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This volume has been published with the aid of grants from

Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia


Dipartimento di Scienze dellAntichit e del Vicino Oriente

ISSN 1124-156X

SOCIET PER LA PREISTORIA E PROTOSTORIA DELLA REGIONE FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA

QUADERNO - 10

SERGEJ KARMANSKI

DONJA BRANJEVINA: A NEOLITHIC SETTLEMENT NEAR DERONJE IN THE VOJVODINA (SERBIA)

EDITED BY PAOLO BIAGI

TRANSLATED FROM SERBIAN BY M. VUKMANOVI TRANSLATION REVISED BY P. BIAGI AND B.A. VOYTEK

2005
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SOCIET PER LA PREISTORIA E PROTOSTORIA DELLA REGIONE FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA

QUADERNO 10 - 2005

c/o Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Piazza Hortis 4 - 34123 Trieste (Italia)

REDATTORE Paolo Biagi

CONTENTS

1. INSTEAD OF AN INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. page 9 2. SITE LOCATION ....................................................................................................................................... 12 3. THE EXCAVATIONS ................................................................................................................................... 14 4. THE FINDS .............................................................................................................................................. 36 5. SYMBOLS, AMULETS AND OTHER ITEMS ..................................................................................................... 40 6. THE POTTERY ......................................................................................................................................... 46 7. FISHING EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................................................ 48 8. BONE TOOLS AND WEAPONS .................................................................................................................. 49 9. THE POLISHED STONE ASSEMBLAGE (BY D. ANTONOVI)............................................................................ 49 10. THE CHIPPED STONE ASSEMBLAGE (BY J. ARI) ....................................................................................... 57 11. THE CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGE ..................................................................................................................... 65 12. DWELLING STRUCTURES, WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM, DOMED OVEN .................................................................. 67 13. TOYS AND GAMES ................................................................................................................................... 67 14. BURIALS ................................................................................................................................................ 69 15. CHRONOLOGY ........................................................................................................................................ 71 16. THE NEW DATA PROVIDED BY THE EXCAVATIONS ......................................................................................... 72

APPENDIX 1 - SOIL SAMPLE ANALYSES (BY N. KRSTI AND S. DODIKOVI) ....................................................... 74 APPENDIX 2 - THE FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE (BY S. BLAI) ................................................................................. 74

REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................. 78

FINDS CATALOGUE .......................................................................................................................................... 81

Sergej Karmanski with the Redhead Goddess.

t was thanks to Jnos Makkay that I became familiar with Donja Banjevina and Sergej Karmanski, a unique amateur/professional archaeologist that I met for the first time during the Szolnok conference in 1996. In the autumn of the same year Janos, who used to go to Odaci quite frequently, invited Elisabetta Starnini and me for a trip to the Vojvodina, in order to visit Sergej at his village. I was very impressed when I first saw the finds brought to light from Donja Branjevina, displayed in the Odaci Museum, and especially the Redhead Goddess. On that same day Sergej took us to the site and showed the area where he had worked for so many years. Later he entertained us with all the photographs and drawings he had conceived to illustrate a book that he had already in his mind and that was not easy for him to publish in his country for various reasons. In November 2002, when Sergej passed away, I had planned to visit him for the second time in the same year, together with Michela Spataro, in order to start the scientific study of the ceramic assemblages of the site. Furthermore I wanted to inform him of the concrete possibility of publishing his volume in the Trieste Societys series Quaderni. This volume shows the importance of the discoveries that Sergej made at Donja Branjevina during thirty years of excavations. It has been translated from the original Serbian version, and later updated from the manuscript he had personally published in 2000. All the photographs and the beautiful pencil line drawings that illustrate the volume are indicative of his meticulous work. They were given to me by his wife Dusanka and his daughter Anna Maria, who also provided me with all the information available from Sergejs innumerable manuscripts and notes. The editor is particularly grateful to the Karmanskis for all their help during these years, and to all the other people who, in different ways, contributed to the realisation of this volume. Paolo Biagi - Ca Foscari University, Venice, April 7th, 2005 6

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SERGEJ KARMANSKI

This bibliography only contains the published papers and catalogues of S. Karmanski dealing with prehistoric periods. The other (smaller) part of his activity was bound to questions of the archaeology of the Migration Period (i.e. the 6-9 century AD Avars), local history and also numismatics. His catalogues and short published accounts covering these fields have remained unrecorded and are not available for international research. The recently published ADAM (ARCHOLOGISCHE DENKMLER DER AWARENZEIT IN MITTELEUROPA, vol. II, Budapest, 2002) gives a list of his publication of Avar graves and cemeteries. Here follows a list of his papers which can be found in my own library.

1. 2. 3.

1968 Slikana keramika sa lokaliteta Donja Branjevina kod Deronja (with a summary in German: Geschichte der Funde. Topographische und geographische Angaben). Odaci, 1968, 36 p., 1 plan, 1 section, 1 chronological table, 26 figs., 5 pls. 1968a A Donja Branjevina festett kermija Deronja falu kzelben (in Hungarian: The painted pottery of Donja Branjevina in the neighbourhood of the village Deronja). Odaci, 1968, 37 p., 1 plan, 1 section, 1 chronological table, 26 figs., 5 pls., German summary: pp. 1-15. 1968b Slikana keramika sa lokaliteta Donja Branjevina kod Deronja (Nemaki tekst) = The painted pottery of Donja Branjevina near Deronja. German text: Geschichte der Funde. Topographische und Geographische Angaben: pp. 1-15 (identical with the German summary of 1968a). Prilog 1 (map 1), 1 section, 26 figs, 1 chronological table, 5 pls with figures (Prilog 2-6), 5 pls. with a catalogue on an unnumbered page. 1968c rtvenici, statuete i amlueti sa lokaliteta Donja Branjevina kod Deronja. Ed. by Arheoka Sekcija, Odaci, 1968, 53 p., 1 map, pls. 1a1b, 15 figs, chronological table, 23 pls. Schlus[s]folgerungen (German summary) at pp. 52-53. 1968d ldozati ednyek, szobrocskk s amulettek a Donja Branjevina lelhelyrl Deronje falu kzelben (in Hungarian: Sacrificial vessels, figurines and amulets from the site Donja Branjevina in the vicinity of the village Deronja). Odaci, 1968. Hungarian variant of 1968c, 41 p., without illustrations. 1968e Neolitski lokaliteti Jugozapadne Bake. Pregled materijala sa lokaliteta iz okoline Odaka (Neolithic sites in the Southwestern part of the Baka-Bcska. Find material from the territory of Odaci). Ed. by Arheoloka Sekcija pri Osnovnoj koli Boris Kidri. Odaci, 1968. 2 maps, 55 pls. with drawings. (before 1990) ? Dve faze beloslikane keramike na lokalitetu Donja Branjevina. (U prilog prou avanju ranoneolitske slikane keramike). 6 p., 2 pls. German summary without notes: Zwei Phasen der weissbemalten Keramik auf der Fundstelle Donja Branjevina. (Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung der frhneolithischen bemalten Keramik). 2 p. No year. See also no. 44. After 1988 Einige Neufunde anthropomorpher Idoloplastik aus Donja Branjevina. No year, 2 p. 1990 (?) Donja Branjevina 1989. Vorlufiger Grabungsbericht. 4 unnumbered pages, 1 pl. 1994 (?) Kurze bersicht ber interessante Funde, entdeckte [sic!] auf der Lokalitt Donja Branjevina im Laufe der einigen letzten Jahre (1989-1993.). No year, 4 unnumbered pages, 4 figs. ? Katalog des beweglichen Materials. No year, 6 unnumbered pages, the detailed description of 17 pls. 1969 Nalazi bronzanodopske idoloplastike iz okoline Odaka (Bronze Age figurines in the territory of Odaci). Ed. by Amaterska Arheoloka Sekcija Jugozapadne Bake. Odaci - Baka Palanka, 1969, 9 p., 8 pls. 1969a Bronzkori szobrocskaleletek Odaci krnykrl (The Hungarian variant of 1969, without plates), 11 p. 1970 Bakarnodobni lokaliteti Jugozapadne Bake. Pregled materijale sa lokalitety iz okoline Odaka (Copper Age sites in the Southwestern part of the Baka-Bcska). Ed. by Amaterska Arheoloka Sekcija Jugozapadne Bake, Odaci Baka Palanka, 1970, vols. I-II. Vol. I: 17 p., pls. 24, Vol. II: 54 p., 100 pls. 1970a Bakarnodobni lokaliteti Jugozapadne Bake. Pregled materijale sa lokaliteti iz okoline Odaka, I. (Copper Age sites in the Southwestern part of the Baka-Bcska). Ed. by Amaterska Arheoloka Sekcija Jugozapadne Bake, Odaci Baka Palanka, 1970, 3 p., 24 pls. 1975 Ornamentika na keramici sa lokaliteta Donja Branjevina kod Deronja (Decorations of the pottery from the site Donja Branjevina near Deronje). Odaci, 1975, 24 p., 4 maps and planes, 2 sections, chronological chart, 1 unnumbered plate, 19 pl., drawings on 6 pages. 1975a Rani neolit Donja Branjevina (The Early Neolithic of Donja Branjevina). Katalog izlobe (Exhibition catalogue), Odaci 21-28./X/ 1975. Odaci, 1975, ed. by Amaterska Muzeoloka sekcija Jugozapoadne Bake. 1 p., 1 unnumbered plate, 46 figs. on plates. 1975b Rekonstruisane posude, rtvenici i nekoliko detalja sa izlobe Rani Neolit Donja Branjevina (Reconstructed vessels, sacrifical finds and other finds from the exhibition Early Neolithic at Donja Branjevina). Odaci, 1975, 8 p., 16 pls. 1975c Bronzanodobni i Haltatski lokaliteti Jugozapadne Bake. Pregled materijala sa lokaliteta iz okoline Odaka, I deo (Bronze Age and Hallstattian Age sites of the Southwestern part of Baka-Bcska, Finds from the area of Odaci, Part I.). Odaci, 1975, 17 p., 16 pls. 1975d Bronzanodobni i Haltatski lokaliteti Jugozapadne Bake. Pregled materijala sa lokaliteta iz okoline Odaka, I deo (Bronze Age and Hallstattian Age sites of the Southwestern part of Baka-Bcska, Finds from the area of Odaci, Part I.). Odaci, 1975, 2 p., 16 pls. 1977 Katalog antropomorfne i zoomorfne plastike iz okoline Odaka, Arheoloka Zbirka, Odaci. Ed. by Amaterska Muzeoloka Sekcija, Jugozapadne Bake - Aktiv Odaci. Odaci, 1977, 1 p., 28 pls. with captions, with ispravke = corrigenda. 1978 Katalog antropomorfne idoloplastike i nalazi sa lokaliteta Mostonga I, II (Catalogue of the anthroporphic figurines in from the site at Mostonga I, part II. Ed. by Arheoloka Zbirka pri Narodnom Univerzitetu. Odaci, 1978, 1 p., 16 pls. with captions. 1979 Donja Branjevina. Ed. by Arheoloka Zbirka pri Narodnom univertitetu Odaci, 1979, 20 p., chronological table, 1 unnumbered plate, 1 plan, 3 plates of section dawings, 74 plates with captions, 1 pl. with photographs. Second issue with colour cover. 1981 Od neolita do avara. Izloba arheolokih nalaza iz okoline Odaka (From the neolithic to the Avarians. Exhibition of archaeological finds from the territory of Odaci). Ed. by Narodni Univerzitet Odaci - Muzejska Jedinica Odaci. Odaci, 1981, 22, partly ummubered pages, and 20 unnumbered plates.

4. 5.

6.

7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

25. 26. 27.

1984 S. Karmanski and R. Dragan: Zatitno iskopavanje avarske nekropole na lokalitetu Kartonaa (Excavations in the Avarian cemetery at Kartonaa), ed. by Mizejska jedinica pri Narodnom univerzitetu Odaci. Odaci, 1984, 5 p., 2 pls. 1984a Katalog bronzanodobne idoloplastike i zatitno iskopavanje lokalitete Veliki Atovi kod sela Pivnice, III, ed. by Muzejska Jedinica pri Narodnom univerzitetu Odaci, Odaci 1984, 6 p., 10 pls, 4 figs., 1 plan. 1986 U prilog tanijoj interpretaciji materijala lokaliteta Donja Branjevina. Preprint for the VIII Skup Srpskog Arheolokog Drutva abac (pre-print for the 8th Session of the Serbian Archaeological Society at abac, 1986), 1986, 4 p. Glasnik SAD (the Serbian Archaeological Society) 3, abac, 1986. 1986a The English version of 27: Contribution to the correct interpretation of the Early Neolithic material from the Donja Branjevina site. 4 p. 1987 Donja Branjevina 1987 (Donja Branjevina, progress report 1987). 3 unnumbered pages, 2 pls. 1988 Donja Branjevina 1986 (Donja Branjevina, progress report 1986). Odaci, 1988, 11 p., 9 pls. 1988a U prilog prouavanju ranoneolitskih rtvenika (On the research of Early Neolithic altars). Bled, 1988, 9 p., 1 pl. Paper held at the XIII SAD Congress, Bled, 1988. 1988b Reultati novijih istraivanja na lokalitetu Donja Branjevina (referati i izvetaji) (Results of the new investigations at the site Donja Branjevina, progress report). Odaci, 1988, 19 p., and 19 pls. Colligatum, including nos. 28, 31, a second progress report on the 1986 Donja Branjevina excavations, and other hitherto unpublished short articles (33, 34) as follows. 1988c Nalazi labreta na lokalitetu Donja Branjevina u svetlu novih arheolokih i etnolokih injenica (Labrets - lip plugs - from Donja Branjevina in the light of new archaeological and ethnological evidence). 1988, 2 p., 2 pls, 1 fig. Glasnik SAD 4, Beograd, 1987. 1988d Nekoliko novijih nalaza zoomorfne idoloplastike na lokalitetu Dona Branjevina (Some new finds of the animal plastic art at the site Donja Branjevina). Bled?, 1988, 3 p., 6 pls. 1988e Nekoliko novijih nalaza antropomorfne idoloplastike na lokalitetu Donja Branjevina (Some new finds of the anthropomorphic figurines at the site Dona Branjevina). 6 p., 2 pls. Glasnik SAD 6, Beograd, 1990. 1988f Donja Branjevina. The Neolithic of Serbia. Archaeological Research, The University of Beograd. Beograd, 1988 (non vidi). 1989 Preliminary izvetaj sa iskopavanja na lokalitetu Donja Branjevina 1989 (Preliminary report on the 1989 investigations of the site Donja Branjevina). Odaci, 1989, 4 p., 1 map, 2 pls. 1989a Donja Branjevina 1989. Vorlufiger Grabungsbericht. Odaci, 1989, 5 p., 1 map, 2 pls. 1989b Donja Branjevina (Catalogue of the exhibition made at the occasion of the discovery of the Red headed goddess: Crvenokosa boginja). English translation on three pages. Odaci, 1989. 7 unnumbered pages, 8 black and white plates, 6 colour plates. 1990 Donja Branjevina (Beitrge). Odaci, 1990, colligatum, containing German versions of ns. 34 (1990a), 31 (1990b), 35 (1990c), 37 (1990d) and 7 (1990e). 1990a Einige Neufunde der zoomorphen Idolplastik aus Donja Branjevina. Novi Pazar, 1988, 6 p., 1 colour plates, 6 pls. 1990b Ein Beitrag zur Untersuchung frhneolithischer Altre. Bled, 1988, 6 p., 1 pl. 1990c Einige Neufunde anthropomorpher Idoloplastik aus Donja Branjevina. Kikinda, 1989, 4 p., 1 colour plate, 5 pls. 1990d Donja Branjevina 1989. (Vorlufiger Grabungsbericht). Odaci, 1989, 5 p., 1 map, 1 colour plate, 2 pls. 1990e Dve faze beloslikane keramike no lokalitatu Donja Branjevina. Zwei Phasen der weissbemalten Keramik auf der Fundstelle Donja Branjevina. Odaci, 1989, 5 p., 2 pls. See also no. 7. 1993 S. Karmanski and V. Trbuhovi: Donja Branjevina 1989-1993 (in Serbian: Progress report of the 1989-1993 excavations at Donja Branjevina: archaeological finds and architectural remains). Odaci, 1993, 12 p., 17 pls. 1996 Boginja je Pronaena. Odaci, 1996, 24 unnumbered pages with black and white and colour plates and a chronological map. 2000 Donja Branjevina. Arheoloka monografija. Odaci, 2000. Illustrated summary of a similarly entitled CD-ROM, ed. by the Narodna Biblioteka Branko Radievi and Muzejska Jedinica, Odaci. ISBN 86-902167 -1 -5. 500 copies. CD-ROM and Catalogue.

28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48.

Jnos Makkay
Budapest, 2004

1. INSTEAD OF AN INTRODUCTION The spring of 1965 started with a sudden melting of the snow. Every year tales about threatening floods were customary, but this year the situation was really serious. Stories were told that the embankments along the Danube were not strong enough, and that they should be strengthened because they would not be able to sustain a sudden rising of the river level. I remember the day on the eve of breaking the levee as if it were yesterday. In the afternoon the storm was raging. The roar of thunders was heard from the Danube. My thought was that it was the last thing we needed and that the levee no doubt would not endure. However, it endured that day and it would endure even later if it were not for the people1. The sunny morning of June 16th, 1965 had broken. I was awoken at 6 am by the siren sound. I jumped out of my bed thinking about the Danube, levee and flood. According to the arrangement made a few days before, when we hear the siren we all should meet at the Municipality. We all boarded the truck and started for the village Karavukovo. In the meantime we found out that Danube had broken the main levee (fig. 1 and 2, nn. 1 and 2) and that it was necessary to build another additional levee as soon as possible (fig. 2, nn. 3 and 4). By 8 am we were all along the line of the future additional levee. I was in a group near the Krst in a vineyard. Around noon I heard that, somewhere in the vicinity, somebody had unearthed something interesting. I dropped the spade and started to walk along the line of the future levee. Before long I noticed a group of people standing, shouting and arguing around one wider hole and trying to quickly excavate something. I joined the group unnoticed and heard someone saying: Where is now Sergej to see what we have found?. I did not say anything but stayed and observed what was happening. The group was approached by a smart foreman who said: Go back to work, leave this nonsense, the Danube does not wait. The water was really pouring through the broken levee. It reached the point where we were standing three days later. Half an hour, or even one hour, could not make much difference. However, it would have been a great loss to destroy such an interesting find. I explained to some curious investigators, who were expecting a treasure, that it was only a large vessel smashed by the soil pressure and that there was nothing to find inside it except for a few charred grains. I was right. It was a large Early Neolithic jar. My first thought was how to transport so many ceramic

Fig. 1 - Donja Branjevina: the effects of the flood.

Fig. 2 - Donja Branjevina: a farmstead destroyed by the flood (1), the lake that formed between the auxiliary dike and the Danube (2), the construction of the dike (3) and part of the auxiliary dike next to the site (4).

fragments to the Archaeological Collection in Odaci, because I did not have any bag or sack to carry them. I looked inside the woods (as the levee runs along the edge of the forest) and it was incredible how lucky I was at first steps. By one tree I noticed a folded large bag. I looked around and, as I did not notice anybody, I took the bag and rushed to collect the vessel fragments. You can imagine how large the jar was when the fragments, cleaned of the soil, hardly fitted into the bag. Now only one small problem had been solved. But how to take the bag to Odaci? Fortunately, this problem was also solved soon. Somebody in Odaci decided to send drinking water to the people at the levee. The water arrived in a fire engine tank and my student Jovica Mandi, member of the Archaeological unit, came with the driver. The first day of the flood ended happily for me as the bag with the vessel fragments was transported to the Archaeological collection that same day, without any problem. In the afternoon army units arrived at the line of the flood defense. In the evening we boarded trucks once again and returned to Odaci. We had to leave all our tools, spades, shovels etc. at the site. Restless nights and days full of expectation followed. We wandered whether our newly built levee would endure the rush of the Danube. We were on call every night closing so-called springs with sandbags. By the beginning of July the Danube water level was still at its maximum height, which constantly endangered the newly built additional levee. This critical situation required decisive measures. So, the mobilization ensued and we were soon deployed at the section of Branjevina, more precisely at Donja Branjevina. We were stationed in the tents, and nobody could tell us how long we would stay there, although we all knew that the situation was worse than critical. I was in charge of the generator and always on duty during the night. The generator had been placed close to the canteen and it was working without any problem. It provided electricity to the entire defense line from Bako Novo Selo to Bogojevo. While being on duty I was either in the canteen or sleeping. During the day, and off duty, I was walking around. During these surveys, I discovered a few new archaeological sites and collected many potsherds. One day, on the embankment, not far from our camp, I found a few fragments of red painted pottery. On one rim, black painted bands were clearly visible. I immediately remembered my conversation with Petar 10

Fig. 3 - Map of the Vojvodina south of Sombor (1) and location of the site southwest of Odaci (2).

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Fig 4 - Donja Branjevina: aerial view of the site from the south.

Nadj, former archaeologist of Sombor City Museum. Once answering my question What would be interesting to find in this area? Peter, who was a friend of mine, said shortly: Painted pottery. That is the way I discovered the site of Donja Branjevina.

2. SITE LOCATION The climate began to change some 15,000 years ago, when the glaciers of the Carpathians melted down. New water masses from the north, along the present course of the Danube and Tisza, carried away most of the recently deposited Wrm loess. The only regions left intact were northern Baka, those between Fruka Gora and Zemun, that around Deliblatska peara, and few smaller zones of the vast loess cover in Banat. Around 10,000 years ago the hydrological system was stabilized. The present-day settlements are situated where an alluvial plain, called habitation terrace (second river plateau, former loess plateau), formed. The Zagreb Radiocarbon Laboratory dated this phenomenon to 9270180 uncal BP (Z-1627: SRDO et al., 1989: 95). It is to be mentioned that relaxation, due to the washing away of the loess, caused the diversified uplift of some parts of the Pannonian Plain. However, it is certain that the erosion base of the Iron Gates gorge was depressed. A new lowering of the erosion base of the Iron Gates started soon after. It could be dated on the basis of the earliest archaeological finds from the habitation terrace. The habitation terrace was later partly carried away by the meandering of the rivers. Before rivers regulation, a great part of it was covered with swamps and marshes that represented former stagnant river branches and areas of tectonic depressions, that is proper marshes, like Ilandanska movara, Itebejska movara etc. The rivers of the Vojvodina slowly shifted their beds westwards according to Coriolis effect. However, meandering (winding eastwards) is often encountered. This happened during the strong winters, when the ice clustered inside the rivers. Almost totally obstructed rivers accumulated a great quantity of water, which first started to flood across their eastern bank and then, on their eastern side, gave shape to a new bed. Large rivers carried away whole forests and villages until very recently, before their final regulation. The Neolithic settlements were often situated on the second habitation terrace of the rivers, which were used for communication and as food source (fish, shellfish etc.). 12

Plan 1 - Donja Branjevina: subdivision of the excavation area.

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Plan 2 - Donja Branjevina: location of trench III/1966.

Donja Branjevina was situated just on the bank of the Danube (fig. 3, nn. 1 and 2, and fig. 4; plan 1). A small branch of the edge of an old meander is still visible, close to the archaeological site. Two more recent meanders destroyed most of this older bed and carried away the remains of other settlements, if there were any.

3. THE EXCAVATIONS 3.1. THE 1965 AND 1966 SEASONS By the beginning of August 1965, immediately after the flood, we opened the first trench in the area where we had recorded the above-mentioned concentration of potsherds (plan 3: trench I). In this trench, which was later extended, we discovered seven pits (fig. 5). A great amount of well-stratified material was found inside the pits. This led to the definition of the relative chronology of some specific finds. During the June and July 1966 investigations of the site, two smaller trenches were opened (plan 3: trench II, and plan 2: trench III), which confirmed our opinion that the Neolithic settlement extended along an old bank of the Danube. Pit 8 was discovered in the second trench. It was considerably damaged because of the construction of the embankment. In trench III, which was opened within the undisturbed part of the site, another pit (fig. 6), exceptionally rich in pottery and other material, was discovered. According to the stratigraphic data and the analysis of the pottery assemblage, two well-defined cultural layers were recognizable in pits 1, 2, 6 and 7 (layers II and III; figs. 6 and 39). In the same way, the existence of a rather compact, calcined layer was established. This layer 14

Plan 3 - Donja Branjevina: location of trenches I/1965-66 and II/1966 (top). Plan 4 - Donja Branjevina: trenches opened in 1986 (bottom).

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Fig. 5 - Donja Branjevina: location of pits 1-7 discovered in trench I.

Fig. 6 - Donja Branjevina: eastern profile by point D of trench I.

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Fig. 7 - Donja Branjevina: profile (top) and plan (bottom) of pit 9 in trench III/66.

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Fig. 8 - Donja Branjevina: the first trench (I/65) opened at the site (1) and its north profile (2).

Fig. 9 - Donja Branjevina: pit 1 in trench I/65.

had been partly damaged down to the depth of 1 m by pits excavated during the Hallstatt period and by medieval building activity (figs. 8 and 9). Two layers were clearly distinguished inside the hearth found in pit 9 (plan 3: trench III). They were contemporary to each other, as confirmed by the detailed analysis of the pottery assemblages (fig. 6: layer IIIII). The calcined layer above pit 9 (layer I) was recorded also in this trench. A thin layer of shells, clearly visible in the central part of the profile of this pit, demonstrates that layer I can be subdivided into two different phases (Ia and Ib). The discovery of one fragment of white painted pottery with drop-like decorations (plate LXXXV, n. 11), at the bottom of pit 9, between trench I and trench III2, indicates that pit 9 is the logical continuation of layer II in pits 1, 2, 6 and 73. The 1965 and 1966 excavations revealed both vertical and horizontal sequences, four archaeological layers (layers III, II, III-II and I=I), and two development phases of layer I (layers Ia and Ib). During the investigation of this site, which lasted a decade, from 1986 to1996, this stratigraphic sequence was confirmed by numerous finds (fig. 10). 18

Fig. 10 - Donja Branjevina: Stevan Grbi (1) and Sveta Djordjevi (2).

3.1.1. Horizontal and vertical stratigraphy of pits 2 and 9 1. 2. 3. 4. Red-surfaced, black painted pottery. Black paint easily wipes off; Red-surfaced, white painted pottery. White paint easily wipes off; barbotino pottery roughened by circular flat applications adding trails of thick slip; Scattered finds of ceramics with impressed decorations.

1. Barbotino pottery, roughened by adding sharp incrustations of irregular shape and deformed trails of a thick slip; 2. Sporadic finds of impressed potsherds.

1. Numerous finds of impressed pottery. Wheat grain motif mainly used; 2. sporadic finds of barbotino pottery decorated with finger trailing of thick slip; 3. one fragment of white painted pottery with drop-like decorations was found at the bottom of pit 9. The white paint is permanent.

1. Many fragments of white painted pottery. The decoration is obtained with permanent white paint. Drop-like decorations prevail over the other motives; 2. not one single fragment of barbotino pottery was found; 3. the pottery decorated with basket weave motifs is very characteristic; 4. many potsherds with a red slip; 5. some fragments of impressed pottery with painted inner surface; 6. vessels decorated just below the rim with one or two rows of dimples.

1. Coarse pottery with a thick red slip in the inner surface prevails; 2. vessels decorated just below the rim with one or two rows of dimples.

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3.2. THE 1986 SEASON Following the discoveries made in 1965 and 1966, we decided to continue the investigations at the site. The objective of the trial trenches was to acquire as much information as possible about the extension of the settlement and the thickness of the cultural layers. During the first season a relatively small area had been investigated in comparison to the size of the site, due to the limited funds available. Six trenches were opened during this campaign. The excavations were carried out between July 10th and 19th. Members of the investigation team were . Trajkovi, D. Trajkovi, S. Stavrov and the writer. This was the first action of the Boy Scouts of Vojvodina as part of PKSO from Novi Sad. Thanks to the organization and devotion of their leader, S. Deli, and most of the participants in the investigation project Donja Branjevina 1986, a rather large area at the western side of the embankment, and a smaller part of the site on the eastern side of it, were investigated (trench V/86 next to trench I/65) (plan 4; fig. 11) (KARMANSKI, 1988).

Fig. 11 - Donja Branjevina: trench I/86 (1), trench IV/86 (2), trench V/86, with traces of a dwelling structure (3) and a pit dwelling structure (?) in trench V/86-87 (4).

The test trench revealed that the cultural layer was very thin in the west section, where pits were also present, because this part of the site was probably underwater for rather long periods each year. In the area where trench V was opened, the archaeological horizon was partly damaged by the embankment works. Nevertheless it yielded enough data for the chronological definition of the material we recovered. The ceramic assemblage is represented by a high quantity of red-painted ware in comparison to other pottery. Barbotino pottery is absent, one single fingernail impressed potsherd was recovered, as well as fragments of altars with perforated square pedestals, and many other elements. They indicate that the cultural horizon of trench V/86 is identical to that of layer III in trench I/1965-66: pits 1, 2, 6 and 7 (KARMANSKI, 1979). 3.3. THE 1987 SEASON The northern area of the site was investigated in 1987, following the same procedure of the preceding year. The excavations were organized by the Regional Office for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Novi Sad, the Museum unit of Odaci and the Boy Scouts of Vojvodina. Members of the team were the archaeologists V. Lekovi, S. Vetni, D. Gai, S. Karmanski, as curator, and some thirty Boy Scouts. The excavations started on the 10th of July and lasted until the 20th of August. 20

Three trenches were investigated (plan 5: trenches I, II and III) during this season, and we also completed the works in trench V/86 (KARMANSKI, 1987). Thanks to the analysis of the material discovered, and the stratigraphic data, it was established that four phases were represented in this area of the settlement. The earliest layer (III) belongs to the monochrome phase (trench V/86). It marks the beginning of the settling of this area. On the top of this layer lies, and is clearly distinguished inside the pits, a Proto-Starevo horizon (layer II), and in pit 9, continues the horizon with characteristic Proto-Krs pottery (layer III-II). In this part of the site (trenches. I, II and III/87 [fig. 12] and trench V/86-87; plan 5) life ceased in the classic Starevo period (layers Ia and Ib) without traces of spiraloid and linear phases. Two dwelling structures were discovered: a pit dwelling, which contained a sacrificial pit (Schlitzopfergrube: fig. 11, n. 4) and one less defined habitation structure. During the 1987 excavations, carried out at the periphery of the settlement (?), a large amount of pottery was found in trenches I, II and III. The results of this season confirmed the presence of very significant remains of an Early Neolithic settlement that might greatly contribute to the solution of some controversial questions.

Plan 5 - Donja Branjevina: trenches opened in 1987 (left). Plan 6 - Donja Branjevina: trenches opened in 1988 (right).

3.4. THE 1988 SEASON Also this year the Boy Scouts of Vojvodina organized the excavations. Members of the team were V. Lekovi (excavation director), S. Karmanski (curator), A. Jovanovi (student of archaeology), J. Berke Joka (archaeologist), S. Stavrov (technician) and Girl and Boy Scouts. The works started on the 12th of July and lasted until the 15th of August. During the first day we outlined two trenches (IV and V) measuring 8.3 x 3.0 m (24.9 sq m) parallel to the last season trenches. In the beginning only 18 girls and 2 boys were engaged but, when other participants in this action arrived, two more trenches of the same size were outlined. V. Lekovi arrived the very last day. He brought with him a few students to draw the plans and profiles of the trenches (plan 6: trenches IV-VII; fig. 13). 3.5. THE 1989 SEASON 3.5.1. From the daybook of September 2nd We arrived at the site around 6.15 am. Members of the team were S. Karmanski, M. Jovi, A. Nedeljkov 21

Fig. 12 - Donja Branjevina: trench I/87 (1) and trench III/87 with traces of a dwelling structure (2).

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Fig. 13 - Donja Branjevina: trench IV/88 (1), trench V/88 (2), hearth in trench VII/88 (3) and trench III/87 (left) and trenches IV, V, VI, VII/88 (4).

Fig. 14 - Donja Branjevina: the Redhead Goddess in situ (1) and just removed from the soil (2).

