ds p e e da n dt h es e c o n df r o m minimizing the fuel-flow r a t e f o v e r3 0 t ha l t i t u d e and speed. Each row i n t h e t a b l e i s f o r a s p e c i f i e da l t i t u d e . F o re a c ha l t i t u d e , two sets o f t h e s e q u a n t i t i e s were a l s o o b t a i n e d , o n e From minimizingequat i o n (12) over speed and the second from minimizing f over speed.

A pageofthecruisetable 1.
For some g i v e n altitude

i s generatedwiththefollowingsteps:

h: vd ( s e ef i g .

a.

Determine the

minimum d r a g speed Tmax

4).
and

b. Compute t h e maximum t h r u s t altitude.

available for this speed

c. I f Tmax i s g r e a t etrh a n D at V d c e i l i n gh a sa l r e a d yb e e nr e a c h e da n dp r o c e e dt o( 2 ) .

proceed o;t h e r w i s e th ,e

d. Compute t h e lower and upper permissible speeds Vmin,n> Vmax,n>, wherethe maximum t h r u s t c u r v e i n t e r s e c t s t h e d r a g c u r v e .

and

e.
f.

Minimize equation (12) over Minimize


f

V.

over

V.

2.

Minimize equation (21b) over both Minimize over both h and V.

h and V.

3.
Svmbols

DEW, DTEMPK, FC, PSIA, TC, w, WN

see c a r d s 2 and 3 , t a b l e 15

ft slo su en c do , fs p e e d

56

E , DE
FA, FB

energy height,in ft, and incremental energy lower and upper speed limits Vmin,m and V m X y T D (see fig. 4 ) altitude, and incremental altitude, ft atmospheric pressure, lb/f t

H, DEH
P
RATIO

pressure ratio P/Po, where Po is the atmospheric pressure at sea level and P is the static pressure at a given altitude atmospheric temperature,K if = 1, the cruise cost is obtained by minimizing equation (12) if = 2 , the cruise costis obtained by minimizing 2 minimal cost, its corresponding speed and altitude obtained by minimizing equation ( 1 2 ) over both V and H minimal cost obtained by minimizing over equation ( 1 2 ) for some fixed altitude minimal cost, its corresponding speed and altitude obtained by minimizing f over both V and h minimal cost obtained by minimizing I. see AT62 for some fixed altitude

TEMPK ICOST FDTOPT ( 1) , MOPTAS ( 1) , OPTALT ( 1) MNCOST (1) FDTOPT ( 2 ) , MOPTAS ( 2 ) , OPTALT ( 2 ) MNCOST(2)

EOPTS ) EPRSTR ( ) , FUELFL ( ) , HSTARS ) LAMBS(.) Y MSTRS )

(. . .

see

symbolin CRUTBL

(. (.

EECRUZ ( FFCRUZ LLCRUZ HHCRUZ (

(.,.) , (.,.)

. ,.) ,

the energy height, fuel-flow rate, and cruise cost corresponding to HHCRUZ(.,.) altitude as row index for given cruise weight

.,.)

WS(.),

WSS(.)

cruise weight,lb

57

ENGEPR

Thissubroutinegeneratesthethrust THRST and t h e f u e l - f l o w rate ?DOT f o r some g i v e n a l t i t u d e H, Mach number MAKNO, and EPR s e t t i n g EPRX. The f u e l - f l o w rate i s obtainedfrom evaluating polynomials if M F G R i s set MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS EPR equa to l 1 and from t a b u l a t e d TSFC 2.4 d a t a i f i t i s set e q u a l t o 2 . The maximum c o n t i n u o u s EPR i s primarily a function of total air t e m p e r a t u r e Ta and a weak f u n c t i o n o fa l t i t u d e .F i g u r e 16 shows t h i s relationship for the JT8D-7A e n g i n e . A d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s e e n g i n e characteristics can be found in the o p e r a t i o n si n s t r u c t i o n( r e f . 8). F i r s t , EPRMX, t h e maximum cont i n u o u s EPR i s o b t a if n r te h od e m table. Total a i r temperature i s obtaif nrt e e o h d lm e a t iF oin g,u r e

ce

1.4 1.2

IJJ

-60 -20-40

0 20 40 60 TOTAL AIR TEMPERATURE, "C

80

100

16.- Maximum c o n t i n u o u s EPR.

T a = T F + F ( M A K N 0 ) I 273.15 ("C) a m b i e nt e m p e r a t u r e and y = 1 . 4 i s t h er a t i o of s p e c i f i c where T i s t h e heats. Next, the EPR s e t t i n g i s l i m i t e dt o EPRX 5 E P R M X - 0 . 1 f o rc r u i s e , 5 E P R M X f o rc l i m bo rd e s c e n t .S e c o n d ,t h ev a l u eo f Fn/6, which i s a. f u n c t i o n of EPR s e t t i n g EPRX and Mach number MAKNO, i s o b t a i n e df r o mt h et a b l e .W i t h known F n / b ,v a l u eo ft h r u s t , THRST, i s o b t a i n e df r o mt h er e l a t i o n ,
THRST = 3 ( 6 ) (Fn/6)

where the pressure ratio

i s d e f i n e d as

and where P i s t h ea t m o s p h e r i cp r e s s u r ec o r r e s p o n d i n gt oa l t i t u d e H, and Po i s t h ea t m o s p h e r i cp r e s s u r e a t sea l e v e l . A f a c t o ro f 3 is u s e ds i n c e t h e r e a r e t h r e ee n g i n e s . Finally, if the relations, M F G R i s set equalto

1, t h e f u e l - f l o w

r a t e i s computed from

FDOT = 3

WFC * ; * K C

KC = 0.002231 81 Ta

0.9675897

58

where W F C i s theuncorrectedfuel-flow rate, which i s a f u n c t i o n of EPR sett i n g , a l t i t u d e , and Mach number. I t i s o b t a i n e db ye v a l u a t i n g a polynomialof EPG, the coefficients of which depend on both altitude and Mach number.
If M F G R i s set e q u a l t o the relations,

2 , t h e nt h ef u e l - f l o w

r a t e FDOT i s o b t a i n e d from

FDOT = TSFC

THRST

* 6

T/T,

where To i s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a t sea l e v e li nd e g r e e sK e l v i n . The t h r u s t s p e c i f i c f u e l consumption TSFC i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h r u s t ( u n c o r r e c t e d f o r p r e s s u r e r a t i o ) , Mach number, and altitude. I t i s o b t a i n e df r o mt a b u l a t e dd a t a , s t o r e d i n a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a la r r a y .

EPRIO

T h i ss u b r o u t i n er e a d si n t i t l e s , o n e - d i m e n s i o n a la r r a y ( s ) , and twod i m e n s i o n a la r r a y s , as s p e c i f i e d by t h ev a l u e s of KPRINT and LPRINT. I t a l s o p r i n t s o u t what w a s r e a d - i n i f t h e v a l u e o f IRPINT i s o t h e r t h a n z e r o . T h i s i s a s a t e l l i t e s u b r o u t i n ef o r CPMEPR. It i s u s e d f o r r e a d i n g i n a n d , i f so desired,writingoutthedata set 1NP.ENGINE.

