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the authors benet and for the benet of the authors institution, for non-commercial research and educational use including without limitation use in instruction at your institution, sending it to specic colleagues that you know, and providing a copy to your institutions administrator. All other uses, reproduction and distribution, including without limitation commercial reprints, selling or licensing copies or access, or posting on open internet sites, your personal or institutions website or repository, are prohibited. For exceptions, permission may be sought for such use through Elseviers permissions site at: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissionusematerial

Received 7 February 2006; received in revised form 24 October 2006; accepted 24 October 2006 Available online 28 November 2006

Abstract The heat transfer from a rotating disk in an air stream parallel to the plane of rotation is of importance in the assessment of disk brake performance. Numerically determined heat transfer coefcients and correlations are accordingly presented for a large range of rotational and crossow velocities. These were obtained by means of large-eddy-simulations (LES). The extreme conditions of a stationary disk in an air crossow and a rotating disk in still air are also considered. It is found that a critical ratio between the rotational and the crossow Reynolds numbers exists with respect to rotational heat transfer augmentation. Only above this critical value, rotational heat transfer augmentation sets on in case of laminar crossow Reynolds numbers. This phenomenon is directly linked to a ow instability that leads to a periodic vortex generation, and which can be described by the classical Landau model. For higher angular velocities, the wake becomes fully turbulent, and the transition is very rapid. 2006 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Rotating disk; Air crossow; Flow instability; Landau model; LES

1. Introduction

pe th o r's

Since the pioneering work [1] of von Karman many authors have studied ow and heat transfer problems due to rotating disks as demonstrated by the corresponding reviews of Zandbergen and Dijkstra [2], Kreith [3], Owen and Rogers [4] or Dorfmann [5]. Mainly these investigations are restricted to two classes, namely, free rotating disks with outer forced ows perpendicular to the disks [610], and enclosed rotating disks [1115]. Papers about a rotating disk in a forced ow parallel to the plane, see Fig. 1, are very few. The difference between the above ow classes and this kind of ow studied in the present paper is that the former are axisymmetric and the latter is a non-axisymmetric ow of a special kind (see Fig. 1). In axisymmetric forced ows parallel to the disk surface all the derivatives with respect to the angle are neglected, while in the non-axisymmetric ow the derivatives have to be kept with respect to all three spatial co-ordinates.

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Rott and Lewellen [16] have investigated general properties of the boundary layers due to the combined effects of rotation and translation considering an innite conguration permitting only the deduction of results with minor technical importance. Fadnis [17] solved the boundary layer problem of a rotating spheroid, but this is more a generalisation of the forced ow perpendicular to a disk and not a non-axisymmetric ow passing over a rotating disk. Dennis et al. [18] have studied experimentally the heat transfer from a rotating disk, and they have offered an approximate analysis based on a combination of data for a rotating disk and a stationary surface, too. These limit cases have been extensively studied by different authors. A dimensional analysis shows that the mean Nusselt number (at steady state) Num = Num (Pr, Reu , Re ) (1)

depends on the Prandtl number Pr and the crossow (or translational) Reynolds number Reu and the rotational Reynolds number Re given by Reu = u1,in R and Re = R 2 (2)

* Present address: Kautex Textron GmbH & Co. KG, Kautexstr. 52, D-53229 Bonn, Germany. Tel.: +49 228 488 8630; fax: +49 228 488 999 8630. E-mail address: stefan.wiesche@kautex.textron.com.

1290-0729/$ see front matter 2006 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2006.10.013

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Nomenclature c cp CS , Ck d f G h k m Nu p Pr Qi q r R Re Sij St t T u V x, y, z correlation constant isobar specic heat capacity . . . . . . . . . J kg1 K1 closure coefcients disk thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s1 lter function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m3 heat transfer coefcient . . . . . . . . . . . . W m2 K1 turbulent kinetic energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m2 s2 correlation exponent Nusselt number pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pa Prandtl number sublter-scale heat ux (LES) . . . . . . . . . . K m s1 heat ux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W m2 radial co-ordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m disk radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m Reynolds number strain rate tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s1 Strouhal number time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K velocity component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m s1 volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m3 Cartesian co-ordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m Greek symbols ij ij d i, j, k in m t u Kronecker symbol heat conductivity (uid) . . . . . . . . . . . . W m1 K1 kinematic viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m2 s1 density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kg m3 closure coefcient azimuthal angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rad stress tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m2 s2 angular velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rad s1 disk 1,2,3, . . . inow mean turbulent crossow rotation reference

