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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

(based on NSCP 2001 Vol. 1 - 5 th Ed., AISC-ASD, ACI 347)

PROPOSED FALSEWORK DESIGN FOR MOAWA BRIDGE


(Simple Steel Frames with Diagonal Bracings)
GENERAL NOTES: a. Analysis of frame is computed using Staad Pro V07 Analysis Software. Other members subjected to design are considered to be simply supported. b. For beam and column design, consider longitudinal section at centerline. 1. Interior Columns - carries 1 girder load and its components. 2. Exterior Columns - carries only of Interior column load and its components. Therefore, Design Interior Columns Only. c. Design procedures for adequacy requirements are done by: 1. Staad Pro V07 Program Code: AISC-Allowable Stress Design
Members: H-Beam & Column (W12x65) AISC Steel

2. Detailed Calculation by Hand .. NSCP 2001-Allowable Stress Design (Counter-Cheking) Members: H-Beam & Column (BH300x92) ASEP Steel d. Sequence of section investigation and design: 1. Plywood Sheathing (1" thk.) ACI 347 2. Wood Joist (2"x4") @ 200mm O.C.. NSCP-ASD 3. SSP (Type-II) NSCP-ASD 4. H-Beam as Girders (300x300mm) NSCP/AISC-ASD 5. H-Beam as Columns (350x350mm) NSCP/AISC-ASD Note: USE 300x300mm section in design consideration. e. Lateral Loads are to be neglected in the design. However, provide bracing supports for the frame, especially on the transverse section if in case there are lateral forces that may occur.

DESIGN CRITERIA and SPECIFICATIONS I. LIVE LOADS Sect. 205.3.4, T205-2, Pg.2-9 a. Liveload (Special Loads for Construction) 7.20 KPa II. DEAD LOADS a. Concrete 24.00 KN/m Sect. 204.2, T204-1, Pg.2-5 b. Steel Materials 77.30 KN/m Sect. 204.2, T204-1, Pg.2-5 c. Steel Forms .. 9.000 KPa d. Wood Bracings.... 1.400 KPa e. Formworks (includes pylwood & joists) 1.200 KPa IV. ALLOWABLE STRESSES a. Structural Steel Materials 276.0 Mpa DESIGN SCHEME:

STEEL and WOOD SECTION DESIGN and INVESTIGATION PCDG Formwork and Falsework (Based on NSCP 2001 Vol. 1, 5th Edition and ACI 347 ) Bridge Name: Moawa Bridge, Bohol Length of Bridge: 32.0 m Span Length: 3.6m to accommodate 9-pcs of SSP per span [Falsework] INPUT DATA and DESIGN CRITERIA Prestressed I-Girder = Type IV-B Area (Total) = 0.6123 m Girder Width = 0.661 m (Unit Weight) = 24.024 KN/m (Linear Weight) = 14.710 KN/m Allow. deflection = L/180 Allow. deflection = L/360 AASHTO Specs AASHTO Specs AASHTO Specs 153 lb/ft 1008 lb/ft Timber Steel DEAD LOADS: Steel Forms = Wood Bracings = Concrete = Formwork = Sub-Total = Kpa 9.000 1.400 22.25 1.200 33.850 psf 188.03 29.25 464.86 25.07 707.21 KN/m 5.95 0.93 14.71 [Plywood & Joist] [Girder Components]

LIVELOADS: Working Load = 7.200 150.4 I. DESIGN OF SHEATHING Material Properties: Source: (ACI 347 Table 4-2,4-3) Plywood = Bending, Fb = Shearing, Fv = E= S= I= Ib/Q = spacing, s = Support = 1.0" thk 10.7 Mpa 0.39 Mpa 10,345 Mpa 10,881 mm
176,066 mm^4

[Special Loads]

5,730 mm 0.204 m 3 or more spans

1545 Psi 57 Psi 1500000 Psi 0.664 in 0.423 in^4 8.882 in 8.03 in

0.661

[(0.661-0.050)/3]

Design Section is ADEQUATE Loading Combination: (NSCP Sect. 203.3.1 - ASD)

Loadings: (Consider 1-ft strip of plywood) DL = 707.21 psf = 707.21 lb/ft LL = 150.43 psf = 150.43 lb/ft wu = 857.6 lb/ft [self-weight included]