FUNCTION FBOUND (MACH)

T h i sf u n c t i o ne v a l u a t e st h ed r a gf o r c e D i n pounds i f IDRAG i s set e q u a l t o 1, and t h ed i f f e r e n c eb e t w e e n maximum t h r u s t (TMAX) and d r a g i f IDRAG i s e q u a lt o 2 . I ft h i sd i f f e r e n c e i s n e g a t i v e ,t h a t i s , i fd r a ge x c e e d s t h r u s t , t h e n a v a l u eo f lo6 times t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e is returnedtothecalling program.
It f i r s t computes t h e l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t CL by e q u a t i n gl i f te q u a lt o weight, then determines the drag coefficient CD from known CL, and f i n a l l y computes t h ed r a gf o r c e( s e e FCLIMB). To d e t e r m i n et h e maximum t h r u s t , i t c a l l s t h e s u b r o u t i n e ENGEPR, s e t t i n g EPR e q u a l t o i t s maximum v a l u e , EPRMAX.

Both D and TMAX are f u n c t i o n s of Mach number and a l t i t u d e H. The v a l u e of Mach number MACH and o t h e r q u a n t i t i e s a r e passed through the argument of t h ef u n c t i o nt h r o u g ht h el a b e l e d common DRAGMN. Q u a n t i t i e sp a s s e dt h r o u g h include the speed of sound A , and t h ep r e s s u r er a t i o RHO.

59

FCLIMB T h i ss u b r o u t i n ee v a l u a t e se q u a t i o n (11) f o r some g i v e ns p e e d VTAS, e n e r g y E, and EPR s e t t i n g EPRSET i n n o r m a l o p e r a t i o n o r at idle-thrust setting if so s p e c i f i e d . The denominator of e q u a t i o n (11) i s t h ee n e r g y r a t e EDOT, o b t a i n e d from e v a l u a t i n g e q u a t i o n (5). The v a l u e of t h r u s t i n t h e EDOT e q u a t i o n a n d f u e l - f l o w r a t e FF i n t h e c o s t f u n c t i o n are o b t a i n e d by c a l l i n g ENGEPR, o r i f i d l e t h r u s t i s s p e c i f i e d , by extractingtheappropriatevalue from t h e i d l e - t h r u s t and i d l e - f u e l a r r a y s , F N I D L ( . ) and WFIDL(.), r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t h r u s t and f u e l - f l o w r a t e are funct i o n s of a l t i t u d e , Mach number,and, i n t h e case o f t h r u s t , o f EPR s e t t i n g . A l t i t u d e and Mach number are computedfrom t h e r e l a t i o n s ,
H = E -

(VTAS ) 2g

VTAS MACH = A

where g i s t h e acceleration of gravity and A i s the speed of sound. The v a l u e of EPR s e t t i n g i s p a s s e d t o t h i s s u b r o u t i n e from t h e l a b e l e d common DRAGMN. The d r a gf o r c e D i nt h e EDOT e q u a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d from the relations, D
=

2 1 (RHO)(VTAS)2CD(MACH,CL)

CD = CD(MACH,CL)

L '

1/2 (RHO) W S (VTAS)

'

w h e r et h ed r a gc o e f f i c i e n t CD i s o b t a i n e d by c a l l i n gt h es u b r o u t i n e CDRAG. The v a l u e s o f a l t i t u d e d e p e n d e n t q u a n t i t i e s , A , RHO, and T E M P K a r e o b t a i n e d by c a l l i n gt h es u b r o u t i n e AT62 w i t ht h e known v a l u e of H a s input. Atmospheric temperature T E M P K i s used i n b o t h t h e ENGEPR s u b r o u t i n e a n d i n t h e VALUE2 function. Symbols
FNIDL
RHO S

idl te hrust atmospheri pc ressur ce orrecte fd o te r mperature wing r e f e r e n c e area i d lf eu e l - f l o w rate

WFIDL

FCLMB2 T h i ss u b r o u t i n em i n i m i z e st h ec o s tf u n c t i o n( s e ee q . o v e rb o t hs p e e d and t h r u s t a s s p e c i f i e d . (11)) o v e rs p e e do r

F i r s t ,t h er a n g eo fp e r m i s s i b l es p e e d s i s d e t e r m i n e d . The lower and upperboundsofthespeedrange a r e derivedfrom (1) t h r u s t - d r a gc o n s i d e r a t i o n ,( 2 )o p e r a t i o n a lr e s t r a i n t , ( 3 ) s t r u c t u r a l limits, ( 4 ) ATC r e s t r i c t i o n , and (5) a l t i t u d e c e i l i n g , as d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c l i m b a n dd e s c e n to p t i m i z a t i o n section.
60

S e c o n d ,t h ep e r m i s s i b l er a n g eo f EPR s e t t i n g s f o r some f i x e d s p e e d i s a l s oo b t a i n e d .I nt h ec l i m b - p r o f i l eo p t i m i z a t i o n , i t starts a t t h e EPR v a l u e f o rw h i c h T = D , andends a t EPRMAX; i n d e s c e n t i t rangesfrom 1.1 t o EPR a t T = D. F i n a l l y , t h e s u b r o u t i n e p r o c e e d s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e m i n i m a l v a l u e o f t h e c o s tf u n c t i o n .I nt h ec o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s t case, i t c a l l s t h e f u n c t i o n MINF t o s e a r c h f o r t h e minimum o v e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r a n g e w i t h t h e v a l u e o f EPR set t o E P R M A X f o rc l i m b and t o i d l e EPR f o r d e s c e n t . The c o s t f u n c t i o n i s e v a l u a t e d by t h e s u b r o u t i n e FCLIMB. In the free-thrust case, MINF i s a l s o u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e minimum of t h ec o s tf u n c t i o n ,s e a r c h i n gf i r s to v e rt h ea p p r o p r i a t es p e e dr a n g e , and t h e n o v e rt h ea d m i s s i b l er a n g eo f EPR s e t t i n g s . The v a l u eo ft h ef r e e - t h r u s tc o s t f u n c t i o n is e v a l u a t e db yt h es u b r o u t i n e FTHRST. The v a l u eo b t a i n e df r o mm i n i mizingoverspeed i s s t o r e d i n COSTV; t h e v a l u e o b t a i n e d f r o m m i n i m i z i n g o v e r t h r u s t i s s t o r e d i n COSTPI. T h i sp r o c e s sc o n t i n u e su n t i lt h ed i f f e r e n c e betweenthe two i s w i t h i n EPSIL1, a small number. S i n c e t h e minimum o b t a i n e d becomes smaller i n e a c h s u c c e s s i v e s e a r c h ( a s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c t i o n on c l i m b / d e s c e n to p t i m i z a t i o n ) ,c o n v e r g e n c e i s g u a r a n t e e d .I nt h ed e s c e n t case, t h i s c o s t i s compared w i t h t h a t o b t a i n e d f r o mm i n i m i z i n go v e rt h ea p p r o p r i a t e speedrange a t i d l e t h r u s t . Then,the smaller o ft h e two c o s t s i s s e l e c t e d as t h e minimum. The i n d e x IOPT i s s e t e q u a l t o 1 f o r c o n s t r a i n e d t h r u s t , t o 2 f o r f r e e t h r u s t , and t o 3 i f b o t h f r e e t h r u s t and a h i g h e ra c c u r a c yo fs p e e d and EPR s e t t i n g a r e s p e c i f i e d . I n t h et h i r do p t i o n ,t h es p e e da c c u r a c y is w i t h i n2 0 / 1 4 4f t / s e ca n dt h e EPR a c c u r a c y i s w i t h i n 0 . 0 2 / 1 4 4 , w h e r e 20 i s t h e speedrangeand144 is t h e e l e v e n t h F i b o n a c c i number.

