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in Mechanical

Engineering:

Structure-Borne Sound

versus Air-Borne Sound

Marold Marold Moosrainer Moosrainer

CADFEM GmbH CADFEM GmbH

2009 2009 July July 6th 6th

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 1 -

Agenda

Introduction into acoustics: common phrases, basic equation

Solving structural vibration problems with ANSYS

Solving structure-borne sound problems with ANSYS SBSOUND

Solving air-borne sound problems with ANSYS (FEM)

Solving air-borne sound problems with WAON (BEM)

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 2 -

Introduction

machine acoustics

speed of sound, wavelength, frequency

basic concept of solving acoustic

problems by simulation

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 3 -

Some phrases of machine acoustics

direct noise

generation:

flow

acoustics

(CFD + acou.)

indirect noise

generation:

vibroacoustics

(FEM + acou.)

oscillating

forces

transient flow

machine

machine

structure

fluid, e.g. air

building structure

structure-borne sound: a sound wave propagating in a solid medium

air-borne sound: a sound wave propagating in air

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 4 -

Speed of sound wavelength frequency

Note that we solve the acoustic wave equation to model reflection,

scattering, absorption and thus we have to resolve each wave in its

spatial pattern

important equation:

air: c340m/s, f=1000Hz ! "=0.34m

water: c1500m/s, f=1000Hz ! "=1.5m

rule of thumb FEM, BEM: 6....10 linear elements per wavelength

required elements for a domain of characteristic size a:

FEM (volume mesh): ~O(N

3

) BEM (surface mesh): ~O(N

2

)

large acoustic FEM problem: 10M DOFs

large acoustic BEM problem: 20k DOFs

large acoustic FMBEM problem: 200k DOFs

f c =

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 5 -

Basic concept of solving acoustic problems by simulation

Signal analysis

(MBS, test, FFT)

Structure Structure- -borne sound analysis borne sound analysis

(FEM) (FEM)

Air Air- -borne sound analysis borne sound analysis

(FEM, BEM) (FEM, BEM)

Psycho acoustics

(e.g. DIN 45631)

use N use N

55

percentile values percentile values

for transient noise for transient noise

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 6 -

Solving Structural Vibration

Problems with ANSYS

modal analysis

harmonic response analysis

ANSYS application example: train

wheel

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 7 -

Solving structural vibration problems with ANSYS

modal analysis:

standard procedure for the dynamic assessment of a structure

compute the potential vibration shapes & resonance frequencies of a

structure without considering any excitation

a library of specific solvers for special tasks:

standard: block Lanczos (LANB),

large problems: PCG Lanczos (LANPCG)

large problems, up to 10000 modes (SNODE)

rotordynamics: incl. gyroscopic effects (QRDAMP)

damped structures: incl. damping matrix (QRDAMP, DAMP)

break-squeal analysis: incl. friction (QRDAMP,UNSYM)

FSI coupled systems: incl. fluid (UNSYM)

however: no amplitude results

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 8 -

Modal analysis: mode shapes of a train wheel

1 2 3

6 5 4

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 9 -

Solving structural vibration problems with ANSYS

harmonic response analysis

now we introduce an excitation, for

instance a point force F=1N specified over

a frequency range 02500 Hz

only distinct modes will contribute to the

structural response, e.g. the modes having

a nodal line at the excitation point will not

be excited

use mode superposition instead of

inverting full matrices whenever possible

because of efficiency

usually the response amplitude at some

points is postprocessed versus frequency

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 10 -

Frequency response UY(f) at contact point

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 11 -

Solving Structure-Borne Sound

Problems with ANSYS SBSOUND

basic equation of machinery acoustics

ANSYS application example: train

wheel

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 12 -

Computation of structure-borne sound

Acoustics is driven by velocity v=iu not by structural displacement u.

Acoustics assumes an ideal non-viscous fluid without shear layers. Thus

only the surface normal component of the structural vibration velocity

is important.

