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964/1

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
NEGERI PAHANG DARUL MAKMUR


BIOLOGY
PAPER 1
MULTIPLE CHOICE
ONE HOUR AND FORTY FIVE MINUTES
_______________________________________________________________
Instruction to candidates
DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

There are fifty questions in this paper. For each question four suggested answers are given.
Choose one correct answer and indicate it on the multiple-choice answer sheet provided.
Read the instructions on the multiple-choice answer sheet carefully.
Answer all questions. Marks will be not deducted for wrong answers.






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1. Which of the following properties of water are important for the survival of
organisms?
I Universal solvent
II High specific heat capacity
III Low viscosity
IV High surface tension
A I and II
B I, II and III
C I, II and IV
D I, II, III and IV

2. Which of the following combinations are true about fibrous protein?
Molecular structure Solubility in water Buffer effect Examples
A Primary Yes Yes Antibody
B Tertiary No Yes Amylase
C Secondary No No Collagen
D Quaternary No No Cytochrome oxidase

3. Which cell component is not found in all prokaryotic cells?
A cell surface membrane
B endoplasmic reticulum
C cell wall
D ribosome









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4. The diagram below shows an organelle



5. The table below shows different organelles and their function.Which of the following is
correct?
Organelles Function
I Mitochondrion (a) Carries out autophagy and autolysis
II Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (b) Synthesises lipid
III Lysosome (c) Produces energy through aerobic respiration
IV Golgi apparatus (d) Synthesises and transports protein
V Rough endoplasmic reticulum (e) Stores and modifies protein

I II III IV V
A (e) (a) (b) (d) (c)
B (b) (c) (d) (a) (e)
C (d) (b) (e) (c) (a)
D (c) (b) (a) (e) (d)







Choose the functions of the organelle from the list below.
I Stores and modifies substances that are produced for secretion.
II Synthesises polypeptide chains.
III Transports lipids and detoxifies various toxins.
IV Stores glucose.
A I only
B IV only
C II and III
D III and IV

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6. Cyanide is a poison that binds to copper ions of cytochrome oxidase. Which of the
following is true about the inhibitor?
A It only binds to the enzymes active site.
B Its action depends on the relative substrate concentration
C It binds loosely and temporarily to the enzyme
D It alters the configuration of the enzyme

7. Which of the following conditions cannot cause enzymes to become inactive?
I Addition of protease
II Incubation at 100C
III Termination of the catalysed reaction
IV Depletion of the substrate
V Presence of an inhibitor
A I and II
B I and III
C III and IV
D III, IV and V

8. In the leaf of the Crassulacean plant, carbon dioxide is fixed at night to form a certain
substance. The substance is stored in the cell vacuoles until daytime because it
A easily dissolves and diffuses out of the cell
B affects the pH of the cytoplasm
C needs to be activated by enzymes in the cell vacuoles
D is active osmotically and must be isolated











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9. Three plants with similar leaf surface area are shown in the figure below.


10. Which of the following processes will not occur if the supply of carbon dioxide to a
green leaf cell is cut off in the presence of light?
I Starch is produced
II ATP is formed
III NADPH

is used
IV glyceraldehyde -3- phosphate is produced
V Oxygen is given out
A I, III and IV
B I, III and V
C II, IV and V
D III, IV and V

11. How many molecules of ATP are produced in the aerobic respiration of glucose if
a respiratory poison like cyanide is added?
A 8 ATP
B 2 ATP
C 30 ATP
D 32 ATP


Which of the following statements is true about their rate of photosynthesis?
A Y is slowest, X is the fastest
B X is slowest, Y is the fastest
C Z is slowest, Y is the fastest
D Y is slowest, Z is the fastest
water
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12. Which of the following steps uses energy in the form of ATP in man?
Glycogen
Hexose sugar
Triose sugar
Lactic acid Pyruvic acid Acetyl coenzyme A Krebs cycle
Alcohol
A I only
B II only
C II, III and IV
D III, IV and V