FCOST T h i ss u b r o u t i n ee v a l u a t e se q u a t i o n( 1 2 )i f ICOST i s s e t e q u a l t o 1 and e v a l u a t e st h ef u e l - f l o w r a t e FUEL i f ICOST i s set e q u a l t o 2 , f o r some g i v e n Mach number MACH and a l t i t u d e H. C r u i s ec o s t i s e x p r e s s e d i n pounds p e r naut i c a l m i l e , and t h ef u e l - f l o w r a t e i s i n pounds p e rh o u r . The f u e l - f l o w r a t e i s d e r i v e df r o mk e e p i n gt h ea i r c r a f ti nc o n s t a n ts p e e d level f l i g h t a t t h e g i v e n Mach number and a l t i t u d e . It i s computed i n t h e s u b r o u t i n e TRIM1.

F D R A G This subroutine computes the drag force D i f IDRAG = 1 and t h e absol u t ev a l u eo f T - D i f IDRAG # 1, f o r some g i v e nt r u ea i r s p e e d VTAS and e n e r g y E. I nt h e l a t t e r case, i f T i s less t h a n D , t h e n a v a l u e of lo6 times t h ea b s o l u t ev a l u eo f T - D is returned. The d r a g f o r c e i s computedby e q u a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s u b r o u t i n e FCLIMB. The v a l u e of t h r u s t T i s computed i nt h es u b r o u t i n e ENGEPR, f o r known a l t i t u d e , Mach number,and EPR s e t t i n g . The a l t i t u d e and Mach number were computedfrom e q u a t i o n s i n FCLIMB, f o r known speed VTAS andenergy E. The v a l u eo f EPR s e t t i n g i s communicated t o thesubroutinefromlabeled common COST.

61

FOPT Thissubroutinedeterminesthe minimum c r u i s e c o s t and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g c r u i s es p e e df o r some g i v e na l t i t u d e ALT. I f ICOST = 1, e q u a t i o n( 1 2 ) is used t o e v a l u a t e t h e c o s t and i f ICOST = 2 , t h ef u e l - f l o w rate FCOT i s used. Inthefirstprincipalstep,thegivenaltitude i s checked t o a s c e r t a i n whether i t i s below t h e o p e r a t i o n a l c e i l i n g , t h a t is, if the thrust a t maximum EPR s e t t i n g i s less t h a n d r a g a t t h e minimum d r a gs p e e d .T h i s i s done i n threesubsteps,thefirstofwhich i s t o compute t h e minimum d r a g s p e e d by using F B O U N D t oe v a l u a t et h ed r a gf o r c e D ( i . e . ,w i t h IDRAG set e q u a l t o 1 ) andby c a l l i n g t h e s u b r o u t i n e MINF t o s e a r c h f o r t h e minimum v a l u e o f d r a g o v e r t h e Mach number rangefrom 0 t o 0.9. T h i s v a l u e i s s t o r e d i n MINDRG and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n gs p e e di n MACH. Next, compute TMAX, t h ev a l u eo ft h r u s tf o r thegivenaltitude, known MACH and w i t h EPR set e q u a l t o EPRMAX, by c a l l i n g t h es u b r o u t i n e ENGEPR. I n t h e f i n a l s u b s t e p , compare TMAX w i t h MINDRG t o a s c e r t a i ni ft h ef o r m e r i s g r e a t e rt h a nt h e l a t t e r . I f s o , c o n t i n u e ;o t h e r wise, e x i t t h e program. A f t e rt h ea l t i t u d e i s checked,thelowerandupperspeedboundaries F A and FB are computed t od e f i n et h ev a l i ds p e e dr a n g e ,w h e r e F A and F B are e x p r e s s e d as Mach numbers. The lower speed boundary i s computed by determiningthepointbetween0.1 Mach number and t h e minimum d r a g s p e e d MINDRG a t which TMAX e q u a l s D ( s e ef i g .4 ( a ) ) .S i n c e TMAX and D are speed-dependent, t h e y must be evaluated a t d i f f e r e n ts p e e d s .S p e c i f i c a l l y , FA i s determined by c a l l i n g t h e f u n c t i o n F B O U N D t oe v a l u a t et h ea b s o l u t ev a l u eo f TMAX - D ( i . e . , IDRAG = 2 ) . The speed a t w h i c h t h i s q u a n t i t y becomes z e r o i s s e a r c h e d o u t by t h e s u b r o u t i n e MINF. The upperspeedboundary,which l i e s between MINDRG and 0.9 Mach number, i s computed i n a similar f a s h i o n . Finally,thesubroutine FCOST i s c a l l e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e c r u i s e c o s t , and t h e minimum of a l l c o s t s i s s e a r c h e d o u t by t h e s u b r o u t i n e MINF o v e r t h e v a l i d s p e e dr a n g e . The v a l u eo ft h ea p p r o p r i a t e minimum c r u i s e c o s t i s s t o r e d as t h e v a l u e of t h e f u n c t i o n and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g o p t i m a l c r u i s e s p e e d ( f o r g i v e na l t i t u d e ALT) i s s t o r e di nt h ea r r a y MACHOP(.). S p e c i f i c a l l y ,t h eo p t i m a l c r u i s es p e e df o rm i n i m i z i n ge q u a t i o n ( 1 2 ) i s s t o r e d i n MACHOP(l), and f o r minimizing F D O T, i n M A C H O P(2)

FTHRST T h i ss u b r o u t i n ee v a l u a t e se q u a t i o n (11) f o r some g i v e n EPR s e t t i n g EPR, Mach number M-LICH, t r u e airspeed VTAS, a l t i t u d e H, d r a g D , and weight W. The v a l u e s of t h r u s t T and fuel-flow r a t e FF are o b t a i n e d by c a l l i n gt h e s u b r o u t i n e ENGEPR.
It i s a companion s u b r o u t i n e of FCLIMB. The v a l u eo f EPR i s t h ea r g u m e n t , and MACH, VTAS, H , D , and W are p a s s e dt ot h es u b r o u t i n eb yt h el a b e l e d commons CLIMB, ENERGY, DRAGMN, CLIMB, and COST, r e s p e c t i v e l y .

62

FULEST T h i s s u b r o u t i n e estimates t h e i n i t i a l c r u i s e w e i g h t from known t a k e o f f w e i g h t ,i n i t i a le n e r g y ,f u e lc o s t , and time c o s t . The c r u i s ew e i g h t i s t h e d i f f e r e n c eb e t w e e nt h et a k e o f fw e i g h ta n dt h ec l i m bf u e l . The c l i m b f u e l i s estimatedfromthefollowing known q u a n t i t i e s by an i t e r a t i v e p r o c e s s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c t i o n on w e i g h te s t i m a t i o n . It i s e s t i m a t e d f r o m t h e r e l a t i o n ,

where Ec, E i
Kl
K2

t hc er u i se n e r g y

and i n i t i ae lnergy and 0.1130 f o f r et e hrust and 6.14633-6 forfreethrust

0.1079 f o cr onstraine td hrust 4.6849E-6 f o rc o n s t r a i n e dt h r u s t

T c , *c

t i m e c o s t and f u e l c o s t

'to,

'ref

t a k e o f f w e i g h t and some r e f e r e n c e t a k e o f f w e i g h t value of the constants K,, K, w a s derived

fromwhich

the

S t e p sf o rd e t e r m i n i n gt h ei n i t i a lc r u i s ew e i g h t are (1) s e t Wc, t h e c r u i s e w e i g h t ,e q u a lt ot a k e o f fw e i g h t ;( 2 ) compute t h e c r u i s e e n e r g y ECRUZ c o r r e s p o n d i n gt ot h ec r u i s ew e i g h t Wc by c a l l i n g t h e s u b r o u t i n e W L E F H V w i t ht h e c o n t r o li n d e x I s e t e q u a lt o 1; ( 3 )u s et h eg i v e nr e l a t i o nt o compute t h e climb fuel Fup; ( 4 ) subtract Fup from t h e takeoff weight o arrive at the c r u i s ew e i g h t Wc; and (5) t e s t t h i sw e i g h ta g a i n s tt h eo n eo b t a i n e di nt h e p r e v i o u si t e r a t i o n .I ft h e y a r e w i t h i n 100 l bo fe a c ho t h e r ,t h ee s t i m a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e ;i fn o t ,r e t u r nt os t e p (2).