Acoustics is not a local phenomenon like fatigue where we have to deal

with local notch stresses. Acoustics is a global phenomenon where the

whole structure may contribute to sound radiation.

thus lets try to get one integral quantity to describe the acoustic

fingerprint of a structure by simply averaging the normal surface

velocities

For all this ideas apply the basic equation of machinery acoustics (cf.

textbooks)

> < = ) (

~

) ( ) (

~

2

f v A f c f P

n

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 13 -

ANSYS macro library SBSOUND (structure-borne sound)

Perform normal projection of the displacement results

Compute surface averaged mean square velocity by integration

Do all computations in modal subspace for higher efficiency and

extended postprocessing capabilities (modal contribution plot, panel

contribution plot)

1 2 3

modal

contributions

show the

influence of

distinct modes

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 14 -

Alternatively: bar chart of modal contributions for fixed f

total result (red

bar) together with

the (blue) modal

contributions

the same figure is

available for

panel panel

contributions contributions if

panels are

defined before

calling

SBSOUND

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 15 -

Sound radiation is not only a function of velocity amplitude!

Sound pressure p for two plates vibrating in the same spatial pattern, both

with equal velocity amplitude v

0

but with different frequencies. There is,

however, a big difference in the sound radiation! Radiation efficiency !

at 50 Hz and at 200 Hz

note the equal pressure scale

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 16 -

Solving Air-Borne Sound

Problems with ANSYS (FEM)

interior frequency domain acoustic

FEM: living room

exterior acoustics time domain FEM:

offshore hammer

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 17 -

Interior acoustics: modal analysis by ANSYS FEM

living room with defined absorbent

linings: mode 2 at 28 Hz (right) mode

50 at 152 Hz (left)

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 18 -

Exterior acoustics: transient analysis by ANSYS FEM

Offshore hammer: for offshore applications a steel pipe has to be fixed

in shallow sea water. The pile has a length of 30m above sea ground, a

radius of 2m, and a wall thickness of 50mm; half-sin force FY1E8N.

Its partially immersed in water (water height 25m), where the speed of

sound c=1500m/s, and fluid density #=1000kg/m

3

, apply absorbent

boundary condition at exterior surfaces

pipe

exterior fluid

interior fluid

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 19 -

Results: animated displacement u and sound pressure p

Structural result

pipe displacement

radial component

important

Acoustic result

sound pressure

animation

sound pressure

signals at different

microphone

positions

PP

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 20 -

Solving Air-Borne Sound

Problems with WAON (BEM)

features of BEM and FMBEM

FMBEM workflow for train wheel

example

ANSYS Workbench !WAON interface

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 21 -

Computation of air-borne sound (typical BEM workflow)

1. structural FE model

2. modal model (FEM):

eigenfrequencies, mode

shapes, modal damping

4. Acoustic BEM solves wave equation, no fluid volume mesh required.

a) BEM result: sound pressure p, sound power P, radiation efficiency $

b) field point mesh result (half sphere): sound pressure p, intensity I

3. Harmonic frequency (FEM)

response results (structure-

borne sound): surface

displacements

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 22 -

Compare FEM & BEM

before talking about the new

development FMBEM lets

have a more general view on

BEM

BEM: divide only the surface.

easy to create a mesh.

The sound radiation problem

can be handled completely

no need for any particular

boundary condition like in

FEM for exterior acoustic

problems

FEM BEM

Interior Interior

Exterior Exterior

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 23 -

Acoustics Software: &

WAON specialized acoustic software for efficient frequency domain sol.

technology

based on Fast Multipole Bounday Element Method (FMBEM), a state of the art

numerical technology

pros

easy to learn (2-4 hours or even a seminar by WEBEX is sufficient)

easy to apply even if acoustics isnt your every day business

easy mesh operations surface mesh of your radiating structure is sufficient

low memory requirements, high performance, high frequencies (comp. to

BEM): e.g. automotive sensor applications at ultrasonic frequencies very

efficient (park distance control, alarm)

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 24 -

What is FMBEM

Conventional BEM

Calculation of interaction between all

elements

Memory requirement

O(N

2

)

Solution time

O(N

3

) : direct solver

O(N

2

) : iterative solver

Fast Multipole algorithm is applied to the boundary element method (BEM)

The world's first commercial acoustic-analysis program with using FMBEM

Accuracy is the same as conventional BEM

FMBEM

Calculation of interaction between cells

instead of between elements (maths:

clustering & multipole expansion)

Solution time

O(N N logN)

Memory requirement

O(N N logN)

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 25 -

Available on larger structures and higher frequency at

shorter times!

