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M. V. Roshan, A. Talebitaher, R. S.

Rawat,
P. Lee, S. V. Springham

IWPDA, 2-3 July, 2009


Scope
Introduction

Magnetic Spectrometry Experiments

Problems and Solutions

Simulation

High Energy Deuteron Beam Spectrum

Contribution to Neutron and Short-lived Radioisotope Production


Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

1. Major diagnostic imaging modality used predominantly in determining the presence


and severity of cancers, neurological conditions, and cardiovascular disease
2. PET images reveal the bio-chemistry of organs and other tissue such as tumors
3. A Radio-pharmaceutical (e.g. 13N) is injected into patient and emissions are measured
4. PET measures the amount of metabolic activity which is higher for cancer cells
5. Currently most effective way to check for cancer recurrences
1. Main PET radioisotopes are 15O, 13N, 11C, and 18F
2. They are derived from N, C, B, and Ne by bombarding the targets with
high energy particles
3. High energy particles are produced in particle accelerator-in most cases cyclotron
4. The accelerators are large and expensive and require heavy shielding
5. If they are replaced with simpler, cheaper, and more easily maintainable devices,
this would help to make PET an affordable procedure for many countries
6. Plasma focus fulfills the desired requirements
Nuclear Fusion
Various fusion devices for energy production: ICF, MCF, Pinch, and …
Abundant fuel supply: deuterium readily extracted from ordinary water
No risk of nuclear accident
No air pollution
No generation of weapon materials
Fusion energy is extracted from neutrons and it is used for tritium breeding as well

Neutron Production Mechanisms

Thermonuclear: thermal collision of deuterons


Non-Thermal: accelerated deuterons reaction
NX2 Plasma Focus
(28.8 µF, 26 nH, 400kA, 190 kA (Ipinch),12 kV, 16 Hz)

Nuclear Activation (JPFS):


(Graphite)

Activation-Yield Ratio (Twin PLA papers):


(BN, B4C)

Radioisotope Production (Submitting):


(15O, 13N, 11C)

New Absolute Neutron Detector:


(Patent Pending)

Backward High Energy Ion Beam (POP):


(Justifying Backward Neutrons )

Deuteron and Neutron Correlation (POP):


(Anisotropy Measurements)
Magnetic Spectrometry
(Experimental Setup)
Magnetic Spectrometry
(Preliminary experiments)

10cm-Experiments: 60cm-Experiments:
Pinhole damaged (and blocked) by plasma jet No pinhole damage
Tracks covered across the detector surface No detector coverage with tracks

Solution: Problem:
Detectors Coated by polystyrene films The spectrum was occasionally obtained
(with Spin-coater)
Magnetic Spectrometry
(Experimental Setup)
Detection Procedure
Mid-Magnet

Alpha Irradiation
Deuteron Spectrum
Automated track counting system reads the spectral information from the detectors

1500 Frames per Spectrum

Neutral Band and Mixed Particle Tracks Neutral Band and Deuteron Spectrum
Track Position
Histogram

Mixed Particles: different size and brightness Deuteron Tracks: same size and brightness
Deuteron Trajectories
Simulation
20
0.2 MeV
0.45 MeV
0.7 MeV
Circular Magnet
0.95 MeV
15 1.2 MeV
1.45 MeV Magnetic Field: 0.8 T
1.75 MeV
2 MeV
10 2.25 MeV Height: 6 cm
2.5 MeV
2.75 MeV
3 MeV
CR-39
Internal Diameter: 4cm
z (cm)

Cr-39 Detector
0 Magnet Magnet
3 cm above magnet
Deuteron Energy Range
-5

More than 200 keV


-10
-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15
y (cm)
Data Analysis
3

14000

13000 2.5

12000

11000
2
10000

Energy (MeV)
Counts

9000
1.5
8000

7000

6000 1

5000

4000 0.5

10 15 20 25 30 35
displacement (mm)
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

displacement (mm)

Tracks Position from Experiment Deuteron Energy from Simulation


Deuteron Spectrum
(Experiment and Simulation)

1E+15
Neutron Yield

(Exp. 108)
1E+14

Isotope Yield
dN/dEdΩ

(Exp. 106)
1E+13

1E+12
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Deuteron Energy (MeV)