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(Saa I), S. Markovi (Saa II) and Z. Muiki. We work in the CD profile (plan 7: trench VIII), first following the edges of the rubbish pit, which yielded a great amount of materials, among which are many shells and snails, down to the sterile soil. The edges of the pit (?), which are easy to distinguish, were recorded as feature 2. In the area parallel to the CD profile we work in spit 7, i.e. feature 2, the material from which is kept separate. The Romanian archaeologist G. Lazarovici is expected to arrive around 9 am. I am going to meet him. In charge at the site remained . Trajkovi, while V. Lekovi and D. Gai have just been dropped on their way to Novi Sad. In the part of the trench, close to profile AB, there is almost no material in the spit 6. Lazarovici arrived around 10 am and we went straight to the site. eda informed me that they had just found something interesting. In the section of the trench close to corner C, something similar to small feet is sticking out. I think that it is an ornithomorphic vessel. The crew is getting ready to photograph the object. Geometer Mia is making drawings and taking measures. Saa II is working at the bottom of layer 6, on grave 1. He started to remove human ribs and we all shouted at him. Wretched soul is not to blame he did not know, he had never excavated burials before. V. Lekovi particularly harassed him, but Lazarovici went to his help saying that he himself had excavated a quantity of burials. After half an hour the burial was excavated; it lay partly beneath the CD profile. It would be necessary to enlarge the trench. Everything is photographed and we also took colour photographs of Lazarovici cleaning the burial. The footed object (Heko-Milan Jovi predicts it is figurine) is photographed with a B&W film, and the feet also with a slide film. When everything is photographed, we started to clean and remove the object because it was not possible to leave it in situ overnight. Heko cleans it with a great care. When he removed it, we recognized that it was an unique, monumental idol (fig. 14). Heko holds it and trembles with excitement. One leg is in a very poor state of preservation, virtually falling apart. Judging by all facts, the idol had been deliberately broken in the course of some ritual and then buried. The position of the legs is abnormal. They are placed on the shoulders. If it had broken under the soil pressure, the parts would have been in a different position. The material of which the idol is made is very fragile and it is in a state of decay, more precisely one leg is disintegrating. On the head, actually on its back, traces of red paint could be noticed in the hair. One breast is detached (but it is there) the other barely holds on. One arm is broken, although all the fragments were found. I think that it would be easy to reconstruct it. After photographing I put the fragments of arm and breast in one envelope, and in the other, the leg and buttock and, as Gai says, tuck it carefully. It is fortunate that this very day I had a cardboard box in the car. In another envelope, I placed part of the other leg and in one more the buttock, which is in a very poor state. It all had cracked under the soil pressure. In another envelope I placed some small fragments we had found next to the idol, and in another a small amount of material that might have belonged to this figurine. We also took some soil samples for flotation. Everything is at the end placed in the cardboard box. In the profile of the central part of the trench, above the idol, the layer of shells is noticeable. The soil used to cover the idol was probably taken from a neighboring rubbish pit (?). In my opinion, the presence of this rubbish is not normal because idols of this size are usually found only in shrines and not in rubbish pits. Near corner B, Saa I works on feature 1. Vlada insists on separating material from grey and black layers visible only to him. He became diligent, jumps around, yells and only annoys everybody. We are now working in arbitrary layer 7 of feature 1. Saa I found there a complete bone awl. The excavated material from layer 7 is left on the bank of BC profile (fig. 15). The flotation soil sample is also left on the bank, next to grave 1. The grave, partly cleaned, is covered with a plastic bag. The material collected by Lazarovici while cleaning the grave is also placed in the small plastic bag. The grave cleaned by Lazarovici seems to be a childs burial (?) (fig. 16). Everything is now becoming more interesting and we expect other finds in case we discover a shrine. We agreed to work even on Sunday, that is tomorrow. 3.5.2. A preliminary report The 1989 excavations were carried out almost at the periphery of the settlement, in the area where, during the previous years, we had discovered Starevo finds. The concentration of pottery in the western part of trench VIII/89 (plan 7) was recorded from the first layers. In the third spit, next to profile AB, and closer to corner A (feature 2), there was a very high concentration of pottery and other material (shells, snail, etc.). A similar situation was recorded only in the fifth spit next to profile BC, close to corner B (feature 1). The first interesting finds were recorded in the third layer, in the profile of the trench next to corner A. These were, a part of a human mandible and one slightly damaged labret almost in situ, next to the mandible. About 20 cm from the mandible one perforated steatopygous pendant and fragments of painted pottery were 24

Fig. 15 - Donja Branjevina: trench VIII/89, spit 4 (1) bottom layer of trench VIII/89 (2), trench VIII/89 towards west (3) and deep hole (right) where a totem was probably inserted (?) (4).

Fig. 16 - Donja Branjevina: trench VIII/89: horns of Bos taurus and Medieval (?) children burials (1 and 2), plan of trench VIII/89 (23: hole where totem was interred (?), 33: Medieval (?) child burial, 34: removed horn of Bos taurus, 35: horn of Bos taurus in situ, 36: Medieval (?) child burial) (3) and Redhead Goddess in situ (4).

25

Plan 7 - Donja Branjevina: trenches opened in 1989 (left). Plan 8 - Donja Branjevina: trenches opened in 1990 (right).

Fig. 17 - Donja Branjevina: upper part of the Redhead Goddess.

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discovered. The decoration on the potsherds consisted of vertical, wavy lines red painted on a white surface. It is possible that these finds represent the remains of a shallow grave destroyed by the embankment works. This suggestion might be confirmed in the forthcoming years extending this trench westward. After cleaning the bottom of spit 6, we started to empty the rubbish (?) pit (feature 1), inside which we discovered a curious fragmented object, in spit 7. From the soil we noticed the legs that we thought, because of their sizes, to be part of an ornithomorphic vessel. Only after cleaning the object and taking pictures, we started to remove it. With everybodys astonishment we had in our hands a female steatopygous statuette of exceptional size, broken in the middle (fig. 17). After some time, when feature 1 had been completely cleaned, we concluded that it had been buried on a small platform, at the edge of feature 1. In front, or possibly behind the platform (?), a large post had been interred towards the west of the statuette (fig. 16, n. 3): a part of a dwelling structure (?) or possibly a pillar with a sacred function (?): ssarhuli (MAKKAY, 1988). In the same pit (feature 1), not far from the statuette, towards the east, a few fragmented vessels and two horns of Bos taurus were also found. Unfortunately a medieval burial (fig. 16, n. 3: 33 and 36) had been excavated exactly here. It disturbed the lower-lying layers and the distribution of the objects. One of the horns of spit 7 was found in situ (fig. 16, n. 3: 34), while the other (fig. 16, n. 3: 35) was displaced from its original position. On that occasion the vessels placed close to the statuette were also broken. Also an altar of unusual slightly elliptical shape found in the first spit was probably part of this cult display4. Although feature 1 has not been completely investigated, it was probably a minor cult place, perhaps a shrine (?). The position of the statuette within this feature (fig. 16, n. 3: 38) and the fact that it had been broken intentionally and later buried, support the validity of earlier suggestions (KARMANSKI, 1989) that human sacrifices were made during Early Neolithic magical and religious rites. The upper part of the statuette was not very damaged. It had been placed facing down, most probably intentionally. The lower part of the body, more precisely the legs with enormous glutei, was placed on the torso. Because of the pressure of the deposit, the right leg of the statuette was broken, and the right gluteus greatly deformed. During the restoration, it was possible to understand that each leg with gluteus had been manufactured independently, and later the two parts had been conjoined. We also noticed that the right leg was longer than the left one, and the right gluteus larger than the other (plate I, 1A-1D). On the head, the hair had been deeply incised and painted with relatively stable, paste-like red paint, as confirmed by remains of paint in the deep grooves. One lock of hair was incised on her face. On the lower frontal part is a shallow, triangular engraved apron. Exceptionally large glutei, shape and position of breasts indicate that this was the representation of very young person ready to procreate, that is a classic example of fertility symbol. In spite of her outstanding size and the large amount of clay employed for her manufacture, this monumental figurine (h 38 cm) had been very carefully modeled with meticulously depicted details. Although we do not know any closer analogy, at least concerning the size (SANEV, 1988: 17, fig. 7), such a way of modeling, and the pottery recovered from the feature, attribute this statuette to the late spiraloid phase of the Starevo horizon, although some archaic elements of the Krs Culture were also found. The position of the horns can help explain their function in relation to the statuette. Bos taurus horns had always been discovered at this site buried beneath hearths (KARMANSKI, 1989a)5 or in pits. In this case, a pair of horns was encountered for the first time. The impression is that, although one of them had been displaced, they both had been buried together in the same spot, in front of the figurine. A censer (plate LXI, 1A-1D) from spit 1 had also been probably placed between the two horns. Unfortunately this reconstruction is hypothetical. At present it is impossible to say anything more specific about the Redhead Goddess and her role within the shrine (?), except that it is the only find of this size in the world. 3.6. THE 1990 SEASON The 1990 excavations were organized by the Archaeological Institute of Belgrade and the Museum of Odaci, thanks to the financial support of SO Odaci and DD Hipol. Members of the team were Dr. V. Trbuhovi, scientific counselor of the Archaeological Institute of Belgrade, S. Stojkovi, associate of the Archaeological Institute, S. Karmanski, director of the Archaeological Collections of Odaci and S. Stavrov, graduate engineer-surveyor. The works started on the 20th of August and lasted until September 1st. During this campaign we excavated one trench (plan 8: trench IX) 9.2x3 m, that is 27.6 sq m, and also completed the excavation in the section of Trench VIII/89, next to point D (figs. 18 and 19). 27

Fig. 18 - Donja Branjevina: detail of trench IX/90 (1), floor of trench IX, spit 4 (2), concentration of potsherds in the northern part of trench IX/90 (3) and outline of a sacrificial pit discovered in trench IX/90 (4).

Fig. 19 - Donja Branjevina: trench VIII/89, the eastern part of which was completed in 1990 (1), hearth in the eastern profile of trench VIII/89-90 (2), trench IX/90 (3) and a detail of the same trench (4).

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Plan 9 - Donja Branjevina: trenches opened in 1991 (left). Plan 10 - Donja Branjevina: trenches opened in 1992 (right).

Fig. 20 - Donja Branjevina: trench X/91: house rubble near point D (1), remains of a dwelling structure and Schlitzopfhergrube near point C (2), a general view of the trench (3) and detail of the finds (4).

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Fig. 21 - Donja Branjevina: pit dwelling (?) near point D in trench X/91 (1 and 2) and trench XI/92 (3) with the remains of a dwelling structure in the western section (4).

3.7. THE 1991 SEASON The 1991 excavations were organized by the Odaci Museum and the Archaeological Institute of Belgrade. The Odaci Municipal Fund for Culture provided part of the funds. Members of the team were Dr. V. Trbuhovi, M. Vasiljevi, museum counselor and archaeologist of the National Museum of abac, S. Karmanski and S. Stavrov, graduate engineer-surveyor. Consultants were the academicians Prof. Dr. D. Srejovi and Dr. B. Brukner. The archaeologist M. Madas joined the team at the beginning of the excavations The works started on May 6th and lasted until June 1st. The excavations were resumed on the 12th of August and continued until the 11th of September of the same year. During this season we excavated one trench (plan 9: trench X) shaped as letter L, which covered 68 sq m (figs. 20 and 21, nn. 1 and 2). 3.8. THE 1992 SEASON The Odaci Museum unit organized the 1992 excavations. Members of the team were Dr. V. Trbuhovi, M. Vasiljevi and S. Karmanski. L. Mrkalj, who was supposed to participate as draughtsman, did not take part in the research. The excavations started on May 7th and lasted until June 9th. They were resumed on the 23rd of July and continued until the 13th of August. Three trenches were excavated (plan 10: trenches XI-XIII,), which covered an area of 83.5 sq m (figs. 21, nn. 3 and 4; 22 and 23, nn. 1 and 2). 3.9. THE 1993 SEASON The Odaci Museum unit organized the 1993 excavations. The writer and SO Odaci provided the financial support. Members of the team were Dr. V. Trbuhovi, M. Vasiljevi, and S. Karmanski. The excavations started on the 10th of May and lasted with a prolonged interval (1.VI-15.IX) until the 12th of October. Seven trenches were excavated (plan 11: trenches XIV-XX), which covered an area of 167 sq m (figs. 23, nn. 3 and 4; 24-26). 3.10. THE 1994 SEASON The 1994 excavations were organized by the Odaci Museum. Sponsor of this campaign was DD Hipol 30

Plan 11 - Donja Branjevina: trenches opened in 1993 (left). Plan 12 - Donja Branjevina: trenches opened in 1994 (right).

Fig. 22 - Donja Branjevina: dwelling structure (1) and ground plan of cage (?) (2) in trench XI/92, trench XII/92 (3) with a sacrificial pit in the profile AD (4).

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Fig. 23 - Donja Branjevina: north profile of trench XIII/92 (1) and bottom of the same trench (2), trench XIV/93 (3) with a water supply system (?) and traces of a dwelling structure (4).

Fig. 24 - Donja Branjevina: plan of a domed oven next to profile CD (1) and water supply system and reservoir in the southern part of trench XIV/ 93 (2), trench XV/93 (3) and trenches XV/93 and XI/92 towards the west (4).

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Fig. 25 - Donja Branjevina: first spit excavated in trench XVIII/93 (next to trench I/65-66) (1), bottom plan of trench XVIII/93 (2), trench XIX/93 (3) and northern part of trench XIX/93 (4).

Fig. 26 - Donja Branjevina: half sacrificial pit in the southern part of trench XIX/93 (1), animal skull at the bottom of a sacrificial pit in the same trench (2), trench XX/93 (3) and bottom plan of the same trench (4).

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Fig. 27 - Donja Branjevina: trench XXI/94 (1), with traces of a dwelling structure (2), trench XXII/94 (3) and bottom of the same trench (4).

Fig. 28 - Donja Branjevina: trench XXIII/94 (1), part of spit 6 in trench XXIII/94 (2), trench XXVI/95 (3) during excavation (4).

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from Odaci. Supervisor of the works was Dr. V. Trbuhovi, and participants were S. Karmanski and J. Paprenica, archaeologist. The excavations started on the 9th of May and lasted until the 16th of June 1994. The works were resumed on the 29th of September and continued until the 24th of October. Within the area of the Starevo complex three trenches were excavated (plan 12: trenches XXI-XXIII), which covered an area of 136 sq m (figs. 27 and 28, nn. 1 and 2). 3.11. THE 1995 SEASON The Odaci Museum unit organized the 1995 excavations. Funds were provided by two sponsors, with the help of SO, Odaci. Members of the team were Dr. V. Trbuhovi, and S. Karmanski. The works started on May 8th and lasted until June 1st. The excavations along the embankment were resumed on July 19th of the same year and continued until September 17th. Within the Starevo area of the settlement, one trench, 12x3 m, was excavated (plan 13: trench. XXVI), which covered a surface of 36 sq m (fig. 28, nn. 3 and 4).

Plan 13 - Donja Branjevina: location of trench XXVI.

3.12. THE 1996 SEASON The 1996 excavations were organized by the Archaeological Institute of Belgrade and the Museum of Odaci. Members of the team were Dr. V. Trbuhovi, site supervisor, L. Nikoli, archaeologist, and S. Karmanski. The excavations started on the 16th of May and lasted until the 18th of June along the embankment and in trench I/65-66. In trench I/65-66 an unfinished section of 3.5x2.5 m (8.7 sq m) was excavated (fig. 29). It was reported in the daybook as a new trench (XXX) (plan 14). 35

Plan 14 - Donja Branjevina: location of trench XXX.

4. THE FINDS 4.1. THE ANTHROPOMORPHIC FIGURINES DISCOVERED IN 1965 AND 1966 The data provided by the discovery of complete or fragmented figurines in 1965 and 1966, were insufficient to define the internal chronological development of these items both at Donja Branjevina and in a wider territory, in general. The absence of anthropomorphic figurines in the earliest horizons, and the discovery of cylindrical, steatopygous statuettes at Mostonga I (KARMANSKI, 1968a: T. XXI, 1A-1C) could be used only to define their first appearance which, according to former observations, did not take place before the spread of the Proto-Krs Culture in this territory. For this reason the analysis of the assemblages from these two seasons is restricted to the description of a few specimens. A cylindrical statuette (plate XV, 1A-1C) was found in layer Ib, inside pit 9. It had a slightly expanded base, and great care had been paid to model her face. The structure is divided, almost imperceptibly, in two segments around the neck. The first includes the head, which has a conical top, and the second, the body. The nose was subsequently applied on the flat surface of the triangular face. The hair was incised on the larger segment of its surface, except for the upper part of the head. The shape of the statuette and its face modeling is a clear, synthetic example of both classic Starevo and Vina stylistic elements. The circumstances of its discovery cannot attribute this figurine to the Late Starevo period, because its stratigraphic position is earlier than the spread of the Vina Culture in this area. The statuette was associated with Proto-Krs material, a period during which fragments with red and white slip recur again, after a rather long break and besides typical Krs pottery. It seems that the first contacts between the Krs and Vina Cultures took place during this period. This is confirmed by finds of black burnished pottery very similar to that of Vina. 36

Fig. 29 - Donja Branjevina: trench XXX/96: unfinished portion of trench I/65-66 (1), a concentration of shells and snails can be noticed in the profile of trench XXX/96 (2 and 3), from which a sample for radiocarbon dating was collected (4).

Looking for closer analogies, in particular in the face modeling, we can find numerous parallels with the Vina settlement figurines from a depth comprised between 9 and 8 m (plate XII, 1A-1C) (VASI, 1936: fig. 53). At Donja Branjevina, this period is characterised by classic Starevo material; more precisely, it predates the spread of the Vina Culture in this territory. The upper part of a cylindrical statuette (plate XI, 1A-1C) was found in layer Ia, inside pit 9. The statuette was made of well-refined and well-baked clay and, judging from the preserved fragment, it was well polished. Where the surface is preserved there are thin, oblique incisions, which indicate the hair. According to the way the hair is represented, and its manufacturing technique, this figurine can be compared with the classic Starevo types. If this fragment belongs to the lower part of the statuette, closer analogies can be extended to the figurine from Obre (BRUKNER, 1968: 63). On this latter specimen, just above the fracture point, the hair is produced in a similar manner (KARMANSKI, 1968b: fig. 13 and 14). On the basis of the statuette fragments (plate III, 2) produced in the manner of Starevo idols discovered during the 1967 excavations, it is clear that the material from layer Ia cannot derive from Starevo Culture influences on one stage of development of the Krs Culture as put forward by BRUKNER (1968: 63). In this case, it is classic Starevo material. Two fragments of probable cylindrical statuettes were found in layer I, inside pit 1 (plate XVI, 5 and 8). They both belonged to the lower part of the figurine. They were very different, although they were found at approximately the same level. The base of one fragment (plate XVI, 8) has an elliptical section and is more refined than the second piece, with a relatively coarse surface and a circular section (plate XVI, 5). According to the cross-section at the breakage point, both specimens seem to belong to statuettes of cylindrical shape. This is demonstrated also by the discovery of a statuette fragment with a similar base, from layer Ib, pit 9 (plate XVI, 3). 4.1.1. Analysis and classification of the figurines The excavations were resumed in 1986, after a break of 20 years, in the immediate vicinity of trench I/6566 (plan 3: trench V/86). During the following years 1987 and 1988, seven more trenches (I-VII) were opened 37

Table 1 - Donja Branjevina: stratigraphic distribution of the figurines and fragments of figurines (X), and possible fragments of figurines (x).

next to trench III/66. After the analysis of the total number, percentage and stratigraphic distribution of the anthropomorphic figurines in the excavated trenches, it was possible to conclude that they all were from the Starevo horizon (table 1). In 1986, not one single statuette was found in the earliest horizons (trench V/86, layer III). During the following year (1987), the head, part of a cylindrical specimen (?) and two pieces of steatopygous figurines of different size, and a few stands (plate XVI, 1, 6 and 9) were found in the Starevo horizon. Even later, in the trenches excavated until 1996, all the anthropomorphic figurines were exclusively yielded by the Starevo horizon (plates I-XIX). All the anthropomorphic figurines belong to the Early Neolithic, with the exception of one specimen of cylindrical shape (plate XV, 1A-1C). They can be subdivided into three main groups: 1) steatopygous figurines, which are well known within the Krs Culture (plates I- IV); 2) cylindrical statuettes with extended base and modeled nose. To this group can be attributed to those with modeled hands and breasts, which can be considered of an intermediate shape to those of real cylindrical shape (plates VI, X, XII and XIV); 3) particularly distinctive is the third group of classic Starevo statuettes, of cylindrical shape and flat surfaces. The representation of hair and other parts of the head and face greatly resemble the woodcarving technique; it is not impossible that the first specimens were modeled as wooden totem-images (plates VII, VIII and XIV). At this site, the three groups and subgroups are associated in spits 5 and 6. The steatopygous figurines, which are probably the oldest (?), also from a chronological point of view (spits 3/2 and 1), slowly disappear in the upper layers and are replaced by classic, cylindrical Starevo types (plate VII). Statuettes with extended base, sculptured hands and breasts are present in all the Starevo layers. According to the small number of anthropomorphic figurines found in relation to the investigated area, it would be incorrect to assume that they are very infrequent at this site. After these excavations, which lasted almost a decade, the situation of the anthropomorphic figurines changed drastically. More than 50 fragmented and complete statuettes were found at Donja Branjevina until 1996. Thanks to J. MAKKAY (pers. comm. 1986)6 it was possible to compare the percentage of finds of anthropomorphic figurines of the Hungarian Krs Culture sites with those of Donja Branjevina. The same comparison should be extended to other Starevo sites, although the number of figurines of this culture is difficult to estimate, because they are often unpublished or lie in the stores of several museums. Within a radius of some 20 km, 11 Early Neolithic Starevo sites have been recorded7 in the immediate vicinity of Donja Branjevina. They all yielded fragments of figurines collected from the surface or during the excavation of test trenches8. The density of sites should suggest that many Early Neolithic settlements are still to be found, possibly many more than those discovered in Hungary during systematic surveys9. 38

The stratigraphic analysis of all the anthropomorphic figurines from some thirty trenches excavated within an area of 800 sq. m produced many interesting data. First, it has been established that the statuettes were all from the classic Starevo layers. Their absence in the earliest horizons of the Donja Branjevina group and Proto-Krs Culture was also confirmed. These data are of exceptional importance, because their presence in the Starevo horizon, along with zoomorphic figurines in the earlier horizons (plate XXXIX, 1A and 1B), would suggest that mans life at Donja Branjevina underwent a number of changes. Thanks to the recovery of several figurines, it is now also possible to draw some conclusions on their cult function, particularly as a part of rituals connected with agriculture in this area. For instance, if we analyse the face of the fragmentary statuettes we can notice that their eyes are closed, without pupils, and that most of them are without mouth. We have the impression that the statuettes represent something passed away, the dead or a sacrificed person. The features, which are missing from their faces, are those that a dead person does not need any more. Furthermore the fact that almost all the statuettes are broken might suggest that the first farmers of the Balkans practiced human sacrifices as part of a specific ritual for the increasing of crop production. Instead of human sacrifices they symbolically fragmented clay or wood female figurines. Their pieces were later scattered all over the field or buried in the ground (pit). The inhabitants of Donja Branjevina besides human sacrifices to the earth also made other ritual activities, which can be linked with soil fertilisation. Among many anthropomorphic figurines, a special and unique specimen is the so-called Redhead Goddess, a steatopygous statuette whose name is due to her extraordinary size and the red paint used to decorate the hair.

Fig. 30 - Donja Branjevina: chamois censer in situ in trench II/87 (1) and the reconstructed object (2).

4.2. ZOOMORPHIC FIGURINES During ten years of investigation, new information was achieved on the role of the zoomorphic figurines. Of particular interest are the zoomorphic censers, with elements of zoomorphic figurines and the miniature zoomorphic figurines. Plastic representations of various animals (pig, turtle, stag, chamois, snake) are often present on jars. The analysis of the faunal remains indicate that, even after the emergence of agriculture, hunting and fishing still played an important role in the substance economy of this settlement. The zoomorphic figurines were also used, like the anthropomorphic ones, in the reproduction rituals, as fertility symbol (MARKEVI, 1981) or some kind of amulet by hunters and fishers. There is a certain connection between zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figurines. Both symbols recur in Anatolia as representative of agriculture cult. However, the identification of horns with new moon, allegedly lunar deity and hypothetical estimated agricultural calendar, is impossible to accept. Nevertheless the author of this hypothesis should be given credit for his attempt to explain the presence of horns in the most appropriate way (MELLAART, 1965). The discovery of cult pits and horns in the pits of Donja Branjevina deny any identification of horns with lunar deity. The horns should be understood exclusively as symbols of virility (fertility symbols). 39

The stag (or chamois) shaped censer discovered in 1987 is of particular interest. It was found in spit 5 of trench II/87, next to the west profile (fig. 30; plate XL). It was decorated with deeply incised meanders, zigzags and motifs looking like letters M W and V. Similar or identical decorations have been found on many Neolithic cult vessels (or censers), where they represent schematic horns. Traces of very intense fire are clearly visible inside the censer container, as well as in others censers previously discovered at Donja Branjevina (KARMANSKI, 1979: T. XXXIV, 1A-1D; T. XXXVI, 1A and 1B; T. XXXVII, 1; T. XXXVIII, 2) and Mostonga I (KARMANSKI, 1978: T. VI, 1A-1D). The profile of the censers body is hollowed. It highly resembles the strained muscles of a running animal. Although the censer is complete, there are different opinions about the animal it represents. In spite of some stag characteristics (head, neck), I think it might represent a chamois, because of the shape of the horns (BELI, 1968)10. This is confirmed by closer analogies at Endrd 39 in Hungary (MAKKAY, pers. comm. 1996) and at Donja Branjevina itself (KARMANSKI, 1989: XLVI, 1A and 1B). It is also interesting to mention the potsherd of a large, coarse jar decorated with a plastic head and part of the body of a chamois (plate XXV). This fragment was found in spit 5 of trench I/87, next to the eastern profile. Deep incisions on the neck (imitation of long and multicoloured hair?) and horns complete the image, and confirm that it represents a chamois instead of a stag.

5. SYMBOLS, AMULETS AND OTHER ITEMS 5.1. SOIL FERTILISATION: ANTLER AS VIRILITY SYMBOL During the excavations, we discovered a few pits that contained only horns. An animal horn11 (virility symbol male sex organ) had been placed in the circular pit (female sex organ). After such ritual the pit had been refilled without the addition of other offerings. The displacement of horns within the pit was not defined. They were oriented differently and not always placed in the centre of the pit (figs. 31 and 32)

Plan 15 - Donja Branjevina: distribution map of the sacrificial pits and hearths discovered in the Starevo complex.

40

Fig. 31 - Donja Branjevina: two horns inside a sacrificial pit in trench XII/92 (1), bottom layer of trench XII/92 (2), double sacrificial pit in trench XX/94 (3) and horn of Bos taurus in the northern half of the same pit (4).

Fig. 32 - Donja Branjevina: sacrificial pit in the southern sector of trench XIX/93 (1), an animal skull in the same pit (2 and 3) and the offering skull (4).

41

5.2. SYMBOLIC HUMAN SACRIFICE The bottom of the pits discovered in trenches IX, XI, XV, contained lumps of baked clay (plates XVIIXIX) almost identical to the stone heads from Gura Baciului in Romania (VLASSA, 1972b). Also this was a type of ritual related to soil fertility. 5.3. ANOTHER FERTILITY SYMBOL Of particular interest is the discovery of a pig-shaped censer (?) (plate XXXIX). A double container is positioned on the back of this headless vessel. Its shape was probably not casual, since pig is a very fertile animal bringing forth more than 15 youngs at one time. A few damaged, coarse ware, small pig figurines were also found, some of which were pierced to be suspended (plate XXIII, 1A and 1B). All these symbols and rituals were exclusively linked with reproduction. 5.4. LONGEVITY SYMBOL The turtle was a symbol of longevity or something that lasts forever for the inhabitants of this settlement. Longevity symbols, applications resembling prints of turtles paw were found on fragments of large jars. Furthermore turtle shells were buried beneath the hearths of trenches VII/88 and VIII/90. 5.5. AMULETS Certain finds are sometimes interpreted as cult objects or amulets, because we are unable to understand their practical use in everyday life. At Donja Branjevina we can distinguish between amulets (plates XX, 4 and XXII) and ornaments (plate XX, 2 and 3). Here, the function of these objects has always been understood, with the exception of only one specimen (plate XX, 1A-1D). Among the small number of particularly interesting cult objects is a pendant, perhaps part of a necklace (?), which looks like a steatopygous figurine that was probably used as an amulet. This pendant probably was supposed to be of some help, as other fertility symbols, for human reproduction (plate XCVIII, 5). 5.6. JEWELRY: ORNAMENTS OR SPINDLE WHORLS? The small number of jewelry pieces might indicate that the inhabitants of Donja Branjevina paid little attention to the embellishment of their body and dress. Just a few unpublished clay fragments and stone bracelets (plate XXI, 2, 4, 6 and 7) confirm that also jewelry played a certain role in the everyday life of this site. Not one single adult grave has ever been discovered in the investigated area of the site. The cemetery should be located somewhere within the settlement, and this might be the main reason why only a small amount of jewelry was found in the area with habitation structures. A few small discs (plate CX, 7-10) collected in the immediate vicinity of the child (?) burial discovered in 196612, speak in favour of this suggestion. Some bones and one clay rings were probably used as necklace pendants (plate XXI, 4-8). The accurate workmanship attributes these rings to the group of the decorative objects. In contrast to the pierced stone discs (plate XXI, 1, 3 and 5), the bone hoops could not have been used as spindle whorls because of their light weight. One exceptional, nicely made bone ring was used perhaps as a finger ring (?) because of its unusual, wide opening. 5.7. PINTADERAS Two pintaderas, or stamp seals, were found at Donja Branjevina. They were used to decorate the face or other parts of the body (by applying red, more than black and white pigments) and possibly as stamping of fabric (?). Series of parallel zigzag bands, symbol of snake (MAKKAY, 1984b), were incised on these tools. Although more than fifty complete or fragmented figurines were discovered, only two pieces represent a dress decoration (skirt?). Body and dress decoration (plate XX, 5A and 5b; 6A and 6B) was reduced to minimum. Special attention was paid to the representation of coiffure, which is in most cases meticulously engraved on the preserved surface of certain finds. 5.8. LABRETS The occurrence of so-called lip pins (labrets) in the earliest horizon (layer III), and a paper written by D.E. FRIESEN (1980-81), were of crucial importance for the interpretation of these finds and to unveil these mysterious objects, which are rather frequent at Early Neolithic sites. They had never been found before within the distribution area of the Starevo-Krs-Cri Culture. 42

In most cases such or similar tools, were simply interpreted as cult objects. Due to the absence of any accurate definition of their function, only the quantity of these objects from various sites was generally mentioned. The first serious attempt at the explanation of their function was written by B. JOVANOVI (1967). This author thinks that they might be interpreted as amulets, stylized anthropomorphic representations, schematized miniature bucrania, beads, pottery weights or objects exclusively related to the cult place within the house area. Some more details can be found in a paper by J. NANDRIS (1970a) who, besides listing the Starevo sites where clay T-shaped tools are recorded, attempts at finding certain analogies with the Neolithic of Greece. In his first book on Donja Branjevina, the present author classified them as cult objects. He believed that they might have had a certain practical, everyday purpose (KARMANSKI, 1979: T. I, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9 and 10). The problem of their function and use was solved in an unexpected way. Although the geographic distance is enormous, the problem was tackled by D.E. FRIESEN (1980-81), who collected data about these objects from the North American sites. According to this author, labrets or lip pins were in use until the beginning of the 20th century. These ornaments are worn in the pierced lip. The first information about labrets dates back to 1814, as a result of the first contacts between the Europeans and the natives, along the northwestern coast of North America. In prehistory, labrets were worn by both men and women, as it is confirmed by the archaeological excavations and the images carved on masks or totems, and the clear traces of wear on the teeth, resulting from labret wearing. During the historical period, only women wore labrets as ornaments. Between 1840 and 1870, a large number of young women and girls, probably under the influence of the Europeans, ceased to pierce their lips and, after 1900, only a small number of old women continued to wear labrets. Ethnological and archaeological investigations indicate that the custom of wearing labret was confined to certain regions of North America among which are the Northwestern Coast, the Gulf of Mexico, Alaska and Yukon. labrets were in use also in Asia, although in a limited number, in the territory comprised between Japan and the Aleutian Islands. Labrets can be of different shape and size. They are more often T, disc and hat-shaped (BOGDANOVI, 1987). They are made of stone, clay, bone, shell, lignite, concretions, glass, wood and bitumen. Disc or hatshaped labrets could be up to 10 cm in diameter (plate XXII, 1-25). There are different opinions about their purpose and use. Labrets could represent an ancient custom of initiation of a boy in puberty into adult age, as a symbol of his maturity, bravery and stamina. Ethnologists gave many explanations to the use of labrets by women. According to some of them, labret marked the position of woman, her ranking within the tribe and/or settlement. However, it might have deserved other purposes like stretching of wrinkled skin, restraining from talking, marking her contented in a marriage. Other opinions are that labrets were instruments of constraint and oppression. According to the stratigraphic data provided by DIKOV (1965), the oldest labrets of the Pacific coast and Kamchatka Peninsula are dated between 1700 and 2000 cal BC. On the basis of the above-mentioned data we can conclude that these finds at the Starevo-Krs-Cri sites13 were used in the same way. However, the finds from the earliest layer of Donja Branjevina (trench V/1986) shift the use of labrets back to 5000 BC. Most of the labrets are phallus-shaped. The idea that labrets are tools for satisfying women or indicate mans virility is related to human reproduction. 5.9. ALTARS AND CENSERS Many archaeologists consider statuettes, amulets and especially altars exclusively as instruments of certain rituals or ceremonies of cult character. However, during the Early Neolithic occupation of the site, numerous fragments of altars were present as well as other ordinary objects. The discoveries seem to indicate that the Neolithic villagers, perhaps instead of pipes, used altars for burning narcotic (?) grasses or seeds. This is why, most altars might be interpreted as both ordinary objects, and perhaps tools used during certain magical and religious rituals. 5.9.1. Altars In 1965 and 1966, it was confirmed that fragments of altars (LAZAROVICI, 1975: T. II, 23) were found mainly at the bottom of the rubbish pits of the earliest layers (III and II) (SREJOVI, 1966: T. VI, fig. 23; KARMANSKI, 1979: T. XXI, fig. 1). One of these partly reconstructed altars (plate XXXVIII), from the bottom of rubbish pits 2 and 7, is an imported specimen, because material (paste), fabric and colour are different from those of the other ceramic finds from the site. If we add the discovery of amulets and monumental censers with 43

double, pig-shaped container (plate XXXIX, 1A and 1B), stylistically identical to the altar from Hacilar (MELLART, 1970: T. LI, fig. 1 and 2; T. LIII, fig. 7), from the bottom of a rubbish pit, and the Bos taurus horn buried beneath the hearth of a pit dwelling (?), it becomes clear that the first inhabitants of this site carried with them cult or religion tools (KARMANSKI, 1989) together with an ancestral tradition. 5.9.2. Censers The data obtained from the statistical analysis of the material recovered in 1987, from trenches I, II, III are of particular interest. Table 2 shows that the percentage of censer fragments is similar to that of the other materials. Thanks to the large amount of censers, which include 1 complete specimen and 190 fragments, it was possible to ascertain that inside the container of most zoomorphic and decorated specimens, there were clear traces of intense burning (fig. 33). For this reason the assumption that these objects were used as lamps is hardly tenable. It is clear that something was burnt inside the container at high temperature, which excludes any possibility of burning of animal fat or something similar. Burning of fat is not vigorous and in the case of absence of fuel the flame would die out without leaving any trace. The definition of both vertical and horizontal stratigraphies, and the abundance of portable material, led to a typological classification of the censers. It was established that, within the same layer, censers could be zoomorphic (plate XLI), with zoomorphic elements (plates XLIII-XLVIII), decorated (plates XLIX-LXIII) and undecorated. In the corners of some specimens small perforations were noticed, most probably used for inserting something or pulling a (suspension?) string. The decorated censers deserve special attention, because they are ornamented with deeply incised symbols of a lunar deity (KARMANSKI, 1989a) and meanders. In this case the meander is a snake symbol, as mentioned above. There is only another description of an Early Neolithic censer from Endrd 119 in Hungary (MAKKAY, 1992: pl. 32,1). In this case the censer had been placed upside down above a sacrificial pit (?) with a pyriform

Spit

Table 2 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the finds from trenches I, II and III/87. Numbers represent specimens or number of fragments.