13. The table below shows different organisms and their mode of nutrition.Which of the following
combinations is correct?
Organism Nutrition
I Mucor (a) Saprophytism
II Plasmodium (b) Parasitism
III Chlorella (c) Holozoic
IV Paramecium (d) Holophytic

I II III IV
A (d) (b) (a) (c)
B (b) (c) (d) (a)
C (c) (d) (b) (a)
D (a) (b) (d) (c)

14. Bohr effect refers to
A the effect of high urea concentration in the blood
B the affinity of haemoglobin for carbon dioxide
C the influence of carbon dioxide concentration on the dissociation of oxyhaemoglobin
D the increase in the rate of dissociation of carbon dioxide caused by Fe
2+
ions
I
III
II
IV
V
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15. The following graph shows the dissociation of oxyhaemoglobin.



Which of the following statements is correct?

16. The following statements describe the structure and function of the endodermis cell. Which of
the following statements are true about the endodermis cell?
I It has Casparian strips in its radial and horizontal walls
II It has Casparian strips in its radial and tangential walls
III It allows water to diffuse through its wall and cytoplasm
IV It aids in the production of root pressure
V It allows water to cross through the symplast pathway
A III and IV
B I, III and V
C I, IV and V
D II, IV and V



A Decrease in the blood pH shifts the graph to the right indicating haemoglobin's
affinity towards oxygen has reduced.
B Increase in the blood pH shifts the graph to the right indicating haemoglobin's affinity
towards oxygen has increased.
C Increase in the release of oxygen from haemoglobin shifts the graph to the left.
D Decrease in the blood pH shifts the graph to the left indicating the affinity of
haemoglobin towards oxygen has increased.

%saturationofHbwithO
2

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17. Which of the following sequences is correct for the flow of impulse in the heart?
I Atrioventricular node
II Purkinje tissue
III Bundle of His
IV Sinoatrial node
A I, IV, III and II
B III, IV, II and I
C IV, III, I and II
D IV, I, III and II






Which of the following is true about the osmotic pressure at points P, Q and R?

19. Which of the following statements is true about the filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule?
A It is hypotonic because the antidiuretic hormone causes reabsorption of more water.
B It is hypotonic because the reabsorption of glucose and ions occurs in the proximal
convoluted tubule
C It is hypertonic because the reabsorption of glucose occurs in the proximal convoluted
tubule and ions in the loop of Henle.
D It is isotonic because more glucose and ions are filtered from the blood by ultrafiltration.




18. The following diagram shows the loop of Henle and the tubules in the kidney.


A R > Q = P
B R > Q > P
C P > Q = R
D P > Q > R
Proximal
convoluted
tubule
Distal
Convoluted
tubule
Loopof
Henle
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20. Why is the liver considered a homeostatic organ?


I It detoxifies the blood
II It receives glucose from the small intestine and releases it into the blood at a suitable rate.
III It is also capable of producing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.
IV It plays a role in temperature regulation


21. Which one of the following conditions are regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system?
A Dilation of the bronchioles
B Dilation of the pupils
C Dilation of the arterioles to the intestine
D Contraction of the bladder sphincter

22. The diagram below shows the sarcomere of a striated muscle fibre. Name the protein in
the filament labelled X.



A Collagen
B Myosin
C Actin
D Fibrin





A I and II only
B II and III only
C III and IV only
D I, II, III and IV
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23. Which of the following glands would cause an increase in secretion if a person does not eat
and drink for a day?
I cells in the islets of Langerhans
II cells in the islets of Langerhans
III Posterior lobe of pituitary gland
IV Thyroid gland
A I and II
B I and IV
C II and III
D II and IV

24. The diagram below shows five hormones V, W, X, Y and Z involved in reproduction. Which of
the following combinations is true?









LH Progesterone Oestrogen FSH Oxytocin
A X Y V W Z
B X Y W V Z
C Y Z X V W
D Z V X W Y








Pituitary
Ovary
Uterus
Z
V W X
Y
V
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25. Which of the following statements is true for T cells but not for B cells?.

26.

