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PRIMARY FLIGHT CONROL

Control System
The primary flight control of an aircraft do no more than modify the cam er! or aerodynamic "hape! of the "#rface to $hich they are attached% Thi" change in cham er create" a change in the lift and drag prod#ced y the "#rface! $ith the immediate re"#lt of rotating the airplane a o#t one of it" a&e"% Thi" rotation prod#ce" the de"ired change" in the flight path of the aircraft% Control "y"tem con"i"t" of longit#dinal control! lateral control and directional control% An aircraft i" e'#ipped $ith mo(a le "#rface" or airfoil $hich pro(ide" "ta ility and control d#ring flight% The"e control" are normally di(ided into t$o categorie"! the primary flight control and the "econdary flight control% In thi" a""ignment $e are foc#"ing on primary flight control% The three primary flight control" for an airplane are the aileron! ele(ator and r#dder% All the"e control" are re"pon"i le for mane#(ering the aircraft a o#t it" three a&e"%

Aircraft movement about the axes

Boeing 747 Flight Control System


Primary control" of airplane flight attit#de are aileron"! ele(ator"! and r#dder"% The"e flight control "#rface" in"talled to allo$ the flight cre$ to mane#(er the airplane a o#t the lateral! (ertical and longit#dinal a&i"% The"e primary control "#rface" are po"itioned y hydra#lic act#ator" po$ered y the airplane)" fo#r independent hydra#lic "y"tem"% The "#rface" are controlled from the flight compartment $ith aileron control $heel"! ele(ator control col#mn"! and r#dder pedal"%

The fig#re in the pre(io#" page "ho$" all of the flight control "#rface"% *tarting $ith the left $ing o "er(e the o#t oard and in oard aileron% The (ie$ of the empennage "ho$" the "ta ili+er $ith it" in oard and o#t oard ele(ator and the (ertical fin "ho$" the lo$er r#dder and a portion of the #pper r#dder%

Longitudinal control
Longit#dinal control con"i"t" of a fi&ed hori+ontal "ta ili+er on the rear end of the f#"elage! $ith mo(a le ele(ator" hinged to it" trailing edge% The"e ele(ator" are the control "#rface" that go(ern the mo(ement ,pitch- of the aircraft along thi" longit#dinal a&i"% They are normally attached to hinge" on the rear "par of the hori+ontal "ta ili+er% The con"tr#ction of an ele(ator i" "imilar to that other control "#rface"! and the de"ign of ele(ator may e #n alance or alance aerodynamically and.or "tatically% The ele(ator i" the "mall mo(ing "ection at the rear of the "ta ili+er that i" attached to the fi&ed "ection" y hinge"% /eca#"e the ele(ator mo(e"! it (arie" the amo#nt of force generated y the tail "#rface and i" #"ed to generate and control the pitching motion of the aircraft% There i" an ele(ator attached to each "ide of the f#"elage% The ele(ator" $or0 in pair"1 $hen the right ele(ator goe" #p! the left ele(ator al"o goe" #p% The ele(ator i" #"ed to control the po"ition of the no"e of the aircraft and the angle of attac0 of the $ing% Changing the inclination of the $ing to the local flight path change" the amo#nt of lift $hich the $ing generate"% Thi"! in t#rn! ca#"e" the aircraft to clim or di(e% 2#ring ta0e off the ele(ator" are #"ed to ring the no"e of the aircraft #p to egin the clim o#t% 2#ring a an0ed t#rn! ele(ator inp#t" can increa"e the lift and ca#"e a tighter t#rn% That i" $hy ele(ator performance i" "o important for aircraft% 3hen an ele(ator goe" #p! it $ill increa"e angle of attac0% It $ill mo(e the no"e #p% 3hen ele(ator" goe" do$n! it $ill decrea"e angle of attac0 $hich made the no"e of aircraft goe" do$n%

elevator raised, reduced lift, tail goes down, nose goes u elevator neutral !centered" elevator lowered, increased lift, tail goes u , nose goes down

#levator $osition !As viewed from the side"

In 454 aircraft! the ele(ator control "y"tem pro(ide" primary control of the airplane a o#t it" pitch a&i"% The "y"tem con"i"t of fo#r ele(ator" attach to rear "par of the hori+ontal "ta ili+er! fo#r hydra#lic act#ator"! control and ele(ator feel "y"tem% Hydra#lic po$er dri(e" the ele(ator in re"pon"e to control inp#t% There are t$o ele(ator" on each "ide of the airplane! each po$ered y hydra#lic po$er control #nit" or act#ator% The ele(ator ne&t to the f#"elage are called in oard ele(ator and tho"e o#t farther on the "ta ili+er rear "par are called o#t oard ele(ator"%

Lateral control
Aileron" are primary flight control "#rface" #tili+e to pro(ide lateral ,rollingcontrol of aircraft% They control aircraft mo(ement along the lateral a&i"% Lo$ering the aileron on one $ing rai"e" the aileron on the other% The $ing $ith the lo$ered aileron goe" #p eca#"e of it" increa"ed lift! and the $ing $ith the rai"ed aileron goe" do$n eca#"e of it" decrea"ed lift% Th#"! the effect of mo(ing either aileron i" aided y the "im#ltaneo#" and oppo"ite mo(ement of the aileron on the other $ing% Large 6et aircraft often employ t$o "et" of aileron! one "et eing appro&imately mid$ing or immediately o#t oard of the in oard flap! and the other "et eing in the con(entional location near the $ingtip"%