44

profile. It was found in trench 7, sacrificial pit A1. Beneath many layers of sand and anthropogenic soil, the remains of a dog, which included the head and part of the body, were discovered at the bottom of the sacrificial pit. These are the only data regarding the Starevo-Krs-Cri censers with the exception of a few Hungarian specimens. Other finds, such as those from Rudna Glava (JOVANOVI, 1982: 64) and other Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites (RENFREW et al., 1986) are of a later date.

Fig. 33 - Donja Branjevina: traces of intense burning inside the censers of plate XL, 1 (1), plate XLIII, 1A-1D (2), plate LXIV, 1A, 1B (3) and inside a censer from Mostonga (4).

5.9.3. Discussion Numerous fragments of censers discovered near or within dwelling structures, such as those of trenches II, III and V/87, indicate that they might have been used during magic or religious ceremonies related to the house. The fact that they all, except one, were fragmented, in spite of their solid manufacture, suggests a limited use (in time) of these objects. The occurrence of very few complete censers (as well as figurines and amulets) might perhaps be explained as deriving from their destruction or breaking during magic or religious ceremonies (?). Their frequent use is indicated by the presence of traces of wear on their legs, which look very 45

worn. According to these observations it is possible to conclude that censers were moved around within the dwelling structure, and that they did not permanently occupy a well-defined (honorary?) place. Traces of intense fire confirm that they were used for burning some specific material. It seems illogical to interpret these monumental objects, like the pig-shaped (plate XXXIX) or the squared, perforated foot vessels (plate XXXVIII), as ordinary lamps. Furthermore it seems inappropriate to suggest that they were always used as censers. Many specimens (zoomorphic, with zoomorphic elements, decorated and undecorated), most probably deserved several functions. At present it is difficult to asses whether or not they originated from the symbiosis of autochthonous Krs Culture elements with strong influences from the Near East (Donja Branjevina: layer III). 5.10. RHYTA The main reason why the rhyta have never been found before at any Starevo site might be due to the very small number of settlements so far excavated. Recently, a few more Starevo villages have been discovered in Slavonia (MINICHREITER, 1992), which borders the region where the rhyta are distributed. Nevertheless S. PERI (1996: 26) states that it is difficult to accept the idea of S. Karmanski, that the Donja Branjevina rhyta are prototypes, which recur within the Starevo Culture. This statement, which rules out any relationships between Starevo altars and rhyta, seems unconvincing. The question is why there should be any relationship between censers and rhyta. One argument is that red paint was present on the feet of the Donja Branjevina rhyton (plate LXVI) as well as on the rhyta from Obre I, Smilji, Retani, Bribir, Danilo and Elateia (PERI, 1996).

6. THE POTTERY The white-on-red painted pottery rather frequently marks the beginning of the Early Neolithic. More precisely, it is contemporaneous with the Proto-Starevo horizon. During the 1987 and 1988 excavations, many fragments of white painted pottery were found in the Starevo horizon14. Thanks to these finds it was possible to compare the Donja Branjevina group painted ware with the Starevo white painted pottery. 6.1. THE PAINTED POTTERY OF THE DONJA BRANJEVINA GROUP Most of the Donja Branjevina group potsherds were found in layer II (KARMANSKI, 1979) (table 12). Apart from the painted patterns, the chronological collocation of the painted wares is based exclusively on some associated materials, among which are the shapes of the painted vessels and the presence or absence of certain ceramic types15. For instance, the vessels (goblets) with a high, conical, hollow foot and the barbotino decorations are not represented in the Donja Branjevina group16. The Donja Branjevina group white painted pottery, is always associated with ceramics decorated with one or two rows of pinched, fingertip or instrumental impressions, below the rim, which make their appearance in the monochrome phase (plates CLXXXVII- CLXXXIX, 1-9). This decoration disappears in the more recent horizons (Krs and Starevo), where the impressions are made on the rim (plates CLXXXIX, 8, 11 and 12, CXC, nn. 1-4 and 6) instead of below the rim. Apart from other closely associated materials, the only exceptions are the imported specimens (MAKKAY, 1982) and the potsherds with drop-like painted patterns that undoubtedly belong to the later phase of the Donja Branjevina group. Thanks to the analysis of the materials from layer II (KARMANSKI, 1979), it was possible to establish that most of the painted potsherds belong to small, short-necked, hemispherical vessels and medium-sized vessels with a high, cylindrical neck. The shallow bowls are rather infrequent. They are represented by a few fragments with painted decoration also in their inner surface (plate LXXXII). The decorative patterns are strictly geometrical, except for one fragment with drop-like motifs combined with curvilinear, flower decorations (plate LXXXV, 3; fig. 34, a). The basic painted motifs are: nets, broken (zigzag) bands, triangles, hatched triangles and droplets clustered in rows, triangles and rhombs. They were obtained with a thick, very stable white paint on a highly polished red or dark red (cherry) surface. The painted patterns, obtained before firing, covered the entire vessel surface. A few fragments are decorated in the inner surface of the rim (fig. 34). The idea that the drop-like painted motif is one of the earliest patterns is only partly correct. This decoration recurs only in the Donja Branjevina group, although fragments with painted net motifs come from the bottom of this layer, before the adoption of drop-like ornaments. 46

Fig. 34 - Donja Branjevina: white painted potsherds (a-f).

6.2. THE STAREVO WHITE PAINTED POTTERY Before 1987, the Starevo horizon had not yielded any fragment with a distinct white painted decoration, probably because this layer was disturbed (layer I: trench I/65). Although there were fragments with traces of paint, these finds were very few and uncertain (KARMANSKI, 1979: 17). The first fragments of Starevo, white painted pottery were discovered in trench II/87, spit 3. A rim fragment with hanging, hatched triangles painted with a rather permanent white paint, was also found in the same trench (plate LXXXVII, 2), together with chamois-shaped censers (plate XL). The Starevo painted pottery is characterized by the presence or absence of certain vessel types. In contrast with the Donja Branjevina group rims, the decoration of the Starevo rims is identical to that of the Krs Culture vessels (plate CXC, 1, 2, 4 and 6). The Starevo white painted pottery is represented mainly by fragments of goblets with high, conical, hollow foot and shallow bowls with painted decoration in their inner surface. The decorative patterns are 47

geometric, as for the Donja Branjevina group. However the repertoire is more limited, if we compare it with that of the white painted pottery. Network motives and combined hatched triangles prevail in the Starevo horizon, while fragments with thin, parallel, painted bands, and parallel wide bands with hatched ornaments in between are slightly more rare. If we compare the technology of the Star evo white painted pottery with that of the Donja Branjevina group, we can notice that the first is of a lower quality. The white paint is not stable and wipes off easily. The decoration consists of a few simple motives. The general impression is that the Starevo painted pottery (K ARMANSKI, 1979: 17) is in a state of decay. It is also important to stress that the Starevo white painted pottery is chronologically much later than painted pottery of the Donja Branjevina group17, which has been radiocarbon dated to 715550 uncal BP (GrN-19574)18.

Fig. 35 - Donja Branjevina: red painted potsherd (1:1).

6.3. BLACK AND RED PAINTED POTTERY Black painted wares are known exclusively from the first to the seventh spit of the Starevo horizon. The statistical analysis (tables 12 and 13) was developed on the materials from that part of the site, which was not disturbed by the construction of the embankment. The black painted pottery from these trenches (I, X, XIII and XXVI) is mainly represented from spits 3 and 5. In spits 6 and 7, the amount of black painted pottery decreases abruptly, and it disappears in the layers that border on Krs horizon (layer III-II: trench III, pit 9). The black painted pottery does not occur in layer III-II, and is not represented in the earlier horizons (layers II and III: trench I/65). A few fragments with vertical, wavy motifs, painted in red on reddish (plate LXXVII, 1 and 2) or white background (plate LXXVIII, 1) were also found. The wavy pattern has been identified only on four potsherds19 (fig. 35). The concentration of pottery with black and white painted patterns (white painted pottery II) generally coincides. The percentage of black painted pottery increases up to spit 3, and then gradually decreases. In contrast, the white painted pottery II is represented from all the spits. The majority of white-painted potsherds were found in spit 3.

7. FISHING EQUIPMENT Numerous fish bones, huge vertebrae and deposits of scales, confirm that fishing played a very important role in the diet of the Donja Branjevina inhabitants. Bone hooks, similar to the present-day types, were made of compact bone (plate CLIII, 3-6). Another type of hook was made of thick, cancellous bones (plate CLIII, 7, 9 and 10) by one transversal cutting and minimal refinishing. Judging from the number of pyriform (plate CXXV), plumb (plate XCVIII), sliding lead (plates XCIC-CI, 1-4) and adaptable lead (plate CI, 5 and 6) weights, deep fishing with hooks was the preferred technique. Thanks to the discovery of two adaptable leads, it is possible to conclude that the so-called elongated beads are not necklace elements but fishing equipments, which are still in use, called sliding leads 7.1. NET WEIGHTS The fishing net types probably depended on the depth and shape of the riverbed bottom. Long sticks were placed at both ends of the net. Pierced, egg-shaped, clay net weights were used as loads by the net holders. Few of them were strung on forked sticks which were pulled down to the bottom with the net (plate CXIX, 1 and 2). The fork, at the lower end of the stick, prevented the slipping of the strung weights. Ovoid weights, with two perforations, were also found (plate CXVIII, 1A, 1B and 2). The way these partly perforated weights were employed is not clear. 48

A third type of ovoid weights shows perforation at only one edge (plate CXVII, 1A, 1B, and 2A, 2B). These weights, or better lumps of baked clay, were most probably fixed on the top of a stick, and used as tools for hunting small animals or fowling. When thrown, the stick worked as a stabilizer. A few imperforated ovoid weights (?) (plate CXVI, 1 and 2), were also found. These lumps of baked clay were probably used as sling projectiles instead of stones. All these ovoid weights show traces of impressed fingers on their surface. A distinct type is represented by so-called tomato weights (plate CXIV, 2), which might have been tied on the net, or fixed on the stick like the ovoid types (plate CXIX, 1 and 2). It is possible that tomato weights were used as bolas for hunting. Attaching the tomato weights to the extremities of short strings, they could be thrown and entangle the animal. Some African tribes presently use this weapon to hunt small antelopes. Spool, double-headed weights and discoid weights come from the earliest horizons. Their purpose was probably the same of the other weights, for hunting and fishing. 7.2. CLAY PROJECTILES, SPINDLE WHORLS AND TRINKETS Amongst the Early Neolithic material we often find clay discs with, or without, central perforation (plates CII-CV, CVII-CIX). All these discs are obtained from potsherds of crude, intermediary or fine fabric, roughly and carelessly worked. Their shape is irregular, because it has been obtained by chipping the edges. They are interpreted as spools, i.e. spindle whorls or unfinished whorls. Nevertheless, when a large amount of these finds is available, as in the case of Donja Branjevina, the difference between the two types of instruments becomes clear. The diameter of the perforation varies from 6 to 16 mm. Depending on their purpose, the discs were made of fragments of coarse, medium and fine pottery. Discs with traces of the perforation point were also found, as well as others with initial perforation (plate CVI). It seems inappropriate to define them spindle whorls or their blanks. 7.2.1. Projectiles All the projectiles were made of coarse, thick walled, unpierced ceramic fragments. Their diameter is much wider than that of the the pierced ones (plates CIII-CV). They were probably used as sling projectiles, similar to the so-called Frisbee. 7.2.2. Spindle whorls Spindle whorls were made mainly from fragments of fine and intermediary pottery. The diameter of the central perforation was due to the size of the tool (plates CVII-CIX). The suggestion of J. MAKKAY (1997) that the hole size was decided before perforation is most probably incorrect. The incised circular line that surrounds the perforation is probably the trace of a flint borer. 7.2.3. Trinkets Four small discs of fine, red-slipped ware (plate CX, 7-10) were found during the 1986 campaign, close to the destroyed child burial. They might have been used as pendants, because of the narrow diameter of the central perforation. The necklace probably consisted of many discs strung on a cord.

8. BONE TOOLS AND WEAPONS Some 500 bones, horn, antler and wild boar tusk tools were found at Donja Branjevina. Asymmetrical points, awls, pins and needles, bores, drills, blades, projectiles, hooks and spatulae are particularly numerous. Chisels, axes, mallets, pendants, jewelry and cult objects were also obtained from bone. Harpoons and mallets are not represented. Of particular interest are the bone skates. It would have been unusual if they were not found at a settlement is situated close to an old riverbank. Contrary to our expectations no sickle was found. The absence of these implements might indicate that the hafts for flint blades20 were made of wood.

9. THE POLISHED STONE ASSEMBLAGE A sample of 99 complete and fragmented polished stone tools, collected during all the campaigns, was analysed from the Starevo and Krs horizons. They come from the following contexts and structures: 49

Trench I/65: 3 specimens: 2 complete adzes from pit 1, and 1 complete hammer from pit 6. Trench II/65: 2 specimens: 1 complete axe and 1 complete chisel from pit 8. Trench III/66: 10 specimens from pit 9; 1 hammer and 3 proximal fragments of tools with cutting edge from layer III-II; 3 axes, 1 chisel, 1 adze and 1 fragmented cutting edge from layer Ib. Trench I/87: 1 fragmented chisel from spit 6. Trench II/87: 3 specimens: 2 adzes and 1 atypical tool fragment with cutting edge from spit 3. Profile between trenches I/87 and II/87: 1 axe from spit 3. Trench IV/88: 4 specimens: 1 hammer from arbitrary layer 3; 1 atypical fragment of hammerstone or grinding stone from spit 7; 2 proximal parts of tools with cutting edge from spit 8. Trench V/86/88: 4 specimens: 2 complete axes from spit 1; 1 fragmented cutting edge from spit 2; 1 hammer boulder from spit 4. Trench VI/88: 2 specimens: 1 fragmented hammer and 1 atypical fragment of cutting-edged tool from spit 7. Trench VII/88: 2 specimens: 1 adze and 1 fragment of polishing stone from spit 5. Trench VIII/88: 6 specimens: 1 complete hammer from spit 1; 1 hammer-boulder from spit 2; 1 complete polisher, 1 fragmented cutting-edged tool from spit 4; 1 fragmented cutting-edge tool from spit 6; 1 fragmented grindstone from spit 7. Trench IX/90: 5 specimens: 1 hammer, 1 adze, 1 proximal part of tool with cutting-edge from spit 2; 1 fragment of rubber from spit 3; 1 fragmented cutting edge from spit 4. Trench X/91: 10 specimens: 1 fragmented grindstone, 1 proximal part of cutting-edged tool from spit 2; 1 complete hammer, 1 fragmented axe, 1 fragmented polishing stone from spit 3; 1 proximal part tool with cutting edge, 1 atypical fragment of whetting tool from spit 5; 1 hammer-boulder, 1 central part tool with cutting edge from spit 8; 1 fragmented polishing stone from spit 9-10. Trench XI/92-93: 5 specimens: 2 atypical fragments of tools with cutting edge from spit 2; 1 fragment of polishing or grinding stone from spit 3; 1 fragmented adze from spit 4; 1 fragment of whetting tool from spit 8. Trench XII/92: 1 object: 1 atypical fragment of cutting-edge tool from spit 3. Trench XIII/92: 4 specimens: 1 complete hammer, 1 fragment of polishing or grinding stone from spit 2; 1 fragmented polishing stone from spit 4; 1 fragmented grinding stone from the pit. Trench XIV/93: 1 proximal part of tool with cutting edge from spit 1 Trench XV/93: 2 specimens: 1 proximal part of tool with cutting edge from spit 1; 1 proximal part of tool with cutting edge from spit 2. Trench XVIII/93: 7 specimens: 1 fragmented polishing stone from spit 3; 1 fragmented chisel, 2 fragmented cutting edges from the hearth; 1 atypical fragment of tool with cutting edge, 2 fragments of polishing stone from the pit. Trench XX/93: 4 specimens: 1 fragmented polishing stone from spit 1; 1 fragmented grinding stone, 1 atypical fragment of tool with cutting edge from spit 4; 1 boulder (hammerstone or blank) from the hearth. 50

Trench XXI/94: 9 specimens: 1 fragmented polishing stone, 1 proximal part of tool with cutting edge, 3 fragmented boulders (hammerstone or blank) from the house? in spit 5; 1 fragmented boulder (hammerstone or blank) from the pole pit; 1 fragmented boulder (hammerstone or blank) from the hearth; 1 complete rubber, 1 middle part of tool with cutting edge from the pit. Trench XXII/94: 1 complete axe from spit 3. Trench XXIII/94: 3 specimens: 1 fragment of rubber or hammer-boulder from spit 2; 1 hammer-boulder from arbitrary layer 4; 1 chisel from spit 9, pit. Trench XXVI/95: 8 specimens: 1 fragmented axe from spit 2, 1 fragmented polishing stone from spit 4; 1 fragmented hammer from spit 6; 1 proximal part of tool with cutting edge from spit 7; 1 fragmented hammerboulder, 1 fragmented polishing stone from spit 8; 1 fragmented chisel from spit 9; 1 fragmented cutting tool from the pit. The assemblage was studied following the typological list used for the first time for the description of the Vina collection (ANTONOVI, 1992). The raw material was analysed with both macroscopic and microscopic petrographic methods, in order to define the hardness and compactness of the rock. The hardness was measured according the Mohs scale, while the compactness was established by visual method. The presence of calcium carbonate was tested by reaction to diluted hydrochloric acid. By examination with magnifying glass, we achieved the essential petrographic data concerning the rock: mineral contents, structure and texture. Supplementary analyses for the identification of fine-grained rocks with magnifying glass did not produce satisfactory results. Thanks to this method it was possible to define the type of fine-grained rock rather accurately (ANTONOVI and ANTONOVI, 1998). Only two stone samples were analysed microscopically. The manufacturing technique and the wear traces were examined according to A.S. SEMENOV (1976)21. 9.1. RAW MATERIAL 16 rock types were employed for making tools, a few of which are represented by only one specimen (table 3). 9.1.1. Fine-grained, contact metamorphic and sedimentary rocks This group consists of fine-grained, very compact rocks, resilient to blow, 6-6.5 hardness of Mohs scale, with an irregular conchoid fracture that makes them suitable for chipping. Their colour varies from grey to grey-green, and sometimes black, with darker or lighter stripes and spots. On the basis of their hardness and
Rock type Fine-grained rocks Sandstones Conglomerates Limestone Dolomitic limestone Granite Aplite Dacite? Andesite Gabbro Diabase Magmatic rocks Gneiss granite Quartz Serpentinite? Quartz sandstone? Number 55 18 3 3 2 1 1 1 3 4 1 2 1 2 1 1 Percentage 55:55 18:18 3:03 3:03 2:02 1:01 1:01 1:01 3:03 4:04 1:01 2:02 1:01 2:02 1:01 1:01 Trench and Year I-III/65-66, I-XV, XIX-XXVI VI, VIII, X, XI, XIII, XIX, XXI, XXVI IV, X, XX XIX, XXIII, XXVI XVIII, XXI IX XXIII VIII XI, XXI, XXVI V, X XXIII VII XIII V, XX VIII X

Table 3 - Donja Branjevina: Number, percentage and provenance of the polished stone tools.

51

specific gravity, they were microscopically identified as skarnoides, hornfels, silicified perlites and rarely quartzites. The density volume of the polished stones is 2.76-3.08 g/cm. The heavier ones have been attributed to the group of the hornfelses, and the lighter to the perlites and siltstones only silicified (ANTONOVI and ANTONOVI, 1998: 169-171). Two samples were examined microscopically22. This rock was used for the manufacture of tools 198-191, from trench X, spit 8, and 20/92 from trench XI, spit 2. Both are of a light grey colour, resilient, hardness 6.5 of Mohs scale. The first specimen has a density volume of 3.08 g/cm, the other of 2.91 g/cm. The results of these analyses are as follows: both specimens are made of the same light grey rock, of massive texture and granoblastic structure. It consists of dominant epidotes and relicts of plagioclase, a small quantity of quartz, rare metallic minerals and a very small amount of chlorite. Epidote is present as small irregular blasts of up to 0.05 mm in size or as botryoidal aggregates up to 0.2 mm in diameter. This makes about 60% of the rock mass. Relicts of plagioclastic grains, clear and fresh, were noticed below these grained aggregates and epidote blasts. Contours of blasts are clearly discernable, although the fresh surfaces are too small to allow the identification of their components. Quartz blasts are exceptionally rare and small (less than 0.08 mm), clear and darken instantly. The quantity of chlorite and metallic minerals (size of irregular grains is almost always less than 0.06 mm) is minimal and together with quartz do not exceed 5% of the rock volume. Regarding the texture and structure of the rock, and the predominance of epidote, it was assumed to be skarnoide i.e. a transitional rock between skarn and hornfels. These rocks have calcites and silicates usually attached to the primary rock (of mainly carbonate-silicate structure). Increased contents of other fluids might be explained as precipitate from solutions. The rock originated from thermo contacts with addition of iron from solutions, i.e. fluids. The presence of fine-grained rocks is interesting, although their source of provenance is uncertain. They are widely distributed in the geological formations of central and western Serbia. The diabase-chert formation that spreads from the middle course of the Drina via central Serbia and Kosovo, has fine pelitic sediments sometimes insufficiently silicified. Hornfels with supplementary skarnoides are distributed around the Tertiary granitoides of central and western Serbia, in the regions of Baranja, Bukulja, Avala, Kosmaj, Rudnik, eljin, Kopaonik, Golija (ANTONOVI, 1998: 22; 2003), from where they were probably brought to Donja Branjevina. The fine-grained stone implements include tools with cutting edge (axes, adzes and chisels) and hammers. These hard and resilient rocks are the raw material most suitable for the production of pounding tools (fig. 36).

Fig. 36 - Donja Branjevina: percentage histograms of some rocks utilised for making polished stone tools.

9.1.2. Sandstone The sandstones were very often used for producing hammers, grinding and polishing stones. Sandstones with lime, marl and silica cement of various grain size and compactness were recorded. The following varieties were identified: 52

a. sandstones with lime cement, medium to fine-grained, with abundance of mica, brittle, ochre or grey colour; b. sandstones with marl cement, medium to fine-grained, with abundance of mica, brittle, ochregrey colour; c. sandstones with silicate cement, medium to course-grained, rarely fine-grained, mostly compact and of various nuances of grey, purple and brown colour, with quartz and abundance of mica in their matrix; d. conglomeratic sandstones, medium to course-grained, very brittle, with quartz predominating in their matrix. The sandstones are widely distributed in Serbia, thus they were probably easy to find. The great diversity of sandstone types suggests that they were not obtained in an organized way, and that they were gathered as pebbles from rivers and brooks. 9.1.3. Conglomerate Very few tools were obtained from conglomerates. They include polishing and grinding stones and hammers-boulders. Conglomerates with silicate cement were mainly used, and very seldom with lime cement, fine or course-grained, hard or less friable with much quartz. 9.1.4. Limestone Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed of various carbonates. It is mainly a firm, fine-grained rock of Mohs scale hardness 4, relatively brittle and unsuitable for making tools with a cutting edge. The limestone tools of Donja Branjevina are fine-grained, organogenic of off-white colour. Limestone is widely distributed in the geological formations of Serbia. 9.1.5. Dolomitic limestone This calcium carbonate rock of specific gravity 2.84 g/cm, hardness 4.5 Mohs scale, and white colour, is represented by a small number of tools: 1 rubber and 1 pebble that might have been used as a hammer or blank. 9.1.6. Granite It is a very solid, hard rock, wear-resistant and very suitable for making abrasive tools, because of the abundance of quartz in its contents. Only one specimen (rubber) was found at Donja Branjevina. It consists of a coarse-grained, firm, hard variety with much quartz and pink feldspar. Granites are the most widely distributed plutons. Granites and other magmatic rock pebble are common in the Serbian rivers, particularly in the Velika Morava basin. 9.1.7. Aplite It is a medium-grained, compact and hard holocrystaline rock without colour additives. It consists of quartz and fresh feldspar. Only one implement, a pebble used as a hammer, was made of this rock. 9.1.8. Dacite? We are not sure of the presence of dacite because its identification was made only macroscopically. It is a compact, fine-grained rock of grey colour, with quartz as phenocrysts. One pebble of this rock was utilized as a hammer. 9.1.9. Andesite Andesite belongs to the group of eruptive, intermediary, magmatic rocks. One compact, hard specimen has more or less altered feldspar in its grey-purple mass. Andesite pebbles were used as hammers. 9.1.10. Gabbro In the Neolithic of Serbia, these deep-laid basic rocks with a firm, resilient and wear-resistant, granular structure were sometimes used to substitute fine-grained, contact metamorphic and sediment rocks, especially their finegrained varieties (ANTONOVI, 1998: 33). At Donja Branjevina they are represented by fine-grained, firm and hard varieties of light and dark green-grey colour. They were used for making tools with a cutting edge: axes and chisels. 9.1.11. Diabase Diabases are eruptive, vein rocks of the gabbro group of characteristic ophitic structure. These are hard, firm, wear-resistant rocks. Only one pebble was found that might have been used as a hammer or raw material. 53

9.1.12. Insufficiently defined magmatic rocks This group includes pebbles, which due to their damaged surface could not be precisely identified. It consists of one highly altered rock, with small allotriomorphic grains of quartz and one pebble of very porous rock similar to lava with a great quantity of mica in its structure. One polishing and one grindstone stones were made from these rocks. 9.1.13. Gneiss granite It is identical to granite, although somewhat friable, with a great content of mica. It is represented by only one abrading tool (stationary rubber or grindstone). 9.1.14. Quartz pebbles Quartz is a very hard, wear-resistant rock (7 of Mohs scale), very suitable to make hard pounding tools. Large quartz pebbles with a rather cracked, very compact surface, were used as hammers. Quartz pebbles are very common in the river deposits of the mountain regions of former Yugoslavia. 9.1.15. Serpentinite? Are friable rocks with many fissures, hardness about 4 after Mohs. Compact pieces, particularly the silicified ones, might have been suitable raw material for making of tools because of its resilience. The green, silicified, greasy, lustre variety (4.5 hardness after Mohs) is known from Donja Branjevina. One hammer was made of this material, as a secondary product, reworked from a cutting-edged tool. The occurrence of serpentinites is related to ultramafic rocks distributed in central and western Serbia. 9.1.16. Silicified quartz sandstone? It is a fine-grained, compact rock, hardness 6 after Mohs, whose composite elements are unrecognizable. One pebble of this rock, used as a hammer, was found at Donja Branjevina. 9.2. TYPOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS 9.2.1. Cutting-edged tools The cutting-edged tools are slightly more numerous than the other types. They represent 24.24% of the total assemblage. They were made mainly of fine-grained sedimentary and metamorphic, contact rocks, which are typical for both Starevo and Vina Cultures in central Serbia and Vojvodina. They are usually massive, medium or small-sized, with a circular or rectangular cross section (plate CLXIV, B-D; fig. 37). Their length varies from 20 to 138 mm, although most of them are between 60 and 70 mm (fig. 38). Such a standardised production indicates a highly developed level of manufacture. Tools with cutting edge were used for working wood, although frequently axe-shaped tools were employed as adzes. Chisels were used as adzes, for carving timbers. Blunted axes and adzes were usually used as hammers and retouchers (plates CLXII, 9 and CLXIV, 5) (table 4).

Fig. 37 - Donja Branjevina: percentage histograms of the different types of polished stone tools.

54

Fig. 38 - Donja Branjevina: percentage histograms of the length of the polished stone tools.

