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# Part IV: Instructional Objectives Terminal Objective 1: To select the best simple machine for a specified purpose Enabling

Objectives: 1A. To identify the six simple machines 1B. To describe the uses of the six simple machines

Terminal Objective 2: To predict the effect of a force on an object Enabling Objectives: 2A. To explain the five effects of a force on an object 2B. To describe the relationship between the size of an object and the effects of force 2C. To describe the effect on an object of a force greater than the initial force

Terminal Objective 3: To demonstrate the effect of gravitational force on an object Enabling Objectives: 3A. To define gravitational force 3B. To identify the effect of gravitational force on an object

Classification of Instructional Objectives: Performance Content Fact Concept Principles Procedure Interpersonal Attitude Recall 3A 1A 1B, 2A, 2B, 2C, 3B Application

1, 2, 3

Relationship between Instructional Objectives and Standards: Instructional Objectives 1 1A 1B 2 Georgia Performance Standards S4P3a. Identify simple machines and explain their uses (lever, pulley, wedge, inclined plane, screw, wheel and axle). S4P3b. Using different size objects, observe how force affects speed and motion. S4P3c. Explain what happens to the speed or direction of an object when a greater force than the initial one is applied. S4P3b. Using different size objects, observe how force affects speed and motion. S4P3c. Explain what happens to the speed or direction of an object when a greater force than the initial one is applied. S4P3d. Demonstrate the effect of gravitational force on the motion of an object.

2A 2B 2C 3 3A 3B

## Part V: Development of Assessments

Lesson 1: Force Terminal Objective 2: To predict the effect of a force on an object Enabling Objectives: 2A. To explain the five effects of a force on an object 2B. To describe the relationship between the size of an object and the effects of force 2C. To describe the effect on an object of a force greater than the initial force

Assessment: Students will work together in groups to create a video showing the effects of force. Narration should be included to explain how force is affecting an object.

UDL Principles: Collaboration provides for multiple means of engagement. In addition, students have choice and autonomy is designing their video.

Lesson 2: Gravity Terminal Objective 3: To demonstrate the effect of gravitational force on an object Enabling Objectives: 3A. To define gravitational force 3B. To identify the effect of gravitational force on an object

Assessment: Students will complete a brief online quiz about the effects of gravitational force.

UDL Principles: Students will be able to choose one of two quizzes to complete. The first quiz will be objective, with multiple choice questions. The second quiz will consist of short-answer questions. This differentiation provides for multiple means of expression and multiple means of engagement.

Lesson 3: Simple Machines Terminal Objective 1: To select the best simple machine for a specified purpose Enabling Objectives:

1A. To identify the six simple machines 1B. To describe the uses of the six simple machines Assessment: Students will use a web 2.0 tool of their choice to create a scrapbook of simple machines, giving definitions and examples.

UDL Principles: Student choice of a tool provides for multiple means of engagement and multiple means of expression.

Assessment: Given a set of scenarios, students will identify the simple machine that is most appropriate for the specified purpose. Multiple scenarios will be given for each simple machine. Students may identify at least one scenario for each simple machine. They may choose to stop at six scenarios, or they may choose to match more of the scenarios to the appropriate simple machine.

UDL Principles: The simple machines will be represented with text and pictures to provide for multiple means of presentation. Multiple means of engagement are provided through allowing students to select which scenarios to answer.

## Force Video Directions:

Role: Yourself

Audience: Classmates

Format: Video

Topic: With your small group, you will create a video showing the effect of force on an object. First, you will choose two similar objects of different sizes (e.g., a tennis ball and a basketball, a small and large toy car, etc.). You will use these objects to show the five effects of force on an object. You will also demonstrate how the amount of force needed is different for different-sized objects. You must include narration to explain the effect of force in each scene.

Grading Checklist: Criteria 3 Clear and Correct 2 Confusing 1 Incorrect or Not Included

Force can cause an object to start moving. Force can cause an object to speed up. Force can cause an object to slow down. Force can cause an object to stop moving. Force can cause an object to change direction. Explanation of greater force included where appropriate. Objects with more mass require more force to move the same distance at the same speed.

## Gravitational Force Quiz Option 1:

1.

Gravitational force is A. the force that keeps all objects on Earth from floating away. B. the force that acts in a direction opposite to motion. C. the force that pulls objects on Earths surface toward its center. D. Both A and C There is a pencil lying on a desk. What effect is gravity having on this pencil? A. Gravity is not having an effect on the pencil. B. Gravity is keeping the pencil on the desk. C. Gravity is preventing the pencil from rolling. D. Gravity is pushing the pencil toward the Earths surface. You accidentally push the pencil over the edge of the desk. What effect does gravity have? A. The pencil stays level with the desk. B. The pencil goes through the floor to the center of the Earth. C. The pencil falls to the floor. D. Gravity still does not affect the pencil. Which of these is NOT an effect of gravity on people? A. Gravity keeps us from floating away from Earths surface. B. When we jump, gravity pulls us back down. C. Gravity makes it hard to lift massive objects. D. Gravity eventually causes motion to stop. At recess, you throw a baseball toward the east. How does the ball travel and why? A. The ball continues to travel east until something gets in the way because gravity only affects objects touching the Earths surface. B. The ball makes a curve, traveling east and toward the Earths surface because gravity is pulling it down. C. The ball travels straight toward the Earths surface because gravity is pulling it down. D. Gravity causes the ball to travel upward.