ICLOCK

T h i ss u b r o u t i n er e s o l v e s TIME i n s e c o n d s i n t o h o u r s I H R , m i n u t e s IMIN, andseconds ISEC. For example, 4521 sec i s r e s o l v e d i n t o 1 h r1 5m i n ,a n d 2 1 sec.

JTRUNC

Thissubroutinefindsthe l a s t elementof series w i t h i n a n u n i m o d a l series.

a m o n o t o n i c a l l yd e c r e a s i n g

LSQPOL This subroutine makes a least-squares polynomial fit for y as a function of x. The arrays x y (.) contain points of the independent variable, and the corresponding value of the function. The total number of points in the set is specified byN, the degree of the polynomial to be fitted is specified by M - 1 (e.g., M = 3 for quadratic fit), and the coefficients of the polynomial are stored in the array B in the following order,
(a),
( a )

B ( 3 ) x 2

B ( 2 ) x

B ( 3 )

MATINV
A. A and stores the result in This subroutine takes the inverse of a matrix The dimension of the matrix is specified by M.

MINF This subroutine minimizes the unimodal funtion F ( X ) so that x is within 1 / 1 4 4 of the given interval (BX - AX) by a Fibonacci search, where 144 is the 11th Fibonacci number. Symbols
AX, BX

lower and upper limits of X the unimodal function to be minimized; this function is specified in the calling program ratio of Fibonacci numbers fi/f,,, i = 1 , 9 if = 0, no print; # 0, print x and F ( x ) in each step of the search

F (

FIBONO ( .) IPRINT X

the value of x at which the unimodal function F ( x ) is at its minimum MINFZ

This subroutine minimizes the unimodal function F(x) so that x is within 1/55 of the given interval (BX - AX), using a Fibonacci search, where 55 is the ninth Fibonacci number. Symbols FIBON(.) ratio of Fibonacci numbers fi/fg, i = 1, 7 (see MINF for explanation of other symbols)

64

P C C O M P
This subroutinecontainsthelogicfor (1) e x i t i n g t h e p r o g r a m when t h e d e s i r e dr a n g e Q i s less t h a n Gin o r when i t i s w i t h i n a small d i s t a n c e of R, t h eg r o u n d - t r a c kd i s t a n c es u b t e n d e d by t h e s y n t h e s i z e d t r a j e c t o r y ; ( 2 ) s e t t i n g up a f l a g f o r s p l i c i n g i n a c r u i s e segmentsubtending a c r u i s e d i s t a n c e dc = R d - (dup ddn) i f R d i s g r e a t e rt h a n R*, and ( 3 ) computing t h ev a l u e of f o rs y n t h e s i z i n g the d e s i r e dt r a j e c t o r yi f Q i s between %in and R*. The symbols dup and ddn stand for climb distance and descent d i s t a n c e ,r e s p e c t i v e l y .

%x

I n t h e f i r s t case, e i t h e r t h e d e s i r e d r a n g e c a n n o t b e s y n t h e s i z e d o r t h e d e s i r e dt r a j e c t o r yh a sb e e ns y n t h e s i z e d .I nt h es e c o n d case, t h ei n d e x ISPLIZ i s set e q u a lt oz e r o .T h i sv a l u e i s communicated t o t h e s u b r o u t i n e VOPTRJ t h r o u g ht h ea r g u m e n t so ft h e two s u b r o u t i n e s ; t h e n e x t e x e c u t i o n s t e p is t r a n s f e r r e d t o VOPTRJ. The s u b r o u t i n e VOPTRJ c o n t a i n s t h e r e q u i r e d l o g i c t o complete the synthesis. In the third case, the value of i s computed t o start the iteration until the desired range trajectory i s synthesized.

%x

RMIN

R*

F i g u r e 1 7 shows t h e r e l a t i o n between %x and r a n g e C .onside tr he region between kin and R*. I n t h es h o r t - r a n g er e g i o n ,m i d r a n g e r e g i o n ,a n dl o n g - r a n g er e g i o n , %x d e c r e a s e s as t h e r e c i p r o c a l o f R2 , as t h er e c i p r o c a l o f R , and l i n e a r l y with R, respectively T . hese relat i o n s h i p s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d ,r e s p e c t i v e l y by f otlh le ow eq in ug ations,

F i g u r e 17.- Range as a f u n c t i o n of

%x.

where ( R l , % x l ) and (R2, %12) a r e r a n g e and p e r c e n tp o i n t so b t a i n e di nt h e p r e v i o u si t e r a t i o n s . To m i n i m i z et h e number of i t e r a t i o n s t e p s , i t i s import a n tt ot a k ea d v a n t a g eo ft h ec u r v et od e t e r m i n et h er e q u i r e dv a l u eo f %X f o rs y n t h e s i z i n gt h ed e s i r e dt r a j e c t o r y .T h i s i s done by s e l e c t i n g two p o i n t s c l o s e s tt o R d and by i m p l e m e n t i n gt h el o g i ct o s e l e c t t h ea p p r o p r i a t es h a p e ofthecurveinregionsunderconsideration.

65

I nt h ec u r v eo ff i g u r e1 7 , P,, P,,P,, and P, are p o i n t s ,i fa v a i l a b l e , o b t a i n e df r o mp r e v i o u si t e r a t i o n s . The f i r s t two are f o rd i s t a n c e s ,s u b t e n d e d by t r a j e c t o r i e s , t h a t are s h o r t e r t h a n t h e d e s i r e d r a n g e ; t h e r e m a i n i n g two are f o rd i s t a n c e st h a t are l o n g e rt h a n Rd. Only two o ft h e s ep o i n t s ,w h i c hc a n b e s ta p p r o x i m a t et h el o c a lf i to ft h ec u r v e , w i l l b e used. They w i l l b e denoted by Pa and Pb. The c r i t e r i a f o rt h e i rs e l e c t i o n are ( 1 )u s e P, and P, i nt h ef i r s ti t e r a t i o n ;( 2 )i f 6, 5 6 , + AR, u s e P,o ; therwise use P, where 6i = ]Rd - R i l , i = 1, 4 , and OR is some s p e c i f i e dd i s t a n c e (AR i s set e q u a lt o 10 nm i f %P, i s less t h a n 2 , and t o 20 nm o t h e r w i s e ) ; ( 3 ) i f 6 4 5 6, + AR, u s e P,; o t h e r w i s eu s e P,. The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e p r o p e r l o c a l s h a p e o f t h e c u r v e

are

1. Use l i n e a ri n t e r p o l a t i o ni nt h ef i r s ti t e r a t i o ni fb o t h are g r e a t e r t h a n 10 n. m i .

6, and 6 ,

3.
4.

Use r e c i p r o c a lf i ti f
Use r e c i p r o c a l of R2

%P < 2 ( s e e q .
2

(A2)).

f i ti f

%p 1 2 ( s e e q .
2

(A3)).