Subscripts

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Num = c Rem u

Mathematical notation x , y , z grid size in respect to co-ordinate x , y , z x , y , z auxiliary variable in integral evaluation a ltering of a variable a

The limit case of a stationary disk in an air crossow (Pr = 0.7) is typically correlated by an expression (5)

th o

Laminar and turbulent ow separated by a transition region can be distinguished. Whereas in case of laminar ow the value m = 1/2 is appropriate, for fully turbulent ow it tends to m = 0.8 [1921]. More sophisticated correlations incorporating the effect of Pr are also available in Ref. [21]. In case of laminar ow the heat transfer from the isothermal rotating disk in still air can be correlated by Num = 0.33 Re for 103 Re

1/2

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al

2 105 and Pr = 0.7

co

for 5 105

py

(6)

Num

q m R hm R = (Td T )

Au

The main objective of the present study is to calculate the mean Nusselt number at steady state dened by means of (3)

The value c = 0.33 agrees with the results of Kreith [3] and it is a little bit smaller then the value c = 0.4 suggested by Richardson and Saunders [8] or Dennis et al. [18]. A suitable correlation for the fully turbulent case calls

.8 Num = 0.015 Re0

Re and Pr = 0.7

(7)

where the mean heat ux q m is the surface-averaged quantity (at steady state)

2 R

1 q m = R 2

0 0

qr dr d

(4)

In the present study, only the case Pr = 0.7 is considered (air at normal conditions).

in very good agreement with the data for an isothermal disk reported in the literature [3,18,22]. For the transition region, a more sophisticated correlation derived by Cobb and Saunders [22] is also available in the literature. The present problem is in fact a combination of these two simpler problems, but the convective heat transfer and its augmentation due to rotation exhibits some scientic interesting details. Considering low and moderate Reynolds numbers the

747

2. Problem formula The ow sketched in Fig. 1 is considered in the present paper. A thin disk with outer radius R and thickness d rotates in the x, y -plane. The air crossow with constant mean velocity u1,in and the disk rotation with angular velocity create a complex ow; far away from the disk the velocity eld is given by the rather simple potential ow u1 = u1,in and u2 , u3 = 0. The resulting velocity proles along the x -axis are sketched qualitatively in Fig. 1, too. The disk surface is kept at constant temperature Td . Furthermore, the material properties (density and transport coefcients) are assumed to be constant, too. In the ow domain, the governing equations call in the usual tensor notation ui =0 xi ui ui ui 1 p + uj = + t xj xi xj xj cp T T T + cp ui = t xi xi xi (8) (9) (10)

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Eq. (8) is the continuity equation for an incompressible uid, Eq. (9) represents the NavierStokes-equation for a Newtonian uid, and the energy equation (10) contains the rather powerful simplications due to very small Mach and Eckert numbers, respectively. The ow over a stationary disk is described efciently by means of the boundary layer theory [27,28]. In case of an additional rotational motion of the disk the situation changes dramatically. General considerations show that the ow is then three-dimensional, and it must be asymmetric with regard to the x, z-plane, because the rotation destroys the mirror symmetry. On the other side, considering a rotating disk in still air and adding an additional parallel crossow destroys the analytical von Karman solution as well. The resulting three-dimensional ow including translation and rotation is certainly not represented by a known similarity solution. A serious problem is caused by ow separation. While the phenomenon of separation in two-dimensional ow is fairly well understood, the situation in three dimensions is much more complicated and far from being clear. Furthermore, a moving

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3. Numerical treatment The above set of equations cannot be solved analytically, and a numerical treatment is required. In the present study, large-eddy-simulations (LES) are employed for calculating the ow and temperature elds around the disk since a prior case study [24] has indicated the high potential of LES for such a ow problem. 3.1. LES equations