Type I/1/a I/1/c I/1/e I/2/c I/3/e I/5/c I/5/e III/1/a III/2/a III/4/a III/4/e III/5/d III/6/b V/1/b V/2/d V/2/e V/3/a V/7/a VI/1/c VI/1/f VI/2/c VI/3/c VI/3/d VI/5/b VI/5/e VI/5/f VI/6/a XI/1/a XI/6/a XI/6/c XI/6/d XIII/3-VI/6 XIII/1? XIV Others Fragments

Number 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 4 5 2 1 2 5 6 36

Percentage 1:01 2:02 4:04 1:01 1:01 1:01 1:01 1:01 1:01 2:02 1:01 1:01 1:01 1:01 1:01 1:01 2:02 1:01 1:01 1:01 1:01 1:01 1:01 1:01 2:02 1:01 4:04 1:01 4:04 5:05 2:02 1:01 2:02 5:05 6:06 36:36

Complete 0 2 3 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

Length mm

Material fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock, gabbro fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock gabbro fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock fine-grained rock limestone sandstone fine-grained rock gabbro fine-grained rock serpentinite conglomerate, aplite, dacite, quartz, quertz sandstone? sandstone sandstone, gneiss granite sandstone, conglomerate, magmatic rock sandstone limestone dolomitic limestone, granite fine-grained rock, conglomerate, magmatic rock, sandstone

Trench II II/65. V III/66, V, XXXVI III/66 prof. I-II X XXII III/66 II I/65, VII I/65 IX XI XIX XXVI XXIII II/65. I III/66 I/65 IV,VIII, XXVI VI III/66 IX X, XIII VIII IV,VIII, X, XXIII VIII XI, XIII, XIX, XX X, XXVI XIII, XXI XXIII VIII, IX, XXI X, XIII, XX

51-62 47-97 37 138 75 105 69 48-100 90 52

61 48 28 99 70

70 63 72-96 76-112 77

52

Table 4 - Donja Branjevina: rock types of the polished stone instruments.

55

9.2.1.1. Axes The axes represent the most numerous cutting-edged tools (11.11%) (fig. 37). They are of different shape, although they are massive, with a circular or elliptical cross section (fig. 39): types I/1c (plate CLXI, 2 and 4), I/1e (plate CLXI, 3, 5-7), I/2c (plate CLXI, 8), I/3e (plate CLXI, 9) and I/5c (plate CLXI, 10). The only exception is type I/1a, which has a semicircular cross section (plate CLXI, 1). In spite of their massive aspect they are not of large size: their length varies from 37 to 138 mm. The cutting edge angle is between 60 and 82. They all were made of fine-grained rocks of group 1, except for one specimen of fine-grained gabbro. The more massive types (types I/1c and I/1e) were used for splitting wood, while the others have characteristic wear traces due to the trimming of wood.

Fig. 39 - Donja Branjevina: percentage histograms of the shape of the section of the polished stone tools.

9.2.1.2. Adzes The adzes are less numerous than the axes (7.07%) (fig. 37). They are not massive and their cross section is semicircular (fig. 39), which makes them look like those from Vina III/1a (plate CLXII, 1), III/2a (plate CLXII, 2), III/4a (plate CLXII, 3 and 5), III/4e (plate CLXII, 6) and III/6b (plate CLXII, 7). The only exception is type III/5d that is slightly more massive (plate CLXII, 4). The length of the complete adzes is between 52 and 105 mm, and their cutting edge angles between 55 and 81. They all were made of fine-grained rocks of group 1, and were exclusively used for trimming wood. 9.2.1.3. Chisels The chisels represent 6.06% of the total assemblage (fig. 37). They often look massive because of their circular or elliptical cross section (fig. 39): types V/1b (plate CLXII, 14), V/2d (plate CLXII, 10) and V/2e (plate CLXII, 9). The types V/3a (plate CLXII, 11 and 12) and V/7a (plate CLXII, 13) are not of massive. It is important to note that type V/7 has a double cutting edge. This type of chisel is so far recorded only from Donja Branjevina. The chisels were made of fine-grained rocks, except for one tool of fine-grained gabbro. They all were used as adzes. 9.2.2. Hammers Hammers are relatively numerous (13.13%) (fig. 37), probably because axes and adzes were used as hammers after becoming blunt. Fragments of broken, cutting-edged tools were sometimes reworked into hammers. Hence hammers have a chunky aspect: VI/1c (plate CLXIII, 1), VI/1f (plate CLXIII, 3), VI/2c (plate CLXIII, 4), VI/3c (plate CLXIII, 6), VI/3d (plate CLXIII, 7), VI/5e (plate CLXIII, 5 and 9), VI/5f (plate CLXIII, 8) and VI/5b (plate CLXIII, 10). Unworked pieces of hard and compact rock (hammer-boulders of type VI/6: plate CLXIII, 1) were often used for the same purpose. All hammers have worn out butts, due to pounding. Some were also used as retouchers. They do not show a great uniformity, and are obtained from fine-grained rocks of group 1: limestone, sandstone, gabbro, serpentine, while pebbles of conglomerate, aplite, dacite, quartz and silicified limestone were used for making the hammers of VI/6 type. 56

9.2.3. Abrasive tools The abrasive tools are the most numerous polished stone instruments, representing 20.20% of the total assemblage (fig. 37). Most frequently they consist of large stationary rubbers (type XI/6: plate CLXIV, 2, 4 and 6) and fragments of grinding stones (type XI/5: plate CLXIV, 1). The difference between these two types often depends on the raw material employed for their manufacture. The stationary rubbers were made of sandstone and the grinding stones of magmatic rocks or less friable silicate sandstones. Certain finds are unidentifiable because they consist of too small sandstone pieces. Hand polishers are much less numerous (type XI/1a: plate CLXIV, 5) as are rubbers sometimes used as retouchers (type XIII/1: plate CLXIV, 3) and also as hammerstones (hammer-pebbles: types XIII/3 and VI/6). The abrasive tools were made of abrasive rocks, namely sandstones and magmatic rocks with a high content of quartz granite, gneiss granite etc. 9.2.4. Other implements A large percentage (36.36%) is represented by unidentifiable fragments, butts of different cutting-edged tools and hammers. Sometimes these butts were secondarily used as hammers and retouchers. Unworked, unused pebbles, possibly due to processing or used as hammers, were also found. We have to mention also small number of decorative or cult objects made of stone: fragments of rings and bracelets and amulets-labrets. Their manufacture is of a very high standard. They are made of fine-grained alevrolite, limestone, serpentine and marble, rocks that could achieve high gloss by polishing. It is not known whether they were produced locally or imported from elsewhere. 9.3. DISCUSSION The small assemblage of polished stones from Donja Branjevina did not allow a more detailed statistical study, although they are represented by well-defined types. The raw material employed for their manufacture does not show any changes throughout the entire sequence. However, certain differences can be observed within the horizontal distribution of these finds. The concentration of abrasive tools is higher in trenches XIII, XIX, XX, XXI, and XXVI. Hammers and abrasive tools are numerous in trenches VIII and X. The hammers are common at all the other trenches, although in a lower number. The tools with cutting edge prevail in the trenches (I, II and III) excavated in 1965 and 1966. This might indicate the presence of woodworking workshops. The trenches rich in hammers and abrasive tools are those where the processing of hard material (bone, stone, horn/antler) and possibly food processing (grindstones) was localised. The raw material sources exploited for the production of these stone tools are distributed rather far from the settlement. At the same distance are located the mountains of central Serbia and the Carpathians. Their production shows very interesting manufacturing techniques. The cutting-edged tools were made of fine-grained stones, worked by chipping, as indicated by characteristic conchoidal fractures. Semi-finished instruments were obtained from large flakes. Their ventral face is almost flat, while the dorsal one is rounded by chipping (plate CLXII, 6). After polishing the ventral face becomes flat and the dorsal somewhat rounded. These tools have an almost semi-circular cross section (plates CLXI, n. 1 and CLXII, 1-3, 5, 7, 8, 11-13). A few cutting-edged tools, mainly axes made of fine-grained stones, were additionally processed in order to achieve an elliptical, circular or square cross section (plate CLXI, 2-11; fig. 39) and a massive appearance. According to their shape they resemble those found at Lepenski Vir, Vlasac, Velesnica and Padina (SREJOVI and LETICA, 1978: T. CXXVI, 1; ANTONOVI, 1998: 112-118, 127-132) even though, according to their raw material and working technique, they belong to the Starevo-Vina type of implements. 10. THE CHIPPED STONE ASSEMBLAGE 10.1. RAW MATERIAL The raw material employed for chipping stone artefacts consists of several varieties of chert (823 pieces: 98.21%) and a much smaller amount of quartz (11 pieces: 1.31%) and obsidian (4 pieces: 0.47%)23. The raw material choice was limited and dictated by the availability of the primary sources. Fruka Gora should be considered as an area with potential primary deposits of chert, while obsidians could derive from contacts with the Tokai-Preov district, through the fluvial network (ARI, 1999). The data achieved by the study of the chipped stone artefacts are supplemented by the analysis of the tools used in their manufacture and the weapons. They include anvils, hammerstones, retouchers made of stone, bone, horn/antler and wood (SEMENOV, 1957: 51-58; CRABTREE, 1970). These implements are represented by 57

Material Raw material (nodules) Precores Cores Crested flakes and blades Reutilised crested flakes and blades Unretouched flakes Unretouched blades Retouched flakes Retouched blades End scrapers Side scrapers Perforators Truncations Burins Geometric microliths Notched tools Splintered pieces Combined tools Totals

Chert 5=0.59% 2=0.23% 46=5.48% 29=3.46% 6=0.71% 264=31.50% 285=34.00% 29=3.46% 70=8.35% 20=2.38% 5=0.59% 2=0.23% 17=2.02% 3=0.35% 24=2.86% 7=0.83% 2=0.23% 7=0.83% 823=98.21%

Quartzite 2=0.23%

Obsidia

Totals 7=0.83% 2=0.23% 46=5.48% 29=3.46% 6=0.71% 274=32.69% 288=34.36% 29=3.46% 70=8.35% 20=2.38% 5=0.59% 2=0.23% 17=2.02% 3=0.35% 24=2.86% 7=0.83% 2=0.23% 7=0.83% 838=99.94%

9=1.07%

1=0.11% 3=0.35%

11=1.31

4=0.47%

Table 5 - Donja Branjevina: raw material and chipped stone tool numbers and percentages.

only two anvils made of sandstone and fine-grained gabbro river pebbles. The sandstone specimen was reused as upper querns, as indicated by symmetrical traces of wear along its sides. Nevertheless, it was also used as an anvil and occasionally as a hammerstone. Very clear traces of wear classify this implement as anvilhammer (plate CLXXX). The gabbro tool has worn out edges with vertical grooves, which confirm that it was used as a hammerstone. Its central, upper surface shows a characteristic, anvil depression. The occurrence of implements employed for the manufacture of chipped stone tools indicates the presence of workshops within the settlement area. The results of the typological and morphological analysis of the chipped stone artefacts, in relation to the raw material employed for their manufacture, are shown in table 5. 10.2. NODULES The unworked raw material specimens consist of 7 pieces: 2 quartzite and 2 corticated chert specimens. This suggests that they were collected from secondary, river deposits. 2 corticated pieces of dark brown chert indicate that they were its exploited from a primary source. One of these is a tabular nodule with cortex on both the flat surfaces. Another piece of chert shows traces of burning, like decolorisation and crackles. The largest specimen is a flat chert measuring 2.8x5.8x1.8 cm. 10.3. PRECORES Are represented by 2 chert specimens with river pebble cortex. The facets, which result from the detachment of large, irregular flakes to prepare the platform surface, are clearly visible (plate CLXV, 1). 10.4. CORES Cores were found in a relatively high quantity (46). Some of them show traces of river pebble cortex. 10.4.1. Conical microcores 4 specimens: 2 fragmented and 2 complete (nn. 531 and 532: plate CLXV, 3). 3 with microblade and 1 with flake detachments (n. 532: plate CLXV, 3). Their platform angles are 75 (2) and 90 (1). 10.4.2. Conical cores Are represented by 3 blade specimens, 1 of which is fragmented and 2 complete (nn. 1907 and 786: plate CLXV, 4 and 5). The platform of 2 specimens was obtained removing one flake. The platform of core n. 786 58

(plate CLXV, 5) was prepared removing two flakes. Further preparation detachments are visible along the edges. Their platform angles are 60-65 (1), 80 (1) and 90 (1). 10.4.3. Wedge-shaped microcores Only 1 flakelet specimen (n. 530: plate CLXVI, 1) with flat platform obtained by removing one single flake. Part of the river pebble cortex is preserved. Its platform angle is 60-65. 10.4.4. Wedge-shaped cores 3 complete specimens. In 2 cases the platform was prepared by removing one flake (nn. 652 and 653: plate CLXVI, 2 and 3), while the third shows a rough preparation (n. 784: plate CLXVI, 4). The cores were used for making blades (n. 784) and blades and flakes (nn. 652 and 653). Their platform angles are 70 (1), 75 (1) and 80 (1). 10.4.5. Cylindrical microcores This class consists of 3 complete flake specimens (nn. 1906 and 310: plate CLXVI, 5 and 6). The platform of one core was obtained by removing two large flakes, while in the two cases the preparation is rough. On 1 specimen part of the carbonate cortex is preserved; on the other part of the river pebble cortex. Their platform angles are 80 (1) and 90 (2). 10.4.6. Cylindrical cores Are represented by 3 specimens, with a rough platform preparation, used for the production of bladelets (n. 436: plate CLXVI, 7) and flakes (n. 628: plate CLXVI, 8). The river pebble cortex is preserved on most of the surface of this latter core. Their platform angle is 90 (3). 10.4.7. Globular microcores 5 specimens: 1 fragmented and 4 complete. They are characterised by the detachment of flakelets from two roughly prepared platforms (nn. 526, 342 and 532: plate CLXVII, 1-3). The platform angles of core n. 526 are respectively 85 and 100. That of cores nn. 536 and 342 is 90. 10.4.8. Globular cores 3 complete specimens of standardized size (nn. 465 and 395: plate CLXVII, 4 and 5). The cores were used for the production of flakelets (2 specimens) and bladelets (1 specimen). The platforms do not show any particular preparation. The platform angles of the double core are 90 and 110, that of the single specimen 100-105. Both cores show traces of river pebble cortex. 10.4.9. Prismatic microcores Only 1 bladelet sample with a very roughly prepared platform (n. 641: plate CLXVII, 6), whose angle is 85-90. 10.4.10. Prismatic cores Only 1 bladelet specimen with river pebble cortex partly preserved (n. 1905: plate CLXVIII, 1). Its platform angle is 85-90. 10.4.11. Discoidal cores 1 flakelet specimen (n. 290: plate CLXVIII, 2) of irregular round shape, with rectangular cross section. Its platform is roughly prepared. Its angle is 85-90. 10.4.12. Irregular microcores 9 specimens, 6 of which are complete (nn. 730, 645 and 369: plate CLXVIII, 3-5) and 3 fragmented. All the platforms were prepared removing one single flake. They all were used for the production of flakelets, which were detached from different directions, resulting in the irregular shape of these cores. The platform angles are 80 (2), 85 (1) and 90 (3). 10.4.13. Irregular cores 8 flakelet types: 2 fragmented and 6 complete (nn. 541 and 380: plate CLXVIII, 6 and 7; nn. 533 and 651: 59

plate CLXIX, 1 and 2). The platform of 1 specimen is corticated; 2 others have been obtained removing one flake, while 5 are roughly prepared. The presence of river pebble cortex is preserved in three cases. Their platform angles are 60 (1), 70 (1), 75 (1), 80 (2) and 90 (4). 10.5. FLAKES AND BLADES 10.5.1. Crested flakes and blades 29 chert specimens. They would indicate that the manufacture of the chipped stone tools took place inside the settlement area (nn. 521, 295, 49, 483 and 621: plate CLXIX, 3-8). Their platform angles are 30 (1), 65 (2), 70 (1), 75 (1), 80 (4), 85 (4) and 90 (1). 10.5.2. Reutilised crested flakes and blades Only 6 complete specimens. 3 blades have a simple, marginal, direct, discontinuous or partial retouch along one (n. 1908: plate CLXIX, 9) or both sides (nn. 433 and 1922: plate CLXIX, 10 and 11). Bladelet n. 266 (plate CLXIX, 12) shows a simple, marginal, direct, proximal retouch on the left side, and a simple, inframarginal, direct, medial retouch on the right one. 1 flake shows a simple, marginal, alternate retouch (n. 254: plate CLXIX, 13), and another a simple, marginal, direct retouch at its distal end (n. 51: plate CLXIX, 14). Their platform angles are 75-80 (1), 80 (1), 90 (3) and 95 (1). Their length varies between 3.2 and 5.4 cm; their width between 1.5 and 3.8 cm. 10.5.3. Unretouched flakes The unretouched flakes are 274. They are mainly from chert (264) while quartzite (n. 557: plate CLXX, 1) and obsidian (n. 758: plate CLXX, 2) are represented respectively by 9 and 1 specimens. In spite of the exceptionally large number of flakes (nn. 140, 19, 579 and 627: plate CLXX, 3-6), only 3 cases with evident traces of wear (sickle gloss and rounded edge) were found (nn. 333, 44 and 1972: plate CLXX, 7-9). Flake n. 333 (plate CLXX, 7) shows microgrooves parallel to the edge, which indicates that it was used for cutting. A few flakes of so-called Balkan flint show traces of carbonate cortex (n. 1972: plate CLXX, 9), which indicates the exploitation of this raw material from primary deposits (ARI, 1999: 231-235). The length of the 4 complete quartzite flakes varies from 0.9 to 4.3 cm, their width from 1.4 to 4.3 cm. The length of 34 complete chert flakes lies between 1.3 and 6.1 cm, their width between 1.5 and 4.2 cm. Their platform angles are 50 (3), 55 (2), 55-60 (1), 60 (1), 60-65 (1), 65 (), 65-70 (2), 70 (10), 70-75 (3), 75 (17), 75-80 (4), 80 (29), 80-85 (5), 85 (27), 85-90 (3), 90 (26), 95 (5), 95-100 (2), 100 (1) and 105 (2). 10.5.4. Unretouched blades The unretouched blades represent the most numerous chipped stone artefacts (288). 3 are made of obsidian (nn. 437, 438 and 743: plate CLXX, 10-12), the others of different varieties of chert. A large number of thin, long bladelets and blades characterize the Starevo chipped stone assemblage (nn. 143, 336, 208, 626, 547, 463: plate CLXXI, 13-18; nn. 753 and 583; plate CLXXI, 1 and 2). This indicates that the amount of (micro)bladelets is not due to the utilisation of small pieces of chert, because of the shortage of large nodules (mainly river pebbles), but that they result from specific need and working activities (nn. 774, 468, 189, 4/B, 514, 220, 616, 681, 506, 359, 765, 316, 699, 492 and 228: plate CLXXI, 3-17). Blade n. 1957 (plate CLXXI, 18), that was found in burial 4 as a grave good, is of particular importance. Traces of wear are visible on 17 unretouched blades. They all show a slightly rounded working edge and transverse microgrooves. Some of these are multiple tools: sickles and/or knives (nn. 176, 442, 418, 319 and 357: plate CLXXI, 19-23; nn. 479, 664, 332 and 696: plate CLXXII, 1-4). Only 1 of the 3 obsidian blades is complete. It is 2.9 cm long. The length of the fragmented specimens is up to 3.3 cm. Their width varies from 1.2 to 1.5 cm. The length of 30 complete blades varies from 1.7 to 7.9 cm, and their width from 1.1 to 3.2 cm. One blade fragment is 8.5 cm long. Their platform angles are 50 (2), 60 (1), 65 (5), 70 (15), 70-75 (1), 75 (8), 75- 80 (6), 80 (29), 80-85 (4), 85 (27), 85-90 (7), 90 (46), 90-95 (1), 95 (6), 95-100 (3), 100 (10) and 105 (1). 10.5.5. Retouched flakes The retouched flakes are 29, all from different varieties of chert. 7 of them have a simple, marginal, direct, partial retouch along one side (nn. 62, 348, 622 and 619: plate 60

CLXXII, nn. 5-8), while 5 flakes and flakelets show a simple, marginal, direct, continuous retouch along one or two sides (nn. 1923, 160, 203, 227 and 321: plate CLXXII, nn. 9-13). 4 flakelets have a simple, inframarginal, inverse, partial retouch along one side (nn. 1927 and 1929: plate CLXXII, 14 and 15), while one flakelets shows a simple, inframarginal, alternate, partial retouch (n. 4/E: plate CLXXII, 16). Another flakelet has a simple, inframarginal, mixed retouch along the right side (n. 1928: plate CLXXII, 17). Traces of wear and transversal microgrooves were observed on flake n. 619 (plate CLXXII, 8), which indicate that it was used for cutting. 2 flakelets show a simple, deep, direct, partial retouch on one or both sides (nn. 61 and 581: plate CLXXII, 1 and 2). The retouch is simple, deep, inverse on one edge on 2 flakelets (nn. 206 and 570: plate CLXXIII, 3 and 4). 2 flakelets have an abrupt, deep, inverse retouch on one side (nn. 367 and 370: plate CLXXIII, 5), and other 2 have an abrupt, deep, inverse retouch (nn. 214 and 675: plate CLXXIII, 7 and 8). The splintered, direct or inverse retouch was observed only on 2 flakelets (nn. 247 and 677: plate CLXXIII, 9 and 10). 1 flakelet (n. 563: plate CLXXIII, 11) shows a ventral, splintered, and a simple, inframarginal, inverse retouch along the left side. Traces of wear and short, parallel microgrooves, due to hafting, are visible along its distal, left side (WINIARSKA-KABACINSKA, 1995). The length of 21 complete flakes and flakelets is between 1.7 and 4.4 cm, their width between 1.0 and 4.4 cm. Their platform angles are 70 (4), 85 (4), 90 (1), 95 (1) and 100 (1). 10.5.6. Retouched blades The retouched blades are 70. They are made from different varieties of chert and represent the most common retouched tools of the site. 10.5.7. Blades with simple, inframarginal retouch The simple, inframarginal retouch has been observed on 52 blades and bladelets, in different combinations: direct, partial, on one side (nn. 672, 305, 178, 218 and 588 (plate CLXXIII, 12-15); direct, continuous, on one side (nn. 566 and 757: plate CLXXIII, 16 and 17); direct, partial, on both edges (nn. 709 and 604: plate CLXXIII, 18); direct, continuous, on both edges (n. 135: plate CLXXIII, 20); inverse, partial, on one edge (nn. 168 and 624: plate CLXXIII, 21 and 22); inverse, partial, on both edges (nn. 126 and 719: plate CLXXIV, 1 and 2); inverse, continuous, on the left side and mixed, on the right one (n. 718: plate CLXXIV, 3); direct, continuous, on one side and direct, partial on other (nn. 133 and 124: plate CLXIV, 4 and 5); direct, continuous, on the left side and mixed on the right one (n. 602: plate CLXXIV, 7); alternate (n. 377: plate CLXXIV, 10-12); Traces of wear, interpreted as sickle gloss, were noticed on 9 blades and bladelets with simple, (infra)marginal retouch. The position of the sickle gloss, which covers a triangular surface, indicates that these blades were mainly used as elements of composite tools or sickles (nn. 158, 746, 505, 187 and 194: plate CLXXIV, 13-17). Wear traces along the unretouched edge demonstrates that the retouch was often used to fit the blade inside its haft (nn. 1979 and 129: plate CLXXIV, 18 and 19). 10.5.8. Blades with simple, deep retouch This type of retouch was noticed on 13 blades. In 2 cases it is inverse and partial (nn. 769 and 462: plate CLXXV, 1 and 2), in 4, direct and continuous (nn. 21 and 422: plate CLXXV, 3 and 4), in 2 inverse, continuous (nn. 127 and 147: plate CLXXV, 5 and 6) and in 1 deep, invasive and bifacial (n. 138: plate CLXXV, 7). The simple, partial, direct and/or inverse retouch at the proximal edge of blade n. 721 (plate CLXXV, 8) and the simple, partial, direct, medial retouch along both sides of blade n. 710 (plate CLXXV, 9), was obtained to fit the blades into a bone, horn/antler or wood haft. Traces of gloss wear, covering a triangular surface, with characteristic, transversal microgrooves are present on 6 blades with a simple, deep retouch (nn. 769, 462, 422, 137, 147 and 412: plate CLXXV, 1, 2, 4-6 and 10). 10.5.9. Blades with semi-abrupt retouch This retouch characterises blade n. 391 (plate CLXXV, 11). The position of the sickle gloss indicates that the retouch is linked with its hafting. 61

10.5.10. Blades with multiple retouch 4 blades show an association of simple, semi-abrupt and abrupt types of retouch. Blade n. 212 has a simple, deep, inverse retouch on the left side and a simple, deep, direct retouch on the right side. Blade n. 131 (plate CLXXV, 12) shows a simple, deep, direct, bilateral, continuous, retouch and a simple, inframarginal, inverse retouch along the right side. Blade n. 132 (plate CLXXV, 13) shows a combination of a simple, deep, direct retouch, on the left side, and a simple, deep, inverse, partial retouch on the right side. Blade n. 620 (plate CLXXV, 14) has a semi-abrupt, direct, partial retouch on the left side, and a simple, deep, direct, continuous retouch along the right one. The position of the wear gloss, accompanied by micro grooves transverse or parallel to the edge, shows that, also on these blades, the retouch was obtained to haft them into bone, horn/antler or wooden tools. 10.6. END SCRAPERS 20 specimens, all from different varieties of chert. 10.6.1. End scrapers on flake The assemblage is composed of 15 end scrapers on flake. In most cases the retouch is semi-abrupt, deep, direct and distal. A few inverse detachments are sometimes present (nn. 5, 629, 91 and 280: plate CLXXVI, 1-4). Tool n. 686 (plate CLXXVI, 5) has a straight working edge, while n. 551 (plate CLXXVI, 6) and n. 623 (plate CLXXVI, 7) are concave. The distal end retouch of end scrapers nn. 146 and 257 (plate CLXXVI, 8 and 9) extends along the sides, probably for hafting. Specimen n. 1909 (plate CLXXVI, 10) shows a simple, deep, direct retouch on the right half of the distal end. The only specimen with simple, deep, inverse, retouch extending to both sides is n. 134 (plate CLXXVI, 11). The presence of traces of wear on nn. 280 and 134 (plate CLXXVI, 4 and 16) indicate that, apart from scraping, they might have been used also for cutting. 10.6.2 End scrapers on blade Only 3 specimens (nn. P/A and 265: plate CLXXVI, 12 and 13). 1 has a concave edge and a simple, inframarginal, direct, distal retouch along the right side (n. 754: plate CLXXVI, 14). The abrupt, marginal, direct retouch on the left side of scraper n. 265 (plate CLXXVI, 13) is due to hafting. 10.6.3. Double end scrapers on flake Only 1 large flake (n. 137: plate CLXXVI, 15) with semi-abrupt, deep, direct retouch on both the distal and proximal edges. 10.6.4. Discoidal end scrapers Only 1 fragmented, microflakelet specimen, obtained with semi-abrupt retouch and traces of wear due to scraping (n. 562: plate CLXXVI, 16). The length of 8 complete scrapers is between 1.7 and 4.3 cm, their width between 1.6 and 3.6 cm. Their platform angles are 70 (1), 75-80 (1), 80 (2), 85 (1), 90 (1) and 95 (1). 10.7. SIDE SCRAPERS All the side scrapers (5) are on complete, irregular flakes. The river pebble cortex is preserved in 2 cases. 2 others with carbonate cortex are made from so-called Balkan flint. Nn. 17/92 and 366 (plate CLXXVII, 1 and 2) show a simple, deep, direct, continuous retouch on the left side; nn. 179 and 567 (plate CLXXVII, 3 and 4), a simple, deep, direct partial retouch, on the right side, and the transversal side scraper n. 165 (plate CLXXVII, n. 5), a simple, deep, inverse, distal retouch. Traces of wear are visible on tool n. 366 (plate CLXXVII, 2) and along the transversal side of n. 567 (plate CLXXVII, 4). Their length varies from 3.3 to 4.3 cm, and their width from 2.3 to 3.0 cm. Their platform angles are 7580 (1), 80 (1), 85-90 (1) and 90 (2). 10.8. PERFORATORS Are represented by 2 instruments: the flakelet type n. 38 (plate CLXXVII, 6) and the bladelet n. 556 (plate CLXXVII, 7). They both are obtained with a simple, marginal, direct retouch at the distal edge. The length of n. 38 is 1.8 cm and its width 1.9 cm. Their platform angle is 55 (1) and 65 (1). 62

10.9. TRUNCATIONS 17 specimens on chert blades. Their retouch is abrupt, deep, direct in 16 cases, while it is inverse on bladelet n. 191 (plate CLXXVII, 8). The retouch of 16 specimens is distal, it is proximal on blade n. 469 (plate CLXXVII, 9). The truncations are straight (nn. 130, 558, 767 and 638: plate CLXXVII, 10-13), sometimes more or less oblique (nn. 500, 205, 312, 480 and 496: plate CLXXVII, 14-18), or slightly convex (nn. 408 and 284: plate CLXXVII, 19 and 20). The simple, inframarginal, direct, proximal, left retouch of bladelet n. 638 (plate CLXXVII, 13) is most probably due to hafting. The presence of triangular wear gloss and microgrooves indicate they were often used for cutting and, in the case of composite tools, also as sickles (nn. 469, 130, 558 and 205: plate CLXXVII, 9-11 and 15). The moderate gloss and roundness of the retouched edge of bladelet n. 408 (plate CLXXVII, 19) indicates that this implement might have been used as an end scraper. The length of the complete specimens is between 1.8 and 3.8 cm; their width between 0.7 and 1.9 cm. Their platform angles are 60 (1), 70 (1), 80 (1) and 90 (2). 10.10. BURINS Are represented by only 3 specimens. 1 is transversal, at the proximal edge of the fragmented bladelet n. 548 (plate CLXXVIII, 1), and 1 is lateral, with one proximal blow, along the right side of bladelet n. 185 (plate CLXXVIII, 2). Blade n. 182 (plate CLXXVIII, 3) has two parallel burin blows along both sides, detached from the distal edge. This specimen shows traces of wear at the distal edge, most probably due to boring. The length of the complete specimen n. 185 (plate CLXXVIII, 2) is 3.3 cm, while that of the fragmented piece n. 182 is 5.3 cm. Their width is from 0.8 to 1.2 cm. The platform angle is 65 (1). 10.11. GEOMETRIC MICROLITHS 24 tools. They are among the most significant types of the chipped stone industry of this site. 10.11.1. Segments Only 1 fragmented specimen of lunate, obtained with an abrupt, marginal, direct retouch. (n. 372: plate CLXXVIII, 4). The unretouched side shows clear traces of wear. 10.11.2. Trapezes 23 specimens, 3 of which are irregular, and 20 regular (isosceles or rectangular). The irregular trapezes are obtained with an abrupt, deep, direct retouch on both convex or straight truncations (nn. 383 and 635: plate CLXXVIII, 5 and 6), or with one direct and one inverse truncation obtained with the same type of retouch (n. 639: plate. CLXXVIII, 7). The same combination recurs also on the isosceles and rectangular trapezes. An abrupt, deep, direct retouch on both truncations has been used to produce trapezes nn. 3, 441, 550, 518, 331, 467, 707, 772, 739, 1, 1947 and 1942 (plate CLXXVIII, 8-19), while one direct and one inverse truncation characterises trapezes nn. 255, 708 and 2 (plate CLXXVIII, 20-22). Only 5 specimens show traces of wear, indicated by a moderate roundness of the edge and presence of gloss, accompanied by microgrooves (nn. 383, 639, 739 and 708: plate CLXXVIII, 5, 7, 17 and 21). The length of 18 complete geometric microliths is between 1.7 and 3.6 cm, their width between 1.0 and 1.8 cm. 10.12. NOTCHED TOOLS Single notches obtained with abrupt, marginal or deep, direct or inverse retouch are present on 7 blades and bladelets (nn. 192, 200, 341, 643 and 250: plate CLXXIX, 1-5). 1 bladelet shows two opposite notches obtained with abrupt, marginal, direct retouch (n. 415: plate CLXXIX, 6), while the proximal edge of 1 fragmented blade has two opposite notches obtained with abrupt, deep, alternate retouch (n. 747: plate CLXXIX, 7). Most specimens are fragmented. Their length varies from 1.2 to 3.9 cm. Their width is from 1.0 to 1.9 cm. Their platform angles are 80 (1), 85 (2), 90 (1) and 95 (1). 10.13. SPLINTERED PIECES Only 2 specimens (nn. 28 and 33: plate CLXXIX, nn. 8 and 9) without traces of wear, except for traces of heating on flake n. 28. The length of specimen n. 28 is 3.5 cm, its width 2.6 cm. 63

10.14. MULTIPLE TOOLS 7 multiple tools were found. They are represented by the following types: 10.14.1. Truncations+Retouched blades 2 specimens. 1 distal truncation on bladelet is obtained with an abrupt, deep, direct retouch. Its left side shows an abrupt, deep, direct retouch and its right side an abrupt, marginal mixed retouch (n. 151: plate CLXXIX, 10). The distal, narrow blade truncation n. 561 (plate CLXXIX, 11) shows a semi-abrupt, marginal direct, bilateral, discontinuous retouch. Their length varies from 3.4 to 4.9 cm, and their width from 1.0 to 1.3 cm. Their platform angles are 80 (1) and 90 (1). 10.14.2. End scrapers+Retouched blades Are represented by only 2 instruments. The distal end scraper on blade n. 716 (plate CLXXIX, 12) has a semi-abrupt, deep, direct, partial retouch along both sides. Blade n. 371 (plate CLXXIX, 13) has a simple, deep, alternate retouch. The roundness of the sides and the wear gloss at the distal edge are due to its utilization as an end scraper, the gloss along both sides indicates that it was used for cutting. The length of specimen n. 716 is 5.8 cm, its width 1.7 cm. The platform angles are 80 (1) and 95 (1). 10.14.3. Truncations+Burins Flakelet n. 230 (plate CLXXIX, 14) has a distal oblique truncation obtained with abrupt, deep, direct retouch. The proximal edge shows a transversal burin blow, detached from the left side. 10.14.4. Burins+Retouched blades The distal end of the simple, direct, retouched blade n. 239 (plate CLXXIX, 15) shows a simple, transversal burin blow obtained from the left edge. 10.14.5. End scrapers+Perforators The corticated flakelet n. 782 (plate CLXXIX, 16) shows an abrupt, deep, direct, transversal retouch. Besides for scraping, this tool might have been used also for boring. Its platform angle is 85. 10.15. DISCUSSION Donja Branjevina yielded 25 chipped stone artefacts partly decoloured, with crackles and blooms caused by heating. Only one core is slightly decoloured, which might indicate that it was thermally treated before flaking (GREGL and GRYBUSH, 1976). All the other specimens with traces of heating (burning) come from nine trenches and nine spits. It is important to point out that these traces have been noticed on 16 unretouched flakes, 8 unretouched blades, 1 splintered piece and only 1 retouched blade. Even though it was impossible to establish the exact location of any workshop area, their position might be indicated by 5 finds from trench V (3 artefacts are from spit 6) and 6 from trench X (4 artefacts are from spit 4). The chipped stone assemblage of Donja Branjevina is of exceptional importance for the study of the Serbian lithic assemblages. It is characterized by a high microlithic component (microblades and geometric microliths: fig. 40), which might be linked with specific subsistence economic activities. The presence of sickles and other blades with less evident traces of wear points out the importance of the agriculture activities at the site. Most probably cereals were harvested with sickles with many diagonallyinserted short blades, or geometrical microliths, as well as knives composed of one or two longer blades hafted parallel to the axis. R. TRINGHAM (1968) explained the importance of their agricultural function of the microlithic blades, especially those with sickle gloss, which made their appearance in the Early and Middle Neolithic of Greece, and in the Karanovo I and Starevo Cultures. The typology of the chipped stone tools points out the role that the environmental location of this settlement played in their characteristics, independently from any cultural contacts. The site, along the terrace of a main river course, close to a fertile plain, is located in an ideal territory for the development of agricultural practices. Regarding the chipped stone assemblage, it resulted in a typical blade industry, which represents 42.71% of the chipped stone artefacts. Their characteristics follow an evolutionary process, which took place in a much wider area around the beginning of the Neolithic. The large variety of specialized tools, which characte64

Fig. 40 - Percentage histograms of the geometric microliths discovered at some Serbian sites.

rised the Late Palaeolithic, and partly the Mesolithic periods, was gradually reduced to a few basic types among which blades and end scrapers prevail.