Which of the following statements are incorrect about antigens.
27. The table below shows the reproductive methods of several organisms. Which of the following
is the correct combination?
Reproductive methods Animal
I Budding (a) Fasciola
II Polyembryony (b) Hydra
III Sporulation (c) Apis
IV Parthenogenesis (d) Amoeba

I II III IV
A (a) (b) (c) (d)
B (b) (a) (d) (c)
C (c) (d) (b) (a)
D (d) (c) (a) (b)

28. In Mucor, the special hypha that grows towards each other during conjugation is called
A sporangiophore
B progametangium
C gametangium
D zygospore
A Stimulate production of antibodies by the plasma cell.
B Detect antigens with receptors on their membrane.
C Lymphocytes must pass through the thymus gland before they can function.
D Respond to antigens resulting in the production of immunocyte clones.
I They are produced in response against non-self substances.
II They are produced by lymphocytes.
III They are proteins or combination of proteins and polysaccharides.
IV They are mostly pathogens.
A I only
B I and II
C III and IV
D II, III and IV

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29. Where does meiosis occur in angiosperms?


A Seed
B Pollen grains
C Anther and ovule
D Cells in the stigma

31. Which of the following indicates the correct sequence of hormones produced during
parturition?
A Prostaglandin prolactin oxytocin
B Oxytocin prostaglandin prolactin
C Prolactin prostaglandin oxytocin
D Prostaglandin oxytocin prolactin












30. The following diagram shows the cross section of an organism. Which part indicates the
origin of its notochord?


A
B
C
D
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32. The following graph shows the changes in total dry weight of the seed and the dry weight
of the endosperm during germination of a certain cereal.




What conclusions can be drawn based on the graph?












I During germination of the seed the embryo utilises food stored in the endosperm
II The water content inside the seed determines its dry weight.
III Food stored in the cotyledon is insufficient for proper germination and growth of the
seed.
IV During germination of the seed the embryo absorbs food from the environment.
A I only
B II only
C II and III
D III and IV
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33. The graph below shows the sigmoid growth curve of an organism



Identify the phase where decrease of food and increase of waste products takes place.

34. Yellow body in Drosophila is determined by a recessive sex-linked gene and its
dominant allele produces a black body. Which of the following is the correct progeny of a
cross between a black male and a yellow female?
Females Males
Black Yellow Black Yellow
A 1 1
B 1 1
C 1 1
D 1 1

35. In man, free ear lobe is dominant to attached ear lobe while curly hair is dominant to
straight hair. If a couple is heterozygous for both traits, what is the probability of having a
child with free ear lobes and straight hair?
A 1 / 16
B 2 / 16
C 3 / 16
D 9 / 16

A W
B X
C Y
D Z
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36. The following table shows map distances between genes along a chromosome.
Linked genes AB AC AD BC BD CD
Map distance ( % ) 30 5 10 35 20 15

Which of the following is the correct gene sequence?
A BADC
B BDAC
C BCAD
D BACD

37. The base sequence of a gene MNOPQRS undergoes two mutations to become
MNPRS. What types of mutation have occured?
A Two inversions
B Two translocations
C Two deletions
D Two substitutions

38. A dominant allele Y for yellow coat in rat functions as a lethal gene in the homozygous
state. If 16% of 1000 foetuses are stillborn, what percentage is expected to be
heterozygous in the population?
A 4
B 16
C 24
D 48











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39. The following diagram shows the lactose operon.




Which of the following will stop the production of enzymes?
40. Which of the following statements about the lactose operon are true?
I Lactose induces transcription by inactivating the repressor
II The repressor protein is produced by the regulator gene
III The promoter is mRNA transcribed from DNA
IV The expression of the genes depends on the inducer
A I and II
B III and IV
C I, II and III
D I, II and IV

41. Name the process of selecting a transformed bacterial clone.
A Filtering
B Screening
C Cloning
D Ligating








A K
B M
C N
D X

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42. Which of the following statements are true for cloning?