The governing equations employed for LES are obtained by ltering the time-dependent three-dimensional governing equations (8)(10). In general, a ltered variable, for example, the velocity component ui , is denoted by an overbar and is dened by u i (x, y, z, t)

V

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author has investigated numerically the ow over a rotating disk [23,24]. It was found, that a critical angular velocity exists above rotational heat transfer augmentation sets on, and this phenomenon can be described by the phenomenological Landau model [2426]. In respect to the combined effect there is only one experimental study of Dennis et al. [18] available in the literature. This study has been done using a comparable thick disk with a rounded nose, which created high initial level of turbulence and engendered results for a stationary disk that disagree with the previous studies of different authors (see Section 4.1). There is also only one publication available in the literature elucidating preliminary results of numerical simulations of the stated problem obtained by the author [24]. All this calls for a new in-depth study.

wall (i.e. the rotating disk) changes the separation condition. Then, the two-dimensional separation criterion u =0 (11) z d at the wall has to be replaced by the so-called MRS-criterion [2831] u = 0 at regions with vanishing velocity u = 0 (12) z satised normally within the ow domain. The separated ow is usually unsteady, and the laminar boundary layer theory does not offer an efcient approach for calculating the ow [28]. The augmentation of heat transfer is closely connected with the separation and the wake ow. When the angular velocity is increased, the prior numerical results derived by the author [23,24] indicate an augmentation of the mean Nusselt number Num only above a critical angular velocity cr . Below, the mean Nusselt number Num remains constant, i.e. it is equal to the non-rotating value. This effect can be explained on the basis that disk rotation augments heat transfer on the ascending (co-moving) side and diminishes it on the descending (counter-moving) side in such a way that the average heat transfer is almost unaffected. However, for sufcient high angular velocities ow separation occurs which destroys any exact compensation, and hence rotational heat transfer augmentation sets on.

ui (x , y , z , t) (13)

1/( x y z) for (x , y , z ) V (14) 0 otherwise for the lter function G is used for all variables (ui , p , and T ). Filtering of the governing equations (8) and (9) gives therefore u i =0 (15) xi u i u i 1 p + + (u iu j ) = + ij (16) t xj xi xj xj xj

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The popular eddy-viscosity model for the subgrid-scale stresses, namely, 2 ij ij = kij + 2t S (18) 3 with the subgrid turbulence kinetic energy k is chosen in the ij present study. In Eq. (18) t is the turbulent viscosity and S is the corresponding ltered strain rate tensor. In order to close the above set of equations, the Smagorinsky model [32] is used to model the eddy viscosity. In detail, one gets

2 Sij Sij t = 2( x y z)2/3 CS 2 = ( x y z)2/3 CS

u i xj

u j u i + xj xi

(19) (20)

k=

on

z 1 R Reu

with the Smagorinsky constants CS = 0.1 and Ck = 0.094, respectively. The same ltering procedure for the temperature equation (10) yields T 2T Qi T +u i = 2 t xi cp xi xi where the sublter-scale heat ux Qi is modelled by 2 j k S j k S j k T ( x y z)2 S Qi = CS xi (21)

al

t2 2 ( x y z)2/3 Ck

slip-condition is prescribed. The disk with radius R and thickness d/R = 0.02 is located at the origin in the x, y -plane (z = 0, see also Fig. 1). With regard to the global co-ordinate system the rotation is anti-clockwise with angular velocity . At the disk surface the velocity is prescribed by the non-slip condition leading to non-trivial velocity boundary conditions at the obstacles boundary. The computational region extends from x = 3R to x = +12R , from y = 3R to y = +3R , and from z = R to z = +R , respectively. These dimensions have to be found sufcient after some preliminary studies. Only in case of a rotating disk in still air, when no parabolic ow character is present, the computational region have been changed to x = 6R to x = +6R , from y = 6R to y = +6R , and from z = 0 to z = +2R , respectively. For this special case, the boundary condition at the plane z = 0 has been also changed from slip-condition to symmetry condition (vanishing normal derivative) outside of the disk region. For LES a sufcient high grid resolution is required in spite of the large eddies. From elementary laminar boundary layer theory [28] the following minimal grid width relation can be deduced

co

py

(23)