11. THE CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGE 11.1. RIMS AND BASES The ceramic assemblage has been subdivided into groups, a few of which occur only in some specific layers, while others are represented throughout the entire settlement sequence. The high number of potsherds has favoured the analysis of the vessel shapes. Rims and bases have been attributed to three main groups. The first group occurs exclusively in layers III and II (plates CLXXXI and CLXXXIV). The second, which is the most numerous, consists of fragments (bases and rims) equally represented from all layers (plates CLXXXII and CLXXXVI). Particularly important is the third group, from pit 9, layers III-II, Ib and Ia (plate CLXXXIII). According to this subdivision it was possible to establish a relative, typological chronology of the pottery shapes. For instance, to understand that the high, pedestalled vessels occur exclusively in the late horizons (plate CLXXXIII, 1-8). A unique subgroup of pottery is that of the red painted rims from pit 2, layer III-II, that were made by burnishing or slip technique (plate CLXXXIV). 11.2. DECORATIVE PATTERNS 11.2.1. Layer III Most of the pottery from of this layer consists of fine, undecorated, red-slipped specimens. Medium and coarse pottery is represented by a much smaller number of fragments. Only a few potsherds of medium and coarse ware are decorated with finger pinched or shallow nail impressions. The coarse pottery decorated with single or double rows of finger impressions under the rim (plates CLXXXVII and CLXXXVIII) is characteristic of this layer. A few fragments of medium pottery were decorated with thick basket weave or woven sticks, impressed patterns (DIMITRIJEVI, 1974: channeled and pseudoimpresso) (plates CXCII and CXCIII), which gradually evolved into the wheat-ear pattern that is frequent in the Starevo-Krs-Cri assemblages. Amongst the coarse pottery shapes, of special interest are fragments of large bowls with an inner black band, burnished below the rim. The only typical, Donja Branjevina group motifs of layer III are the single or double series of impressions immediately below the rim. The Krs Culture (?) influence occurred somewhat later, when the basket weave patterns begin to occur. It is not impossible that the single or double series of impressions below the rim derive from Krs influences, although this pattern is exclusive of the Donja Branjevina group, and represents one of the most significant attributes of this aspect. 65

11.2.2. Layer II The assemblage from this layer includes many white painted sherds. The decorative patterns are considerably diversified and enriched with new elements. The first potsherds with double or triple, semicircular and elongated, plastic oblique applications on medium ware vessels, make their appearance in the lowermost levels, just above layer III. The impressed potsherds, decorated with bands of fingertip or instrumental impressions are also common. This pattern is slightly less usual on the coarse vessels. It greatly resembles motifs that commonly occur in the Krs Culture. The basket weave pattern occurs on a few fine and coarse, red painted potsherds. In the upper levels, this motif gradually degenerates and becomes considerably smaller. One fragment has an unorganized impressed decoration, along with a basket weave motif. A similar pattern is known on a large bowl fragment decorated with elements of both Donja Branjevina group and Krs Culture. A shallow incised motif occurs here for the first time on a fine potsherd. The single and paired impressed patterns just below the rim continue throughout the whole layer. Opposite to what is known from the preceding layer, this type of decoration is also present on short-necked vessels with a slightly everted rim. This layer, yielded also coarse ware fragments and pieces of large bowls with polished inner surface, with a, thick red painted slip. Although the red paint looks very decorative, the cover of the inner surface was probably made for practical reasons. The most characteristic decorations of this layer consist of single or paired series of impressions immediately below the rim. 11.2.3. Layer III-II The horizontal and vertical stratigraphy of the site was established thanks to the decorated potsherds of layer III-II, which, from a cultural point of view, is very different from layer II. The pottery of this layer indicates that during this period great changes took place in the settlement life. The painted pottery, with the exception of one fragment24, the red-slipped fine ware and the finger impressed motifs below the rim completely disappear. A new decorative pattern makes its appearance exclusively on bowls with finger and instrumental impressions on the rim. The coarse impressed pottery prevails, sometimes with applied plastic motifs. The repertoire includes many new decorations and pottery, roughened with a technique similar to barbotino, make its appearance for the first time. Besides many incised fragments, wheat grain is now the most common motif. The medium pottery often shows wheat-ear patterns, randomly arranged and obtained with finger nail and instrumental impressions. The pinched wheat-ear motif is slightly less represented. Thick impressed, basket weave motifs, and one potsherd with a wheat-ear pattern and a paired row of impressions, are the only indicators of the Donja Branjevina group background. The decoration repertoire is enriched by circular applications, symmetrically arranged around the body. 11.2.4. Layer Ib Two distinct phases of development were distinguished within layer I (layers Ia and Ib), thanks to a very thin level of shells discovered in the middle of this layer and the careful recording of the finds. The beginning of this layer is characterised by a smaller amount of impressed pottery. In contrast, the classic barbotino25 shows an abrupt increase towards the upper part of layer Ib. The first pieces of classic barbotino pottery were decorated by adding trails of a thick slip on the vessel surface. Somewhat later, towards the upper part of layer Ib, the decoration was obtained also by deforming the moist surface or the slip trails. In all these cases the surface has been randomly roughened26. The incised patterns, although rather more uncommon than in the lower-lying layer III-II, is enriched with herringbone motifs27. The decoration, with plastic applications, shows new, an more elaborate forms. The fine pottery includes a large quantity of black burnished potsherds as well as numerous fragments with a red slip. The new painted elements are represented by vessels with reddish-white and white slip. This variety occurs sporadically in the uppermost levels of this layer. The analysis of the decorations and the pottery types, demonstrates that the settlement underwent again certain changes. 11.2.5. Layer Ia The decorative patterns of this layer show the same characteristics of those of the preceding one, apart from the reappearance of the painted wares. In most cases the motifs are painted in black on a red surface 66

(KARMANSKI, 1968a). Sherds with red painted on a reddish-white and light yellow surface come from the upper levels (KARMANSKI, 1968a: 9, fig. 25). The surface discovery of one potsherd with a typical Starevo motifs and a few traces of white paint, indicates that a very unstable white paint was used during this period. Medium and coarse pottery, decorated with the stamping technique, are known only from this layer. Stamping was obtained with a blunt tool with a circular or triangular section. The incised and impressed pottery is represented by a very small number of fragments as from the preceding layer. The impressed ware is now replaced by the barbotino pottery decorated in various ways. It occurs for the first time28, while the finger trailing type is rather common. In the beginning the decoration is very prominent and highly resembles the tree bark. Later, in the upper levels of the same layer, the slip is much thinner. The relative chronological subdivision of the classic barbotino pottery, proposed in the previous chapter, is confirmed by numerous finds decorated with the application technique. Within this pottery, we can distinguish two chronologically distinct barbotino techniques. Potsherds with applied motifs all over the surface occur in the lower level, together with finger trailing decorated pottery. From a chronological point of view, the latest barbotino pottery occurs in the middle levels of layer I (Ia). Its surface is decorated also with the addition technique. In this case the additions are flat and randomly arranged on the vessel surface. The diversified patterns of these applications reach their development in this layer. Along with common shapes, we find new motifs like rosette, zigzags, deaths-head and concentric, perforated bands. The finger or tool impressed decoration on the rim of coarse vessels is also typical. The fine pottery generally maintains the characteristics of that of the preceding layer, with a considerable increase of red painted (slip and pseudoslip) and black burnished ware, except for one channeled fragment.

12. DWELLING STRUCTURES, WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM, DOMED OVEN Even though the excavations led to the discovery of a few dwelling structures, it was impossible to reconstruct their original appearance. The structures of the explored area were probably arranged in horseshoeshape around an empty place (fig. 41, n. 1). In its centre a wooden totem (?) was probably standing. The Redhead Goddess was found at its foot (MAKKAY, 1988). The existence of three habitation horizons was also defined. The first lies on the virgin soil. The second is easy to recognise because of the concentration of pottery and ash. The third consists of structures (?) arranged in a horseshoe-shape. On the basis of pottery assemblage, the northern area investigated (some 700 sq m) is to be attributed to the Starevo linear period. The structure of fig. 11, n. 4, was discovered some 80 m southwest of the Starevo complex (trench V/1986-1987). Next to the hearth, at the bottom of this pit-dwelling (?), a narrow, some 1 m long pit, had been excavated. It sounds incredible that the first farmers of the Balkans had a water supply system. Under the pressure of the Danube, the water filtered through the sand into the ditch through the narrow Schlitzopfergrube directly into the habitation structure. In trench XIV/93, another Schlitzopfergrupe with reservoir (fig. 41, n. 2) was discovered next to the habitation structure. The same trench yielded the base of a domed oven (?), closed by a large fragment of coarse pottery (fig. 41, n. 3).

13. TOYS AND GAMES Miniature vessel with impressed motifs. Trench III/66: pit 9, layer III-II (fig. 42, n. 1 [1]); small, deep bowl. Trench XI/92: spit 3 (fig. 42, n. 1 [2]); miniature bowl. Surface find (fig. 42, n. 1 [3]); pedestalled miniature bowl. Trench XXI/94: burning horizon (fig. 42, n. 1 [4]); pedestalled miniature bowl of irregular shape. Trenches I/66 and XXVI/95: spit 11 (fig. 42, n. 1 [5]); pedestalled miniature bowl. Trench X/91: spit 9 (fig. 42, n. 1 [6]); pedestalled miniature bowl. Trench I/66: pit 6, layer II (fig. 42, n. 1 [7]); miniature bowl. Trench V/86: spit 3 (fig. 42, n. 1 [8]); clay pellet. Trench XII/92: spit 6 (fig. 42, n. 2 [1]); 67

Fig. 41 - Donja Branjevina: dwelling structure discovered in trench XI/92 (1), water supply system and reservoir in trench XIV/93 (2) and plan of the domed oven and fireplace opening in trench XIV/93 (3).

68

Fig. 42 - Donja Branjevina: miniature vessels (1) and game pellets (?) (2).

clay pellet. Trench VIII/89: spit 2 (fig. 42, n. 2 [2]); clay pellet. Trench VIII/89: spit 6-7 (fig. 42, n. 2 [3]): clay pellet. Trench VI/88: spit 7 (fig. 42, n. 2 [4]); clay pellet. Trench VI/88: spit 1 (fig. 42, n. 2 [5]); clay pellet. Trench V/88: spit 7 (fig. 42, n. 2 [6]); clay pellet. Trench V/88: spit 6 (fig. 42, n. 2 [7]); clay pellet. Trench XII/92: spit 7 (fig. 42, n. 2 [8]); clay pellet. Trench IV/88: spit 1 (fig. 42, n. 2 [9]).

14. BURIALS Four crouched burials were discovered inside and outside pits, in trench I. 14.1. GRAVE 1 The bones of an adult individual were broken and scattered all over the pit (fig. 5a). Location: pit 1 Layer: I Position: ? Orientation: ? Grave goods: none Culture/group: Krs (?) 14.2. GRAVE 2 A child burial disturbed by the embankment works (fig. 5b). Location: pit 3 Layer: I Position: crouched Orientation: north-south, facing west Grave goods: none Culture/group: Donja Branjevina 14.3. GRAVE 3 Child burial (figs. 5c and 43, n. 1). Location: on the virgin soil between pits 6 and 7: Layer: I Position: crouched Orientation: north-south, facing east Grave goods: none Culture/group: Starevo linear 69

Fig. 43 - Donja Branjevina: grave 3 in trench I/65-66 (1) and grave 4 in trench I/65-66, pit 7 (2).

70

14.4. GRAVE 4 Child burial. Judging from the disturbed layer above the grave, it was possible to conclude that the grave had been dug into the earlier horizons (figs. 5d and 43, n. 2). Location: bottom of pit 7 Layer: III Position: crouched Orientation: north-south, facing west Grave goods: flint bladelets and animal bones (?) Culture/group: Starevo linear 15. CHRONOLOGY 15.1. RADIOCARBON DATING The first radiocarbon date was obtained in 1988 (TASI, 1993: 99-102). Three samples were taken from trench V/86-87, where the pits had been excavated into the monochrome pottery layers. Sample 1 (bone) was taken from the hollow at the bottom of the pit/dwelling with traces of sooth and burned soil, spit 6 (GrN-5974: 715550 uncal BP). Sample 2 (bone) was taken the outside of the pit, spit 4 (GrN-15975: 695550 uncal BP). Sample 3 (charcoal) were taken from the leveled soil outside the pit, spit 5 (GrN15976: 714090 uncal BP). The radiocarbon date of sample 4 was obtained from Groningen laboratory in 199929. The charcoal sample was taken from trench XXX/96, spit 6, that is from layer II of pit 7 (KARMANSKI, 1979: trench I/65-66). This layer, besides typical Early Neolithic pottery yielded a great quantity of white painted wares with drop-like decoration. The result is 681080 uncal BP (GrN-24609). Three more samples were analyzed at Oxford laboratory in 1993, without the knowledge and permission of the author30. Sample 5 (bone) was taken from trench II/87, spit 3/4. The bone was found close to the hearth, more precisely along its profile (OxA-8555: 684555 uncal BP). Sample 6 (bone) was also collected from trench II/87, spit 4/5. It was found under the house rubble, next to corner D of the trench (OxA-8556: 677560 uncal BP). Sample 7 (bone) is also from trench II/87, spit 4/5, beneath the house rubble, next to corner D of the trench (OxA-8557: 708055 uncal BP). Samples 5, 6 and 7 come from the Starevo linear horizon (WHITTLE et al., 2002). The radiocarbon results of the seven samples fit into the chronological system already established in 1968 (KARMANSKI, 1968a). 15.2. THE CHRONOLOGICAL SYSTEM The results of the excavations carried out between 1986 and 1996 confirm the accuracy of the chronological subdivision of the Starevo Culture (KARMANSKI, 1968a). In 1968 the chronology of the Starevo assemblages had been defined on the basis of the stratigraphic analysis of the finds (fig. 44; table 6). Nevertheless, the chronological systems of V. MILOJI (1950) and D. Garaanin, based on incomplete statistical data (KARMANSKI, 1991: 2)31, are still in use as are those of D. Srejovi32 and M. GARAANIN (1958) and partly that of S. DIMITRIJEVI (1974: T. I, II and III), which was copied from a paper of the present author (KARMANSKI, 1968a), as well as that of B. BRUKNER (1977: T. 10). Many barbotino potsherd with trailing decorations were found at Szarvas, in Hungary (MAKKAY, 1989), are identical to those of the Starevo sites. At Donja Branjevina, this pottery occurs in layer Ia, together with black painted pottery with linear patterns. This demonstrates that the Krs Culture, in Hungary, is contemporaneous with the Starevo Culture linear phase (layer Ia). The Krs pottery identified in 1968, comes from the bottom of pit 9, from the lowest horizons of this sequence (layer III-II). According to the stratigraphy of trench III, this material is earlier than the Starevo layer Ia (linear phase), and consequently it is earlier than the Krs sites in Hungary. In other words it predates the Krs Culture. This is why it has been attributed to the Proto-Krs Culture (fig. 45). N. TASI (1997) in his PhD dissertation did not follow this chronological system (KARMANSKI, 1968a), although he mentioned it, because the existence of a Proto-Starevo horizon was recognized for the first time at Donja Branjevina in 1968. 71

Surface layer

Layer I (Starevo-linear)

Layer II (Proto-Starevo)

Layer III (Monochrome phase)

Fig. 44 - Donja Branjevina: north profile in trench I/65-66, pit 7.

16. THE NEW DATA PROVIDED BY THE EXCAVATIONS 1) The existence of a monochrome pottery horizon has been confirmed by the stratigraphic sequence; 2) a (Proto-Starevo) horizon with white painted pottery with drop-like patterns has been recognised only at this site; 3) the ceramic assemblage and other artefacts from the pit dwelling and hearth33, belong to the ProtoKrs Culture (?). These layers lie beneath those with typical Starevo material; 4) it has been demonstrated that all the rituals and magic ceremonies were linked with reproduction purposes; 5) the function of the anthropomorphic figurines has been ascertained (goddesses were not goddesses); 6) a new term has been introduced in the archaeological terminology: soil fertilisation; 7) it has been established that turtle was a symbol of longevity; 8) the supreme deity of first farmers was the earth, to which human sacrifices34, animal sacrifices,35and anthropomorphic figurines36 were symbolically offered; 9) the labrets are not bull heads or zoomorphic figurines37, but fertility symbols; 10) the so-called spindle whorls made from potsherds were not exclusively intended for textile activities. Spherical, fine pottery fragments were also used as sling projectiles or trinkets (plate CX, nn. 7-10); 11) the elongated, cylindrical objects with longitudinal perforation were used 72

for fishing with hook as the so-called, present-day liding lead; 12) the incised or painted zigzag line, representing a snake usually decorates the cult objects. This symbolism cannot be explained; 13) the function of the socalled altars has been defined: they were used as censers, or might be interpreted as precursors of the modern pipes (?).

73

APPENDIX 1 SOIL SAMPLE ANALYSES Three soil samples have been analysed from Donja Branjevina. The first comes from the hard layer, and other two were collected just above and below it. They all were taken from a chernozem, although the colour of the central sample is rather light. The scope of the analysis was to establish the composition of the hard layer. For this reason the percentage of calcium carbonate (Ca CO3) in the three layers was checked. The dark soil beneath the hard layer, contained 11.33% of Ca CO3. The hard layer 52.12%, and the soil above it 7.6%. According to S. TRIFUNOVI (pers. comm. 1995), the hard layer formed during the maximum level reached by the water table, when the water evaporated towards the surface. This is indicated by the quantity of Ca CO3 below the hard layer, which is higher than that of the layer above it. The sample below the hard layer was floated. This led to the collection of a few fish remains, among which are many small bones and one tooth. The tooth, partially arrow-shaped, is probably to be identified as perch. One bone fragment is notched. Similar notches are known from sturgeon skull bones. We found also Unio and Viviparus freshwater shells. According to the granulometric analysis, this sample is a silt, as most of the soils, which are known around the site. Large lumps of alevrite, with small muscovite lamellae, remained after flotation, with cavities due to plant roots: rhizosolenia. A thin section of the hard layer was also prepared. The rocks are represented by calcite, quartz, sericite, clay, and very rare lamellae of mica (muscovite). Rare grains of quartz have been noticed inside the clayey material. Sericite occurs as a result of the feldspar metamorphosis. The sample contains a great quantity of calcium carbonate, an agglutinative substance. The yellowish colour of the sample is due to an admixture of iron hydroxide, which was also identified. Rare dark colorings, due to the presence of organic materials, are also visible. The sample itself did not contain any organics. The rock was identified as a micritic limestone The sample above the hard layer was floated. Although it was partly decolorized, it remained darker than the lower sample. The flotation residues were identified as white organic remains. Numerous sand grains were visible under the microscope. Angular and subangular quartz grains are common in the sand fraction, which also contains altered feldspars, and a few fragments of schist. There are also insoluble lumps of alevrite (powder) with some clayey agglutinative substance. Small, unidentifiable, charcoal fragments are also present. The organic remains are mainly composed of fish bones, among which is a perch (?) tooth, and a considerable amount of snails (Clausilia, Pupilla) and other land gastropods. The minerological and palaeonthological composition of the three samples are very different. According to the results of the analyses, the lower layer was deposited by rivers waters. The first is a consequence of floods, during which mud was deposited, while the hard layer originated (almost 50% of it) from underground waters. The third, uppermost, layer deposited on a dry soil. It is the consequence of human activities, as indicated by the presence of land snails, charcoals and fish bones.

APPENDIX 2 THE FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE The faunal assemblage comes from trenches I, II and III, excavated in 1987, which are attributed to the classic Starevo period (KARMANSKI, 1988). 3,889 fragments of bones, shells and snails, were analysed, 3,606 of which were identified (table 7). The other 283 are fragments 3 to 5 cm long, mainly vertebrae, ribs and other bones. The material comprises 35 complete bones of adult animals and fragments of other bones (proximal or distal), skulls and mandibles. They were identified according to the morphological characteristics of the species, and measuring the bones of adult individuals. 19 species, 5 of which domesticated and 14 wild, were identified. The domesticated prevail (66.36%) over the wild ones (33.63%). According to the total number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the ratio changes completely because of large amount of snails and shells (969). In relation to the total number of vertebrates (49.52%), sheep and goat predominate amongst the domesticates (74.62%). Cattle is represented by 15.32%, while the remains of pig and dog are 1.5% in total. A predominance of ovicaprids is known from the Neolithic sites of Ludo-Budak and Nosa-Biserna obala (BKNYI, 1974). 74

ROMANIA

HUNGARY

SERBIA

MACEDONIE

GRECE

Fig. 45 - Synchronic table of the Early and Middle Neolithic Cultures of Romania, Hungary, Serbia, Macedonia and Greece.

Hunting, fishing and the collection of snails and shells were activities common to the inhabitants of the site, because of the proximity of the Danube and the richness of the river fauna. Large wild species, among which are aurochs, red deer, boar and roe deer represent 5% of the wild faunal assemblage. Also a few small mammals, among which are otter, beaver, hare, fox and pine marten were hunted. Amongst the 144 species known from this biotope, there were at least 34 mammals, 23 birds, 8 fish, 2 reptiles, 1 crab and 57 mollusk species (BLAI, 1987). Further investigations at this site, will undoubtedly increase the number of species of this list. According to the dimensions of the complete bones and the epiphyses of the long bones, employed as 75

Table 6 - Donja Branjevina: number and percentages of the faunal remains.

criteria for distinguishing between sheep and goat (BOESSNECK, 1969), we can notice that their ratio is 10:3. Most of them are young individuals. One metacarpal allowed the determination of the height of one individual (58 cm according to Zalkin). This measure is slightly lower that the average height of this region of the Pannonian Plain. Cattle are represented by 16 sub-adults, 8 adults and 4 juveniles. Phalanx I and II do not have a great importance in the definition of the size, while long metacarpal and metatarsal bones were not found. Pig remains are 1% of the total assemblage, and 1.4% of the domesticates. Of 4 individuals, 1 is juvenile, 1 subadult and 2 are adult. The value of M3 is 37 mm. Dog bones are rather scarce. They represent 0.5% and 0.8% of the domesticated animals. 2 were adult individuals. Most of the wild animal remains belong to adult, large size individuals. Fishing was particularly important in the subsistence strategy of the inhabitants of Donja Branjevina, because of the great number of fish bones, especially sheathfish, which is represented by specimens up to 100 kg. Mud turtle was also relevant in their diet. Birds, especially marsh, but also steppe species, were another important source of food. It seems that collection of freshwater molluscs and fishing played a certain role. Four species of large game, aurochs, red deer, wild boar and roe deer, together represent 16.8%, a very small percentage compared with that of other sites of the same period. The composition of the faunal assemblage reflects the environmental conditions of the area surrounding the site. The presence of a great river, dense forests, on a low bank with marshes, represented the ideal habitat of a large number of wild mammal species, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians and many invertebrates. 76

NOTES

The embankment was destroyed by explosive, and an artificial lake that received a surplus of Danube waters was made, in order to protect Novi Sad. The possibility of contamination of the layers is out of question because of the distance between these trenches (75 m). Not one single fragment of white painted pottery with drop-like decoration was found outside trenches I and II, except for the fragment of plate LXXXV, 11. This altar was dislocated during the excavation of Medieval burial pits. An unpublished horn was found also beneath the hearth, in trench VII/1988. Some 3000 Krs sites were discovered in Hungary. There is information of some 300-400 sites, 24 of which have been investigated. Some 500 complete or fragmented anthropomorphic figurines were found. Krevina, Milina Skela, Cerje, Mostonga I, Mostonga II, Mostonga III, Mostonga XIV, Dra I, Dra II, Odaci I, Ljuba II, etc.. S. KARMANSKI, 1977 (T. I, 1A-1C); 1978, (two unpublished, surface finds from Mostonga XIV). Site survey by J. Makkay. Capra aegocerus or possibly Capra aegagrus aegagrus. Two horns were found in one of these pits. The child (?) skeleton was left in situ. In 1988, we discovered that it had mysteriously disappeared. Porodin, Zelenikovo, Donja Branjevina, Zveka, Banja, Divostin (T. II, 1), Lepenski Vir, Grivac, Piscul Cornisorului, Apatin (private collection), Drenovac (unpublished) and Velesnica The presence of Proto-Starevo horizons with white painted pottery (Donja Branjevina group: layer II) was confirmed only in the central part of the site (trench I/1965-1966). Only classic Starevo material was discovered in its periphery (trenches I-VII/1987-1988). My opinion is that the colour of the paint used for decoration is irrelevant, although until recently white painting was decisive for establishing the relative chronology of the material. The vessel bottom is usually low or ring-shaped (plates CLXXXI and CLXXXII). The Donja Branjevina group occupation is separated from the Starevo horizon by a layer with classic Proto-Krs material. The correct chronology of the Donja Branjevina group white painted pottery found in the hearth, together with the radiocarbon-dated bone sample (GrN-15974), is dubious. The pit dwelling (?) with a hearth was excavated in the monochrome horizon with Donja Branjevina group material. The cultural attribution of these structures is not defined (Starevo?). The white painted potsherd might be older than the radiocarbondated sample. Three fragments with a painted wavy line and one with an incised wavy line (plate LXXVIII, 2). Many flint blades were found with clear traces of antler hafting. Traces of wear and manufacture were observed by binocular microscope Carl Zeiss (Jena) at 50x magnifications, at the Geoinstitute of Belgrade University. The analysis was made by V. Eri, of the Geoinstitute of Belgrade University. The analysis of a few specimens of characteristic raw material was made by K. Resimi, of the Faculty of Mining and Geology of Belgrade University. All the rocks analysed were cherts of different colour, texture and degree of crystallization. Rock n. 543 is of brownish-green colour, massive texture, with dark brown fissures in two directions. Granulated organic material is homogeneously spread. Specimen n. 544 is a light red chert with lighter and darker stripes deriving from the different rock structure in certain segments. The rock has a firm and compact cryptocrystalline structure. Chert n. 545 is inhomogeneous, with honey and grey stripes, and lighter spots. It is known in the archaeological literature as Balkan flint (KOZOWSKI, and KOZOWSKI, 1984). The rock structure is crypto to microcrystalline, and, since the spots are very small, it is difficult to understand whether they are remains of radiolarians or oolithes. Specimen n. 546 is chert of dark brown colour, massive texture and, firm and compact appearance. According to the presence of cortex, this raw material was collected from river deposits. The rock has a cryptocrystalline base, with recrystallised microcrystalline remains of radiolarians. The silicate skeletons are, in average, 0.2 mm in diameter, homogeneously distributed in the entire stone. One fragment of white painted pottery was found at the bottom of pit 9. This find allowed to establish the chronological relationships between pits 1-7 and 9. In this case, the term classic barbotino, which is used to define a distinctive decorative pattern (roughening of the vessel surface) is unsatisfactory to explain the way the roughening was obtained. By many authors the term classic barbotino is extended to a large group of pottery with surface roughened in different ways, except with finger trailing. Thanks to the finds from layer I, it is now possible to distinguish a few classic barbotino techniques, according to their manufacturing technique. This system of roughening the surface might be called unorganized or wild barbotino. This fragment was mistakenly included in layer Ia by S. KARMANSKI (1968). Without counting the fragments from layer III-II (plate CCI, 1 and 2). This sample was analysed thanks to Dr. J. Rodenberg. These samples were collected by Dr. D. Bori. We know that no stratigraphy was established at Starevo. R.W. Erich, during his visit to Odaci, informed me that more than 20 unpacked trunks of material from the 1931-1932 excavations are in the stores of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass.). This points out that the chrono-typological subdivision of the Starevo Culture might be arbitrary and incorrect. Most of the material from Lepenski Vir is still unpublished. Trench III/66, pit 9: layer III-II Baked clay lumps resembling human heads (plates XVII-XIX). Animal skulls and other animal bones as offering in sacrificial pits. The so-called Redhead Goddess and fragments of other anthropomorphic statuettes. Doctoral dissertation of Svetozar Stankovi.