I DNA ligase is used for recombining DNA fragments
II EcoRI is used for cutting the DNA chain
III Reverse transcriptase is used for producing mRNA from cDNA
IV Ampicillin treatment is used for screening transformed bacteria
A I and II
B I, II and IV
C II, III and IV
D I, II, III and IV

43. Which of the following sequences is the correct taxonomic hierarchy for man?
A Mammalia, Animalia, Primates, Hominidae, Chordata, Homo, sapiens.
B Animalia, Primates, Mammalia, Chordata, Homo, sapiens, Hominidae
C Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Primates, Hominidae, Homo, sapiens
D Mammalia, Chordata, Animalia, Primates, Hominidae, Homo, sapiens

44. Which of the features below distinguishes the class Arachnida from Insecta ?
A Triploblastic coelomate
B Perivisceral cavity is haemocoel
C Open circulatory system with a dorsal heart
D It has four pairs of walking legs

45. The table below shows a list of organisms and their structural features. Which
combination is correct?
Organisms Structural features
I Euglena (a) with chloroplast
II Pheretima (b) with two pairs of antenna
III Lycosa (c) with chaetae
IV Penaeus (d) with four pairs of walking legs

I II III IV
A (a) (c) (d) (b)
B (b) (a) (d) (c)
C (a) (b) (c) (d)
D (d) (c) (a) (b
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46. The graph below shows the distribution of seed weight.








Which of the following statements are true regarding the graph?





47. The following statements describe Darwinss theory of evolution.
I Struggle for existence
II Inheritance of favoured phenotypes
III Constancy of population size
IV Speciation
What is the correct sequence for Darwins theory?
A I III II IV
B III I II IV
C II I IV III
D IV I II III










I It exhibits continuous variation.
II Its highest frequency has a weight of W.
III It is controlled by many genes.
IV It is controlled by a single gene.
A I only
B I and II
C III and IV
D I, II and III
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48. Which of the following are correct about the term niche?
I The trophic level of an organism in its community.
II The functions of an organism in the form of energy flow and nutrient cycle.
III The method of how an organism makes use of its environment in order to live.
IV A group of plants and animals living naturally in an environment.
V An ecological unit built from the relationships among the organisms in the community and
the relationships between the organisms and the environment.
A I and II
B IV and V
C I, II and III
D III, IV and V

49. Energy reductions occur at any level of energy flow in an ecosystem because energy is
I not assimilated
II lost through decomposition
III lost during respiration
IV converted into storage substances
A II and III
B II and IV
C I, II and III
D I, III and IV

50. A 25 cm x 25 cm quadrat was used to study the density of Imperata cylindrica in two areas X
and Y. The following data was obtain:
Quadrat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Total number in area X 3 0 5 1 2 3 0 7 6 3
Total number in area Y 0 2 1 4 1 2 3 4 0 3

The density of Imperata cylindrica per m
2
is
Area X Area Y
A 30 20
B 48 32
C 32 48
D 20 30

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MARKING SCHEME

BIOLOGY PAPER 1

STPM TRIAL EXAMINATION 2010






















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1. D 26. B
2. C 27. B
3. B 28. B
4. A 29. C
5. D 30. D
6. D 31. B
7. C 32. A
8. B 33. C
9. C 34. B
10. A 35. C
11. B 36. B
12. A 37. C
13. D 38. D
14. C 39. C
15. A 40. D
16. C 41. B
17. D 42. B
18. B 43. C
19. B 44. D
20. D 45. A
21. C 46. D
22. B 47. A
23. C 48. C
24. A
49. C
25. C 50. B

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964/2

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
NEGERI PAHANG DARUL MAKMUR
2010


BIOLOGY
PAPER 2
Two and a half hours




Instructions to candidates:

DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU
ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Answer all questions in Section A. Write your answers in the
spaces provided.

Answer any four questions in Section B. Write your answers
on your own answer sheets. Begin each answer on a fresh
sheet of paper and arrange your answers in numerical order.
Tie your answer sheets to this question paper.

Answers should be illustrated by large and
clearly labelled diagrams wherever suitable.

Answers may be written in either English or Bahasa
Malaysia.