2.

3.

4.

5.

2.

## What effect, if any, does gravity have on a pencil lying on a desk?

3.

What effect, if any, does gravity have when the pencil is pushed over the edge of the desk?

4.

5.

## Role: Teacher Audience: 4th grade students

Format Options: Prezi, Smore, Glogster, Pinterest, Infographic or other web 2.0 tool product (must be approved by instructor)

Topic: Simple Machines You are preparing to teach a class of fourth grade students about simple machines. You will use a web 2.0 tool to create a scrapbook. For each simple machine, you should include a definition and/or description, as well as at least one example of the simple machine.

Rubric: Criteria Simple Machines 3 All six simple machines are included. Definitions/Descriptions Definitions and/or descriptions are clear and complete. Examples 2 1 All six simple machines are not included. Definitions and/or descriptions cannot be understood. Some simple machines do not have examples, or illustrations are not provided. Information is disorganized.

Organization

More than one example is provided for each simple machine with appropriate illustrations. Information is Information is organized in a way organized in a way that makes sense and that makes sense. similar simple machines are grouped together.

Definitions and/or descriptions are incomplete but still understandable. One example is provided for each simple machine with appropriate illustrations.

## Simple Machine Scenarios:

Match the correct simple machine to the scenarios below. You must choose at least six scenarios, one for each simple machine. You may choose to complete more than six.

1.

You are walking down the road when you come to a large rock blocking your path. Which simple machine would be the best choice to move the rock? (lever) ________________________________________________________________________

2.

You and your friends are building a tree house. Which simple machine would be the best choice to lift materials to your tree house? (pulley) ________________________________________________________________________

3.

You and your friends are building a tree house. Which simple machine would be the best to hold the boards together? (screw) ________________________________________________________________________

4.

You and your friends are building a tree house. Which simple machine would be the best to cut the boards? (wedge) ________________________________________________________________________

5.

You and your family are moving. You are loading a truck. Which simple machine would be the best to help you lift heavy objects into the truck? (inclined plane) ________________________________________________________________________

6.

Your teacher asks you to move a load of heavy textbooks to a closet down the hall. Which simple machine would be the best to help you move the books? (wheel and axle) ________________________________________________________________________

7.

You are getting ready to paint your room. Which simple machine would be the best to help you open the can of paint? (lever) ________________________________________________________________________

8.

You and a friend want to share an apple. Which simple machine would be the best to help you split the apple in two? (wedge) ________________________________________________________________________

9.

You just moved in to a two-story house. Which simple machine would be the best to help you get to the second floor? (inclined plane) ________________________________________________________________________

10.

You are getting water out of a well. Which simple machine would be the best to help you lift the bucket out of the well? (pulley) ________________________________________________________________________

11.

You are learning to drive a car. Which simple machine helps you steer? (wheel and axle) ________________________________________________________________________

12.

You are decorating your room. Which simple machine would be the best to help you hang a picture? (screw) ________________________________________________________________________

Alignment to Objectives: Instructional Strategies Lesson 1: Force Students will view a presentation on the effects of force, then make predictions on the effects of force Goals Define force, motion, speed, and direction. Explain the effect of force on an object. Objectives
Terminal Objective 2: To predict the effect of a force on an object Enabling Objectives: 2A. To explain the five effects of a force on an object 2B. To describe the relationship between the size of an object and the effects of force 2C. To describe the effect on an object of a force greater than the initial force Terminal Objective 3: To demonstrate the effect of gravitational force on an object Enabling Objectives: 3A. To define gravitational force 3B. To identify the effect of gravitational force on an object Terminal Objective 1: To select the best simple machine for a specified purpose Enabling Objectives: 1A. To identify the six simple machines 1B. To describe the uses of the six simple machines

Assessments Video

## UDL Multiple Means of Presentation

Lesson 2: Gravity Students will watch a video about gravity, then explain the effects of gravity in writing or with a diagram.
Lesson 3: Simple Machines Students will view a presentation on the six simple machines. They will then identify simple machines in a video showing a Rube Goldberg machine and complete a table identifying simple machines. They will play a game showing how and when simple machines are used, then write or record a discussion post.

Quiz

## Identify simple machines. Understand when to use simple machines.

Scrapbook Scenarios

## Part VI: Content Sequencing and Instructional Strategies

Instructional Sequence Sequence 1 2 3 Description To predict the effect of a force on an object To demonstrate the effect of gravitational force on an object To select the best simple machine for a specified purpose Objective 2 3 1

This is a concept-based sequence guided by logical prerequisites (Morrision, Ross, Kemp & Kalman, 2013). The student should understand force before they learn about gravity, a specific force. Likewise, understanding gravity and other forces should come before simple machines, which help overcome forces or lessen the amount of force needed.