2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14

15

16 17 18

19 20 21

22 23

24

25

26 27 28 29 30 31

32 33 34 35 36 37

77

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LAZAROVICI G. 1988 - Venus de Zuan, despre credintele si practicile magico-religioase (partea I-a). Acta Musei Porolissensis, XII: 23-70. Zalu. MAKKAY J. 1971 - The Chalcolithic male relief from Villnykvesd and the earliest male figurines in South-east Europe. A Janus Pannonius Mzeum, 13: 39-62. Pcs. MAKKAY J. 1982 - A magyarorszgi neolitikum kutatsnak j eredmnyei. Akadmiai Kiad, Budapest. MAKKAY J. 1984 - Early Stamp Seals in South-east Europe. Akadmiai Kiad, Budapest. MAKKAY J. 1987 - Kontakte zwischen der Krs-Starevo-Kultur und der Linienbandkeramik. Communications Archaeologicae Hungariae, 1987: 15-24. Budapest. MAKKAY J. 1988 - Weitere neolithische Felidendarstellungen aus Sdosteuropa. Germania, 66: 135-144. MAKKAY J. 1992 - Excavations at the Krs culture settlement of Endrd-regszlk 119 in 1986-1989. In BKNYI S. and MEID W. (eds.) Cultural and Landscape Changes in South-east Hungary I. Reports on the Gyomaendrd Project: 121-193. 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NANDRIS J. 1970 - The development and relationships of the earlier Greek Neolithic. Man, 5 (2): 192-213. London. NICA M. 1995 - Le Groupe Culturel Carcea-Gradinele. Acta Musei Napocensis, 32: 11-28. Cluj-Napoca PAUL I. 1995 - Vorgeschichtliche Untersuchungen in Siebenbrgen. Bibliotheca Universitatis Apulensis, I. Alba Iulia. PERI S. 1996 - Kult-Rhytone der neolitischen Viehzchter der Balkanhalbinsel. Starinar, XLVII: 21-66. Beograd. RENFREW C., GIMBUTAS M. and ELSTER E. S. 1986 - Excavations at Sitagroi. A Prehistoric Village in Northeast Greece. Volume 1. Monumenta Archaeologica, 13. Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles. RACZKY P. 1976 - A Krs-Kultra leletei Tiszajenn. Archaeolgiai rtesit: 1976 (2): 171-189. Budapest. RACZKY P. 1978 - A Krs Kultura Ujabb Figralis brzolsai a Kzp-Tiszavidkrl s trtneti sszefggseik. A Szolnok Megyei Mzeumok vknyve, 1979-80: 5-33. Szolnok. 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Mezolitsko naselje u Djerdapu. Srpska Akademija Nauka i Umetnosti, 1: arheologija. Belgrade. STANKOVI S. 1992 - Sakralna mesta i predmeti u starijeneolitiksim kulturama centralnobalkanskog podruja. PhD Dissertation, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade (unpublished). TASI N. 1997 - Hronologija Starevake Kulture. Thesis submitted for PhD Degree examination. University of Belgrade (unpublished). TODOROVI J. 1967 - Gabrovac, Djuria Vinogradi, Obzenovac - naselje starevake grupe. Arheoloki pregled, 9: 7-9. Arheoloko drutvo Jugoslavije, Belgrade. TRBUHOVI V. and VASILJEVI V. 1983 - Najstarije zemljoradnike kulture I Podrinju. abac. TRINGHAM R. 1968 - A preliminary study of the early neolithic and latest mesolithic blade industries in southeast and central Europe. In COLES J.M. and SIMPSON D.D.A. (eds.) Studies in Ancient Europe. Essays presented to Stuart Piggott: 45-70. Leicester University Press, Bristol. TROGMAYER O. 1964 - Megjegyzsek a Krs-Csoport relatv idrendjhez. Archaeologiai rtest, 91 (1): 67-86. Budapest. TULOK M. 1971 - A Late Neolithic idol of conical type. Acta Archaeologica Academia Scientiarum Hungaricae, 23: 3-17. Budapest. VASI M. 1936 - Preistorijska Vina, I-IV. Belgrade. VETNI S. 1972 - Bukovka esma, Bukove, Svetozarevo - naselje starevake Grupe. Arheoloki pregled, 14: 12-15. Arheoloko drutvo Jugoslavije, Belgrade. VLASSA N. 1972 - Eine Frhneolithische Kultur mit Bemalter Keramik der vor-Starevo-Krs-Zeit in Cluj, Gura Baciului, Siebenbrgen. Praehistorische Zeitschrift, 47 (2): 174-197. Berlin-New York. WHITTLE A., BARTOSIEWICZ L., BORI D., PETTITT P. and RICHARDS M. 2002 - In the beginning: radiocarbon dates from the Early Neolithic in northern Serbia and south-east Hungary. Antaeus, 25: 63-117. Budapest.

79

80

FINDS CATALOGUE

81

82

1A

1B

1C

1D

Plate I - Redhead Goddess from trench VIII/89, feature 1, spit 6/7 (see KALICZ and MAKKAY, 1974: 19, 9; STANKOVI , 1992: T. XIV, 6).

83

Plate II - Steatopygous figurine from Mostonga, trench I, pit 1. The buttocks are decorated with concentric grooves and the sex is marked by a small oval boss (see RACZKY, 1978: T. X, 7a-7c; HCKMANN, 1988: T. II, 4).

84

Plate III - Fragments of steatopygous figurines from trench X/91, spit 4 (1), surface (2), trench X/91, spit 5 (3), trench VIII/89, spit 2 (4), trench XI/ 92, cut 3 (5), trench XXVI/95, spit 2 (6), trench XIII/92, bottom of the pit next to corner B (7), trench XXVI/ 95, spit 2 (8).

85

Plate IV - Fragments of steatopygous figurines from trench X/91, spit 5 (1), trench VIII/89, spit 7 (2), trench III/87, spit 9 (3), trench II/87, spit 6 (4) and trench IX/90, spit 2 (5) (see GALOVI, 1962-63: T. XVI, 4 and 6; KALICZ and MAKKAY, 1977: T. VII, 1 and 4; RACZKY, 1978: T. II, 2a and 2b).

86

Plate V - Goddess on the throne or goddess giving birth (?) from trench IX/91, spit 8/9 (see KUTZIN, 1944: T. XX, 1a; T. XLI, 3; T. LXII, 2; MAKKAY, 1971: T. I- T. IV).

87

Plate VI - Complete, conical, female figurine from trench VIII/90, spit 5 (1A-1C). Eyes and hair are marked by incised lines. The face is damaged. Only one breast is present; complete, conical, female figurine from trench X/91, spit 5 (2A-2C). The eyes are depicted with very shallow incisions; complete, female, conical, figurine on protruding foot from trench XV/93, spit 4/5 (3A-3C). hair, eyes and eyebrows are deeply incised (see STANKOVI, 1992: T. II, 5a and 5b; T. III, 1a and 1b; T. V, 5a and 5b).

88

Plate VII - Fragment of steatopygous, female figurine from trench XXI/94, spit 3 (1A-1C). Eyes, eyebrows and hair are obtained with incised lines; head fragment of female (?) figurine from trench V/88, spit 6 (2A-2C). The coiffure is obtained with deeply incised, parallel lines; head fragment of female (?) figurine from the site surface (3A-3C).

89

Plate VIII - Head fragment of female figurine (?) from trench IX/91, spit 9 (1A-1C). Hair and eyes are marked by thin incised lines; half steatopygous (?), female figurine from Trench XIII/92, cut 1/2 (2A-2E). Eyes, eyebrows and hair are obtained with accurately incised lines; head of female figurine (?) from trench IX/91, spit 9 (3A-3C).

90

Plate IX - Head of monumental figurine (?) from trench XXVI/95, spit 7 (1A-1D). Hair, eyebrows and eyes are obtained with incised lines; head of monumental figurine (?) from trench XXVI/95, spit 7 (2A-2D). Hair and eyes are obtained with incised lines.

91

Plate X - Very damaged female (?) figurine from trench V/88, spit 2 (1A-1C). Hair and eyes are marked by incisions; part of very damaged female figurine from trench XXVI/95, spit 2 (2A-2C). The coiffure is represented by an incised network and parallel lines; damaged female figurine from trench V/88, spit 9 (3A-3C). The hair is represented by zigzag incised lines.

92

Plate XI - Part of monumental (?) female figurine from trench III/66, layer Ia, spit 1/2 (1A-1C). The coiffure is represented by precisely incised lines on the polished surface; part of female figurine from trench VIII/90, spit 7 (2A and 2B). Nose, arms and breasts are modeled out of the integral mass of the figurine. Eyes are marked by shallow incisions; part of the head of a female figurine from trench I/87, spit 3/4 (3A and 3B). Eyes, eyebrows and hair are obtained with incised lines; head of female figurine from trench VIII/89, spit 6 (4A and 4B). The hair is indicated by thin, incised lines; head of female figurine from trench II/87, spit 5 (5A and 5B). The hair is represented by very shallow, incised lines; head of figurine from trench XX/93, spit 3 (6A and 6B). The hair is represented by thin, incised lines (see BRUKNER, 1966: T. I, 1a-1c; 1968: T. III, 2a-2c; NANDRIS, 1970: T. I; GIRI, 1974: T. II, 1a-1c; STANKOVI, 1992: T. IV, 3).

93

Plate XII - Fragment of female figurine from trench X/91, spit 7 (1A-1C). The hair is represented by deeply incised lines; fragment of female figurine from trench XX/93, spit 5, pit next to point D (2A-2C); fragment of female figurine from Trench V/88, spit 2 (3A-3C).

94

Plate XIII - Seated female figurine from trench VII/88, spit 4 (1A-1C); massive, cylindrical female figurine from trench XXIII/94, spits 2 and 4 (2a2c). The hair is represented by deeply incised lines. The figurine is horizontally perforated at the breasts level; fragment of massive anthropomorphic figurine from trench XIII/92 (3A-3C). The lower part is decorated with impressed dots.

95

Plate XIV - Damaged male figurine (?) or phallus, from trench X/91, spit 7 (1A and 1B). On the preserved segment of the neck is clearly visible the incised representation of the hair; pottery cylinder or pedestal from trench X/91, spit 7 (2A and 2B) (for analogies see KARMANSKI, 1968: T. XXI, 1A1D).

96

Plate XV - Cylindrical, anthropomorphic figurine from trench III/66, layer Ib, spit 3/4 (1A-1C). The nose is applied on the flat, triangular face. The representation of the hair covers almost the entire figurine (1A-1C); anthropomorphic cult vessel from trench I/87, spit 6 (2). The eyes (one eye) are marked by deep incised lines. In the place of the mouth is a circular opening. The breast is missing.

97

Plate XVI - Lower part of a cylindrical figurine (?) from trench III/97, spit 7 (1); damaged anthropomorphic figurine (?) from trench XVIII/93, feature 1 (2); lower part of a cylindrical, anthropomorphic figurine from trench III/66, layer Ib, spit 1/2 (3); damaged anthropomorphic figurine from trench IV/88, spit 1 (4); lower part of a cylindrical, anthropomorphic figurine (?) from trench I/65, layer I, spit 1/2 (5); lower part of an anthropomorphic figurine from trench II/87, spit 3 (6); lower part of an anthropomorphic figurine from the surface of trench II/87 (7); lower part of an anthropomorphic figurine (?) from trench I/65, layer I, spit 1/2 (8); lower part of an anthropomorphic steatopygous figurine from trench V/87, spit 1 (9) (see JOVANOVI, 1967: T. IV, 11).

98

Plate XVII - Clay lump or head (?) from trench IX/91 (1A and 1B) from the bottom of a symmetrical circular (sacrificial) pit.

99

Plate XVIII - Clay lump or head (?) from the (sacrificial) pit next to point B in trench XI/92, spit 9 (1A and 1B).

100

Plate XIX - Head made of clay from the bottom of feature B (pit) in trench XV/93 (1A and 1B). The eyes are depicted by deep finger impressions in the soft clay. The Hair is represented by shallow incisions on the top of the head (see VLASSA, 1972: T. XXXII-XXXVI).

101

SPIT
Table 7 - Donja Branjevina: tatistic analysis of the anthropomorphic figurines. Complete and fragmented anthropomorphic figurines, (x); fragments of steatopygous, anthropomorphic figurines.

102

Plate XX - Amulet (?) from trench I/66, pit 6, layer III, spit 8 (1A-1D); Bone amulet (?) or tool (?) from trench III/87, spit 2 (2); damaged bone amulet (?) or pendant (?) from trench VIII/90, spit 7 (3); bone amulet from trench VIII/89, spit 7 (4); pintaderas from trench VI/88, spit 2 (5A and 5B) and trench IX/90, spit 2 (6A and 6B) (see TODOROVI, 1967: T. I, 5; MAKKAY, 1984a: T. I, 3a-3d; 1984b: T. I 5; T. IV, 1, 5, 6, 8; T. V., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11).

103

Plate XXI - Pierced white marble disk or spindle whorl (?) from trench I/65, layer II, spit 6 (1); fragment of green chlorine shale ring - bracelet (?) from trench XXVI/95, spit 3 (2); pierced grey diabase disk or spindle whorl (?) from trench XIV/93, spit 1 (3); bone ring or whorl (?) from a pit near point C in trench XI/92, spit 8 (4); pierced serpentine stone disk or spindle whorl (?) from trench X/91, spit 6 (5); bone ring or spindle whorl (?) from trench XXX/96, pit 7, layer II, spit 5/6 (6); fragment of bone ring from trench VIII/90, spit 5 (7); fragment of clay ring from trench I/65, pit 6, layer II, spit 5/6 (8); fragment of bone ring from trench XIII/92, spit 3 (9) (see HILLER and NIKOLOV, 1988: 81).

104

Plate XXII - Clay labrets from trench V/86, spit 4 (1); trench VIII/89, spit 3 (2); surface of trench I/65 (3) trench XXI/94, spit 3 (4); trench III/66, layer III, spit 7/8 (5); trench XXIII/94, spit 6 (6); trench XXIV/95, spit 5 (7); trench XVIII/93, feature 1, pit (8); trench XXI/94, spit 2 (9); trench III/ 66, layer III, spit 7/8 (10); trench XIII/92, spit 1 (11); trench II/87, spit 6 (12); trench X/91, spit 8 (13); trench XVIII/93, feature I, pit (14); trench I/ 65, layer II, pit (15); trench I/65, layer II, pit (16); trench I/65, surface (17); trench VIII/89, spit 4 (18); trench I/85, layer II, pit 6 (19); trench V/86, spit 2 (20); trench V/86, spit 3 (21); trench III/66, layer III, spit 7/8 (22); trench XVIII/93, feature I, pit (23); granitoid (?)stone labret from trench XXIII/94, spit 9 (24); fine-grained marble labret from trench V/86, spit 2 (24) (see SREJOVI, 1967: T. VIII, 19 and 20; FRIESEN, 1980-81: T. I, a-f ; PAUL, 1995: T. VIII, 5 and 6).

105

SPIT
Table 8 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the labrets.

106

Plate XXIII - Pig-shaped, pierced pendant or amulet (?) from trench II/65, pit 8 (1A and 1B); pig-shaped figurine (amulet ?) from trench XXVI/95, spit 5 (2A and 2B); pig-shaped figurine (amulet ?) from trench IX/91, feature 1 (3A-3C); horn, part of a large cattle-shaped figurine from the hearth in trench XXI/94, spit 3/4 (4); fragment chamois head figurine from trench IX/90, spit 3 (5); horn, part of cattle figurine from trench IX/91, feature 2, spit 9 (6) (see KUTZIN, 1944: T. XIII, 6; T. XLVII, 17).

107

Plate XXIV - Part of red-painted censer with pierced corners from the surface of trench I/65 (1A-1B). On the lower part of the squared platform is incised the head of a bull (?).

108

Plate XXV - Fragment of chamois (?) figurine from trench I/87, spit 5. The hair on the long neck is marked by deeply incised, parallel lines (1); part of zoomorphic (?) relief from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I, spit 1 (2). It was probably applied on the shoulder (?) of the vessel., which is decorated with impressed patterns.

109

Plate XXVI - Bottom of a vessel decorated with a hunting scene from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib, spit 3/4 (1A and 1B). The vessel is secondary decorated. On the preserved surface are represented deers (?), one dog and one deer trapped in a net (see MELLAART, 1975: 164, a-r).

110

Plate XXVII - Snake plastic cordons from trench XXVI/95, spit 5 (1); trench XXVI/95, spit 7 (2) and the surface of trench VIII/90.

111

Plate XXVIII - Zigzag plastic cordon from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia, spit 1/2 (1:2) (1); snake-shaped finger impressed, plastic cordon from trench IX/91, feature I, hearth (2); plastic, miniature moving snake or amulet (?) from trench I/65, pit 6, layer I, spit 1-4 (3); plastic snake head (?) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib, spit 3/4 (4) (see GIMBUTAS, 1982: 96; KUTZIN, 1944: T. XV, 12; SIMOSKA and SANEV, 1971-72: 63, T. XII, 1-3).

112

Plate XXIX - Turtle paw appliqus from trench XII/92 (profile between trenches X and XII), spit 7 (?) (1) and from trench X/91, spit 7 (2). Both specimens are from the body of large vessels.

113

Plate XXX - Fragment of zoomorphic, red slipped, cult (?) vessel from trench I/65, pit 3, layer I (1:2) (1); coarse pottery fragment with incised bird (?) representation from trench VI/88, spit 7 (2) and zoomorphic or anthropomorphic appliqu (handle fragment ?) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia, spit 1/2 (3).

114

SPIT
Table 9 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the zoomorphic figurines.

115

Plate XXXI - Fragment of square-based altar from trench V/86, spit 5. The internal part of the corner is red-slipped (1); part of the base of a squarebased altar from trench XXI/94 (2); part of the red-slipped base of a square-based altar from trench V/86, spit 4 (3); red-slipped vessel fragment of a square-based altar from trench V/86, spit 4 (4); fragment of a square-based (?) altar from trench V/86, spit 4 (5A and 5B) and base fragment of a square-based altar from trench V/86, spit 5 (6).

116

Plate XXXII - Corner fragment of a square-based altar from trench I/65, pit 7, layer II, spit 5/7 (1A and 1B); fragment of square-based altar from trench XXIII/94, spit 3 (2A and 2B) and corner and vessel fragment of a square-based altar from trench I/65-66, pit 6, layer III, spit 8. The inner part is red-slipped (3A and 3B).

117

Plate XXXIII - Fragment of square-based altar vessel from trench I/65, pit 6, layer II, spit 5/7 (1); fragment of square-based altar vessel from trench II, pit 2, spit 5/7 (2) and red-slipped fragment of square-based altar base from trench I/66, pit 7, layer III, spit 8 (3A and 3B).

118

Plate XXXIV - Fragment of square-based altar vessel from trench-ditch II/95, spit 5. Its outer surface is decorated by finger trailing barbotino (1); red-slipped fragment of square-based altar vessel from trench-ditch II/95, pit 1, spit 6 (2); fragment of square-based altar vessel from trench XXIII/ 94, spit 5 (3) and fragment of square-base d altar base from trench-ditch III/95, spit 4 (4).

119

Plate XXXV - Fragment of red-slipped platform and vessel (?) of altar from trench V/86, spit 4 (1); fragment of red-slipped, square-based altar vessel from trench-ditch II/95, spit 5 bottom (2); fragment of red-slipped, square-based altar base from trench V/86, spit 4 (3A and 3B) and red-slipped corner fragment of square-based altar from trench V/86, spit 4 (4).

120

Plate XXXVI - Base corner, red-slipped fragment of square-based altar from trench I/66, pit 7, layer III, spit 8 (1A and 1B); base corner fragment of square-based altar from trench I/65, pit 2, layer III, spit 8 (2A and 2B); base corner (?) fragment of square-based altar from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II, spit 5/7 (3A and 3B) and base fragment of circular (?) base altar from trench XIV/93, spit 2 (4A and 4B).

121

Plate XXXVII - Base corner fragment of square-based altar from trench XVIII/93, spit 2 (close to trench I/65) (1A and 1B); base corner fragment of square-based altar from trench I/65-66, pit 6, layer II, spit 5/7 (2); base corner fragment of square-based altar from trench V/87, spit 2 (3A and 3B) and base corner fragment of square-based altar from the surface of trench XXIV/95 (4).

122

Plate XXXVIII - Partly reconstructed, square-based altar, without vessel from trench I/65-66, pit 2, 7, layer III, spit 8 (1). The fragments were found at the bottom of the pit in layer III. They differ from the rest of the pottery assemblage because they had been probably imported (?)

123

SPIT
Table 10 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the altars.

124

Plate XXXIX - Damaged pig-shaped double container vessel from trench I/65, bottom of pit 6, layer III (1) (see MELLAART, 1976: 265, 1; 109, 2; GIMBUTAS, 1982: 212, 215-217; KALICZ, 1983: T. XIV, 1).

125

Plate XL - Chamois-shaped censer from trench II/87, spit 5 (1). The body is decorated with incised meander and zigzag patterns. Some one fifth of the vessel is restored.

126

Plate XLI - Chamois-shaped censer from trench II/87, spit 5 (1A-1F) (see RACZKY, 1978: T. 3 and 4; MAKKAY, 1988: T. V and VI).

127

Plate XLII - Partly reconstructed zoomorphic censer from the surface (1A-1D).

128

Plate XLIII - Censer with feet shaped like animal heads from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II, spit 5/7 (1A-1D). The lower part of the platform is decorated with net incised patterns. Traces of burning are visible inside the vessel.

129

Plate XLIV - Reconstructed censer with zoomorphic legs from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (1A-1D). The lower part of the platform is decorated with a deeply incised cross symbol. Smoothed, dark brown surface.

130

Plate XLV - Fragment of censer with obliquely pierced, zoomorphic legs, from trench XXIII/94, pit, spit 7/9 (1A and 1B); fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from trench V/88, spit 7 (2A and 2B) and fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from trench XI/92, spit 4 (3A and 3B).

131

Plate XLVI - Fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from the surface of trench XXI/94 (1A and 1B); fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from trench IV/88, spit 8 (2A and 2B) and fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from trench X/91, spit 4 (3A and 3B).

132

Plate XLVII - Fragment of censer, probably decorated with incised zigzag patterns (?), with zoomorphic legs from trench XXV/95, spit 4 (1A and 1B); fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from trench XXII/94, pit, spit 5 (2A and 2B) and fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from trench XXII/93, spit 4 (3A and 3B).

133

Plate XLVIII - Fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib, spit 3/4 (1A and 1B); fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib, spit 3/4 (2A and 2B); fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from trench XI/92, spit 8 (3A and 3B) and fragment of censer with zoomorphic legs from trench XIII/92, spit 5 (4A and 4B).

134

Plate XLIX - Partly restored decorated censer from Mostonga, pit 1 (1A-1C). The lower surface of the platform is decorated with grooved cruciform patterns and parallel rings in its centre. The sides and legs were decorated with grooved, zigzag motifs. The corners of the censer platform are pierced vertically.

135

Plate L - Fragment of decorated censer from trench X/91, spit 9 (1A and 1B); fragment of decorated censer from trench XI/92, spit 3 (2A and 2B) and fragment of decorated censer from trench II/87, spit 2 (3A and 3B). The platform sides of these specimens are decorated with incised zigzag patterns.

136

Plate LI - Half platform of decorated censer from trench XVIII/93, feature 2. The side shows a zigzag, incised motif (1A and 1B); platform fragment of decorated censer from trench III/87, spit 9. The side shows a zigzag, incised motif (2A and 2B) and platform fragment of decorated censer from trench VIII/89, spit 4 (3A and 3B). The side shows a zigzag, incised motif.

137

Plate LII - Platform fragment of decorated censer from trench XIII/92, spit 6 (1A and 1B). The side has an incised zigzag ornament; fragment of decorated censer from trench III/97, spit 9 (2A and 2B). The surface of the circular leg is decorated with an incised zigzag motif; fragment of redslipped, decorated censer from trench V/88, spit 6 (3A and 3B). Part of the leg and the platform side are decorated with incised zigzag patterns; fragment of censer from trench II/87, spit 2 (4A and 4B) (see KUTZIN, 1944: T. VI, 6; T. XXXVI, 10; GALOVI, 1964: T. XV, 1-3; TROGMAYER, 1964: T. XI, 1; VETNI, 1972: T. III, 7).

138

Plate LIII - Miniature censer with damaged vessel from trench XI/92, spit 2 (1A-1C); Leg of miniature censer with shallow incisions from the surface of trench XXI/94 (2A and 2B); fragment of miniature censer from trench V/88, spit 6 (3A-3C) and zoomorphic leg of miniature censer from the surface of trench I/65 (4A and 4B). The platform above the leg is pierced (see KUTZIN, 1944: T. XXXIV, 15).

139

Plate LIV - Fragment of censer platform, without vessel, with cut-out decoration along the sides, from trench XI/92, spit 1/2 (1A-1D).

140

Plate LV - Fragment of censer with platform sides decorated with cut-out triangles, from trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (1A and 1B); fragment of censer platform and leg (?) decorated with cut-out triangles, from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I, spit 1/2 (2A and 2B) and fragment of censer with cut-out patterns from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I, spit 1 (3A and 3B).

141

Plate LVI - Fragment of large censer with leg and part of platform from trench VII/88, pit in the corner of trench B (1A-1C). The platform sides and leg are decorated with cut-out triangles. A cross is grooved on the lower platform surface.

142

Plate LVII - Fragment of censer with cut-out triangles along the platform sides, from trench XIII/92, spit 2 (1A and 1B); fragment of censer with cutout triangles along the platform sides, from trench IX/91, feature 2, bottom (2A and 2B) and fragment of censer with cut-out triangles along the platform sides from trench V/87, spit 2 (3A and 3B).

143

Plate LVIII - Fragment of platform censer with triangle cut-out patterns along the sides, from trench X/91, spit 9 (1A and 1B); fragment of platform censer with triangle cut-out patterns along the sides, from trench X/91, spit 2 (2A and 2B); fragment of censer leg with triangle cut-out patterns from trench XI/92, spit 5 (3A and 3B) and censer leg fragment with triangle cut-out motifs from trench VIII/89, spit 8 (4A and 4B).

144

Plate LIX - Fragment of censer platform with lower surface decorated with incised triangles, from trench XVIII/93, feature 1 (1); fragment of censer platform with sides decorated with deep oval impressions, from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I, spit (2A and 2B); fragment of censer platform decorated with incised triangles on the lower platform surface, from trench V/86, spit 3 (3A and 3B) and censer leg with shallow incisions from trench XXX/ 96, spit 4 (4A and 4B).

145

Plate LX- Fragment of censer platform from trench V/86, spit 2 (1A and 1B); fragment of censer platform with sides decorated with deep incisions, from trench /65, pit 3, layer I (2); fragment of censer platform with sides decorated with incised triangles, from trench V/86, spit 3 (3) and censer leg decorated with series of incisions from trench IV/88, spit 8 (4A and 4B).

146

Plate LXI - Censer of unusual shape with broken vessel. The sides are decorated with incised zigzag patterns, from trench VIII/89, spit 1 (1A-1D) (see JOVANOVI, 1967: T. I, 12; KITANOSKI, 1987: 29, 2; PAUL, 1995: T. X, 1, 3, 5).

147

Plate LXII - Censer leg and platform decorated with series of shallow incisions, from trench XXVI/95, spit 7 (1A-1C). The lower surface of the platform, shows a cruciform symbol with a central ring protrusion; censer platform with lower surface decorated with a plastic cross, from trench IV/ 88, spit 7 (2A and 2B).

148

Plate LXIII - Censer leg and platform from trench V/88, spit 6 (1A-1C). The lower platform surface is decorated with a grooved, cruciform symbol and a small cup-mark in the center (1:2) and part of platform censer from Mostonga, pit 1 (2A and 2B). The platform side of platform is decorated with incised zigzag patterns. The lower platform surface has a plastic cross, with a circular flat boss in the center.

149

SPIT
Table 11 - Donja Branjevina: statistic nalysis of the censer. Zoomorphic censers and censers with zoomorphic elements (~); censers decorated with shallow incision (V); censers with excised patterns (T) and censers with plastic decoration (V).

150

Plate LXIV - Partly reconstructed censer from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib, spit 3/4 (1A and 1B) (see VETNI, 1972: T.III, 4; DIMITRIJEVI, 1974: T. III, 17; T. V, 1-3; T. VII, 6; MINICHREITER, 1992: T.I, 5; T.II, 2 and 3).

151

Plate LXV - Reconstructed censer from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib, spit 3/4 (1A and 1B).

152

SPIT
Table 12 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the undecorated censers.

153

Plate LXVI - Fragment of rhyton from trench XVII/93, spit 1 (1); fragment of red-slipped rhyton leg (?) from trench V/87, spit 1 (2); fragment of redslipped rhyton leg (?) from trench VIII/89, spit 8 (3) and fragment of rhyton leg from trench IV/88, spit 8 (4).

154

Plate LXVII - Fragment of hollowed, red-slipped rhyton leg (?) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II, spit 5/7 (1); fragment of hollowed rhyton leg (?) from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II, spit 5/7 (2) and fragment of rhyton leg (?) with thin walls and polished surfaces, from trench III/87, spit 8 (3) (see PERI, 1995).

155

Plate LXVIII - Leg of cult vessel (?) from trench VII/88, spit 1 (1A and 1B); leg of cult vessel (?) from trench IV/88, spit 1 (2A and 2B: same vessel as 1A and 1B); leg or pedestal fragment from trench II/87, spit 7 (3A and 3B); leg fragment of large censer (?) decorated with vertical, incised lines from trench IX/91, feature 2 (4) and censer leg fragment from trench/ditch II/95, pit 1 (5).

156

Plate LXIX - Squared bottom fragment of cult vessel (?) from trench I/87, spit 5 (1A-1C); knobbed rim fragment of cult vessel with fingernail impressions on the outer surface, from trench XXI/94, pit next to point B (2) and fragment of cult vessel (?)with zigzag incised decorations from trench II/87, spit 1 (3).

157

Plate LXX - Clover-leaf, red-slipped base fragment of cult vessel (?) from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II, spit 5/7 (1A and 1B); hollowed cross-shaped foot fragment, of cult vessel (?) from trench IX/90, spit 3 (2A and 2B) and hollowed, clover-leaf foot fragment of cult vessel (?) from Mostonga, pit I (3A and 3B).

158

Plate LXXI - Base fragment of square-shaped vessel from trench V/87, spit 2 (1A and 1B) and base fragment of cult vessel (?) with shallow incisions on the corner, from trench XXVI/95, spit 9 (2A-2C).

159

Plate LXXII - Base fragment of squared, red-slipped cult vessel (?) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia, spit 1/2 (1A and 1B); base fragment of elliptical vessel from trench XXX/96, spit 5 (2A and 2B) and base fragment of elliptical (zoomorphic?) vessel from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia, spit 1/2 (3A and 3B).

160

Plate LXXIII - Base fragment of squared vessel from trench VIII/89, spit 5 (1A and 1B); base fragment of squared cult vessels (?) from trench IX/90, spit 3 (2A and 2B); trench IV/88, spit 2 (3A and 3B) and trench VI/88, spit 8 (4A and 4B).

161

Plate LXXIV - Base fragment of unusual vessel from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I, spit 1/4 (1A and 1B) and base fragment of unusual vessel from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I, spit 1/4 (2A and 2B)(1:2).

162

Plate LXXV - Fragment of four-legged bowl from trench XX/93, spit 1 (1) and three-legged censer (?) from trench XXI/94, spit 1/3 (2A and 2B).

163

Plate LXXVI - Base fragments of four-legged vessels from trench XIII/92, spit 4 (1A and 1B); trench IV/88, spit 8 (2) and trench XXVI/95, spit 9 (3).

164

Plate LXXVII - Base fragment of three-legged bowl from trench II/65, pit 8, layer II (1A and 1B) (see BRUKNER, 1968: T. II, 8; RACZCY, 1976: T. VII, 68 and 9; MAKKAY, 1987: T. II, 1-10) and base fragment of four-legged globular vessel (?) from trench V/86, (2A and 2B). The outer surface is decorated with incised linear patterns.

165

SPIT
Table 13 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the Rhyta and unfrequent bases.