This question paper consists of 11 printed pages

For examiners use


Section A
1


2


3


4



Section B












Total



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2
Section A [ 40 marks ]
Answer all questions in this section.

1. The process of transcription and translation are shown in the diagrams below.







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(a) Identify the structures A to F. [ 6 marks ]

A

B

C

D

E

F


(b) State the locations in the cell where transcription and translation occur. [ 2 marks ]


Transcription

Translation


(c) List two additional ways in which the process of transcription differs from translation.
[ 2 marks ]


( i ) .


..


( ii ) . .



















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2. A photosystem in the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast is shown in the diagram below.







(a) Explain briefly the photoactivation of chlorophyll. [ 2 marks ]


.


.


.


.

(b) Describe briefly the function of the thylakoid membrane in photophosphorylation.
[ 3 marks]
















chlorophyll
molecules
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( c ) List three ways in which cyclic photophosphorylation differs from non-cyclic
photophosphorylation [ 3 marks ]

( i )





(ii)





(iii)




( d ) List two ways in which oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria resembles
photophosphorylation in chloroplasts. [ 2 marks ]


(i)





(ii)
























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6

3. The diagram below shows part of a kidney nephron.



( a ) Name the structures A to C [ 3 marks ]


A ..


B ..


C ..

( b ) State the factors that enable ultrafiltration to occur. [ 2 marks ]


..


..

( c ) Explain why the plasma and glomerular filtrate differ in composition. [ 2 marks ]


..


..


..




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(d) Describe how the cells of the proximal convulated tubule are adapted to carry out
reabsorption. [ 3 marks ]


..


..


..


..








































4. The diagram below shows the comb shape in chickens.
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(a) The genotype R_pp gives a rose comb, rrP_ gives a pea comb, R_P_ gives a walnut comb
and rrpp gives a single comb. The dash ( _ ) indicates the presence of either the dominant
or recessice allele.

List all the genopypes which will produce a walnut phenotype. [ 1 mark ]





( b ) In an experiment, chickens with rose combs were crossed with chickens with pea combs.
All the resulting F
1
offspring differed from both parents and had walnut combs.

When pairs of these F
1
were allowed to interbreed, they produced the resulting F
2
ratio in
offspring:

9 walnut comb : 3 rose comb : 3 pea comb : 1 single comb























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Draw a genetic diagram to explain both of these crosses. [ 7 marks ]





















































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( c ) A walnut comb chicken was crossed with a rose comb chicken. All the progeny had
walnut combs.
State the two possible pairs of parental genotypes that could produce these progeny.
[ 2 marks ]


( i ) x


( ii) . x ...













































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11
Section B [60 marks]
Answer any four questions in this section.


5. ( a ) Explain the mechanism of action of enzymes [ 8 marks ]

( b ) Explain the effect of competitive inhibitors on enzyme activity. [ 7 marks ]


6. ( a ) Explain the Hatch Slack pathway in C
4
plants. [ 13 marks ]
( b ) Explain briefly the significance of the Hatch - Slack pathway in C
4
plants.
[ 2 marks ]

7. Explain the following cycles and state its physiological importance :

( a ) Cori Cycle [ 7 marks ]

( b ) Ornithine cycle [ 8 marks ]


8. ( a ) Explain what is meant by the term homeostasis [ 2 marks ]

( b) With the aid of a diagram, explain the mechanism of action of a non steroid
hormone. [ 13 marks ]


9. ( a ) Explain briefly Darwins theory of natural selection. [5 marks ]

( b ) Explain how
( i ) palaeontology
( ii) comparative anatomy
( iii) comparative embryology
support the theory of evolution.
[10 marks ]


10. ( a ) Explain what is meant by the term sustainable development. [ 2 marks ]

( b ) Discuss how sustainable development can be implemented in the following
areas :

( i ) forestry [ 5 marks ]

( ii) agriculture [ 5 marks ]

( iii ) fisheries [ 3 marks ]


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964/2

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
NEGERI PAHANG DARUL MAKMUR
2010



BIOLOGY
PAPER 2





MARKING SCHEME



















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1(a)