Wu = (DL + LL) = 857.640 lb/ft

From ACI 347 Using Table 7-1 (Safe Spacing of Supports) Spacings Bending, Fb Rolling Shear, Fv =l/360 =1/16" 10.95 (FbS/wu) (20FvS/wu)(Ib/Q)+1.5 1.693(EI/wu) 3.234(EI/wu) (in.) Max. Spacing 11.98 in 9.34 in 15.29 in 16.85 in Actual Spacing 8.03 in 8.03 in 8.03 in 8.03 in Check Act. < All Act. < All Act. < All Act. < All Status [Adequate] [Adequate] [Adequate] [Adequate] Therefore USE: Ordinary Plywood (1.0" thk) with Joist spaced @ 200mm O.C. Note: Failure on Plywood if we use t=1/2" or even 3/4" with joist spaced @ 200mm O.C.

STEEL SECTION DESIGN and INVESTIGATION PCDG Formwork and Falsework (Based on NSCP 2001 Vol. 1, 5th Edition and ACI 347 )

TABLE 7-1

II. DESIGN OF WOOD JOIST Material Properties: Source: (website: www.supertimber.com) Coco Timber = b= d= Bending, Fb = Shearing, Fv = E= S= I= Ib/Q = Unit Weight, = spacing, s = assumed length, L = selfweight = Support = 2" x 4" 50.000 mm 100.00 mm 13.1 Mpa 1.30 Mpa 3,100 Mpa 83,333 mm
4,166,667 mm^4

3,333 mm 4.33 KN/m 441 Kg/m 8.03 in 0.204 m 15.74 in 0.400 m 0.022 KN/m 3 or more spans

1900 psi 189 psi 449500 psi 5.085 in 10.010 in^4 5.166 in s s s

Design Section is ADEQUATE

0.40

0.40

STEEL SECTION DESIGN and INVESTIGATION PCDG Formwork and Falsework (Based on NSCP 2001 Vol. 1, 5th Edition and ACI 347 ) Loadings: DL = = LL = = 33.85 Kpa 6.905 KN/m 7.20 Kpa 0.158 KN/m (DL)(s) Wu = (DL + LL) = 7.063 KN/m (LL)(s) [including self-weight] 1/8(Wu)(L) (Wu)(L) (5/384) (WuL4 / EI) Loading Combination: (NSCP Sect. 203.3.1 - ASD)

wu = 7.063 KN/m Mu = 0.141 KN-m Vu = 1.413 KN ACT = 0.182 mm Stresses

Bending, Fb Shearing, Fv Deflection, 4 6M/bd 3V/2A (5WuL )/384EI Actual 1.692 MPa 0.424 MPa 0.182 mm Allowable 13.100 MPa 1.300 MPa 2.22 mm Check Act. < All Act. < All Act. < All Status ADEQUATE ADEQUATE ADEQUATE Therefore USE: Wood Joist 50x100mm (2" x 4") @ 200mm O.C. Note: Not critical as long as SSP are placed side by side with no gaps. III. DESIGN OF SSP Type-II (Deck Flooring) Material Properties: Source: Sumitomo SKSP Steel Sheet Piles Note: As per one (1) ssp SSP = b= d= t= A= fy = Allow. Bending, Fb = Allow. Shearing, Fv = E= S= I= Unit Weight, = span length, L = selfweight = Widthgirder = Type II 400 mm 100 mm 10.50 mm 6,118 mm 276.0 Mpa 82.8 Mpa 55.2 Mpa 200,000 Mpa 152,000 mm
12,400,000 mm^4

0.60fy (50% Eff.) 0.40fy (50% Eff.)