(22)

in the present work, see [33]. Here, an eddy thermal diffusivity is introduced by setting the turbulent Prandtl number to Prt = 1.0, in accordance to [34]. 3.2. Numerical approach

To solve the above LES equations a numerical approach based on the nite-volume-method is chosen. The discretisation of the partial differential equations is performed on a Cartesian mesh with staggered grid arrangement for the velocities. The chosen semi-implicit formulation for the pressure forces results in coupled sets of equations that must be solved by an iterative technique. In the present study, the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method is applied [35,36]. Time advancing of the equations is done by the second-order AdamsBashforth method [36]. The chosen basic numerical method has a formal accuracy that is second-order with respect to time and space increments; for sake of convergence, a second-order monotonicity preserving upwind-difference method for the convective terms is applied. Furthermore, for the velocity prole near boundaries a fth-order approach is used. The uniform inow condition u1 = u1,in , u2 = u3 = 0, k = 104 u2 1,in , T = T and the continuative outow condition (vanishing of derivatives) are applied at x = xmin and x = xmax , respectively. At the x, y -planes and x, z-planes the

th o

with the translational Reynolds number Reu = u1,in R/ . Due to the rotation, the same minimum grid width relation has been chosen for the other spatial directions, too. Close to the disk, the mesh size has been rened, whereas far away from the disk a coarser mesh size has been chosen. The material and ow domain parameters used for calculation are summarised in Table 1. The initial condition for the ow domain is equal to the uniform inow condition. At time t = 0 the disk starts to rotate and the steady state is reached after a transient period. Obviously, the initial state is physically meaningless, and the desired ow state is obtained by a time marching approach leading to a statistically steady state where the global ow quantities like thermal and kinetic energy uctuate around their mean values. Typically, this statistically steady state is reached for t uin /R 100.

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Table 1 Simulation parameters Density of air Kinematic viscosity of air Specic heat of air cp Thermal conductivity of air Disk radius R Inow velocity u1,in Angular velocity Normalised disk thickness d/R Computational domain in x -direction Computational domain in y -direction Computational domain in z-direction Minimum mesh size at disk z/R Maximum number of cells in x -direction Maximum number of cells in y -direction Maximum number of cells in z-direction 1.19 kg m3 15.1 106 m2 s1 1.007 103 J kg1 K1 26 103 W m1 K1 0.2 m 0.075 up to 75.5 m s1 0.3775 up to 377.5 rad s1 0.02 3R up to +12R 3R up to +3R R up to +R 0.0012 400 212 64

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4. Mean heat transfer The heat transfer from a rotating disk in a parallel air crossow is in fact a combination of two simpler problems known and well-studied before, namely the stationary disk in air crossow and the rotating disk in still air. The accuracy of the present LES approach is assessed by considering these limit cases prior to the calculation of the combined crossow and rotation heat transfer effects. 4.1. Limit case: stationary disk in air crossow The mean Nusselt number Num against the inow Reynolds number Reu is plotted in Fig. 2 in case of a stationary at disk in air crossow (Pr = 0.7). The dots indicate the LES results (time-averaged values at the statistically steady state) whereas the lines represent suitable analytical correlations (see following discussion). By inspection of Fig. 2 three heat transfer regimes can be distinguished: a laminar regime, a transition region, and a turbulent regime, respectively. The critical crossow Reynolds number at which the transition into turbulence begins is of about Reu = 50 000, whereas the turbulent heat transfer is fully reached at a Reynolds number of about Reu = 100 000. In case of laminar ow the present LES heat transfer results from the stationary disk can be correlated by Num = 0.417 Reu for 103 Reu

1/2

effect explains why particular their constant is larger in comparison to the idealised LES result, see also the discussion in Section 4.3. The laminar value of Eq. (24) agrees well with the corresponding boundary layer approach, see [23]. 4.2. Limit case: Rotating disk in still air Von Karman studied the ow induced by a rotating disk rst [1]. The rotation imparts tangential and outward radial components of velocity to the uid close to the disk surface. This causes an axial ow of uids towards the disk. The numerical results for the heat transfer are presented as a double logarithmic plot of the mean Nusselt number Num against the rotational Reynolds number Re in Fig. 3. The dots indicate the LES results and the lines represent suitable asymptotic correlations. For sufcient low values of the rotational Reynolds number, the ow behaviour remains laminar. The ow passes through a transition region (for approximately 2 105 Re 5 105 ) and as the rotational Reynolds number increases the ow becomes turbulent. The present LES results agree well with the literature data, Eqs. (6) and (7).