A : Deoxyribonucleic acid / DNA
B : Nucleotides
C: messenger RNA / mRNA
D: polypeptide
E: RNA polymerase
F: ribosome
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1(b)

Nucleus
ribosomes

1
1 2
1 ( c ) Aspect Transcription Translation

1

1


1
Any 2

End product mRNA polypeptide
Enzyme RNA polymerase

Aminoacyl - tRNA
synthetase
Template

Cistron / gene / ge-
netic code on tran-
scribing strand of
DNA

Codons on mRNA


TOTAL 10
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2 ( a)


Light energy ( of wavelength 700nm ) is absorbed by antenna
pigments ( of photosystem 1/ P700) and transferred to the reaction
centre ( of photosystem 1 / P 700)

High energy electrons are released

1

1
2

2(b)

Site of photosystem I and photosystem II/ photosynthetic pigments
High energy electrons pass along electron carriers
Protons / H
+
ions pumped into thylakoid space
Chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP

1
1
1
1 Any 3

2(c )

Aspect

Cyclic
photophosphorylation

Non- cyclic
photophosphorylation



1

1
1
1
1 Any 3
photosystem Only photosystem I
involved
Photosystem I and II
are involved
Electron flow cyclic Non -cyclic
First electron
donor
Photosystem 1 Water
Last electron
acceptor
Photosystem I NADP
+

Products ATP ATP, NADPH and O
2


2( d )

Both use the electron transport system
Proton gradient created in inter - membrane space
Chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP

1
1
1 Any 2

TOTAL

10
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3 (a)

A : Capillaries / glomerular capillaries
B: Bowmans capsule
C:podocytes

1
1
1 3

3(b)

Diameter of the afferent arteriole is larger than the diameter of the ef-
ferent arteriole.
High hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus

1

1 2

3( c )

Plasma contains large protein molecules that are not found in the
glomerular filtrate.

These molecules are too large to pass through the basement mem-
brane of the glomerular capillaries

1

1
2

3 ( d )

Tightly packed cells increases the rate of reabsorption

Numerous microvilli that increase the surface area for reabsorption

Numerous mitochondria to provide ATP/ energy for active uptake of
substances
1
1
1


3

TOTAL

10








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4(a)

RRPP , RRPp, RrPP, RrPp

1 / 0

4(b) Parents ( P ): Phenotypes Rose comb x pea comb
Genotype RRpp x rrPP
Gametes Rp x rP


F1 offspring: Genotype RrPp
Phenotype Walnut comb
Interbreeding of F1: RrPp x RrPp
F1 Gametes RP Rp rP rp RP Rp rP rp
F2 generation
Gametes RP Rp rP rp
RP
RRPP
walnut
RRPp
walnut
RrPP
walnut
RrPp
walnut
Rp
RRPp
walnut
RRpp
rose
RrPp
walnut
Rrpp
rose
rP
RrPP
walnut
RrPp
walnut
rrPP
pea
rrPp
pea
rp
RrPp
walnut
Rrpp
rose
rrPp
pea
rrpp
single

F2 phenotype ratio: 9 walnut : 3 rose : 3 pea : 1 single
comb comb comb comb

1
1


1

1

1


1







1
7
4 (c ) RRPP x RRpp
RRPP x Rrpp
1
1
2

TOTAL
10

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QUESTION
NUMBER
ANSWER MARKS

5 ( a )
Induced fit hypothesis / lock & key hypothesis 1
Enzyme with a flexible active site / enzyme has a rigid active
site
1
Enzyme molecules collide with substrate molecules 1
Substrate binds to the active site of enzyme 1
Enzyme changes shape slightly to enclose substrate in a pre-
cise fit / substrate fits exactly into the active site of the enzyme
1
Enzyme substrate complex formed 1
Stressing & distortion of bonds of the substrate 1
Bonds break & new bonds are formed 1
Activation energy reduced 1
Substrate converted into products 1
Products are released from the enzyme 1
Enzyme can be reused 1
Rate of reaction increases 1
*Diagram showing enzyme & substrate molecule, enzyme-
substrate complex, enzyme & products // sketch graph show-
ing reduction of activation energy
*1
Maximum [ any 7points + *1 mark for diagram/sketch
graph ]
Accept either induced fit hypothesis or
lock & key hypothesis
8