166

Plate LXXVIII - Large rim fragment decorated with a snake-like red-painted band on a whitish background from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (1); body sherd with a snake-like whitish-red painted band on a light red background from trench V/88, spit 6 (2); rim with a red-painted zigzag band, or hanging triangles, on whitish-red background. Surface polished after painting. From trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (3 and 4).

167

Plate LXXIX - Fragment of shoulder and body vessel with red-painted wavy lines on a white background, from trench VIII/89, spit 4 (1); rim fragment of vessel decorated with vertical incised, wavy bands. The reddish surface is slightly smoothed. From the surface of trench I/87 (2) and subconical pedestal decorated with red-painted, wavy vertical bands on a reddish-yellow background, from trench X/91, spit 3 (3).

168

Plate LXXX - Rim fragment with red-painted wide bands on a reddish background, from trench XVIII/93, feature 1 (1) and body sherd with redpainted, asymmetric vertical bands on the surface roughened in the barbotino technique, from trench I/87, spit 4 (2).

169

Plate LXXXI - Body sherd with one brown-painted, vertical line on a red, polished surface, from trench I/87, spit 4 (1); body sherd with one dark brown, irregular wide band, painted (?) on the inner surface of the vessel, from trench V/86, spit 1 (2); body sherd with one dark brown painted, vertical band on a reddish background, from trench I/87, spit 2 (3); body sherd with black-painted lines from trench I/87, spit 5 (4); body sherd with black-painted, irregular vertical bands from trench V/86, spit 1 (5) and body sherd with black-painted, irregular vertical bands from trench I/87, spit 3 (6).

170

Plate LXXXII - Bowl with white-painted long drops arranged as hanging triangles and rhombs, on a nicely polished surface coated with a thin layer of red slip, from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II.

171

1A

1B

2A

3A

3B

2B

4A

4B

5A

6A

6B

5B

7A

7B

Plate LXXXIII - Rim sherd with white-painted bands in the inner and outer surfaces from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (1A and 1B); sherd with whitepainted, zigzag decoration on the inner, red slipped surface, from trench I/66, pit 7, layer II (2A and 2B); fragments of white-painted pottery from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (3A and 3B); trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (4A and 4B); trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (5A and 5B); trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (7A and 7B) and trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (8). The pieces 1A an1B, 3A-7B belong to the same vessel.

172

7 10

10

11

Plate LXXXIV - Fragments with white-painted net decoration on a red background from trench I/66, pit 7, layer II (1); trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (3); trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (2); surface of trench I/65 (4); trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (5); trench II/66, pit 8, layer? (6); trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (7); trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (8); potsherd decorated with combined net and dots, white-painted decoration from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (10); potsherd decorated with white-painted hatched triangles from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (11) and potsherd with net (?), white painted decorations from trench V/88, spit 6 (9).

173

10

11

12

Plate LXXXV - Rim sherd with white painted drops on a red surface from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (1); body sherd with hatched, white-painted triangles from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (2); disc-shaped potsherd with white-painted drop motifs from trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (3); body sherd with white-painted drop motifs from trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (4); body sherds with white-painted zigzag motifs from trench I/66, pit 7, layer II (5); trench V/86, spit 3 (6); trench I/66, pit 7, layer II (7); trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (8); trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (9); trench I/66, pit 7, layer II (10); trench I/ 66, pit 7, layer II (11) and trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (12).

174

10

11

Plate LXXXVI - Body sherd with white-painted drop patterns on a red surface from trench I/66, pit 2, layer II (1); rim sherd with white-painted drop patterns on a red surface from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (2); body sherd with white-painted panels of triangular drops and curved lines from trench II/65, layer unknown (3); body sherds with white-painted drops on a red surface from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (4); trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (5); trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (6); fragment of pierced rim sherd with white-painted drops on a red surface from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (7); body sherds with white-painted drops on a red surface from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (8); trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (9); body sherd with white-painted drop decoration arranged in rhombs (?) on a red surface from trench I/65, pit 1 (10), layer II (10) and body sherd with white-painted drop triangles on a red surface from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (11).

175

10

12 11
Plate LXXXVII - Rim and shoulder of white-painted drop decorations in triangle panels from trench I765, pits 1 and 2, layer II (1); body sherds with white-painted drop decorations from trench V/86, spit 4 (2): white-painted potsherds from the surface (2, 3, 5, 9, 10); body sherd with white-painted drops and one flat, rounded boss from the surface of trench I/65 (4); body sherds with white-painted net decorations from trench IV/88, spit 9 (6); body sherds with white-painted drop decorations from trench V/86, spit 2 (7); body sherd with white-painted floral patterns from the surface of trench I/65 (8); rim sherd with one white-painted, vertical band from the surface of trench II/87 (11) and rim sherd with white-painted zigzag bands from trench IV/88, spit 9 (12).

176

10

11

Plate LXXXVIII - Rim sherds with white-painted triangles on the outer and inner red surfaces from trench XIII/92, spit 1 (1 and 3); on the outer surface from trench II/87, spit 5 (2); body sherds with white-painted, narrow, parallel lines from trench II/87, spit (4); body sherd with whitepainted triangle motif from trench II/87, spit 3 (5); rim sherd with white-painted, vertical lines from trench II/87, spit 6 (6); body sherd with whitepainted, vertical lines from trench VIII/89, spit 4 (7); rim sherd with white-painted, vertical zigzag patterns from trench IX/90, spit 3 (8); body sherds with white-painted net motifs from trench X/91, spit 5 (9); trench V/88, pit next to corner A, spit 8 (10) and trench IV/88, spit 9 (11).

177

Plate LXXXIX - Rim fragment of painted and scratched pottery with white-painted (?) bands from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (1) (see SANEV et al., 1971: 5) and rim sherd with white-painted drops in triangle panels on a red surface from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (2).

178

SPIT
Table 14 -Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the white and red-painted pottery. White painted I ({), white-painted II (8) and red-painted (U) potsherds.

179

Plate XC - Rim sherds with black-painted net bands on a red surface from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (1); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (2); surface of trench I/65 (3); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (4); body sherd with a black-painted vertical net panel from trench I/87, spit 4 (5); body sherds with a black-painted triangular motif from trench V/87, spit 4 (6); surface of trench I/87 (7), trench IX/90, spit 2 (8); body sherd with a black-painted net motif from trench V/87, spit 2 (9); rim sherd with a black-painted net pattern from trench X/91, spit 3 (10) and small rim sherd with paired, oblique black-painted lines from trench II/87, spit 2 (11).

180

Plate XCI - Rim and body fragments with black-painted net patterns from trench XXVI/95, spit 2 (1 and 2, same vessel); trench I/65, pit 5, layer Ia (3 and 4, same vessel).

181

Plate XCII - Lower body sherd with black-painted vertical bands from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (1); body sherd with black-painted triangular motifs from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (2); rim sherd with two, oblique black-painted net bands from the surface (3); body sherds with a blackpainted, oblique line, on the outer surface, and triangle patterns on the inner one, from the surface of trench IX/91 (4A and 4B) and with a blackpainted net pattern from the site surface (5).

182

Plate XCIII - Rim sherd with two black-painted, vertical net bands from trench XXVI/95, spit 2 (1); body sherd with black-painted, oblique net bands from trench VIII/89, spit 3 (2); rim sherd with black-painted net pattern from trench III/87 (3); body sherds with black-painted net patterns from the surface of trench XIII/92 (4); trench IX/90, spit 3 (5); surface of trench VIII/90 (6); trench VIII/90 (7); rim sherd with black-painted net pattern from trench II/87, spit 7 (8); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (9); trench VIII/90, spit 3 (10); body sherds with black-painted triangular motifs from trench III/ 66, pit 9,layer Ia (11); trench VIII/89, spit 6 (12) and trench V/86-87, spit 3 (13).

183

Plate XCIV - Rim sherds with black-painted net pattern from the surface of trench I/65 (1); trench I/65, pit 5, layer Ia (2); surface of trench I/65 (3); body sherd with horizontal zigzag motif from trench I/65, pit 5, layer Ia (4); body sherds with black-painted vertical lines and net patterns from the surface of trench I/65 (5); trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (6); trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (7); rim sherd with black-painted, vertical lines from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (8); body sherd with black-painted, oblique lines from trench I/65, pit 5, layer Ia (9); small sherd with black-painted zigzag bands from trench I/65, pit 5, layer Ia (10) and rim sherd with black-painted bands and brown paint between them on a polished red surface from the surface of trench I/65 (11).

184

Plate XCV - Rim sherd with black-painted motifs (triangles?) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer I (1); body sherd with black-painted, hatched triangles from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (2); ceramic disc with black-painted, parallel lines from trench I/87, spit 3 (3); body sherd with black-painted parallel lines from trench II/87, spit 6 (4); rim sherds with black-painted triangular motifs from the surface of trench II/87 (5); trench I/87, spit 5 (6); trench I/87, spit 5 (7); lower body sherd with black-painted wide bands from trench V/87, spit 3 (8); body sherds with black-painted net bands from trench V/87, spit 2 (9); surface of trench V/87 (10); trench V/87, spit 3 (11); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (12); body sherd with black-painted triangle motif from trench VIII/89, spit 1 (13).

185

Plate XCVI - Rim sherds with black-painted triangular patterns on a red background from trench II/87, spit 3 (1); trench X/91, spit 5 (2); rim sherd with black-painted dots on the rim from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (3); rim sherd with vertical, black-painted lines and dots on the rim from trench VIII/89, spit 3 (4) and rim sherd with vertical, parallel black-painted lines. The sherd has a reparation hole below the rim. From the surface of trench XXVI/95 (5) (see KALICZ, 1978: T.II, 4; 1990: 142, 4 and 8; MINICHREITER, 1993: T. V, 6; NICA, 1995: T. V, 4 and 5).

186

Plate XCVII - Body sherds with black-painted lines and triangles on the red surface from trench I/87, spit 5 (1); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (2); trench II/87, spit 6 (3); surface of trench I-II/87 (4); trench III/87, spit 5 (5); trench I/87, spit 5 (6); trench X/91, spit 1 (7); trench I/87, spit 5 (8) and trench VIII/89, spit 3 (9) (see BRUKNER, 1960: T. IV, 1-6; DIMITRIJEVI, 1974: T. IV, 5; LAZAROVICI, 1975: T. IV, 4).

187

SPIT
Table 15 -Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the black-painted pottery.

188

Plate XCVIII - Fragments of fishing weight or amulet (?) from trench XX/93, spit 3 (1); bottom of pit next to point B in trench XIII/92 (2); trench III/87, spit 3 (3); surface (4); fragment of amulet (?) from trench VIII/89, spit 3, next to point A (5); fishing weight or amulets (?) from the surface of trench I/65 (6); trench VI/88, spit 8 (7); trench XIII/92, spit 1 (8); trench XIII/92, spit 3 (9) and trench XIII/92, bottom of pit next to point B (10) (see TULOK, 1971: T.III, 1; STANKOVI, 1992: T. XLII, 8a and 8b).

189

Plate XCIX - Fragmented fishing sliding weights from trench VII/88, pit next to point B (1); trench XXI-XXII/94, spit 5 (2); trench IV/88, spit 8 (3); trench XI/92, spit 7 (4); trench VIII/89, spit 2 (5); trench XI/92, spit 6 (6); trench V/87, spit 6 (7); surface of trench XXI/94 (8); trench VIII/90, spit 7 (9); trench X/91, spit 8 (10); trench XIV/93, spit 1 (11); trench IX/91, spit 6 (12); trench IV/88, spit 7 (13) and trench IV/88, spit 4 (14).

190

Plate C - Fishing sliding weights from trench XXII/94, spit 1 (1); trench X/91, spit 9/7 (2); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia, spit1/2 (3); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia, spit1/2 (4); trench V/88, spit 6 (5); trench X/91, spit 8 (6); trench X/91, spit 9 (7) and trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia, spit (8).

191

5 7

Plate CI - Fishing sliding weights with fingernail impressed decorations from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib, spit 3/4 (1); trench III/66, pit 9 spit 3, layer Ib, spit 3/4 (2); trench X/91, spit 4 (3); trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (4) (see D IMITRIJEVI, 1969: T. V, 4 and 5; MCPHERRON and SREJOVI, 1988: T. 11.1, f; T. 11.4, f-h); special purpose fishing weights from trench XVIII/93, feature 2 (5) and trench-ditch II/95, bottom of pit 1 (6) (see TRBUHOVI and VASILJEVI, 1983: T. I, 10) and bone trinket (bead), part of a necklace (?) from trench I/65, layer II, spit 5/6 (7).

192

SPIT
Table 16 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the slidingds and their related net-weights.

193

Plate CII - Circular, clay projectiles from trench V/88, spit 2 (1); surface of trench IV/V/88 (2); trench VI/88, spit 1 (3); trench XXVI/95, spit 9 (4); trench V/88, spit 6 (5); trench II/87, spit 3 (6); trench II/87, spit 3 (7) and trench VIII/89, spit 3 (8).

194

Plate CIII - Fragment of circular, coarse pottery projectiles from trench VIII/89, spit 2 (1); trench VI/88, spit 2 (2) and trench II/87, spit 3 (3).

195

Plate CIV - Fragment of circular, coarse pottery projectiles from trench IX/91, spit 6 (1); surface of trench IX/91 (2) and trench IV/88, spit 6 (3).

196

Plate CV - Fragment of circular, coarse pottery projectiles from trench II/87, spit 3 (1); trench XII/92, spit 2 (2); with impressed decorations from trench II/87, spit 3 (3); with incised decorations from trench XIII/94, pit 8 (hearth) (4); with small impressions from trench XXIII/94, spit 2 (5) and with incised network pattern from trench I/87, spit 3 (6).

197

Plate CVI - Circular, coarse pottery fragments or unfinished whorls, with traces of perforation, from trench XX/93, spit 3 (1); trench XIII/92, spit 3 (2); trench II/87, spit 6 (3); trench XI/92, spit 2 (4); trench V/86, spit 4 (5); squared, coarse potsherds or unfinished whorls with traces of bilateral perforation, from trench VIII/89, spit 1 (feature) (6); trench III/87, spit 7 (7) and circular, medium pottery fragment or unfinished whorls, with traces of bilateral perforation, from trench V/88, spit 7 (8).

198

Plate CVII - Circular, fine pottery fragment or whorl from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (1); medium pottery from trench XXI/94, pit 2 (2); trench XXIII/94, spit 9 (3); coarse pottery from trench X/91, spit 9/10 (4); trench XXIII/94, spit 4 (5); medium pottery from trench IV/88, spit 8 (6); trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (7) and fine pottery from trench XXVI/95, spit 3 (8).

199

Plate CVIII - Circular, fine pottery fragment or whorl from trench V/86, spit 5 (1); half circular, fine pottery whorl fragment from trench I/66, pit 6, layer III (2); medium pottery from trench X/91, spit 7 (3); surface of trench VI/88 (4); fine pottery from trench I-II/87, spit 3 (5); medium pottery from trench XIII/92, spit 5 (6); fine pottery from trench XXIII/94, pit, spit 9/10 (7); from trench X/91, pit, spit 7 (8) and trench IV/88, spit 2 (9).

200

Plate CIX - Squared fragment of medium pottery, whorl from trench I/87, spit 5 (1); trench II/87, spit 7 (2); fine pottery from trench VIII/90, spit 5 (3); trench III/87, spit 5 (4); medium pottery from the surface of trench X/91 (5); trench XIII/92, pit, spit 6 (6); trench VIII/89, spit 1 (7); trench VIII/ 89, spit 7 (8) and trench IV/88, spit 2 (9) (see MAKKAY, 1997: T. I, 121 and T. II and T. III).

201

Plate CX - Fragment of fine pottery rim with repairing holes from the surface of trench VIII/90 (1 and 2, same vessel); trench VI/88, spit 2 (3); medium pottery from trench III/87, spit 5 (4); circular fragment of medium pottery whorl from the surface trench X/91 (5); fine pottery from trench I/87, spit 4 (6); trench V/86, spit 4 (7); circular, small fragments of fine pottery beads (?) from trench V/86, spit 5 (8 - 10).

202

Plate CXI - Fragment of pedestalled goblet with pierced base or strainer from the surface of trench III/87 (1A and 1B); pierced base of strainer (?) or fragment of large whorl (?) from trench III/87, spit 6 (2) and miniature, circular fine pottery fragment or unfinished bead (?) from trench XIII/92, spit 1 (3).

203

SPIT
Table 17 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the projectiles, whorls and trinkets.

204

Plate CXII - Clay net weight (?) from trench VIII/89, spit 8 (1A and 1B); tomato net weight from trench IX/91, bottom of feature 1 (2A and 2B); small lump of baked clay from the surface of trench XXIV/95 (3A and 3B).

205

Plate CXIII - Double tomato net weight (?) from trench IX/91, bottom of feature 1 (1A and 1B).

206

Plate CXIV - Unpierced tomato net weight from trench XII/92, spit 1 (1) (see LAZAROVICI, 1979: T. XXVI, 6); pierced tomato net weight from trench III/87, 6 (2) (see BRUKNER, 1968: T. II, 8; GIRI, 1974: T. I, 4).

207

Plate CXV - Fragment of pierced tomato net weight from trench VII/89 (1A and 1B) (see BOGNR KUTZIN, 1944: T. I, 14; T. XIV, 2, 3 and 5; GIRI, 1974: T. I, 7; RACZKY, 1976: T. XII, 9); discoidal clay bread from trench VII/88, sacrificial pit or hearth next to point B (2) and pierced, clay eggshaped lump from the surface of trench V/86 (3A and 3B).

208

Plate CXVI - Unpierced, baked clay, egg-shaped lump decorated with finger impressions from trench II/87, spit 4 (1) and unpierced baked clay ballshaped lump decorated with finger impressions from trench XXIII/94, fireplace (2).

209

Plate CXVII - Clay object with haft opening (?) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (1) and subconical lump of baked clay with haft opening (?) from trench II/87, spit 4 (2).

210

Plate CXVIII - Fragment of longitudinally perforated net sinker(?) with transversal perforation and surface all-over decorated with finger impressions, from Mostonga, pit 1 (1) and egg-shaped lump of baked clay with mismatching perforations and surface decorated with all-over finger impressions, from trench IX/90, spit 3 (2).

211

Plate CXIX - Pierced, egg-shaped net sinker (?) from trench XIV/93, spit 1 (1) and pierced, cylindrical net sinker (?) from trench XV/93, spit 1 (2). Both pieces are all-over decorated with finger impressions.

212

Plate CXX - Fragment of pierced net sinker (?) with a deep groove from trench X/91, spit 7 (1A and 1B) (see LAZAROVICI, 1979: T. XXVI, 1) and fragment of cylindrical net sinker (?), decorated with deer, grooved lines, from the surface of Mostonga I (2).

213

Plate CXXI - Pierced discoid net sinker (?) from Mostonga I, pit 1 (1) and fragmented specimens from Mostonga I, pit 1 (2 and 3) (see KUTZIN, 1944: T. II, 11; T. LII, 9 and 10; GIRI, 1974: T. 1, 5).

214

Plate CXXII - Clay baked lump of elliptical shape from Mostonga I, pit 1 (1); clay flat bun with grooves on the upper surface from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (2) and spherical lump of baked clay from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (3) (see STANKOVI , 1992: T. XLI, 2).

215

Plate CXXIII - Pierced egg-shaped net sinkers (?) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (1); Mostonga I, pit 1 (2); fragment of conical weight from trench II/87, spit 6 (3) and from trench XIII/94, 6 (4).

216

Plate CXXIV - Double-headed weight or net sinker from trench XVIII/93, feature 1 (1) (see BOGNR K UTZIN, 1944: T. VIII, 8; T. XVI, 17-20; T. LXIII, 4; DETEV, 1968: 24, 16; SIMOSKA and SANEV, 1975: T. XIV, 3); conical net sinker from trench X/91, spit 2 (2) and net or loom (?) weight from trench VIII/90 (3).

217

Plate CXXV - Conical weights or net sinkers (?) from trench X/91, spit 2 (1-3) and trench X/91, spit 3 (4) (see KUTZIN, 1944: T. VII, 16 and 17; T. XI, 4; T. LII, 11 and 12).

218

SPIT
Table 18 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the net-sinkers. Only the finds from trenches I, II, III/65-66, published in 1979, are represented.

219

Plate CXXVI - Complete bone spoon from trench XI/92, spit 2(1A-1C); partly damaged bone spoon from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (2); fragment of bone spoons from trench IX/90, spit 2 (3); trench VI/88, spit 2 (4) and trench XIII/92, spit 2 (5).

220

10

11

12

13

Plate CXXVII - Fragments of bone spoons from trench XXVI/95, spit 5 (1); trench V/88, spit 3 (2); trench VIII/89, spit 6-7 (3); trench X/91, spit 8 (4, same tool as 9); trench I/87, spit 4 (5); trench XIII/92, spit 1 (6); trench X/91, spit 4 (7); trench III/87, spit 4 (8); trench X/91, spit 8 (9, same tool as 4); trench VIII/89, spit 4 (10); trench X/91, spit 4 (11); surface of trench VIII/90 (12) and surface of trench XVIII/93 (13).

221

Plate CXXVIII - Fragments of bone spoons from trench V/88, spit 3 (1); trench IX/90, spit 4 (2); trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (3 and 4); trench XI/92, spit 3 (5) and trench II/87, spit 2 (6).

222

Plate CXXIX - Fragments bone spoon handles from trench VII/88, spit 3 (1); trench X/91,under the house rubble near point B (2); trench IX/91, spit 6 (3); trench XI/92, spit 5 (4); trench II/87, spit 4 (5); trench XIII/92, spit 5 (6); profile between trench VIII/89 and trench IX/9 (8) and snake head bone spoon handle from trench XXVI/95, spit 5 (7).

223

Plate CXXX - Fragments of bone spoon handles or needles for making fishing nets from trench X/91, spit 5 (1); trench VIII/89, spit 6 (2); surface of trench XII/92 (3); trench X/91, spit 5 (4); trench III/87, spit 5 (5); trench X/91, spit 4 (6); trench XI/92, spit 8 (7); surface of trench I/87 (8); trench XXI/94, ash layer near point B (9); trench VIII/89, spit 4 (11); bone spoon handle from trench XIII/92, spit 4 (10); bone tool or awl (?) from trench X/91, spit 9 (12) and awl partly damaged at the tip, from trench IV/88, spit 8 (13).

224

Plate CXXXI - Awls (or projectiles?) from trench X/91, spit 4 (1); trench III/87, spit 4 (2); trench X/91, spit 3 (3); trench II/87, spit 5, under the house rubble in corner B (4); trench X/91, spit 2 (5); trench I/66, pit 7, layer II (6); trench X/91, spit 5 (7); trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (8); trench X/91, pit 2, layer II (9); awls (or spearheads?) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (10); trench III/87, spit 6 (11) and trench III/87, spit 6 (12).

225

Plate CXXXII - Long, flat needle for making net (?) from trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (1); flat awls from trench IX/90, spit 4 (2); trench X/91, spit 4 (3); trench III/87, spit 3 (4); trench XXVI/95, spit 2 (5); trench XIII/92, spit 1 (6); trench X/91, spit 4 (11); double, flat points from trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (7); trench XXVI/95, spit 3 (8); trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (9); trench XI/92, spit 5 (10). All from animal ribs.

226

Plate CXXXIII - Flat awl (?) or broken, flat double point from trench VIIII/89, spit 3 (1); flat awls from the surface of trench I/65 (2); trench IV/88, spit 2 (3); broken, flat double point from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (4); trench XXVI/95, spit 5 (5); trench VII/88, spit 2 (6); trench IX/90, spit 2 (7); trench IX/90, spit 3 (8); tips of flat tools from trench XIV/93, spit 1 (9); trench X/91, spit 5 (10); surface of trench III/87 (11); trench II/87, spit 3 (12); surface of trench VIII-IX (13);fragment of flat double point from trench II/87, spit 5 (14); flat awls (?) from trench XII/94, pit 1 (15); trench XXIII/ 92, spit 2 (16); trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (17); trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (19) and fragment of flat double point from trench XXVI/95, spit 5 (18). All these tools are from animal ribs.

227

Plate CXXXIV - Awls from trench XXIV/95, spit 5 (1); trench VIII/90, spit 5 (2); trench X/91, spit 8 (3); trench V/86, spit 3 (4); trench X/91, spit 4 (5); trench XXVI/95, spit 3 (6); trench X/91, spit 6 (7); trench II/87, spit 2 (8); trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (11); surface of trench I/65 (18); trench VIII/ 90, spit 3 (19); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (20); trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (21); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (22); surface of trench I/87 (23); trench XI/92, spit 7 (24); trench VIII/90, spit 7 (25); trench X/91, spit 6 (26); trench III/87, spit 4 (27); trench X/91, spit 4 (28); trench VIII/90, spit 4 (29); trench XXIII/94, spit 4 (30); trench XI/92, spit 8, pit next to point C(31); trench XI/92, spit 8, pit next to point C (32); trench X/91, spit 3 (33); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib; projectiles from trench II/87, spit 6 (9); trench VIII/89, spit 6 (10); trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (12); trench XIII/92, spit 2 (13); trench XIII/92, spit 2 (14); trench XXX/96, spit 1 (15); trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (16) and trench VII/88, spit 6 (17).

228

Plate CXXXV - Flat bone awl from trench XI/92, spit 5 (1); bone awls from trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (2); trench VIII/89, spit 2 (3); trench X/91, spit 9 (4); trench IV/88, spit 7 (5); surface of trench VIII/89 (6); trench V/88, spit 6 (7); trench XII/92, spit 2 (8); trench X/91, spit 9 (9); trench IX/91, hearth, feature 1 (10); trench XXI/94, spit 5 (11); trench X/91, spit 7 (12); profile of trench IV and trench V, spit 7 (13); trench III/87, spit 4 (14); trench II/87, spit 4 (15); trench III/87, spit 4 (16); trench VIII/89, spit 5 (17); trench XI/92, spit 3 (18); trench X/91, spit 8 (19); trench XXI/94, pit next to point A (20).

229

Plate CXXXVI - Bone awls from trench VI/88, spit 2 (1); trench X/91, spit 4 (2); trench XI/92, spit 3 (3); bone tool or awl(?) from trench V/86, spit 2 (4); bone awls from trench IV/88, spit 4 (5); trench X/91, spit 7 (6); surface of trench XXI/94 (7); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (8); trench III/87, spit 3 (9); trench X/91, spit 6 (10); trench-ditch II/95, pit 1 (11); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (12); trench IX/90, spit 2 (13); trench III/87, spit 6 (14); trench V/88, spit 5 (15) and trench VI/88, spit 3 (16).

230

Plate CXXXVII - Bone awl fragments from trench XXVI/95, spit 9 (1); trench VI/88, spit 6 (2);trench XXII/94, spit 1 (3); trench X/91, spit 4 (4); trench XXVI/95, spit 9 (5); trench III/87, spit 5 (6); trench X/91, spit 9 (7); trench VIII/89, spit 3 (8); trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (9); surface of trench I/ 65 (?) (10); trench XIII/92, spit 1 (11); trench IX/91, above burial 3 (12); trench IV/88, spit 3 (13); trench IX/90, spit 3 (14); trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (15); trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (16); trench XI/92, spit 3 (17); trench II and III/87, spit 3 (18); surface of trench XXIII/94 (19); trench XIV/93, spit 1 (20); trench XIII/92, spit 1 (21) and trench II/87, spit 8 (22).

231

Plate CXXXVIII - Large bone awl from trench IX/91, spit 5 (1); awls from trench XIX/93, sacrificial pit (?) (1); trench VII/88, spit 4 (3); fragment of bone tools from trench XXVI/95, spit 2 (4A and 4B); trench III/66, pit 9, layer II (5A and 5B); bone awls from trench IV/88, spit 4 (6); trench X/ 91, spit 9 (7); trench II/87, feature 1 (8); trench VI/88, spit 4 (9); trench XI/92, spit 3 (10); bone awls with spherical head from trench XI/92, spit 6 (11); trench XI/92, spit 4 (12); fragment of bone tool from trench III/66, pit 9, layer II (13) and from trench V/88, spit 6 (14).

232

Plate CXXXIX - Bone awls from trench XXVI/95, spit 7 (1); trench VIII/89, spit 6 (2); trench IV/88, spit 4 (3); trench VII/88, sacrificial (?) pit near point B (4); bone point from trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (5); awl fragment from trench X/91, spit 9 (6); fragment of bone tools from trench IV/88, spit 3 (7); surface of trench XXVI/95 (8); trench XIII/92, spit 1 (14); from trench VIII/89, spit 2 (15); from trench IV/88, spit 4 (17); fragment of asymmetrical point from trench IV/88, spit 9 (9); fragment of bone awl from trench XX/93, spit 2 (10); trench V/86, spit 5 (12); fragment of asymmetrical point (?) from trench XXII/94, spit 1 (11); from trench X/91, spit 7 (13); fragment of bone fishing hook from surface of trench ? (16); awls from trench IV/88, spit 7 (18); from trench V/88, spit 6 (20) and awl made from animal tooth from ditch III/95, pit 3 (19).

233

Plate CXL - Bone Awls from trench X/91, spit 6 (1); trench XVIII/93, spit 1 (2); trench IX/91, spit 9 (3); trench VII/88, sacrificial pit (?) near point B (4); trench VIII/89, spit 7 (5); trench XXI/94, spit 1 (7); trench III/87, spit 1 (8); trench XIV/93, spit 1 (9); trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (10); trench X/ 91, spit 6 (11); trench XVI/95, spit 6 (12); trench IV/88, spit 6 (13); trench XXVI/95, spit 5 (16); trench IV/88, spit 8 (17); flat double point from trench IV/88, spit 5 (14); asymmetrical point from trench VII/88, spit 5 (6); asymmetrical double points from trench X/91, spit 9 (15) and the surface of trench XXVI (16).

234

Plate CXLI - Damaged asymmetrical point from trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (1); awls from the surface of trench VIII/90 (2); trench VIII/89, profile CD (3); trench II/87, spit 3 (6); trench X/91, spit 7 (7); trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (9); trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (10); trench III/66, pit 6, layer Ib (11); trench XXIII/94, spit 8 (15); double points from trench VII/88, sacrificial pit (?) next to point B (4); trench IV/88, sacrificial pit next to point B, spit 6 (5); surface of trench VIII/89(?) (8); asymmetrical points from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (13) and trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (14).

235

Plate CXLII - Needles for making net from trench XIII/92, spit 1 (1); trench IV/88, spit 2 (2); trench XVI/93, spit 3 (4); trench XVI/93, spit 3 (5); surface of trench I/87 (6); surface of trench XV/93 (7); trench I/87, spit 4 (8); Trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (9); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (12); trench I/65, pit 4, layer I (13); awls from trench VIII/89, spit 3 (3); trench I/65, pit 5, layer I (10); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (11); and trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (14).

236

Plate CXLIII - Metatarsal awls from trench XXII/94, hearth next to point B (1); surface of trench I/87 (2); trench III/87, spit 5 (3), trench II/87, spit 8 (4); trench X/91, under house rubble next to point E (5); trench VIII/90, spit 5 (6); ditch II/95, pit 1 (7); trench V/88, spit 2 (8); trench IV/88, spit 6 (9); trench XI/92, spit 2 (10); trench I/87, spit 5 (11) and trench I/87, spit 2 (12).

237

Plate CXLIV - Bone awls from trench XI/92, spit 5 (1); trench XIII/92, spit 2 (2);trench II/87, spit 4 (3); trench XXII/94, spit 3 (5); trench IV/88, spit 1 (8); trench XX/93, spit 2 (9); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (10); daggers from trench VIII/89, spit 6 (4); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (6); trench XI/ 92, spit 6 (7).

238

Plate CXLV - Antler awl (?) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (1); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (2); antler tools of unknown purpose from trench IV/ 88, spit 6 (3); trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (6); trench X/91, (7); small hoe from trench III/87, spit 3 (4) and unfinished(?) tool from trench XIV/93, spit 4 (5).

239

Plate CXLVI - Small muttocks from trench XIII/92, spit 1 (1); trench XXVI/95, spit 5 (2) and antler tool of unidentified use from trench VIII/90, spit 4 (3).