.8 Num = 0.0127 Re0 u

for 105

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The value 0.0127 for the constant c in Eq. (25) is signicantly smaller then the experimental value 0.027 derived by Dennis et al. [18]. Their experiments were accompanied by a large additional turbulence level caused by the rounded nose disk. This

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(25)

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(24)

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Results obtained by the present LES approach are shown in Fig. 4 as a double-logarithmic plot of the mean Nusselt number against the crossow Reynolds number Reu , for a series of rotational Reynolds numbers Re . The dots indicate the numerical LES results and they are connected by interpolating curves in order to give the reader a clearer picture. The curve for Re = 0 (stationary disk in air crossow) has been discussed earlier in Section 4.1. It represents the minimum heat transfer for a given crossow Reynolds number Reu . Due to rotation, heat transfer augmentation is possible. This augmentation effect becomes important in case of large rotational Reynolds Reu . For low crossow Reynolds numnumber, i.e. for Re bers Reu , the lines (Re > 0) tend to the horizontal, indicating

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Fig. 5. Comparison between LES heat transfer predictions and corresponding experimental data [18].

that the mean Nusselt number Num is becoming independent of the (low) crossow Reynolds number Reu . Then, the heat transfer is governed by the rotation effect. For sufcient high inow Reynolds numbers, i.e. for Re < Reu , there is no additional heat transfer augmentation due to disk rotation observable, and the curves (Re > 0) come together with the curve for Re = 0. Then, the heat transfer is governed by the crossow effect. Between these two limits, there is a slight additional heat transfer augmentation observable due to rotation and crossow. Particular for the turbulent ow regime Dennis et al. [18] have provided experimental data and predictions based on a vectorial addition of the local heat transfer coefcients arising from the two limit cases (see turbulent correlations of Sections 1 and 4.1). A detail comparison is shown between their data and the predictions computed by the present LES approach in Fig. 5. The lled lines and symbols represent the LES results. The main deviation between the data is caused by the signicant higher experimental heat transfer arising from the crossow limit case Re = 0 (see also Section 4.1). Therefore all experimental results are shifted systematically to higher values. Dennis et al. stated that it is quite likely that the nose (of the disk) used was still disturbing the airow as it was blunter than the proles used by previous researchers to maintain laminar ow over a at plate [18]. This additional turbulence level not occurring in the idealised LES treatment might cause the present disagreement, but only independent experiments can help to clarify this point. Furthermore, the experiments were carried out with a normalised disk thickness of d/R = 0.05 whereas the LES considers a signicantly thinner disk (d/R = 0.02) where such a nose effect is also reduced. In cases where the turbulent crossow effect is of only minor importance (i.e. Re > Reu ) the agreement between LES and experiment is good.

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1.4. On the other side, this means that the mean Nusselt number Num, of the rotating disk is the same as the mean Nusselt number Num, =0 for the stationary disk in case of Re /Reu < 1.4. This statement is illustrated by Fig. 6 where the ratio of the mean Nusselt numbers is plotted against the crossow Reynolds number in case of corresponding subcritical rotational Reynolds numbers obeying Re /Reu = 1. Only one single value calculated by the LES approach is not exactly compatible with the statement Num, /Num, =0 = 1, but this might be also an error due to the nite period of time for averaging the variables. The ratio of the mean Nusselt numbers Num, /Num, =0 is shown in Fig. 7 against the ratio Re /Reu in a doublelogarithmic plot in the vicinity of the critical value Re /Reu = 1.4. This critical value has been calculated in a prior study [23], too, and the present LES conrms this value. For sufciently low angular velocities, i.e. for Re /Reu < 1.4, the mean heat transfer is not affected by rotation, see Fig. 6, because the disk rotation augments heat convection on the ascending side and diminishes it on the descending side in such a way that the average heat transfer is almost unaffected. The boundary layer correlation (24) remains still valid in this regime (up to a critical ratio Re /Reu 1.4). For Re /Reu > 1.4 a symmetry breaking takes place and a net heat transfer occurs [24]. Flow separation can occur for Re Reu , because the separation criterion (12) can be satised under these circumstances directly leading to ow instabilities following the phenomenological Landau theory [2326]. The Landau model covers the global characteristics of a critical phenomenon accompanied by a symmetry breaking near a critical point. In the vicinity of the critical point, the heat transfer correlation calls Num = Num, =0 for 0 Re /Reu < 1.4 Re 1.4 Reu