In /454 aircraft! each $ing ha" t$o aileron"! one in oard! one o#t oard and "i& "poiler" $hich con"i"t of fi(e flight "poiler" and one gro#nd "poiler% 7ach of the aileron and "poiler i" operated y a hydra#lic act#ator% The aileron po$er #nit i" "#pplied $ith hydra#lic po$er from t$o independent "o#rce"% The o#t oard aileron i" operational only d#ring lo$ "peed condition! $ith loc0 o#t eing control y the po"ition of the trailing edge flap%

%irectional Control
An airplane i" e'#ipped $ith certain fi&ed and mo(a le "#rface" or airfoil $hich pro(ide" for "ta ility and control d#ring flight% R#dder i" a (ertical control "#rface #"#ally hinged to the tail po"t aft of the (ertical "ta ili+er and de"igned to apply ya$ing mo(ement to the airplane that i" to ma0e it t#rn to the right or left a o#t the (ertical a&i"% The r#dder i" attached to the (ertical "ta ili+er% Controlled y the r#dder pedal"! the r#dder i" #"ed y the pilot to control the direction left or right of ya$ a o#t the airplane8" (ertical a&i" for minor ad6#"tment"% It i" not #"ed to ma0e the airplane t#rn! #t an0ing the airplane to ma0e" it t#rn% 3hen the foot pre""#re on the left r#dder pedal mo(e" the r#dder to the left! ca#"ing the no"e of the airplane to mo(e to the left% 3hen the foot pre""#re on the right r#dder pedal mo(e" the r#dder to the right! ca#"ing the no"e of the airplane to mo(e to the right%

In /454 aircraft! the r#dder pro(ide" ya$ control for the airplane% The #pper and lo$er r#dder i" "imilar in de"ign $ith appro&imately e'#al capa ility% The"e r#dder" ha(e no ta " and are po"ition y d#al tendem hydra#lic act#ator"% Hydra#lic "y"tem 9 and : "#pply the #pper r#dder and ; and 5 "#pply the lo$er r#dder% The "y"tem con"i"t" of pedal control and ca le" ya$ damper! hydra#lic act#ator and #pper and lo$er r#dder"%

Secondary Flight Control System


The "econdary flight control al"o called a#&iliary ha" een de(eloped eca#"e the aircraft" are often capa le of operating o(er a $ide "peed range and $ith different $eight di"tri #tion% The n#m er and comple&ity of the "econdary control "#rface" on a partic#lar aircraft depend on the type of the operation and flight "peed for $hich the aircraft i" de"ign% The"e are the e&ample of "econdary flight control< A& S oiler = = = = = aileron drag > red#ce y "poiler on top "#rface of $ing in front of aileron normally fl#"h $ith $ing #t $hen aileron i" rai"e! "poiler al"o mo(e #p thi" inc drag on inner $ing in t#rn On "ome aircraft no aileron are fitted% "poiler #"ed for roll control "poiler etter than aileron

B& Fla = = = fitted to trailing edge of the $ing pro(ide mean" of increa"ing lift of $ing at all angle y #"ing flap <= ta0e off r#n i" "horten "talling "peed i" decrea"ed d#ring landing prod#ced greater drag held decrea"e in landing "peed and "horten landing r#n occa"ion #"ed for ta0e off and landing different ta0e off. landing > "peed .need ma& lift Type of flap" <= $lain fla !chamber fla " ?irt#ally rear of $ing that hinge do$n 3hen flap i" lo$ered ! increa"e in cham er on top "#rface ! increa"e in (elocity of airflo$! f#rther decrea"e in pre""#re On ottom "#rface! conca(e cam er prod#ce! decrea"e (elocity! and increa"e pre""#re of airflo$% Re"#lt inc in lift $hich may e a" m#ch a" @AB on that part of $ing $here flap i" fitted in oard of $ing

S lit fla Slotted fla Fowler fla "imilar to plain flap control o#ndary layer o(er flap a" $ell increa"ing cham er increa"e ma& lift C@B angle of a"ic airfoil at ma& lift 9C deg control o#ndary layer increa"e cham er "talling delay not "o m#ch drag gi(e a large inc in lift and drag than the plain flap! #t other$i"e the "ame increa"e of lift CAB

al"o 0no$n a" lift flap! e""entially "lotted flap main intention and effect > inc lift pro(ide "im#ltaneo#"ly an increa"e in $ing area and cham er "light increa"e in drag increa"e ma& lift of DAB angle of a"ic airfoil at ma& 9@ deg increa"e cham er and $ing area e"t flap for lift complicated mechani"m no"e do$n pitching mo(ement increa"e lift . inc $ing area Leading edge fla ' (ruger fla Mainly on high "peed airfoil and pre(ent o#ndary "eparation at lo$ "peed In(aria ly #"ed in con6#nction $ith T7 flap Commonly #"ed i" Er#ger flap Increa"e of ma& lift @AB Angle of a"ic airfoil at ma& lift" ;@ deg No"e flip hinge at leading edge Increa"e lift at "mall deflection No"e #p pitching mo(ement Increa"e leading edge cham er