240

Plate CXLVII - Antler muttock with incised net patterns, from trench VII/88, sacrificial pit(?) next to point B (1).

241

Plate CXLVIII - Antler muttock from trench VII/88, sacrificial pit (?) next to point B(1A and 1B).

242

Plate CXLIX - Antler hammer from trench XIV/93, spit 1 (1A and 1B).

243

Plate CL - Hammer made of two pieces from trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (1 and 2).

244

Plate CLI - Bone tool from trench X/91, spit 7 (1).

245

Plate CLII - Rib polishers (?) from trench IV/88, spit 2 (1); trench II/87, spit 2 (2); trench X/91, spit 2 (4); trench XI/92, spit 3 (5); rib chisel (?) from trench VIII/90, spit 5 (3); and Trench IX/91, spit 6 (6).

246

Plate CLIII - Bone awl or pin (?), trench III/87, spit 3 (1A ND 1b); flat needle from trench XI/92, spit 5 (2); broken fishhooks from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (3); trench XI/92, spit 8 (4); complete fishhook from trench IX/91, spit 7 (5); fragment of large fishhook from trench II/97, spit 3 (6); fragments of fishhooks (?) from trench XIII/92, spit 4 (7); trench XIII/92, spit 4 (8); surface of trench XXVI/95 (9) and trench X/91, spit 3 (10).

247

Plate CLIV - Bone awl with animal head at the proximal end from trench IX/91, spit 5 (1A and 1B); miniature bone spatula from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III (2); broken miniature spatula (?) from trench I/65, pit 5, layer I (3); Asymmetrical points from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (4); trench III/ 66, pit 9, layer Ib (5); horn tool from trench X/91, spit 9 (6); flat awl from trench XI/92, spit 7 (7); miniature spatula from trench I/66, pit 9, layer Ia (8) and amulet(?) of elliptical shape from trench IX/91, spit 5 (9).

248

Plate CLV - Antler piece with traces of wear from trench XX/93, spit 4 (1); antler tools (?) from trench XV/93, spit 1 (2); trench XX/93, spit 4 (3); broken awls from trench VIII/9, spit 1 (4); trench VI/88, spit 8 (5); animal tooth chisel (?) from the surface of trench XV/93 (6); bone point (?) from trench VIII/89, spit 3 (7); chisels from trench X/91, spit 8 (8) and trench XXIII/94, spit 1 (9).

249

Plate CLVI - Bone awl with circular incision at the proximal edge, from trench X/91, spit 8 (1); awls from trench I/87, spit 5 (2); surface of trench XXI/94 (3); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (4); trench XI/92, spit 1 (5); trench X/91, spit 9 (6); cut long bones from ditch II/95, spit 2 (7); trench XIII/ 92, spit 2 (8); worked metacarpal from trench VIII/89, spit 3 (9) and worked deer antler fragment from trench XIII/92, spit 5 (10).

250

Plate CLVII - Unfinished flat bone awl from the profile of trench VIII/89 (1); rib polisher from trench III/87, spit 3 (2); broken bone tool from trench X/91, spit 8 (3); flat bone awl (?) from trench VII/88, spit 1 (4); bone chisel (?) from trench IV/88, spit 7 (5); bone tools from trench VIII/89, spit 7 (6); trench VI/66, spit 1 (7); trench I/66, pit 6, layer III (8A and 8B); broken awl (?) from trench XXIII/94, spit 7 (10); flat awl or fragment of polisher (?) from trench X/91, spit 4 (11); pierced tool from trench III/66, pit 9, layer II (12) and broken muttock from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (13).

251

Plate CLVIII - Bone awl or spearhead from trench XIX/93, sacrificial pit (?) (1); unfinished tool from trench IV/88, spit 7 (2); perforator from trench VIII/89, spit 3 (3); animal tooth perforator (?) from trench VIII/89, spit 7 (4); spatula for impressed decorations (?) from the surface of trench XXI/ 94 (5); chisel (?) from the profile between trench IV and trench V (6); fragment of chisels from trench VI/88, spit 7 (7); trench II/87, spit 7 (8); trench XI/92, spit 4 (9); chisels from trench III/87, spit 3 (10); trench XXVI/95, spit 8 (11) and chisel(?) or polisher from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (12).

252

Plate CLIX - Fragments of bone spoons from trench XXI/94, spit 2 (1); trench XXII/94, spit 2 (2); fragment of spatula from the surface of trench I/ 65 (3); fragment spatula from trench XXIII/94, spit 3 (4); ulna awl from the surface of trench XXI/94 (5); metacarpal awl from trench X/91, spit 8 (6); awls from trench II/87, feature 2 (7); trench XI/92, spit 2 (10); trench X/91, spit 3 (11); surface of trench I/65 (12); trench XIX/93, spit 1 (13); trench V/88, spit 4 (8) and surface of trench XXVI/95 (9) (for the bone tools see SREJOVI and JOVANOVI, 1958-59: T. I-III; VI, 1-3; X, 7; XIII, 5; XIV, 4; BENAC, 1971: T. XVII-XIX, XXI and XXIII; 1973: T. X-XII).

253

Plate CLX - Ice skates from the site surface (1A and 1B) and from the surface of trench I/65 (2A and 2B).

254

SPIT
Table 19 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the bone tools and weapons.

255

PlateCLXI - Polished stone axes from trench II/87, spit 3 (1); trench II/66, pit 8 (2); trench V/88, spit 1 (3); trench V/87, spit 1 (4), trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (5); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (6); trench XXVI/95, spit 2 (7); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (8); surface find (9); trench XXII/94, spit 3 (10) and profile between trench I and trench II /87 (11). All from fine-grained rock.

256

Plate CLXII - Polished stone adzes from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (1); trench II/87, spit 3 (2), trench VII/88, spit 5 (3);trench IX/90, spit 2 (4); trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (5); trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (6); trench XI/92, spit 4 (7); trench XIX/93, hearth (8); chisels from trench XXIII/94, pit, spit 9 (9); trench XXVI/95, spit 3 (10); trench II/65, pit 8 (11); trench I/87, spit 6 (12); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (13) and trench XIX/93, hearth (14).

257

Plate CLXIII - Hammerstones from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (1); trench X/91, spit 8 (2); trench IV/88, spit 3 (3); trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (limestone) (4); trench XIII/92, spit 2 (5); trench VI/88, spit 7 (sandstone) (6); trench III/66, pit 9, layer III (7); trench VIII/89, spit 1 (8); trench X/91, spit 3 (9) and trench IX/90, spit 2 (gabbro) (10).

258

Cross-section of the cutting-edged tools: a) semi-circular, b) circular, c) elliptical, d) elliptical with vertical sides, e) trapezoidal

Plate CLXIV - Upper quern from trench XX/93, spit 4 (1); grindstone from trench XX/93, spit 1 (sandstone) (2); rubber from trench XXI/94, pit (3); grindstone from trench XIII/92, spit 4 (sandstone) (4); polisher from trench VIII/90, spit 4 (5) and grindstone (?) from trench X/91, spit 3 (sandstone) (6).

259

SPIT
Table 20 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the polished stone tools.

260

Plate CLXV - Precore from trench XI/92, spit 2 (1); conical microcores from trench VI/88, spit 2 (2); trench V/88, spit 6 (3); conical core from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (4); conical core from trench XI/92, spit 4 (5).

261

Plate CLXVI - Wedge-shaped microcore from trench III/87, spit 4 (1); wedge-shaped cores from trench VIII/90, spit 5 (2); trench XI/92, spit 3 (3); Trench VIII/90, spit 4 (4); cylindrical cores from trench I/65, pit 7, layer I (5); trench IX/91, spit 6 (6); trench XXIII/94, spit 3 (8) and cylindrical microcore from trench VIII/89, spit 2 (7).

262

3 4

6 5

Plate CLXVII - Globular microcores from trench IV/88, spit 7 (1); trench X/91, spit 3 (2); trench III/87, spit 5 (3); globular cores from trench VIII/ 89, feature 2, spit 8 (4); trench X/91, spit 3 (5) and prismatic core from trench V/86-87, pit-dwelling floor (6).

263

Plate CLXVIII - Prismatic core from trench I/65, layer I (1); discoidal core from trench VIII/90, spit 4 (2); irregular microcore from trench VIII/90, spit 3 (3); trench XXVI/95, spit 5 (4); trench X/91, spit 8 (5); irregular cores from trench IV/88, spit 3 (6) and trench X/91, spit 4 (7).

264

Plate CLXIX - Irregular cores from trench II/87, spit 3 (1); trench V/86, spit 2 (2); crested flakes and blades from trench VIII/89, spit 7 (3); surface of trench VIII/90 (4); trench III/87, spit 4 (5); trench VIII/89, spit 4 (6); trench III/87, spit 5 (7); trench XXIII/94, spit 9 (8); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (9); trench VIII/89, spit 9 (10); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (11); surface of trench VIII/9 (12); trench VIII/90, spit 7 (13) and trench II/87, spit 5 (14).

265

Plate CLXX - Unretouched flakes from trench XX/93, spit 2 (quartzite) (1); trench XI/92, spit 2 (obsidian) (2); trench IV/88, spit 3 (3); trench VI/88, spit 2 (4); trench XIV/93, spit 1 (5); trench XXIII/94, spit 1 (6); trench X/91, spit 9 (7); trench VI/88, spit 4 (8); unretouched blades from trench I/65, pit 5, layer I (Ia) (9); trench VIII/89, spit 3 (obsidian) (10); trench VIII/89, spit 3 (11); trench XI/92, spit 5 (12); trench IV/88, spit 8 (13); trench X/ 91, spit 3 (14); trench V/88, spit 5 (15); trench XXIII/94, spit 2 (16); surface of trench XVIII/93 (17) and trench VIII/89, spit 3 (18).

266

Plate CLXXI - Unretouched blades from trench XIII/92, spit 1 (1); trench XXI/94, pit (2); unretouched microbladelet from trench XIII/92, spit 6 (3); trench VIII/89, spit 7 (4); trench V/88, spit 2 (5); trench V/86, spit 4 (6); trench VIII/89, spit 2 (7); trench II/87, spit 3 (8); trench XIII/92, spit 2 (9); ditch II/95, spit 4 (obsidian) (10); trench VIII/89, spit 2 (11); trench X/91, spit 4 (12); trench XIII/92, spit 2 (13); trench X/91, spit 2 (14); trench XXVI/95, spit 2 (15); trench VIII/89, spit 6 (16); trench VI/88, spit 2 (17); Unretouched blades from trench I/65, burial at the bottom of pit 7 (18); trench IV/88, spit 8 (sickle?) (19); trench VIII/89, spit 8 (sickle?)(20); trench X/91, spit 4 (sickle?) (21); trench X/91, spit 5 (sickle?) (22); trench X/ 91, spit 4 (sickle?) (23).

267

5 6

Plate CLXXII - Unretouched blades from trench VIII/89, spit 7 (1); trench XXVI/95, spit 7 (2); trench X/91, spit 9 (3); trench XXVI/95, spit 7 (4); flakes with marginal retouch from trench II/87, spit 5 (5); trench X/91, spit 3 (6); trench XXIII/94, spit 3 (7); trench XXI/94, spit 3 (8); trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (9); trench V/88, spit 6 (10); trench VI/88, spit 2 (11); trench IV/88, spit 2 (12); surface of trench X/91 (13); trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (14); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (15); trench V/86, spit 4 (16) and trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (17).

268

Plate CLXXIII - Retouched flakes from trench V/88, spit 6 (1); trench XIV/93, spit 1 (2); trench V/88, spit 5 (3); trench XV/93, spit 1 (4); trench X/ 91, spit 8 (5); trench X/91, spit 8 (6); trench III/87, spit 4 (7); trench XXV/95, spit 4 (8); trench IX/90, spit 4 (9); trench XXVI/95, spit 2 (10); trench XV/93, spit 4 (haft traces) (11); retouched blades from trench XXVI/95, spit 8 (12); surface of trench X(?)/91 (13); trench VI/88, spit 2 (14); trench XXIII/94, spit 3 (15); surface of trench XV/93 (16); trench XI/92, spit 2 (17); trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (18); surface of trench XXI/94 (19); trench IV/ 88, spit 8 (20); trench VI/88, spit 1 (21) and tench XXIII/92, spit 2 (22).

269

Plate CLXXIV - Retouched blades from trench IV/88, spit 7 (1); trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (2); trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (3); trench VI/88, spit 5 (4); trench IV/88, spit 3 (5); trench XXII/94, spit 2 (6); surface of trench XXI/94 (7); trench I/66, pit 7, layer I (8); trench X/87, spit 4 (9); trench X/91, spit 3 (10); trench IV/88, spit 3 (11); trench XIII/92, spit 2 (12); trench I/87, spit 3 (13); trench XXII/92, spit 2 (14); trench VIII/89, spit 5 (15); trench I/87, spit 5 (16); trench V/87, spit 3 (17); trench I/65, pit 4, layer I (II) (18) and surface of trench V/88 (19).

270

Plate CLXXV - Retouched blades from trench XI/92, spit 4 (1); trench VIII/89, spit 3 (2); trench VII/88, spit 2 (3); trench X/91, pit, spit 8 (4); trench IV/88, spit 3 (5); trench I/87, spit 2 (6); trench VI/88, spit 2 (7); trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (8); trench XXVI/95, spit 6 (9); trench X/91, spit 2 (10); blade with semi-abrupt retouch from trench X/91, spit 9 (11); blades with multiple retouch from trench VII/88, spit 5 (12); trench IV/88, spit 2 (13) and trench XXI/94, spit 3 (14).

271

Plate CLXXVI - Endscrapers on flake from trench IV/88, spit 4 (1); surface of trench VII/89 (2); trench V/88, spit 3 (3); trench IX/90, spit 1 (4); trench XXVI/95, spit 2 (5); surface of trench XV/93 (6); trench XXIII/94, spit 2 (7); trench III/87, spit 4 (8); trench VIII/89, spit 5 (9); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (10); trench IV/88, spit 8 (11); endscarpers on blade from the surface (12); trench VIII/90, spit 1 (13); trench XIII/92, spit 1 (14); double endscarper from trench VI/88, spit 2 (15) and discoidal endscarper from trench XV/93, spit 4 (16).

272

Plate CLXXVII - Side scrapers from trench XI/92, spit 2 (1); trench X/91, spit 8 (2); trench III/87, spit 6 (3); trench III/87, spit 8 (4); surface of trench XX/93 (5); perforators from trench IV/88, pit, spit 9 (6); trench XV/93, spit 3 (7); truncations from trench III/87, spit 4 (8); trenchVIII/89, spit 6 (sickle?) (9); trench V/88, spit 6 (sickle?) (10); surface of trench XX/93 (sickle?) (11); trench XIII/92, spit 2 (12); trench I/87, spit 2 (hafted?) (13); trench VIII/89, spit 6 (14); trench III/87, spit 8 (sickle?) (15); surface (16); trench VIII/89, feature 1, spit 6 (17); trench VIII/89, spit 4 (18); trench X/ 91, spit 3 (19) and trench IX/90, spit 1 (20).

273

Plate CLXXVIII- Burins from trench XV/93, spit 1 (1); trench IV/88, spit 6 (2); trench I/87, spit 2 (3); geometric microliths: segment from trench X/ 91, spit 8 (4); trapezes from trench X/91, spit 9 (5); trench V/86, spit 2 (6); trench I/87, spit 2 (7); trench VI/88, spit 1 (8); trench VIII/89, spit 4 (9); trench XX/93, spit 3 (10); trench VIII/89, spit 6 (11); trench X/91, spit 8 (12); trench VIII/89, spit 7 (13); surface (14); trench XI/92, spit 8 (15); trench XI/92, spit 4 (16); trench IV/88, spit 2 (17); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (18); trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (19); trench VIII/89, spit 7 (20); trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (21) and trench V/88, spit 1 (22).

274

Plate CLXXIX - Notched blades from trench V/88, spit 6 (1); trench IV/88, spit 7 (2); trench X/91, spit 3 (3); trench V/86, spit 5 (4); trench IX/90, spit 3 (5); trench X/91, spit 2 (6); trench XI/92, spit 6 (7); splintered pieces from trench V/88, spit 8 (8); trench III/87, spit 4 (9); multiple tools: truncations+retouched blades from trench III/87, spit 6 (10) trench XV/93, spit 2 (11); endscraper+retouched blades from trench XXVI/95, spit 4 (12); trench X/91, spit 8 (13); truncation+burin from trench VIII/90, spit 1 (14); burin+retouched blade from trench IX/90, spit 3 (15); end scraper+perforator from trench XIII/92, spit 1 (16).

275

1A

1B

Plate CLXXX - Anvil from trench I/65, layer 1 (1A and 1B).

276

SPIT
Table 20 - Donja Branjevina: statistic analysis of the chipped stone tools.

277

Plate CLXXXI - Vessel bases (fine pottery) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (1); (f. pottery) layer III (2); (coarse pottery) layer II (3); (f. pottery) layer III (4); (f. pottery) layer III (5); (medium pottery) layer II (6); (c. pottery) layer II (7); (f. pottery) layer II (8); (c. pottery) layer II (9); (m. pottery) layer II (10); (m. pottery) layer II (11); (f. pottery) layer II (12).

278

Plate CLXXXII - Vessel bases (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (1); (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (2); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (3); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (4); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (5); (m. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (6); (f. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (7); (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (8); (m. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (9); (m. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (10) and (m. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (11).

279

Plate CLXXXIII - Vessel pedestal (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (1); (m. pottery) layer Ib (2); (c. pottery) layer Ia (3); (m. pottery) layer Ib (4); (c. pottery) layer Ia (5); (c. pottery) layer Ib (6); (c. pottery) layer III-II (7); (c. pottery) layer III-II (8); (c. pottery) layer Ia (9); (c. pottery) layer III-II (10); (c. pottery) layer III-II (11) and vessel base (f. pottery) layer Ib (12).

280

2 3

6 7

10 11 12

15 13 14

16

Plate CLXXXIV - Rims of globular vessels (f. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (1); (m. pottery) layer III (2); (m. pottery) layer II (3); (f. pottery) layer II (4); (f. pottery) layer III (5); (m. pottery) layer III (6); (c. pottery) layer III (7); (c. pottery) layer II (8); rims of bowls (f. pottery) from layer II (9); (c. pottery) layer III (10); (c. pottery) layer III (11); (c. pottery) layer III (12); (f. pottery) layer II (13); (f. pottery) layer III (14); (m. pottery) layer II (15) and (f. pottery) layer III (16).

281

Red colour on both surfaces Red colour on the outside surface Red colour on the inside surface
Plate CLXXXV - Rims of globular vessels (f. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (1); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (2); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (3); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (4); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (5); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit2, layer III (6); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (7); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (8); bowl rim (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (9); rim of hemispherical vessels (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (10); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (11); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (12); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (13); bowl rim (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (14); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (15); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (16) and (c. pottery) trench I/65 pit 2, layer II (17).

282

4 1 3

6 7

5 2 8

10

11 12 13 14

15

16

17

Plate CLXXXVI - Rims of globular vessels (c. pottery) from trench III/66,layer III-II (1); (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (2); (m. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (3); (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (4); (m. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (5); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (6); (m. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II(7); (m. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (8); (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (9) ; (c. pottery) trench III/65, pit 9, layer III-II (10); (f. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (11); (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (16) bowl rim (m. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (12); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (13); (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (14) ; (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (15); (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (17).

283

Plate CLXXXVII - Finger impressed bowl rims (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (1) (1); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (2); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (3); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (4); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (5); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer III (6); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer III (7); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (8); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer III (9); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer III (10).

284

Plate CLXXXXVIII - Finger impressed, globular vessel rims (m. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (1); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer III (2); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (3); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer III (4); (m. pottery) pit 2, layer II (5); (m. pottery) pit 2, layer III (6); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer III (7); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer III (8); (m. pottery) layer II (9); (m. pottery) pit 2, layer III (10).

285

Plate CLXXXIX - Finger impressed, globular vessel rims (c. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (1); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (2); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (3); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (4); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (5); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (6); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer II (7); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer III (?) (8); (c. pottery) pit 2, layer III (9) (c. pottery) above pit 2, layer 1 (11); bowl rims from trench I/65, pit 2, layer III (10) and (c. pottery) above pit 2, layer 1 (12).

286

Plate CXC - Finger impressed, globular vessel rims (m. pottery) from trench I/65, above pit 2, layer I (1); bowl rims (c. pottery) from trench I/65, above pit 2, layer I (2); (c. pottery) above pit 2, layer I (?) (3); (c. pottery) above pit 2, layer I (4); (c. pottery) above pit 2, layer I (5A and 5B) and (c. pottery) above pit 2, layer I (6).

287

Plate CXCI - Rim of large, red-painted globular vessel (m. pottery) from the surface of trench 5, spit 1 (1); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 1, layer III (3); rim of large bowl (c. pottery) from trench I/66, pit 7, layer III (2); Rim of deep, hemispherical bowl with basket weave impressions (m. pottery) trench I/66, pit 6, layer III (4); basket weave impressions (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (5); basket weave impressions (c. pottery) trench I/66, pit 1, layer III (6) and basket weave impressions (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 1, layer III (7).

288

Plate CXCII - Rim of large bowl with basket weave impressions (f. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (1-3); basket weave impressions (c. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 1, layer III (4); body sherd of large vessel with basket weave impressions (m. pottery) from trench I/66, pit 6, layer II (5); rim of hemispheric bowl with basket weave impressions (c. pottery) ditch II/95, pit (6); body sherd of large vessel with fingernail or tool (?) impressions (m. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (7) and bowl rim with paired fingernail impressions (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (8).

289

Plate CXCIII - Rim of large hemispherical bowl with paired impressed motifs (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (1); body sherd with rows of paired fingernail impressions (m. pottery) from trench VI/88, spit 6 (2); rim of large vessel with rows of paired fingernail impressions (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (3); base of large vessel with rows of paired fingernail impressions (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer IIIII (4); rim of large hemispherical vessel with paired fingernail impressions (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (5) and rim of large bowl with rows of fingernail impressions (c. pottery) from trench VIII/98, spit 6/7 (6).

290

Plate CXCIV - Fragments of small bowl (?) with all-over fingernail impressions (f. pottery) from trench V/86, spit 4 (1); large hemispherical bowl rim with fingernail impressions (c. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 2, layer II (2); base fragment of globular vessel with rough impressions (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (3); body sherd of globular vessel with vertical rows of paired, fingernail or tool, impressions (m. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (4); deep bowl rim with finger impressions all over the body (m. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 3, layer III-II (5) and lower body sherd with triangular patterns of instrumental impressions (c. pottery) from trench IX/91, spit 6 (6).

291

Plate CXCV - Deep bowl rim with rows of instrumental impressions (m. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (1); rim of globular vessel with all-over fingernail motifs (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (2); rim of hemispherical vessel with finger impressed, horizontal rows (c. pottery) from trench V/88, spit 6 (3); large bowl rim with rows of finger(nail) impressions (c. pottery) from trench II/87, spit 6 (4); body sherds with fingernail impressions (c. pottery) from trench II/87, spit 3 (5); (c. pottery) from trench VIII/87, spit 8 (6); base sherds with fingernail impressions (m. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (7) and (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (8).

292

Plate CXCVI - Shoulder of globular vessel with rows of fingernail decorations (f. pottery) from trench V/86, spit 2 (1); large vessel body sherds with fingernail impressions (c. pottery) from trench X/91, spit 8 (2); (c. pottery) trench XI/92, spit 7 (3); (c. pottery) trench V/88, spit 8 (4); deep bowl with channelled barbotino decoration (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (5 and 6).

293

Plate CXCVII - Rim of globular vessels with channelled barbotino decoration (c. pottery) from trench XX/93, spit 1 (1); (c. pottery) trench XIII/92, spit 6 (2); rim of globular vessels with barbotino decoration (m. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (3); (c. pottery) trench XI/92, spit 5 (4); (c. pottery) trench I/65, layer I (Ia) (7); (c. pottery) trench XX/93, spit 1 (8); deep bowl rim with barbotino decoration (c. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (Ib) (5) and base fragment with barbotino decoration (c. pottery) from trench I/66, pit 7, layer I (Ib) (6).

294

Plate CXCVIII - Rim of hemispherical bowl with appliqu barbotino decorations (c. pottery) from trench I/66, above pit 7, layer I (Ia) (1) (c. pottery) trench XXIII/94, spit 6 (3); rim of globular vessel with appliqu barbotino decorations (c. pottery) from trench I/66, above pit 7, layer I (Ia) (2); base fragment of large vessel with appliqu barbotino decorations (c. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (Ia); bowl rim with oblique, parallel incisions (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (5) and body sherd of globular vessel with oblique incised lines (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (6).

295

Plate CXCIX - Shoulder sherd of globular vessel with incised zigzag patterns (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (1 and 2); body sherd of globular vessel with incised motifs (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (3); body sherd of globular vessel with incised net motifs (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (4); trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (6); base of large vessel with incised net motifs (c. pottery) from trench V/88, spit 6 (5).

296

Plate CC - Rim of small hemispherical bowl with vertical, incised lines (f. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III (1); shoulder sherd of globular vessel with incised patterns (c. pottery) from trench VI/88, spit 7 (2); vessel base with net incisions (c. pottery) from the surface of trench II/87 (3); handled body sherd with plastic cordon and net incisions (c. pottery) from trench XI/92, spit 3 (4); rim and body of globular vessel with incised tringles (f. pottery) from trench XIX/93, hearth (5); body fragments with incised, linear patterns (m. pottery) from trench XIII/92, pit, spit 6 (6); (c. pottery) trench XXIII/94, spit 8, hearth (7); rim and body of small spherical vessel with incised, linear patterns (m. pottery) from ditch III/95, pit 3, spit 3/4 (8).

297

Plate CCI - Rim and body sherd of globular vessel with incised patterns (f. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (1); body sherds with incised patterns (c. pottery) from trench XIII/92, pit bottom (2); (m. pottery) trench I/87, spit 2 (3); (c. pottery) trench III/87, spit 8 (4); body sherds with channelled patterns (c. pottery) from trench XIII/92, pit, spit 6 (5); (c. pottery) trench III/87, spit 8 (6); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (7); body sherd with incised, zigzag patterns (c. pottery) from trench XIII/92, pit bottom (8).

298

Plate CCII - Body sherds with channelled patterns (f. pottery) from trench V/86, spit 5 (1); bowl rim with triple applique on the red-painted surface (c. pottery) trench V/86, spit 3/4 (2); body red-slipped sherd with plastic cordon (f. pottery) from trench V/86, spit 4 (3); shoulder red painted sherd with plastic meandered cordon (f. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 5, layer I (I) (4); body sherds with impressed appliques (c. pottery) from trench XIII/ 92, pit bottom (5); (c. pottery) trench XVII/93, spit 1 (6); (c. pottery) trench XI/92, spit 3 (7) and (c. pottery) trench I/65, layer I (8):

299

Plate CCIII - Body sherd with finger impressed, curvilinear plastic cordon (c. pottery) from trench XX/93, spit 4 (1); base sherd with finger impressed plastic cordon (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (2); body sherds with finger impressed, plastic cordon (c. pottery) from trench VIII/ 89, spit 8 (3); (c. pottery), trench VIII/89, spit 2 (4); shoulder sherds with incised, horizontal net pattern (c. pottery) trench I/97, spit 3 (5); (c. pottery) trench VIII/89, spit 4 (6); neck sherds with circular plastic bosses (c. pottery) from trench XI/92, spit 5 (7) and (c. pottery) from trench XIII/92, pit, spit 6 (8).

300

Plate CCIV - Jar body sherd with ring appliques (c. pottery) from ditch I/69, pit (1); vessel base with ring appliques (c. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (Ia) (2); body sherd with finger impressed plastic boss (c. pottery) from trench VI/898, spit 3 (3); jar shoulder with impressed bosses along the neck (c. pottery) from ditch I/69, pit (4 probably part of 1); large vessel shoulder with finger impressed circular motifs (c. pottery) from trench VII/88, pit (5) and body sherd with finger impressed circular motifs (c. pottery) profile between trenches XIa and XV (6).

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Plate CCV - Body sherd with finger impressed circular motifs (c. pottery) from trench XI/92, spit 4 (1); body sherd with circular plastic cordon (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (2); body sherds with finger impressed bosses (c. pottery) from trench VII/88, spit 6 (3); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (Ia) (4); flat, plastic boss (c. pottery) from the surface of trench XIX/93 (5); (f. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (6); finger impressed plastic bosses (f. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer III-II (7); (m. pottery) trench I/65, pit 5, layer I (Ia) (8) and (c. pottery) trench XXVI/95, spit 9/10 (9).

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Plate CCVI - Finger impressed plastic boss (c. pottery) from trench V/88, spit 7 (1); body sherds with concentric, finger impressed cordons (c. pottery) from trench VII/88, sacrificial pit (?) (2); (c. pottery) trench I/66, pit 6, layer I (Ia) (3); (c. pottery) trench VIII/89, spit 3 (4); body sherd with concentric, plastic cordons (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit I, layer II (5) and rim and shoulder of globular vessel with zigzag incisions (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (6 and 7).

303

Plate CCVII - Body sherd with sharp tool impressions (c. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 3 (II) (1); body sherd with cane (?) impressions and plastic cordon (c. pottery) from trench I/87, spit 2 (2); fragments of globular vessel decorated with impressed dots and/or incised, linear patterns (c. pottery) from trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (3); (f. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (4); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (5); (c. pottery) trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (6); (c. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ia (7) and (c. pottery) trench XIV/93, spit 1 (8).

304

Plate CCVIII - Potsherds with dot impressions (c. pottery) from trench XXIII/94, spit 2 (1 and 2); (c. pottery) surface of trench XXI/94 (3); (c. pottery) trench VIII/89, spit 3 (4); (m. pottery) trench XXVI/95, spit 8 (6); (c. pottery) trench XXIII/94, spit 3 (7); (c. pottery) trench XI/92, spit 2 (8); shoulder sherd of finger impressed globular vessel (m. pottery) from trench I/65, layer I, above pit 2 (5).

305

Plate CCIX - Potsherds with dot impressions (c. pottery) from trench, XIII/92, spit 2 (1); (m. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer Ib (2); potsherds with circular impressions (c. pottery) from trench XXIII/94, spit 7 (3); (c. pottery) trench III/87, spit 7 (4); (m. pottery) trench XI/93, profile near point A (5); (m. pottery) trench V/86, spit 1 (6); potsherds with incised lines and fingernail impressions (f. pottery) from the surface of trench VIII/89-90 (7) and (c. pottery) trench VII/89, spit 3 (8).

306

Plate CCX - Potsherds with incised lines and fingernail impressions (c. pottery) from trench VIII/89, spit 3 (1); (f. pottery) trench III/66, pit 9, layer III (2); impressed handle of globular pot (c. pottery) from trench XVII/93, spit 1 (3); ring handles (m. pottery) from trench VI/88, spit 4 (4); (m. pottery) trench V/88, spit 5 (5); potsherds with linear grooves (f. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (6); (f. pottery) bottom of ditch II/95 (7); (f. pottery) trench I/65, pit 1, layer II (8) and body sherd with impressed, triangular decorations (9).

307

Plate CCXI - Rim and shoulder of globular vessel with incised cross pattern and finger impressions on the body (m. pottery) from Mostonga I/64, pit 1 (1); rim and shoulder of globular vessel with vertical lines of horizontal fingernail decorations (f. pottery) from trench I/65, pits 1 and 2, layer II (2); very thick walled sherd (c. pottery) from the surface of trench V/86 (3); body sherd with squared, incised patterns (c. pottery) from trench VIII/89, feature 1, spit 4 (4); paired perforated lugs (m. pottery) from trench I/65, pit 1, layer I (5) and body sherd with parallel curvilinear impressions (c. pottery) from trench I/66, pit 3, layer I (II) (6).

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CENTRALGRAFICA S.N.C.
LOC. BAGNOLI DELLA ROSANDRA, 612 - SAN DORLIGO DELLA VALLE (TS) TEL. 040.8325013 - FAX 040.8326424 - E-MAIL: CENTRALGRAFICA@TIN.IT

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