1/2

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4.4. Heat transfer augmentation due to rotation In case of laminar crossow Reynolds numbers, rotational heat transfer sets on only above a critical ratio of Re /Reu (26) Num = Num, =0 + 0.32Num, =0 for 1.4 Re /Reu < 5 (27)

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Fig. 7. Ratio of mean Nusselt numbers against Reynolds number ratio in the vicinity of the critical point.

Reu

0.417 Reu

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Based on the present LES study, the following correlations are recommended for predicting the mean heat transfer in case of a rotating disk in an air crossow (Pr = 0.7) parallel to the disk plane: 5 104 :

1/2

th o

for Re /Reu

r's

The critical exponent m = 1/2 in correlation (27) is universal (i.e. independent of the crossow Reynolds number) and represents the so-called mean-eld approximation [26]. It has to be remarked that in the given case the heat transfer augmentation is not caused by a simple laminar boundary layer ow; instead it is created by the complex interactions between planar and rotational ow in the vicinity of an instability point. The vortex generation occurs for low super-critical angular velocities at the counter-moving side, and this vortex shedding caused the heat transfer augmentation within the Landau regime. The transition into turbulence is rapid, and the turbulent is fully three-dimensional and not longer conned to the disk plane (see Section 4.6 and particular Ref. [24].

1.4

0.8 2 .8 2 (0.0127Re0 u ) + (0.015Re ) for Re > 2 105 Num = 1/2 2 .8 2 (0.0127Re0 u ) + (0.33Re ) for Re < 2 105

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(28) (29)

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St = fR uin

The different heat transfer regimes can be nicely illustrated by means of ow eld visualisations. Instantaneous temperature distributions at steady state are shown in Fig. 8, in case of a xed crossow Reynolds number Reu = 4000 for a series of rotational Reynolds numbers Re . The corresponding local Nusselt number distributions at the disk surface are shown in Fig. 9. In case of a stationary disk in an air crossow (Re = 0) the ow is perfect symmetric with regard to the disk surface. The temperature distribution is smooth, and the wake does not exhibit unsteady vortices since the crossow Reynolds number indicates laminar ow. As a result, the local Nusselt number (i.e. the normalised heat ux) is also symmetric and in accordance to the at plate results, i.e. a high heat ux value occurs at the beginning of the disk, and it decreases with increasing disk length. Due to the nite shape of the disk, the classical Blasius solution is modied, leading to additional two-dimensional details of the ow. The wake is restricted to the disk plane without any signicant normal contributions. In case of low rotational Reynolds number (Re = 4000 = Reu ) the rotational motion of the disk affects the ow eld only slightly, and the mean heat transfer remains constant. Fig. 9 demonstrates this compensation effect. It can be explained on the basis that disk rotation augments heat transfer on the ascending (co-moving) side and diminishes it on the descending (counter-moving) side in such a way that the average heat transfer is almost unaffected. Thus, the local Nusselt number distribution remains mainly the same; it is only rotated slightly in respect to the stationary disk. Although there is no net increase of heat transfer due to rotation observable in this regime, vortices are created periodically with frequency f at the countermoving edge of the disk, Fig. 8. The corresponding value for the calculated Strouhal number (30)

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The agreement between the values obtained by using the correlations (28) and (29) and the LES results is better then 10% for the whole range of considered Reynolds numbers. Obviously, the asymptotic limit cases are also included in the above set. In case of a stationary disk in an air crossow, or in case of an isothermal rotating disk in still air, the classical correlations are directly reproduced. The formal difference to the calculation procedure proposed by Dennis et al. [18] is the fact that the above correlations use the global Reynolds numbers whereas the former needs a computational grid for calculating the mean heat transfer from the local Nusselt numbers. Although the ow instability and hence the special Landau model correlations (26) and (27) are rather interesting from a scientic point of view, the use of the simple correlations (28) and (29) is also recommended in practical applications.