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QUESTION
NUMBER
ANSWER MARKS

5 ( b )
Competitive inhibitor has similar/ same shape to the natural
substrate
1
Competitive inhibitor competes with substrate for the active
site on the enzyme
1
When competitive inhibitor combines with enzyme, no
products are formed
1
When natural substrate combines with enzyme, enzyme-
substrate complex formed & subsequently products are
formed
1
V
max
has the same value 1
K
m
increases 1
Example: malonate competes with succinate for the active site
on the enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase
1
Effect of competitive inhibitors can be reduced by increasing
the substrate concentration.
1
*Sketch graph of V vs [S] // Lineweaver Burk plot of
1/V vs 1/ [S]
*1

Maximum [ any 6 points + *1 mark for sketch graph ]

7











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QUESTION
NUMBER
ANSWER MARKS

6 ( a )
Krantz anatomy // Vascular bundle surrounded by 2 layers of
cells , columnar mesophyll palisade cells and bundle sheath
cells.
1
In mesophyll cells 1
Carbon dioxide combines with phosphoenolpyruvate to form
oxaloacetate / C
4
compound

1
Using the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 1
PEP carboxylase has a high affinity for CO
2
1
Oxaloacetate is reduced to malate using NADPH 1
Malate is shunted through the plasmodesmata into the bundle
sheath cells
1
Malate is oxidized to pyruvate & carbon dioxide using NADP
+
1
CO
2
concentration in stroma of chloroplast is increased 1
CO
2
enters the Calvin cycle producing organic molecules 1
Pyruvate diffuses into mesophyll cells 1
Pyruvate is phosphorylated to regenerate phosphoenolpy-
ruvate
1
Energy / ATP used 1
Example: maize/ sugar cane 1
*Labelled diagram of Hatch Slack pathway *1

Maximum [any 12 points + *1 mark for diagram]

13


6 ( b )
High CO
2
concentration inhibits photorespiration 1
increases the rate of photosynthesis 1
Enzyme PEP carboxylase has a high affinity for CO
2
1
Maximum ( any 2 points ) 2


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QUESTION
NUMBER
ANSWER MARKS
7 (a ) In skeletal muscles, glycogen store is converted to glucose 1
Glucose is converted to pyruvate during glycolysis 1
During anaerobic respiration, pyruvate is reduced to lactate by
NADH + H
+

1
Lactate is transported by the blood from the muscles to the
liver
1
In the hepatocytes, lactate is oxidized to pyruvate using NAD
+
1
Pyruvate is converted to glucose -6 phosphate and then to
glucose
1
Glucose is converted to glycogen & stored in the liver 1
Glucose can be transported back to the muscles & used for
cellular respiration
1
Importance:
prevents an increase in lactic acid / H+concentration in mus-
cles

1
Prevents a decrease in pH which will affect most metabolic
reactions that are catalysed by enzymes
1
Reduces muscle fatigue 1

Maximum [ any 6 points on Cori cycle + 1 point for
importance]

7









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QUESTION
NUMBER
ANSWER MARKS
7 (b ) Occurs in the liver 1
Excess amino acids undergo deamination 1
Amino group is converted to ammonia 1
From cellular respiration, CO
2
is produced 1
CO
2
combines with NH
3
, in the presence of water & ATP to
form carbomyl phosphate
1
Carbomyl phosphate combines with ornithine to form citrulline 1
Citrulline combines with asparate, NH
3
and ATP to form
argininophosphate
1
Argininophosphate cleaves to form arginine and fumarate 1
Arginine is hydrolysed to form urea & ornithine 1
Urea is transported by the blood to the kidneys to be excreted 1
Importance:
Ammonia is toxic and must be excreted
1
Prevents an increase in CO
2
concentration/ H
+
concentration /
decrease in pH
1
so that optimal conditions maintained for metabolic reactions /
homeostasis
1