5 . I fi ns u c c e s s i v ei t e r a t i o ns t e p s ,t h e tests p a s se i t h e rc r i t e r i o n( 2 ) o r c r i t e r i o n ( 3 ) r e p e a t e d l y ,t h e na l t e r n a t eb e t w e e nt h e s e two c r i t e r i a .
PILIMT
T h i ss u b r o u t i n ee v a l u a t e st h ea b s o l u t ev a l u eo f T - D f o r some g i v e n EPR s e t t i n g EPR, a l t i t u d e H , Mach number MACH, and d r a g D. The v a l u e of t h r u s t T i s computed by c a l l i n gt h es u b r o u t i n e ENGEPR w i t h known H , MACH, and EPR a s i n p u t s . The v a l u e of D i s p a s s e dt ot h i ss u b r o u t i n eb yt h el a b e l e d common CLIMB. T h i s s u b r o u t i n e i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h MINF t o d e f i n e t h e t h r u s t boundary f o rc l i m ba n dd e s c e n to p t i m i z a t i o n . The v a l u eo f IT-Dl i s m u l t i p l i e d by l o 6 i f i t i s o u t s i d et h eb o u n d a r y( s e ef i g . 4 ) . That i s , a veryheavy p e n a l t y i s imposed on t h ef u n c t i o ni f T < D for c l i m b and T > D f o r descent.

POLYE 1 T h i sf u n c t i o ne v a l u a t e st h ep o l y n o m i a l

Y = b(1)

+ b(2)X +

b(3)X2

. . . b(M)Xm-'

66

SERCHD T h i ss u b r o u t i n es e a r c h e st h ei n d e x and r e t u r n s both R and pf where pf = and TX(.)

s u c ht h a t

TX(R) 2 X 1 . TX(R

+ 1)

TX(R) - X TX(R) TX(R

1)

i s a m o n o t o n i c a l l yd e c r e a s i n ga r r a y .

SERCHl This subroutine searches the index

such that

and r e t u r n s both

R and pf

where pf =
X - TX(R) TX(R + 1) - TX(R)

and TX(.)

i s a m o n o t o n i c a l l yi n c r e a s i n ga r r a y .

TRIM1

This i s a g e n e r a l s u b r o u t i n e f o r k e e p i n g t h e a i r c r a f t i n a certain flight condition,dependingonthevalueof MODE andon thevalueof ICNTRL i f MODE = 1. MODE = 1 means t h a tt h e EPR s e t t i n g EPR i s s p e c i f i e d ; MODE = 2 t h a tt h ef l i g h t p a t ha n g l e y i s s p e c i f i e d ; and MODE = 3 t h a tb o t h EPR and f l i g h t p a t ha n g l e are s p e c i f i e d .T h e r e are t h r e e submodes f o r t h e f i r s t o p t i o n . They a r e s p e c i f i e d by t h ev a l u e of ICNTRL. ICNTRL = 1 s p e c i f i e s thattheaircraftbe flown a t c o n s t a n t t r u e a i r s p e e d , ICNTRL = 2 , a t c o n s t a n t MACH number, and I C N T R L = 3 , a t c o n s t a n ti n d i c a t e da i r s p e e d .I n a l l modes, t h ef l i g h t p a t ha n g l e is constant. It i s d e t e r m i n e df r o ms o l v i n gt h e f and t h e V e q u a t i o n ss i m u l t a n e o u s l yi n mode 1 and i s s p e c i f i e d i n b o t h modes 2 and 3 . The v a l u e o f t h e mode t o b e u s e d f o r s y n t h e s i z i n g t h e o p t i m a l t r a j e c t o r y i s 2 , and t h e d e s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s s u b r o u t i n e w i l l b e conf i n e d t o t h i s mode o n l y . I f MODE = 2 , t h i s s u b r o u t i n e computes t h ea n g l eo fa t t a c k ALPHA ( a ) , and t h e EPR s e t t i n g EPR t o k e e p t h e a i r c r a f t i n t r i m , t h a t i s , constant-speed l e v e l f l i g h t , f o r some g i v e na l t i t u d e h and t r u ea i r s p e e d VTAS. F i r s t , a, i s d e t e r m i n e d b yc o m b i n i n gt h ef o l l o w i n gr e l a t i o n s , (T s i n a

L)cos

+I -

W = 0

(A4 1

67

CL = CL(basic) CL(basic) = b ( 1 ) t o arrive a t t h e q u a d r a t i c

CL(a)a

+ CLO + CL ( g e a r )

(A61 (A7 1

+ b(2)a + b(3)a2
Aa2

Ba

C = 0

(A84

where
A =

pSV2

COS

$ b(3)

(A8b)

B = C
=

pSV2[b(2)

+ CL(a)] + T

COS

(A8c 1 (A8d)

1 2 pSV2

cos $ [ b ( l )

+ CLOY +

CL(gear)] - W

= 0 in the y e q u a t i o n . EquaEquation (A4) i s o b t a i n e d by s e t t i n g y and t i o n (A5) i s t h e r e l a t i o n betweenthe l i f t f o r c e and t h e l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t . Equation (A6) i s t h e same l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t e q u a t i o n as t h a t s t a t e d i n CLIFT. And e q u a t i o n (A7) d e f i n e s CL(basic) as a polynomial i n a . The c o e f f i c i e n t s o ft h ep o l y n o m i a l a r e o b t a i n e d by f i t t i n g t h e c u r v e s i n p a g e s 2.1-2.6of reference 7.

The v a l u eo ft h r u s t T i n e q u a t i o n (A8a) i s obtained by assuming some v a l u e o f EPR s e t t i n g a n d t h e n c a l l i n g t h e s u b r o u t i n e ENGEPR t o g e n e r a t e t h e appropriate value of thrust T. The v a l u e s of CLOY CL, and CL(gear) are c o n s t a n t sf o rf l a p s up. N e x t ,t h ee x a c tv a l u eo f EPR t o k e e p t h e a i r c r a f t i n trim, f o r t h e o b t a i n e di ne q u a t i o n (A8a) i s determined by s e t t i n g fJ = 0 and y = 0 V e q u a t i o nt ,h a t is,
c1

i nt h e

where CDRAG

D , t h ed r a gf o r c ei np o u n d s ,

i s computed by

c a l l i n gt h es u b r o u t i n e

T h i ss u b r o u t i n e i t e r a t e s betweenequations (A8a) and (A9) u n t i l a p a i r of ( a , T) i s o b t a i n e d t h a t are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h b o t h e q u a t i o n s . Symbols


y

f l i g h t p aa th n g ld ee ,g

r a t e o fc h a n g eo ff l i g h t p a t ha n g l e
T 68 thrust

lb

a
@

a n g lo e aft t a c k d,e g bank angle, deg w e i g ho t a fi r c r a f t l ,b

W
p

air density ls , be c 2 / f t 4
wing r e f e r e n c e area , f t 2 tru ae irspeed f t,/ s e c l if fo t r cl eb , see CLIFT
see ENGEPR

s
V

CLOY CL(gear), CL216(.) INCRUZ

UPDOWN
T h i ss u b r o u t i n eg e n e r a t e st h ec l i m bp r o f i l ei f c e n tp r o f i l e i s ICLIMB = 2 .
ICLIMB = 1