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Fig. 8. Instantaneous temperature distributions for a series of rotational Reynolds numbers and Reu = 4000.

is St = 0.13 0.01. The periodic uctuations are conned to the disk surface and have no signicant contributions in respect to the normal direction (z-co-ordinate). With increasing rotational Reynolds number (Re = 10 000 = 2.5Reu ) these uctuations become more important, and the ow becomes more turbulent. The wake is then not longer conned to the disk surface, and becomes threedimensional with high anisotropy of turbulence in the 3D ow pattern. As a consequence, strong uctuations of the local heat ux (Fig. 9) occur, but the typical at plate distribution can still be identied. However, ow separation occurs which destroys any exact compensation, and hence rotational heat transfer augmentation sets on. In this regime, the uctuation spectrum is not longer sharp; instead, it contains several frequencies. With increasing rotational Reynolds number (Re = 50 000 = 12.5Reu ), the wake becomes fully turbulent and threedimensional, Fig. 8. The local heat ux distribution is nearly uniform (Fig. 9), and mainly governed by the rotational heat transfer mechanism. 5. Conclusion In this paper, the heat transfer from a rotating disk in an air crossow parallel to the disk plane has been considered. Numerically determined heat transfer coefcients and correlations

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have been accordingly presented for a large range of rotational and crossow velocities. These were obtained by means of large-eddy-simulations (LES) using the Smagorinsky sublterscale model. The extreme conditions of a stationary disk in an air crossow and a rotating disk in still air have been also considered. Expressions for the mean Nusselt number of a rotating disk in an air crossow have been calculated and compared with the available experimental data from Dennis et al. [18]. In case of dominant rotational heat transfer the agreement is good, but a signicant shift to higher values has been noticed for the experimental mean Nusselt numbers. This disagreement between the idealised LES treatment and the measurements might be explained on the basis of an additional turbulence level caused by the thicker disk used in the wind tunnel, but only an independent experiment is able to clarify this. It has been found that a critical ratio between the rotational and the crossow Reynolds numbers exists with respect to rotational heat transfer augmentation. Only above this critical value, rotational heat transfer augmentation sets on in case of laminar crossow Reynolds numbers. This phenomenon is directly linked to a ow instability that leads to a periodic vortex generation, and which can be described by the classical Landau model. For higher angular velocities, the wake becomes fully turbulent, and the transition is very rapid.

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Fig. 9. Instantaneous local Nusselt number distributions on the disk surface for a series of rotational Reynolds numbers and Reu = 4000.

Acknowledgements

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References

[1] T. von Karman, ber laminare und turbulente Reibung, ZAMM 1 (1921) 233252. [2] P.J. Zandbergen, D. Dijkstra, Von Karman swirling ows, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 19 (1987) 465491. [3] F. Kreith, Convection heat transfer in rotating systems, Adv. Heat Transfer 5 (1968) 129251. [4] J.M. Owen, R.H. Rogers, Flow and Heat Transfer in Rotating-Disc Systems, vols. I and II, Research Studies Press Ltd, Taunton, 1989. [5] L.A. Dorfmann, Hydrodynamic Resistance and the Heat Loss of Rotating Solids, Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, 1963. [6] H. Schlichting, E. Truckenbrodt, Die Strmung an einer angeblasenen rotierenden Scheibe, ZAMM 32 (1952) 97111. [7] D.M. Hannah, Forced ow against a rotating disc, Rep. Memor. Aero. Res. Coun. London, No. 2772, 1952. [8] F.D. Richardson, O.A. Saunders, Studies of ow and heat transfer associated with a rotating disc, J. Mech. Engrg. Sci. 5 (1963) 336342.