Maximum [ any 7 points on the Ornithine cycle + any 1
mark for importance ]

8
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QUESTION
NUMBER
ANSWER MARKS
8 ( a ) Maintenance of a constant internal environment 1
Internal environment refers to the tissue fluid that surrounds
the cells
1
Maintain optimal physical & chemical conditions for metabolic
reactions
1
Through negative feedback mechanisms 1
Maximum ( any 2 points ) 2
8 ( b ) Activation of the cyclic AMP system 1
Non- steroid hormone is not soluble in lipid and cannot diffuse
through the plasma membrane
1
Non- steroid hormone acts as the first messenger 1
Hormone combines with receptor at the cell surface mem-
brane, leading to a conformational change in the receptor

1
Hormone receptor complex binds to the G protein . 1
G protein binds with GTP 1
G protein stimulates adenylyl cyclase . 1
Adenylyl cyclase converts ATP to cyclic AMP 1
c AMP acts as the second messenger 1
Cascade effect occurs 1
c AMP catalyses the conversion of inactive protein kinase to
active protein kinase
1
Active protein kinase catalyses the conversion inactive
phosphorylase to active phosphorylase

1
Active phosphorylase catalyses the conversion of glycogen to
glucose
1
Fast manifestation 1
Effect last for a short duration 1
Example: epinephrine / adrenaline 1
*Diagram *1
Maximum : [ any 12 points + *1 mark for diagram ] 13

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QUESTION
NUMBER
ANSWER MARKS
9 ( a ) High reproductive potential 1
leading to overproduction of individuals of a species 1
Struggle for existence 1
leading to competition 1
Variation exists within a population 1
Survival of the fittest by natural selection 1
Best adapted survive, reproduce & pass on the genes to the
next generation
1
After many years, new species is formed from pre-existing
species via natural selection
1

Maximum: any 5 points

5
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QUESTION
NUMBER
ANSWER MARKS
9 ( b ) ( i )





( ii )





( iii )



Fossil record of horses :
increase in body size

1
Number of digits reduced to 1 on each foot 1
Thicker & stronger bones 1
Teeth modified for grazing 1
Sub -Total 4
Pentadactyl limb:
Homologous structures
1
Modified structures that share a basic pattern as the common
ancestor but may have different forms & functions
1
Occupy different ecological niches / example 1
Sub -Total 3
Comparative embryology
Early embryological development of vertebrates reflects evolu-
tionary origins / Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny

1
Adult stages are different but show certain structural similari-
ties in embryonic stages
1
Example: fish-like stages with pharyngeal gill slits in the
embryological development of fish, chicken, man
1
Sub -Total 3
Total: 10







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QUESTION
NUMBER
ANSWER MARKS
10 ( a ) Development that can continue indefinitely 2 / 0
Uses renewable resources
Minimizes the use of non-renewable resources

Conservation of the environment

Maximum [ all 4 points included ] 2

10 ( b ) ( i ) Replanting programmes : replanting the trees in areas that
have been logged
1
Stop traditional slash & burn forest clearance in shifting
cultivation
1
Limit licenses for logging activities 1
Enforcement of laws and surveillance to prevent illegal logging 1
Creating more forest reserves to avoid the complete destruc-
tion of forests
1
Selective logging : control the trees that are logged in terms of
diameter and species
1
Recycling of paper helps to reduce the number of trees being
cut down
1
Educational Awareness programmes 1
Maximum : [ any 5 points ] 5

10b ( ii ) Crop rotation to prevent depletion of nutrients 1
Prudent use of herbicides, pesticides, 1
encourage use of biological control 1
Soil improvement method application of organic fertilizers 1
Irrigation of water deficient soils 1
Contour farming on hill slopes 1
Maximum ( any 5 points ) 5
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10b ( iii) Limiting areas for fishing 1
Permissible mesh size of nets 1
Introduce closed seasons so that fish can reproduce & fish
population can be maintained
1
Stop illegal fishing methods eg: fish bombing 1

Maximum [ any 3 points ]

3






















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