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1.

Introduction

Consonant sounds are produced by blocking the flow of air as it leaves the mouth. There are many ways of blocking the air and various tongue, lip and jaw positions required in order to create accurately the consonants of English. Any consonant sounds that are different, or that does not exist in your mother tongue, needs to be learnt to produce a clear English accent (Roach, 2009).

2.0

Affricates

Affricates are consonants that are formed by stopping the flow of air somewhere in the vocal apparatus, and then releasing the air relatively slowly so that a friction-sound is produced. (Mannell, 2008) 2.1 Manners of articulation 2.1.1 Post-alveolar

The tip of the tongue is held in a position near to but not touching the back part of the alveolar ridge. The soft palate is raised and the air flows quietly between the tip of the tongue and the hard palate. The front part of the tongue is low and the back is rather high so that the tongue has a curved shape. The vocal cords are vibrating. (Mannell, 2009)

Figure 1: Post-aveolar position of the tongue Source: Dorgeloh, H (2009)

Figure 1 shows the tongue position of the post-alveolar articulation. /t/ is voiceless post-alveolar affricate. In articulating the sound /t/ as in chip, the tongue tip, blade and rims close against the alveolar ridge and side teeth. The front of the tongue is raised and when air is released, there is audible friction. /t/ begins with a complete blockage of the vocal tract (a stop). // is a voiced post-alveolar affricate. To create the j sound, air is briefly prevented from leaving the vocal tract when the tip of the tongue presses against the back tooth ridge while the sides of the tongue press against the upper side teeth. The sound is aspirated when the air is released with friction. 3.0 Nasals

Nasals are consonants which, like plosives, are produced by completely blocking the airstream. But there is an important difference: The airflow escapes through the nasal cavity (hence the term nasals). There are three nasal consonants in English such as bilabial [m], alveolar [n], and velar [] (Gutierrez, 2008) 3.1 Manners of articulation 3.1.1 Bilabial

Figure 2: Bilabial position of the tongue Source: Dorgeloh,H (2009) /m/ is a voiced bilabial nasal. The lips are firmly kept together forming the complete obstruction. The active articulator is the lower lip; the passive articulator is the upper lip. The soft palate is lowered and the air escapes through the nasal cavity. The vocal cords are vibrating. For example: mice /mas/.

3.1.2

Alveolar nasal

Figure 3: Alveolar Nasal position of the tongue Source: Dorgeloh,H (2009) /n/ is a voiced alveolar nasal. The tip of the tongue is pressed against the alveolar ridge forming the complete obstruction. The active articulator is the tip of the tongue, and the passive articulator is the alveolar ridge. The soft palate is lowered and the air escapes through the nasal cavity. The vocal cords vibrate. 3.1.3 Velar nasal

Figure 3: Velar Nasal position of the tongue Source: Dorgeloh,H (2009) // is a voiced velar nasal. The back of the tongue is pressed to the soft palate forming the complete obstruction. The active articulator is the back of the tongue, and the passive articulator is the soft palate. The soft palate is lowered and the air escapes through the nasal cavity. The vocal cords vibrate. (Mannell, 2009)

3.2

Common sound spellings

3.2.1 The /m/ sound When the [mn] spelling occurs at the end of a word it is usually pronounced as an m sound (the n is silent). If a suffix is added to the word, however, the n sound may be pronounced. For instance, the n sound is not pronounced in the words autumn or column, but is pronounced in the word condemnation. In the middle of a word, the [mn] is more frequently pronounced as an /m/ sound followed by an /n/ sound (as in the words chimney /mn/ and remnant /remnnt/. (Mannell, 2009) 3.2.2 The /n/ sound When the [gn] spelling occurs at the beginning or end of a word and it is usually pronounced as an /n/ sound. In the middle of a word, it is more likely to be pronounced as a /g/ sound followed by an /n/ sound (as in the words signal /sgnl/ and ignore /gn/ ). 3.2.3 The // sound

When the [ng] spelling occurs in the middle of a word, it may be pronounced as an /ng/ sound followed by a /g/ sound (as in the words angry /gr/ or finger /fg/ ). At the end of a word, or as part of the -ing ending, the pronunciation of this spelling does not typically include a /g/ sound. (Gutierrez, 2008) 4.0 Transcription Olymic London 2012 Many aspects of the opening ceremony for London 2012 are being kept secret or under wraps so that we will all be surprised and delighted on the night. We know about other details because the artistic director, Danny Boyle, (Oscar-winning director of the highly acclaimed film, Slumdog Millionaire), has told the press about them. We know, for instance, that the ceremony will start with the sound of the largest bell in Europe, (weighing twice as much as Big Ben). We know that the Olympic stadium in Stratford, East London, will turn into a scene which represents the British countryside, (titled Green and Pleasant from a poem by William Blake). This scene will feature meadows, farmyard animals, and a river representing the Thames. It will also include a replica of the Glastonbury Tor. Artificial clouds will rain on this rural scene as families play cricket and children dance around maypoles.

meni spekts v i pn sermni f lndn a nd twelv bi kept sikrt r nd rps s t wi wl l bi sprazd nd dlatd n nat / wi n bat ditelz bkz i tstk drekt / dni bl / sk wn drektr v hali klemd flm / slmd mlne / h tld pres bat m / wi n / f nstns / t sermni wl stt w sand v ld st bel n jrp / we twas mt b ben / wi n t i lmpk stedm n strtfd / ist lndn / wl t n nt sin wt ripr ents brt kntrisad / tatld rin nd ple nt frm pm ba wlm blek / s sin wl fit med / fmjd nml / nd rv ripr ent tem / t wl ls nklud replk v lstnbri t / tfl klad wl ren n s rrl sin fml ple krkt nd tldrn dns rand mepl / . Affricates many opening being night know film them in weighing much stadium London turn green meadows representing include rain scene around maypoles Transcription /meni/ /pn/ /bi/ /nat/ /n/ /flm/ /m/ /n/ /we/ /mt/ /stedim/ /lndn/ /t n/ /rin/ /medz/ /reprizent/ /klud/ /ren/ /sin/ /ran/ /meplz/ Nasal largest much which feature children Transcription /ld s/ /mt/ /wt/ /fit/ /tldrn/

Table 1 shows affricates and nasal sounds which is identified from above text.