0.40

0.40

0.47 KN/m 2.250 m 0.003 KN/m 0.661 m

Design Section is ADEQUATE

Girder Components = (Girder)(Wgirder)(s) 9pcs

Loadings:

= (33.85)(0.661)(3.6) 9pcs = 8.950 KN Selfweight = ()(Area)(L) = (0.47)(0.006118)(2.25) = 0.006 KN DL = 8.956 KN [per ssp] Live Load = (LL)(L)(s) 9pcs = (7.2)(2.25)(3.6) 9pcs LL = 6.480 KN [per ssp]

Tributary Area: Span Length, L = Span Spacing, s =

2.250 m 3.600 m

Pu

STEEL SECTION DESIGN and INVESTIGATION PCDG Formwork and Falsework (Based on NSCP 2001 Vol. 1, 5th Edition and ACI 347 ) Summary: DL = 8.956 KN LL = 6.480 KN Pu = 15.436 KN Mu = 8.683 KN-m Vu = 7.718 KN ACT = 1.477 mm Stresses Actual Allowable Check Status Therefore Loading Combination: (NSCP Sect. 203.3.1 - ASD)

Pu = (DL + LL) = 15.436 KN [self-weight included as per (1) ssp] Pu L / 4 Pu / 2 Pu L / 48EI Bending, Fb Shearing, Fv Deflection, Mu / Sx Vu / A Pu L / 48EI 57.125 MPa 1.262 MPa 1.477 mm 82.800 MPa 55.200 MPa 6.250 mm Act. < All Act. < All Act. < All ADEQUATE ADEQUATE ADEQUATE USE: SSP Type-II for Deck Flooring placed side by side.

IV. DESIGN OF GIRDERS (H-Beam 300x300) Material Section and Properties: Source: (ASEP Steel Handbook 1994) Built-Up Shape = A= d= tw = bf = tf = Linear = w= k (crippling use) = rx ry rt Sx Sy Ix Iy E fy = = = = = = = = = BH 300 x 92 11,744 300 8.00 300 12.00 0.904 7.00 19.00 132.60 78.30 83.50 1,377,000 480,000 207,000,000 72,000,000 200,000 276 3,600.00 3,600.00 Flange Width-Thickness Ratio mm bf/2tf = 12.50 mm mm Web Depth-Thickness Ratio mm d/tw = 37.50 mm KN/m [92.19] kg/m mm [t f + w] mm mm mm mm mm mm mm4 mm4 Mpa Mpa mm mm

y-axis

tf =12 d = 300 x-axis tw =8

bf = 300

Design Section is ADEQUATE

Span Length, L = Un-Supported , Lb =

[simply supported]

[Actual Un-Braced Length in Bending] [Max. Un-Braced Length of Compression]

Length, Lc = min { [200bf /fy] , [137900 / (fyd bf tf)] } = 3,611.58 mm L / rT = 43.11 mm

STEEL SECTION DESIGN and INVESTIGATION PCDG Formwork and Falsework (Based on NSCP 2001 Vol. 1, 5th Edition and ACI 347 ) Determine Allowable Bending Stress, Fb: Determine Allowable Shearing Stress, Fv: COMPACT Requirements NON-COMPACT Requirements Fb = 165.60
NO a. (bf/2tf) (170/fy) 12.50 YES b. 10.23 YES YES

COMPACT or NON-COMPACT Requirements [USE: min of b,c]

a.

(bf/2tf) (170/fy) 12.50 10.23

a. 3,600.00

Lb Lc 3611.58

NO

b.

(d/tw) (1680/fy) 37.5 Lb Lc 3611.58 101.12

(bf/2tf) (250/fy) 12.50 Lb Lc 15.05

b. If Stress in Tension Fb = 0.60fy

N/A

c. 3,600.00

YES

c.

YES

c. If Stress in Compression Fb = max (x,y,z) (x) When 703,270Cb L/rt 3,516,330Cb fy fy 6 =fy{2/3 - [fy(L/rt) / 10.55e Cb]} (y) When 3,516,330Cb fy =(1,172,100 Cb) / (L/rt)
L/rt >

N/A

d. USE Fb = 0.66fy

N/A

3,600.00 3611.58 d. If a,b & c =YES Fb=min(x,y) x = 0.60fy y =fy [0.79 - 0.000762 (bf/2tf) fy]

165.6

N/A

N/A

RESULTS: Fb = 165.60 MPa Fv = 110.40 MPa

(z) For Any Value of L/rt =(82,740 Cb) / (Ld bf tf)

N/A

[see table] [0.40fy]

Note: Cb=1.75+(1.05M1/M2)+0.30(M1/M2) 2.3 USE: Cb=1.0 [Conservative Value]