Radiated noise from engine

Pressure or output power distribution

around scooter engine.

4.5 kHz analysis by 84,000

DOF mesh.

Required memory(4.5kHz)

Conventional BEM : 113 GB

FMBEM by WAON : 3 GB

Engine: Conventional BEM vs. FMBEM

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 26 -

Compare FEM & BEM

FEM acoustics BEM acoustics

large amount of data particularly for large

distance results or scatter objects

reduced amount of data even for large distance

results

volume meshes: prep/post efforts surface meshes: easy prep/post, less data

developer: easy math,

user: more effort to handle

developer: complex math,

user: more easy to handle

non-reflecting boundary conditions like

FLUID130, perfectly matching layer (PML)

for radiation problems

radiation problem solved very naturally because

every boundary element knows about the

radiation cond. analytically

strong in both frequency & time domain only strong in frequency domain

modal analysis available no modal analysis available

non-homogeneous acoustic media acoustic medium has to be homogeneous

porous media (foam) available (Biot theory) volome damping idealized by complex c

nonlinearities available (large amplitudes) confined to linear theory

convected wave eq. for flow eff. available quiescent acoustic medium

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 27 -

ANSYS/WAON workflow: air-borne sound

train wheel example

reloaded

Prepare WAON BEM

(surface) mesh in ANSYS

and export it to CDB

formatS

prepare WAON field point

mesh (virtual

microphones) in ANSYS

and export it to CDB

format

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 28 -

Import BEM mesh & map ANSYS structural vibration

results

WAON feature tree

(max. 7 dialogues

to work through

intuitively)

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 29 -

Import field point mesh (virtual microphones) &

perform FMBEM harmonic response analysis (2-3 min.)

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 30 -

Postprocess pressure amplitude & pressure level in dB

& intensity vectors on field point mesh

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 31 -

Compare air-borne power to structure-borne sound power

blue curve: input power

(structure-borne sound

power identical to

SBSOUND result)

due to radiation

efficiency $ this always

is a very conservative

estimate of the radiated

active output power in

red (air-borne sound

power)

good agreement at

higher frequencies

above coincidence

where we have

radiation efficiency $=1.

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 32 -

ANSYS Wor k benc h

Developed by ANSYS, Inc.

Developed by CYBERNET SYSTEMS

WAON

Developed by CYBERNET SYSTEMS

WBtoWAON

Even more Easy to Use: Interface WBtoWAON

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 33 -

WAON: some more solved acoustic applications

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

0 5 10 15 20

Frequency[kHz]

S

o

u

n

d

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

L

e

v

e

l

[

d

B

]

Point1 Point2 Point3

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 34 -

Structure: Single phase

alternating current

electric motor

Task: Simulate noise

behavior for silent

operation

Method: Coupled

electro-mechanic,

structural-dynamic and

acoustic analysis

Investigation of the Noise

Behavior of an Electric Motor

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

f [Hz]

S

ch

allleistu

n

g

s

p

e

g

e

l [d

B

]

Multiphysics: FEM/FEM/BEM application example

electromagnetics electromagnetics

struct. vibrations struct. vibrations

acoustics acoustics

Acoustic Applications in Mechanical Engineering

- 35 -

Conclusion

ANSYS FEM for structural vibration analysis, multiphysics analysis

(e.g. electro-magnetic excitation)

SBSOUND (ANSYS macro library provided by CADFEM) for a quick

rough structure-borne sound assessment

WAON for really doing fully-fledged acoustic simulations

FMBEM is a very comfortable technique particularly for the new user

because there is no need for volume meshing like in acoustic FEM

FMBEM technique overcomes the traditional drawback of

conventional BEM: matrix storage requirements & large CPU time

due to direct solvers. High-speed iterative solvers available.

FMBEM by WAON allows the analysis of large scale models & high

frequencies

acoustics is easy acoustics is fun!

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