and t h ed e s -

The c l i m b p r o f i l e i s g e n e r a t e d s t a r t i n g w i t h i n i t i a l e n e r g y Eo, i n c r e menting with AE, and f i n i s h i n g a t E,. The d e s c e n tp r o f i l e i s g e n e r a t e d in t h e same manner, u s i n g final-energy Ef as t h es t a r t i n gp o i n t . The i n i t i a l energy i s s p e c i f i e d by t h ei n i t i a ls p e e d Vo and a l t i t u d e ho a n d s , imilarly, the final energy by t h e final speed Vf and f i n a la l t i t u d eh f . The i n c r e mentalenergy i s 500 e n e r g y f e e t e x c e p t when t h e e n e r g y l e v e l i s within 3,000 energy f e e t o ft h ec r u i s ee n e r g y E,, a t whichpoint i t i s r e d u c e dt o 250 f t . The c r u i s ee n e r g y i s computed i n t h e s u b r o u t i n e FULEST ( s e e MAINPROG, s t e p( 6 ) )f o rc l i m b , and i n t h e VOPTRJ s u b r o u t i n ei nd e s c e n t . It is transferredtothissubroutinethroughtheargument.
A t e a c he n e r g yl e v e l ,t h es u b r o u t i n e FCLMB2 i s c a l l e d t o m i n i m i z e t h e cost function (eq. (12)). Equations (16) through (19) are u s e dt o compute t h e t i m e duration,distancetraversed,flightpathangle, and f u e l u s e d f o r t h e p r o f i l e , s t a r t i n g from t h e i n i t i a l / f i n a l e n e r g y t o t h e e n e r g y l e v e l u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n .T h e s ea n do t h e rq u a n t i t i e s are p r i n t e d o u t i n t a b l e 7 f o rt h e c l i m b p r o f i l e and i n t a b l e 8 f o r t h e d e s c e n t p r o f i l e .

The s p e e d a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e s e p r o f i l e s is either in true airspeed or Mach number. A n o t h e rf r e q u e n t l yu s e dq u a n t i t y ,t h ei n d i c a t e da i r s p e e d , is convertedfromthe Mach number by t h e r e l a t i o n ,


VIAS =

t ( 1 +

rn2)y-1y

69

It i s d e r i v e d f r o m c o m b i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s ,

Symbols

m
Po P
y
PSQ

Mach number stagnatio pn ressure


s t a t i c pressure which

i s a f u n c t i o n of a l t i t u d e

r a t i o of s p e c i f ih ce a t(s1 . 4 )

a i r d e n s i t y a t sea l e v e l and s t a n d a r da t m o s p h e r i cp r e s s u r e( 2 9 . 9 2i n .o f Hg) and t e m p e r a t u r e (15" C)

VALUE2 T h i ss u b r o u t i n ei n t e r p o l a t e s( o ru n d e rc e r t a i nc o n d i t i o n s ,e x t r a p o l a t e s ) t h e v a l u e of a f u n c t i o n of two v a r i a b l e s s t o r e d i n t h e two-dimensionalarray EPRMAX(.). T h i sa r r a y may be viewed as a t a b l ew i t h rows and columns. The v a l u eo ft h ef u n c t i o nd e p e n d s on t h e two v a r i a b l e s TEMPA and H. The increment a l v a l u e so f TEMPA, s t o r e d i n t h e a r r a y TEMP(.), a r e u s e df o ri n d e x i n gt h e rows, and t h e i n c r e m e n t a l v a l u e s of H , s t o r e d i n t h e a r r a y ALT24(.), a r e used f o ri n d e x i n gt h ec o l u m n s . The s u b r o u t i n e w i l l i n t e r p o l a t e a p o i n t i f i t i s w i t h i n t h e t a b l e . I f it i s o u t s i d et h et a b l e and I = 1 , i t w i l l t r u n c a t e t h e v a l u e t o t h e n e a r e s t p o i n ti nt h et a b l e .T h a t i s , i f TEMPA i s less thanTEMP(l),thenthesubrout i n e assumes t h e p o i n t t o b e i n t h e f i r s t row. And i f TEMPA i s g r e a t e rt h a n t h e l a s t elementof T E M P ( . ) , i t assumes t h e p o i n t t o b e i n t h e l a s t row. S i m i l a r l y ,i f H i s less t h a n ALT24(1) o rg r e a t e rt h a nt h e l a s t element of ALT24(.), i t w i l l assume t h e p o i n t t o b e i n t h e f i r s t column and t h e last column, r e s p e c t i v e l y . I ft h ep o i n t i s o u t s i d et h et a b l e and I # 1 , t h es u b r o u t i n e w i l l t r u n cate t h e p o i n t t o t h e n e a r e s t column. I f i n a d d i t i o n , TEMPA i s less t h a n TEMP(l), i t w i l l c a l l XTRPLl t o e x t r a p o l a t e a number t h a t i s beyond t h e f i r s t row. Likewise, i t w i l l c a l l XTRPL2 t o e x t r a p o l a t e a number t h a t i s beyond t h e l a s t row, i f TEMPA i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e l a s t elementof TEMP(.).

70

VOPTRJ

T h i ss u b r o u t i n eg e n e r a t e st h eq u a n t i t i e s shown i n t a b l e 9. They i n c l u d e thefuelused,distancetraversed, t i m e duration,costindollars, and i n dollars per nautical m i l e fortheclimbprofile,thedescentprofile,the c r u i s es e g m e n t , and t h e o v e r a l l t r a j e c t o r y . O t h e r c r u i s e q u a n t i t i e s are t h e w e i g h t ,c o s t ,e n e r g y ,a l t i t u d e , andspeed a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end of c r u i s e . The f u e l u s e d , d i s t a n c e t r a v e r s e d , the cruise energy ECRUZ.
t i m e d u r a t i o n , e t c . , were e v a l u a t e d a t

Inthefree-thrustcase,thecruiseenergy i s o b t a i n e db ye v a l u a t i n gt h e e n e r g y l e v e l a t which t h e sum of t h e H a m i l t o n i a n f o r c l i m b and t h a t f o r d e s c e n tg o e st oz e r o . The H a m i l t o n i a nf o rc l i m b and f o rd e s c e n tf o re a c he n e r g y l e v e l w a s obtainedfromminimization. They a p p e a r i n column (12) intables 7 and 8 and t h e i r s u m i n column ( 1 3 ) i n t a b l e 8 . I f column (13)doesnot containthisenergylevel, i . e . , t h e elements of t h i s column a r e a l l p o s i t i v e , t h e n t h e last e n e r g y l e v e l shown i n t h e t a b l e , o r t h e e n e r g y l e v e l c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e smallest v a l u e o f t h e sum of t h e two H a m i l t o n i a n s , w i l l b e u s e d . I nt h ec o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s tc a s e ,t h ec r u i s ee n e r g y i n MAINPROG.
i s e v a l u a t e di ns t e p

(6)