Loadings: Girder = = = SSP = = =


Selfweight =

(girder)(Wgirder) (33.85)(0.661) 22.375 KN/m ()(s)(Assp)(9.0 pcs) L (0.47)(2.25)(0.006118)(9.0 pcs) 3.6 0.016 KN/m (linear)(L) (0.904)(3.6) 3.254 KN/m 25.645 KN/m

Tributary Area: W girder = Span Length, L = Span Spacing, s =

0.661 m 3.600 m 2.250 m

= = Dead Load (TOTAL) =

LL = (LL)(s) = (7.2)(2.25) Live Load (TOTAL) = 16.200 KN/m Summary: DL = 25.645 KN/m LL = 16.200 KN/m wu = 41.85 KN/m Mu = 51.520 KN-m Vu = 87.120 KN ACT = 2.211 mm Loading Combination: (NSCP Sect. 203.3.1 - ASD)

Wu = (DL + LL) = 41.845 KN/m [self-weight included] [see Staad Pro. V7 analysis results] [see Staad Pro. V7 analysis results]
(5/384) (WuL4 / EI)

Beam No. 1 Beam No. 1

STEEL SECTION DESIGN and INVESTIGATION PCDG Formwork and Falsework (Based on NSCP 2001 Vol. 1, 5th Edition and ACI 347 ) Stresses Actual Allowable Check Status Therefore Bending, Fb Shearing, Fv Deflection, Mu / Sx Vu / d tw (5Wu L4)/384EI 37.415 MPa 36.300 MPa 2.211 mm 165.600 MPa 110.400 MPa 10.000 mm Act. < All Act. < All Act. < All ADEQUATE ADEQUATE ADEQUATE USE: H-Beam (300x300) as Girder spaced @ 2.250m O.C. R(actual) = 87.120 KN
R = 177.2 (factor) d from end>d

Check: Local Web Yielding and Web Crippling Stresses


R/[tw(N+5k)] d from end>d R/[tw(N+2.5k)] d from end d

N = 300

K = 19
Factor
1.5

R = 89.3 (factor) d from end d

dist. = 0.0 N/A USE N/A USE Results 31.338 MPa 237.181 KN x (Fyw tf / tw) Allowable = (0.66fy) 182.160 MPa 87.120 KN Check Act. < All Act. < All 2.656 KN Status ADEQUATE ADEQUATE Therefore USE: H-Beam (300x300) as Girder spaced @ 2.250m O.C. Note: PROVIDE adequate connection to steel pile caps. (Welding Connection)

tw[1+3(N/d)(tw/tf)

V. DESIGN OF STEEL BEAM USED AS COLUMN SUPPORT Material Section and Properties: Source: (ASEP Steel Handbook 1994) Built-Up Shape = A= d= tw = bf = tf = Linear = rx ry rt Sx Sy Ix Iy E fy Column Length, L Un-Supported , Lb Length, Lc BH 300 x 92 11,744 300 8.00 300 12.00 0.904 Flange Width-Thickness Ratio mm bf/2tf = 12.50 mm mm Web Depth-Thickness Ratio mm d/tw = 37.50 mm KN/m [92.19] kg/m

y-axis

tf =12 d = 300 x-axis [strong axis] tw =8

= 132.60 mm = 78.30 mm = 83.50 mm = 1,377,000 mm = 480,000 mm = 207,000,000 mm4 = 72,000,000 mm4 = 200,000 Mpa = 276 Mpa 6,000 = mm = 6,000 mm = min { [200bf /fy] , [137900 / (fyd bf tf)] } = 3,611.58 mm Select Type = (c) see NSCP Table Length Factor, k = 1.2 see NSCP Table kL / rt = 86.2275 Cc = (2 E / fy) = 119.598 CHECK: Slenderness Ratio Requirements (Main Compression Member) kL / rt = 200 86.23 200 [OK]

bf = 300

STEEL SECTION DESIGN and INVESTIGATION PCDG Formwork and Falsework (Based on NSCP 2001 Vol. 1, 5th Edition and ACI 347 ) Determine Allowable Bending Stress, Fb: Determine Allowable Shearing Stress, Fv: COMPACT Requirements NON-COMPACT Requirements COMPACT or NON-COMPACT Requirements [USE: min of b,c] Fb = 165.48
YES a. 6,000.00 YES Lb Lc 3611.58
165.60

a.