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The author acknowledges the comments and suggestions of the reviewers which have improved the quality of the paper.

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[9] W.-T. Cheng, H.-T. Lin, Unsteady and steady mass transfer by laminar forced ow against a rotating disk, Heat Mass Transfer 30 (1994) 101 108. [10] I.V. Shevchuk, An improved enthalpy-thickness model for predicting heat transfer of a free rotating disk using an integral method, in: Proc. of 35th NHTC, Anaheim, California, Paper NHTC2001-20195, 2001. [11] F. Schultz-Grunow, Der Reibungswiderstand rotierender Scheiben in Gehusen, ZAMM 15 (1935) 191204. [12] S.L. Soo, Laminar ow over an enclosed rotating disk, Trans. ASME 80 (1958) 287296. [13] J.W. Daily, R.E. Nece, Chamber dimension effects on induced ow and frictional resistance of enclosed rotating disks, J. Basic Engrg. 82 (1960) 217232. [14] S.L. Soo, R.W. Besant, Z.N. Sarafa, The nature of heat transfer from an enclosed rotating disk, ZAMP 13 (1962) 297309. [15] C.M. Ellwood, W.J. Korchinsky, The heating, by viscous dissipation, of liquids owing across an enclosed rotating disc, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43 (2000) 10351050. [16] N. Rott, W.S. Lewellen, Boundary layers due to the combined effects of rotation and translation, Phys. Fluids 10 (1967) 18671873. [17] B.S. Fadnis, Boundary layer on rotating spheroids, ZAMP 5 (1954) 156 163. [18] R.W. Dennis, C. Newstead, A.J. Ede, The heat transfer from a rotating disc in an air crossow, in: Proc. 4th Int. Heat Transfer Conference, Paris Versailles, Paper FC 7.1, 1970.

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[19] E. Eckert, Einfhrung in die Wrme- und Stoffbertragung, 2. Auage, Springer, Berlin, 1959. [20] M. Jischa, Konvektiver Impuls-, Wrme- und Stoffaustausch, Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1982. [21] H.D. Baehr, K. Stephan, Wrme und Stoffbertragung. 2. Auage, Springer, Berlin, 1996. [22] E.C. Cobb, O.A. Saunders, Heat transfer from a rotating disk, Proc. Royal Soc. A 236 (1956) 343351. [23] S. aus der Wiesche, Heat transfer and thermal behaviour of a rotating disk passed by a planar air stream, Forsch. Ing. 67 (2002) 161174. [24] S. aus der Wiesche, LES study of heat transfer augmentation and wake instabilities of a rotating disk in a planar stream of air, Heat Mass Transfer 40 (2004) 271284. [25] E. Guyon, J.P. Hulin, L. Petit, Hydrodynamik, Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1997. [26] L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifschitz, Lehrbuch der Theoretischen Physik. Band VI. Hydrodynamik, 5. Auage, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1991. [27] L. Rosenhead (Ed.), Laminar Boundary Layers, Dover, New York, 1988. [28] H. Schlichting, K. Gersten, Grenzschicht-Theorie, 9. Auage, Springer, Berlin, 1997.

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[29] F.K. Moore, On the separation of the unsteady laminar boundary layer, in: H. Grtler Hrsg (Ed.), Grenzschichtforschung, Springer, Berlin, 1958, pp. 296311. [30] N. Rott, Unsteady viscous ow in the vicinity of a stagnation point, Q. J. Appl. Math. 13 (1956) 444451. [31] W.R. Sears, Some recent developments in airfoil theory, J. Royal Aero. Soc. 23 (1956) 490499. [32] J. Smagorinsky, General circulation experiments with the primitive equations, Monthly Weather Rev. 91 (1963) 99164. [33] F.V. Katapodes, R.L. Street, J.H. Ferziger, Sublter-scale scalar transport for large-eddy simulation, in: Proc. of 14th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, American Meteorological Society, Aspen, Colorado, 2000, pp. 472475. [34] A.J. Reynolds, The prediction of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 18 (1975) 10551069. [35] J.D. Anderson, Computational Fluid Dynamics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995. [36] M. Schfer, Numerik im Maschinenbau, Springer, Berlin, 1999.

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