Lesson 1: Force Terminal Objective 2: To predict the effect of a force on an object Enabling Objectives: 2A. To explain the five effects of a force on an object 2B. To describe the relationship between the size of an object and the effects of force 2C. To describe the effect on an object of a force greater than the initial force

Initial Presentation: Students will view a narrated presentation. The presentation will show objects of different sizes being acted on by an outside force. After each example, the related principle will be explained (e.g., more force is required to move a larger object). A mnemonic will be suggested to help students remember the five effects of force on an object (start moving, speed up, slow down, stop moving, change direction). Students will be directed to rehearse the mnemonic (Morrision, Ross, Kemp & Kalman, 2013). Multiple means of presentation are provided because the information is both visual and auditory. The mnemonic also fits within this category (CAST, 2011).

Generative Strategy: The learner will be presented a picture or video of an object and told in what way a force will act on the object. The learner must predict the effect of that force on the

object. Knowledge-of-correct-response feedback will be given (Morrision, Ross, Kemp & Kalman, 2013). All information and questions will be presented in text and audio to provide multiple means of presentation (CAST, 2011).

Lesson 2: Gravity Terminal Objective 3: To demonstrate the effect of gravitational force on an object Enabling Objectives: 3A. To define gravitational force 3B. To identify the effect of gravitational force on an object

Initial Presentation: Students will watch a video explaining the definition of gravity and how gravitational force affects objects (Morrision, Ross, Kemp & Kalman, 2013). Students will also read the section about gravity in the online textbook, providing multiple means of presentation (CAST, 2011).

Generative Strategy: Students may choose to write a discussion post or use drawing software to create a diagram explaining the effect of gravity on an object (Morrision, Ross, Kemp & Kalman, 2013). Giving the choice between drawing and creating a diagram provides multiple means of expression (CAST, 2011).

Lesson 3: Simple Machines Terminal Objective 1: To select the best simple machine for a specified purpose Enabling Objectives: 1A. To identify the six simple machines 1B. To describe the uses of the six simple machines

Motivational Strategy: As part of the presentation, students will view a video of a Rube Goldberg machine, which is made up of many simple machines. After reviewing the presentation, they will watch the video again and be encouraged to find as many simple machines as possible. Example answers will be provided after the video. Identifying simple machines in the video will recruit interest, providing for multiple means of engagement (CAST, 2011).

Initial Presentation: Students will view a presentation that names and defines each of the six simple machines. A best example will be given of each simple machine (Morrision, Ross, Kemp & Kalman, 2013). Instead of or in addition to viewing the presentation, students may choose to view a video about each of the simple machines, providing multiple means of presentation (CAST, 2011).

Generative Strategy: Students will be provided with a table that has a column for each simple machine and a list of the names and pictures of different simple machines. Knowledge-of-result feedback will be provided. Students will be allowed to revise their answers until they achieve 85% correct. At this point, they may choose whether or not to continue practice to achieve a higher percentage correct (Morrision, Ross, Kemp & Kalman, 2013).

Initial Presentation: Students will complete a game where they identify simple machines. After each simple machine is identified, students will be asked to identify how the simple machine works, based on real-life examples (Morrision, Ross, Kemp & Kalman, 2013). Multiple attempts to answer and elaborated feedback will be provided. All text will also be read by the program (CAST, 2011).

Generative Strategy: Students will create a discussion post paraphrasing the uses of the six simple machines and giving an example of when each one would be used (Morrision, Ross, Kemp & Kalman, 2013). Students may also record their responses with voice recording software. Allowing students to record themselves speaking instead of writing provides for multiple means of expression (CAST, 2011).

Sources

Morrision, G., Ross, S., Kemp, J., & Kalman, H. (2013).Designing effective instruction. (7th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from http://www.coursesmart.com/9781118359990

CAST (2011). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.0. Wakefield, MA.

Part VII: Design of Instruction Instructional Strategies Lesson 1: Force Students will view a presentation on the effects of force, then make predictions on the effects of force Goals Define force, motion, speed, and direction. Explain the effect of force on an object. Objectives
Terminal Objective 2: To predict the effect of a force on an object Enabling Objectives: 2A. To explain the five effects of a force on an object 2B. To describe the relationship between the size of an object and the effects of force 2C. To describe the effect on an object of a force greater than the initial force Terminal Objective 3: To demonstrate the effect of gravitational force on an object Enabling Objectives: 3A. To define gravitational force 3B. To identify the effect of gravitational force on an object Terminal Objective 1: To select the best simple machine for a specified purpose Enabling Objectives: 1A. To identify the six simple machines 1B. To describe the uses of the six simple machines

Assessments Video

## UDL Multiple Means of Presentation

Lesson 2: Gravity Students will watch a video about gravity, then explain the effects of gravity in writing or with a diagram.
Lesson 3: Simple Machines Students will view a presentation on the six simple machines. They will then identify simple machines in a video showing a Rube Goldberg machine and complete a table identifying simple machines. They will play a game showing how and when simple machines are used, then write or record a discussion post.

Quiz

## Identify simple machines. Understand when to use simple machines.

Scrapbook Scenarios