(bf/2tf) (170/fy) 12.50 10.23

NO

a.

(bf/2tf) (170/fy) 12.50 10.23

YES

b.

(d/tw) (1680/fy) 37.5 Lb Lc 3611.58 101.12

YES

b.

(bf/2tf) (250/fy) 12.50 Lb Lc 15.05

b. If Stress in Tension Fb = 0.60fy

c. 6,000.00

NO

c.

NO

c. If Stress in Compression Fb = max (x,y,z)

165.48

d. USE Fb = 0.66fy

N/A

6,000.00 3611.58 d. If a,b & c =YES Fb=min(x,y) x = 0.60fy y =fy [0.79 - 0.000762 (bf/2tf) fy]

N/A

(x) When 703,270Cb L/rt 3,516,330Cb 130.31 fy fy 6 =fy{2/3 - [fy(L/rt) / 10.55e Cb]} (y) When 3,516,330Cb fy =(1,172,100 Cb) / (L/rt)
L/rt >

N/A

RESULTS: Fb = 165.48 MPa Fv = 110.40 MPa

(z) For Any Value of L/rt =(82,740 Cb) / (Ld bf tf)

165.48

[see table] [0.40fy]

Note: Cb=1.75+(1.05M1/M2)+0.30(M1/M2) 2.3 USE: Cb=1.0 [Conservative Value]

Determine Allowable Axial Stress, Fa: FS = 5/3 + 3(KL/r) - (KL/r) 8Cc 8Cc Since, kL/rt [<] Cc Therefore, When kL/r < Cc [Short-Columns] Fa = {1 - [(kL/r) 2 Cc]} x fy / FS = 108.065 Mpa USE: Fa = 108.065 MPa = = = = = 163.640 KN 5.424 KN 2.034 KN 1.636 KN 172.734 KN

1.89

When kL/r > Cc [Long Column] Fa = (12 E) / [23 (kL/r)] = N/A

Pu Selfweight Pile Cap Weights Accecories Total Pu

[see Staad Pro. V8i analysis results] [(Linear )(Length of Column)] [(Linear )(Length of Beam)] (Assume 1% of Pu)

Column No. 8

Mu = 2.810 KN-m fa = 14.708 Mpa fb = 0.006 Mpa Summary: fa = 14.708 Mpa Fa = 108.065 Mpa

[see Staad Pro. V07 analysis results] [Pu / A] Actual Compressive Stress [Mu / Sx] Actual Bending Stress

Column No. 8

fb = 0.006 Mpa Fb = 165.480 Mpa

STEEL SECTION DESIGN and INVESTIGATION PCDG Formwork and Falsework (Based on NSCP 2001 Vol. 1, 5th Edition and ACI 347 )

(fa / Fa) = 0.14 Check Interaction Value Check Status Therefore

(fa / Fa) 0.15 Requirements Governs 0.136 1.0 SAFE

(fa / Fa) > 0.15 Requirements N/A

References: (interaction) when 0.15 (fa/Fa)+(fb/Fb) 1.0 when > 0.15 fa + Cm fb 1.0 Fa (1-fa/Fe') Fb Cm=0.60-0.4M1/M2 0.4 Cm =0.85 (sidesway) = 0.85 Fe'=(1030000) / (KL/r) =138.53

Columns Section is Adequate for Both Bending and Compression

CHECK Shearing Stress for Columns: Vu = fv = Fv = Check = 0.690 KN 0.288 Mpa 110.400 Mpa [fv < Fv] [see Staad Pro. V07 analysis results] [Vu / d tw] [Vu / d tw] [Satisfactory]

STAAD PRO V2007 ANALYSIS wu = 41.850 KN/m [from Design IV-Steel Beam Design]

STEEL SECTION DESIGN and INVESTIGATION PCDG Formwork and Falsework (Based on NSCP 2001 Vol. 1, 5th Edition and ACI 347 ) MOMENT DIAGRAM

SHEAR DIAGRAM

AXIAL FORCES