I nt h ef r e e - t h r u s t( s h o r t and i n t e r m e d i a t er a n g e s ) case, t h e r e i s no c r u i s e s e g m e n t , and t h e c r u i s e q u a n t i t i e s are t h e same f o r b o t h t h e b e g i n n i n g and t h e end of c r u i s e .I n a l l o t h e r cases, t h e y d i f f e r b e c a u s e of f u e l burned d u r i n gc r u i s e . The amount of f u e l burned i s computed by t h e u s e of equat i o n( 2 8 ) . The c r u i s e f u e l i s e x p r e s s e d as t h ep r o d u c to ff u e l - f l o w r a t e and c r u i s ed i s t a n c ed i v i d e d bygroundspeed.Boththefuel-flow r a t e and t h e groundspeed w e r e e v a l u a t e d a t ECRUZ. The c r u i s e d i s t a n c e i s computed by the appropriateequation,depending onwhethertheaircraft i s c r u i s i n g below o r at optimalcruisealtitude. Iftheaircraftcruises b e l o wo p t i m a lc r u i s ea l t i t u d e( i . e . ,c o n s t r a i n e d thrust,shortandintermediate-rangetrajectories),thecruisedistance is computed by t h eu s e o fe q u a t i o n( 2 2 )e v a l u a t e d a t ECRUZ. The denominatorof equation (22) i s dX/dE; i t i s e x p r e s s e d as a polynomial i n E. The c o e f f i c i e n t of t h ep o l y n o m i a l i s o b t a i n e d by c u r v e f i t t i n g X v s E and t h e nt a k i n g t h ed e r i v a t i v e .T h e r e a r e a number of dX/dE c u r v e s ,e a c hc o r r e s p o n d i n gt o a s p e c i f i cc r u i s ew e i g h t . The d a t af o re a c h X v s E c u r v e were s t o r e di nt h e a r r a y LLCRUZ(., IW) and EECRUZ(., IW), r e s p e c t i v e l y . The i n t e g e r I W i s f o r i n d e x i n gt h ec r u i s ew e i g h t .T h e s ea r r a y s are p a r t s of t h e c r u i s e t a b l e , w i t h each value of I W r e f e r r i n g t o a s p e c i f i c page i nt h et a b l e . For example, I W = 1 r e f e r s t o a c r u i s ew e i g h to f1 5 0 , 0 0 0l b . The c r u i s e c o s t

X , i s f i t t e d as a q u a d r a t i c i n
X = c1E2

E.

ciE

cg

71

Taking the derivative with respect to

E:

dX/dE = 2c,E

+ ch

(A151

T h i s d e r i v a t i v e i s u s e dt oe v a l u a t et h el e n g t ho ft h ec r u i s e segment dc. F i g u r e 18 shows a t y p i c a l X v s E and dX/dE v s E c u r v e . A t t h e optimal e n e r g y E*, dX/dE = 0. Due t o i n a c c u r a c y i n c u r v e f i t t i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l ef o r t h e dX/dE c u r v et ob ed i s p l a c e d , as shown by t h ed a s h e dl i n e .I nt h i s case, the cruise distance can be negative. For example, i f dc i s e v a l u a t e d a t Ec as shown, t h e n dX/dE i s p o s i t i v e S . ince Iup + I d n i s a l s o positive for E, less t h a n E*, t h e value dc i s n e g a t i v e . To p r e v e n t h i s from happeni n gt, h e c o n s t a nc ti i s a d j u s t e d so t h a t dX/dE i s z e r o a t E* by t h e relation,

T h i s i s e q u i v a l e n tt or e f i n i n gt h ea c c u r a c y curve. Inorderthattheunitsbe cons i s t e n t i n e q u a t i o n (A15) , t h i s d e r i v a t i v e must b e e x p r e s s e d i n d o l lars p e r n a u t i c a l mile s q u a r e d . Si ctn r hc u ee in se er g y E is e x p r e s s e di nf e e t ,t h ed e n o m i n a t o ro f t h e d e r i v a t i v e must b e c o n v e r t e d i n t o n a u t i c a l miles. Therefore, equat i o n (A10) c a n b e w r i t t e n as
"

of t h eE - i n t e r c e p to ft h ed h / d E

d X = AE dE

(A17 1

where A = 2(6080)c,, B = 6080c2, and F i g u r e 18.- C r u i s c eo s t , and A and B are c o e f f i c i e e fn a ot c rsh dX/dE en vesr g y . c r u i s ew e i g h t . They are s t o r e di nt h e a r r a y s DLLDEE(1,IW) and DLLDEE(2,IW), r e s p e c t i v e l y . Some t y p i c a lv a l u e so f A and B are shown i n t a b l e 6 , columns (2) and ( 3 ) . Each s e t c o r r e s p o n d st o t h ec r u i s ew e i g h t shown i n column (1). S i n c e no a i r c r a f t c r u i s e s below 20,000 f t a l t i t u d e , o n l y p o i n t s between20,000 f t a l t i t u d e and t h e o p t i m a l c r u i s e a l t i t u d e were u s e d f o r t h e c u r v e f i t t i n g . Iftheaircraftcruises a t o p t i m a lc r u i s ea l t i t u d e( i . e . ,l o n g - r a n g e flightforboththefreea n dc o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s tc a s e s ) ,t h e nt h ed i s t a n c e e v a l u a t e d by t h e r e l a t i o n dc = R - d up ddn

is

72

Symbols
DCLMB, DDOWN, DCRUZ, TDIST

distancecoveredbytheclimbprofile,descent p r o f i l e ,c r u i s es e g m e n t , and t h e o v e r a l l trajectory c r u i s e e f f i c i e n c y and o v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y ( f o r the whole trajectory) cruiseenergy,energy cruise

EFCRUZ, EFFCNZ

ECRUZ, ECRUZI, ECRUZF

a t beginningandendof

FCLIMB, FDOWN, FCRULB, TFUEL

c l i m bf u e l ,d e s c e n tf u e l ,c r u i s ef u e l ,t o t a l fuel cruise altitude, altitude of c r u i s e see MAINPROG cruisecost, cruise and c o s t a t b e g i n n i n g and end of
a t b e g i n n i n g andend

HCRUZ, HCRUZI, HCRUZF

IOPARM, ISPLIZ
LAMBDA, LAMBDI, L A M B D F

MACH, MACHI, M A C H F

Mach number a t c r u i s e , Mach number a t b e g i n n i n g and end of cruise sum of Iup


and 'dn

SSCOST

(.)

TCLMB, TDOWN, TCRUZ, TTIME

t i m e d u r a t i o nf o rc l i m b ,d e s c e n t ,c r u i s e , for the overall trajectory

and

VGKNT, VGKNTI, V G K N T F

groundspeed a t c r u i s e , and groundspeed b e g i n n i n g andendof cruise cruiseweight, ofcruise landing weight

at

WCRUZ, WCRUZI, W C R U Z F

and weight a t b e g i n n i n g and end

W L N D G

WATEST T h i s s u b r o u t i n e i s used t o estimate t h e l a n d i n g w e i g h t tionofsynthesizingtheclimbprofile. upon t h e comple-

Inthefree-thrust case, t h e r e i s no c r u i s e segmentand thelanding weight i s o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e c l i m b f u e l FCLIMB and t h e d e s c e n t f u e l F D O W N from t h et a k e o f fw e i g h t WTO. The c l i m bf u e l i s i n t e r p o l a t e d from t h e a r r a y FFCLMB(.), which s t o r e s t h e f u e l b u r n e d f o r d i f f e r e n t e n e r g y h e i g h t s i n t h ec l i m bp r o f i l e . The d e s c e n tf u e l i s estimated from a polynomial i n %X. I t s c o e f f i c i e n t s were o b t a i n e d by f i t t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c u r v e d e r i v e d from p r e v i o u s l ys y n t h e s i z e dt r a j e c t o r i e s . They a r e s t o r e d i n t h e a r r a y DNFUEL(.).

73

I nt h ec o n s t r a i n e d - t h r u s tc a s e ,t h e r e i s a c r u i s e s e g m e n t ;t h e r e f o r e ,t h e fuel burned during cruise must a l s o b e s u b t r a c t e d from t h e t a k e o f f w e i g h t t o a r r i v e a t t h el a n d i n gw e i g h t .E q u a t i o n (29) i s u s e df o rc o m p u t i n gt h ec r u i s e f u e l , which i s t h e p r o d u c t o f f u e l - f l o w rate and c r u i s e d i s t a n c e d i v i d e d by groundspeed. The f u e l - f l o w r a t e andthegroundspeed were computed by calling t h es u b r o u t i n e W L E F H V w i t hi n d e x I set e q u a lt o 2. The c r u i s ed i s t a n c e i s e s t i m a t e d by a polynomial i n The p o l y n o m i a lc o e f f i c i e n t s were a l s o o b t a i n e d by f i t t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c u r v e d e r i v e d f r o mp r e v i o u s l ys y n t h e s i z e d trajectories. They a r e s t o r e d i n t h e a r r a y DCOEF(.).

%x.

WIND

T h i ss u b r o u t i n ec o m p u t e st h e component of wind velocityprojectedalong t h ep r i n c i p a la x i so ft h ea i r c r a f t . The wind p r o f i l e i t s e l f i s a f u n c t i o no f a l t i t u d e .I n p u t st ot h i s program a r e a l t i t u d ei nf e e t H , t h e a i r c r a f t headi n gi nd e g r e e s PSIA, and t h e wind p r o f i l e s t o r e d i n t h e a r r a y s WIND(.), VW(.), and PSIW(.). Output from t h i s program i s VWA, t h er e q u i r e d wind component.

WINDIN

Thissubroutinereadsinthe wind p r o f i l e , t h e m a g n i t u d e and d i r e c t i o n of wind, and a l s o computes t h e wind s h e a rf o re v e r y2 , 0 0 0 f t o fa l t i t u d e . The wind magnitudefrominput i s inknots;the programconverts i t t o f e e t p e r second and s t o r e s i t i n t h e VW(.) a r r a y . The wind d i r e c t i o n i s i n 10" i n c r e ments. The program converts i t i n t od e g r e e s and s t o r e s i t i n PSIW. The a l t i tudecorrespondingtothe wind m a g n i t u d e a n d d i r e c t i o n is generatedinternally and s t o r e d i n t h e WIND(.) a r r a y . The x, y components of wind

a r e computed by

t h er e l a t i o n s ,

aWy/ah = AWy/Ah

wx

= vw(.)cos(PsIw(.))

(A20 1

Wy = W ( . ) s i n ( P S I W ( . ) )

The x, y components of t h e wind and a l s ot h e x, y components of wind s h e a r , a l l of which a r e a l t i t u d ed e p e n d e n t , a r e s t o r e d i n t h e a r r a y s WX(.), wU(.), WINDE(., 2 ) , WINDE(., 3 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y .T h e s ea r r a y s are i n d e x e dt o altitude.

WINMOD

T h i ss u b r o u t i n ec o m p u t e st h e component of wind shearalongtheprincipal axisoftheaircraftfor some g i v e n a l t i t u d e ALT ( i n f e e t ) by t h e r e l a t i o n 74

where q.J i s t h e aircraft heading, aWx/ah, aW /ah are x , y components of wind s h e a r s t o r e d i n t h e a r r a y s WINDE(. , 2 ) , & D E ( . , 3 1 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e s u l t i n g component of wind s h e a r i s s t o r e d i n

A K M .

W L E F H V Thissubroutinecomputesvariouscruisequantitiesfor some g i v e n c r u i s e weight WCRUZ a n dp e r c e n t a g eo v e rt h eo p t i m a lc r u i s ec o s t d e p e n d i n go nt h e v a l u e of t h ei n d e x I. T h e s eq u a n t i t i e si n c l u d et h ec r u i s ec o s t LAMBDA, c r u i s e energy ECRUZ, c r u i s e a l t i t u d e HCRUZ, f u e l - f l o w rate FCRUZ, and groundspeed ( i nk n o t s ) VGKNT. For I = 1, LAMBDA and ECRUZ a r e computed; f o r I = 2 , FCRUZ, HCRUZ, VCKNT a r e computed; f o r I = 3 , LAMBDA, ECRUZ, HCRUZ, FCRUZ, and VGKNT are computed; f o r I = 4 , HCRUZ i s computed.

%x,

SymboIs
I W , pfw

(seexplanation for

1 and pf

i n SERCH1)

WRITE1

T h i ss u b r o u t i n ec o m p u t e st h ec o s t and u n i t c o s t f o r f l y i n g a specified segment of t h et r a j e c t o r y . The s e g m e n tc a nb ec l i m b ,d e s c e n t ,c r u i s e ,o rt h e o v e r a l lt r a j e c t o r y , as s p e c i f i e di nt h ec a l l i n g program. Also, i t resolves t h e time g i v e ni ns e c o n d si n t oh o u r s ,m i n u t e s , a n ds e c o n d s .F i n a l l y , it p r i n t so u tt h ed e s c r i p t i o no ft h e segment ( i . e . , c l i m b , c r u i s e , d e s c e n t , t o t a l ) ,t h ef u e lu s e d ,t h ed i s t a n c et r a v e r s e d ,t h e t i m e duration,in h r : m i n : s e c ,t h ec o s t , and t h eu n i tc o s t . I t i s a s a t e l l i t e s u b r o u t i n ef o r
VOPTRJ

XTRPLl

Thissubroutineextrapolates a p o i n t below t h e l o w e s t p o i n t i n some given array. Figure 19(a) shows t h e l o w e s tp o i n t a s (Al,Bl)wherethe v a l u e of B y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to A is d e s i r e d . It i s o b t a i n e d by t h e r e l a relation
B2 B1
B

B2 A2

B - B2 A A 2

B1 A1

(A23a)

or
A A1
A2
A3

B = B ,

A2 - A (B2 A 2 - A1

Bl)

(A23b)

( a ) Lower end. F i g u r e 19.Extrapolation. This is a satellite s u b r o u t i n ef o r VALUE2.


75

XTWL2 Thissubroutineextrapolates a p o i n t beyond t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t i n some g i v e na r r a y .F i g u r e1 9 ( b ) shows t h eh i g h e s tp o i n t as (An, Bn) where t h ev a l u e of B , c o r r e s p o n d i n g to A is desired. It i s o b t a i n e d by t h e r e l a t i o n


0 Bn" " " " " "

or

(A24b) (b)Upperend. F i g u r e 19.- Concluded. This i s a s a t e l l i t e subroutine f o r VALUE2.

76

REFERENCES
1 .
2.

Erzberger, Heinz; and Lee, Homer Q.: Characteristics of Constrained Optimum Trajectories with Specified Range. NASA TM-78519, 1978. Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.; and Barman, John F.: Fixed-Range Optimum Trajectories for Short-Haul Aircraft. NASA TN D-8115, 1975. Bochem, J. H.; and Mossman, D. C.: Simulator Evaluation of Optimal Thrust Management/Fuel Conservation Strategies for Airbus Aircraft and ShortHaul Routes. Final report, May 1977-April 1978, June 1978. Cooper L.; and Steinberg, D.: Introduction to Methods of Optimization. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia,PA, 1970, pp. 147-151.

3.

4.

5. Daniels, Glenn E.; and Smith, Orvel E.: Scalar and Component Wind Correlations between Altitude Levels for Cape Kennedy, Florida, and TN D-3815, 1968. Santa Monica, California. NASA 6. U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements, 1962. Prepared under the sponsorship of Environmental Science Services Administration, NASA, and U.S. Air Force. 7. Aerodynamic Data for the 727 Flight Simulator. Document No. D6-8095, Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington. 8. Specific Operating Instructions, JT8D-7A. Pratt and Whitney, A Division of United Technology, July 15, 1975.

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